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Sample records for swiss cheese model

  1. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits. PMID:24999771

  2. ''Swiss cheese'' models with pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, C.; Stela, J.

    1987-11-15

    Local spherically symmetric inhomogeneities are matched to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker background with pressure. In the cases in which the background evolves to an Einstein--de Sitter dust universe, the interior metrics tend with time either to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution or to the spatially flat Tolman dust metrics. The whole construction may be interpreted as the history of the dust-filled ''Swiss cheese'' models.

  3. Light refraction in the Swiss-cheese model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csapó, Adelinda; Bene, Gyula

    2012-08-01

    We investigate light propagation in the Swiss-cheese model. On both sides of Swiss-cheese sphere surfaces, observers resting in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space and the Schwarzschild space respectively, see the same light ray enclosing different angles with the normal. We examine light refraction at each crossing of the boundary surfaces, showing that the angle of refraction is larger than the angle of incidence for both directions of the light.

  4. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-11-15

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale ({approx}50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  5. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleury, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  6. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  7. Martian 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as 'dry ice'. On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice.

    No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the 'swiss cheese' and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6oS, 74.4oW at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  10. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  11. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  13. More South Polar 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some of the surface of the residual south polar cap has a pattern that resembles that of sliced, swiss cheese. Shown here at the very start of southern spring is a frost-covered surface in which there are two layers evident--a brighter upper layer into which are set swiss cheese-like holes, and a darker, lower layer that lies beneath the 'swiss cheese' pattern. Nothing like this exists anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap.

    This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired on August 2,1999. It is located near 84.8oS, 71.8oW, and covers an area 3 km across and about 6.1 km long (1.9 by 3.8 miles).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  15. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaître-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons’ trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  16. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Grenon, Cedric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-15

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  17. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-06-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper.

  18. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-15

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the {lambda}CDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w{sub 0} and w{sub a} follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.

  19. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  20. South-Pole Swiss Cheese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected December 29, 2003 during the southern summer season. This image shows the surface texture that the ice cap develops after long term sun exposure. The central portion of the image has an appearance similar to swiss cheese and represents surface ice loss.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.9, Longitude 356.4 East (3.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  1. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  2. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, Laszlo A.

    2005-04-15

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  3. A Sublimation Model for the Martian Polar Swiss-Cheese Features. Observational and Modeling Studies of the South Polar Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Shane; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    In their pioneering work Leighton and Murray argued that the Mars atmosphere, which is 95 percent CO2 today, is controlled by vapor equilibrium with a much larger polar reservoir of solid CO2. Here we argue that the polar reservoir is small and cannot function as a long-term buffer to the more massive atmosphere. Our work is based on modeling the circular depressions (Swiss-cheese features) in the south polar cap. We argue that a solid CO2 layer approximately 8 meters thick is being etched away to reveal water ice underneath. Preliminary results from the THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) instrument seem to confirm our model.

  4. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting. PMID:26409971

  5. On Issues in Swiss Cheese Compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok

    We give a brief review of our previous works.1,2 We discuss two sets of issues. The first has to do with the possibility of getting a non-supersymmetric dS minimum without the addition of /line{D3}-branes as in KKLT, and axionic slow-roll inflation, in type II flux compactifications. The second has to do with the "Inverse Problem"3 and "Fake Superpotentials"4 for extremal (non)supersymmetric black holes in type II compactifications. We use (orientifold of) a "Swiss Cheese" Calabi-Yau5 expressed as a degree-18 hypersurface in WCP4[1, 1, 1, 6, 9] in the "large-volume-scenario" limit6 for the former.

  6. Time delay in Swiss cheese gravitational lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.

    2010-08-15

    We compute time delays for gravitational lensing in a flat {Lambda} dominated cold dark matter Swiss cheese universe. We assume a primary and secondary pair of light rays are deflected by a single point mass condensation described by a Kottler metric (Schwarzschild with {Lambda}) embedded in an otherwise homogeneous cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant's effect on the difference in arrival times is nonlinear and at most around 0.002% for a large cluster lens; however, we find differences from time delays predicted by conventional linear lensing theory that can reach {approx}4% for these large lenses. The differences in predicted delay times are due to the failure of conventional lensing to incorporate the lensing mass into the mean mass density of the universe.

  7. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  8. Structural Quality Control of Swiss-Type Cheese with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2007-03-01

    A study on structural quality control of Swiss-type cheese with ultrasound is presented. We used a longitudinal mode pulse-echo setup using 1-2MHz ultrasonic frequencies to detect cheese-eyes and ripening induced cracks. Results show that the ultrasonic method posses good potential to monitor the cheese structure during the ripening process. Preliminary results indicate that maturation stage could be monitored with ultrasonic velocity measurements. Further studies to verify the method's on-line potential to detect low-structural-quality cheeses are planned.

  9. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    SciTech Connect

    Grenon, Cedric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-15

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaitre-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  10. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-01

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaître-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  11. Cosmological observables in a Swiss-cheese universe

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-12-15

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a Swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter-distance relation, in the luminosity-distance-redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark matter models may lead to interesting effects on photon trajectories.

  12. 'Swiss-cheese' inhomogeneous cosmology and the dark energy problem

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tirthabir; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@hep.physics.mcgill.ca

    2008-06-15

    We study an exact Swiss-cheese model of the universe, where inhomogeneous LTB patches are embedded in a flat FLRW background, in order to see how observations of distant sources are affected. We focus mainly on the redshift, both perturbatively and non-perturbatively: the net effect given by one patch is suppressed by (L/R{sub H}){sup 3} (where L is the size of one patch and R{sub H} is the Hubble radius). We disentangle this effect from the Doppler term (which is much larger and has been used recently (Biswas et al 2007 J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. JCAP12(2007)017 [astro-ph/0606703]) to try to fit the SN curve without dark energy) by making contact with cosmological perturbation theory. Then, the correction to the angular distance is discussed analytically and estimated to be larger, O(L/R{sub H}){sup 2}, perturbatively and non-perturbatively (although it should go to zero after angular averaging)

  13. Air-wood coupling and the Swiss-cheese violin.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, G; Holmes, C; Mellody, M

    2000-11-01

    Some problems with the conventional formalism for describing the coupling of fluid vibrations to those of an enclosing shell are examined. An alternative ("dynamic") basis for expanding the normal modes, in which the "pure shell modes" include incompressible motion of the fluid, is proposed. This new approach is applied to Hutchins's "Swiss-cheese violin," the behavior of whose air modes for the case of a rigid shell have been calculated by Shaw. Measurements are presented of various response functions of this instrument as a function of both frequency and the number of open rib holes. These results show the predicted "mode veering" behavior, and can be easily matched to theory with the assumption of plausible parameters. PMID:11108379

  14. Simulations to Improve Structural Defect Detection and Classification in Swiss-Cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Haapalainen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasonic 2D simulations to facilitate defect detection and classification for structural quality control of Swiss-cheese are presented. Three economically relevant structure types were modeled with different geometry parameters and the back-scattered ultrasonic field from the structure boundary was simulated to obtain reference data for waveform analysis. Simulated waveform characteristics were evaluated and compared to the experimental ones. Two parameters were introduced to classify different defects by exploiting the frequency spectrum of the signals. Signal waveform and correlation analysis, based on the simulation results, improved defect detection probability.

  15. Isolation of histamine-producing Lactobacillus buchneri from Swiss cheese implicated in a food poisoning outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, S S; Speckhard, M W; Somers, E B; Taylor, S L

    1985-01-01

    A histamine-producing strain of Lactobacillus buchneri was isolated from Swiss cheese that had been implicated in an outbreak of histamine poisoning. It produced up to 4,070 nmol of histamine per ml in MRS broth supplemented with 0.1% histidine. The identification of this isolate was based on its biochemical, bacteriological, and DNA characterizations. PMID:4083875

  16. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... form. Salt, or a solution of salt in water, is added to the surface of the cheese at some time during... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  17. Lactic Acid Bacteria as Markers for the Authentication of Swiss Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lüdin, Petra; von Ah, Ueli; Rollier, Deborah; Roetschi, Alexandra; Eugster, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of traditional Swiss-type cheeses adheres to strict rules, so as to guarantee quality and purity of the end product. This raises production costs and means consumers pay more. It also opens the door to cut-rate forgeries claiming to be made to the stringent standards and causing considerable economic losses to the entire dairy sector. In order to combat product counterfeiting, Agroscope has developed proof-of-origin cultures that allow the identification of copycats. Carefully selected lactic acid bacteria, having uniquely located insertion sequence elements, are proliferated by fermentation and subsequently dried by lyophilization. The proof-of-origin culture is added during the cheese production process and sustains maturation. These so-called 'biological markers' can be traced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, which allow authentication even if the cheese is cut into pieces or grated. They do not lead to any alteration of the cheese's taste or texture, and are compatible with the strict 'protected designation of origin' (PDO) specifications. The proof-of-origin cultures are used for the protection of several traditional Swiss-cheese varieties, such as Emmental PDO, Tête de Moine PDO, and Appenzeller(®). A market survey of Emmental PDO showed that the system is effective in revealing fraud and has the power to enforce corrective measures. PMID:27198813

  18. Olfactometry Profiles and Quantitation of Volatile Sulfur Compounds of Swiss Tilsit Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Fuchsmann, Pascal; Stern, Mireille Tena; Brügger, Yves-Alain; Breme, Katharina

    2015-09-01

    To establish the odor profiles of three differently fabricated commercial Swiss Tilsit cheeses, analyses were conducted using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/pulsed flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify and quantitate volatile compounds. In addition, odor quality and the impact of target sulfur compounds on the overall odor of the cheeses were investigated. The odor profile was found to be mainly influenced by buttery-cheesy and sulfury odor notes in all cheeses. Buttery-cheesy odor notes were attributed to three main molecules: butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and butane-2,3-dione. Over a dozen volatile sulfur compounds were detected at parts per billion levels, but only a few influenced the odor profile of the cheeses: methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, bis(methylthio)methane, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and 2-methyltetrahydrothiophen-3-one (tentative). In conclusion, the conducted analyses allowed differentiation of the cheeses, and gas chromatography-olfactometry results confirmed that partially thermized milk cheese has a more intense and more multifaceted overall flavor. PMID:26230142

  19. Luminosity distance in 'Swiss cheese' cosmology with randomized voids. I. Single void size

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderveld, R. Ali; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-10-15

    Recently, there have been suggestions that the Type Ia supernova data can be explained using only general relativity and cold dark matter with no dark energy. In 'Swiss cheese' models of the Universe, the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker picture is modified by the introduction of mass-compensating spherical inhomogeneities, typically described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. If these inhomogeneities correspond to underdense cores surrounded by mass-compensating overdense shells, then they can modify the luminosity distance-redshift relation in a way that can mimic accelerated expansion. It has been argued that this effect could be large enough to explain the supernova data without introducing dark energy or modified gravity. We show that the large apparent acceleration seen in some models can be explained in terms of standard weak field gravitational lensing together with insufficient randomization of void locations. The underdense regions focus the light less than the homogeneous background, thus dimming supernovae in a way that can mimic the effects of acceleration. With insufficient randomization of the spatial location of the voids and of the lines of sight, coherent defocusing can lead to anomalously large demagnification effects. We show that a proper randomization of the voids and lines of sight reduces the effect to the point that it can no longer explain the supernova data.

  20. Discrimination of Swiss cheese from 5 different factories by high impact volatile organic compound profiles determined by odor activity value using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and odor threshold.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kaitlyn; Wick, Cheryl; Castada, Hardy; Kent, Kyle; Harper, W James

    2013-10-01

    Swiss cheese contains more than 200 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been utilized for the analysis of volatile compounds in food products; however, it is not sensitive enough to measure VOCs directly in the headspace of a food at low concentrations. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) provides a basis for determining the concentrations of VOCs in the head space of the sample in real time at low concentration levels of parts per billion/trillion by volume. Of the Swiss cheese VOCs, relatively few have a major impact on flavor quality. VOCs with odor activity values (OAVs) (concentration/odor threshold) greater than one are considered high-impact flavor compounds. The objective of this study was to utilize SIFT-MS concentrations in conjunction with odor threshold values to determine OAVs thereby identifying high-impact VOCs to use for differentiating Swiss cheese from five factories and identify the factory variability. Seventeen high-impact VOCs were identified for Swiss cheese based on an OAV greater than one in at least 1 of the 5 Swiss cheese factories. Of these, 2,3-butanedione was the only compound with significantly different OAVs in all factories; however, cheese from any pair of factories had multiple statistically different compounds based on OAV. Principal component analysis using soft independent modeling of class analogy statistical differentiation plots, with all of the OAVs, showed differentiation between the 5 factories. Overall, Swiss cheese from different factories was determined to have different OAV profiles utilizing SIFT-MS to determine OAVs of high impact compounds. PMID:24106758

  1. “Finite” non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-03-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, arXiv: 0707.0105] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th

  2. Kinematics Mapping and Monitoring of ''Swiss Cheese'' Features in the Polar Icy Regions Over Two Martian Years Base on HIRISE-MOC (NASA) Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftabi, P.

    2016-06-01

    The mapping and monitoring of ''swiss cheese'' feature example of this paper achieved by pixel markers measurements pro-posed by author. This monoring suggest high amount of displacements in pits of Martian polar areas.

  3. Two mathematical programming models of cheese manufacture.

    PubMed

    Burke, J A

    2006-02-01

    The standardization problem faced by cheese makers is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem using the assumptions of the Van Slyke cheese yield formula. The objective function of the model is to minimize the net cost of producing a given quantity of cheese subject to a set of production constraints. An approximation of the standardization problem formulated as a linear programming problem is also presented. Two different approaches to finding a solution are provided. The model is implemented in Microsoft Excel and solved with the standard add-in solver available in that program. An example is provided to contrast the difference between the nonlinear programming and its linear approximation, and a second example is used to illustrate the yield implications of ultrafiltered milk protein products in Cheddar cheese production. Additionally, a method for pricing inputs using the sensitivity analysis generated by the solver is demonstrated. PMID:16428648

  4. Local D3/D7 μ-SPLIT SUSY, 125 GeV Higgs and Large Volume Ricci-Flat Swiss-Cheese Metrics:. a Brief Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok

    In this paper, we review briefly recent progress made in realizing local(ized around a mobile spacetime filling D3-brane in) D3/D7 μ-split Supersymmetry in (the large volume limit of Type IIB) String Theory (compactified on Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau orientifolds) as well as obtaining a 125 GeV (light) Higgs in the same setup. We also discuss obtaining the geometric Kähler potential (and hence the Ricci-flat metric) for the Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau in the large volume limit using the Donaldson's algorithm and intuition from GLSM-based calculations — we present new results for Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau (used in the setup) metrics at points finitely away from the "big" divisor.

  5. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  6. Compromised Lactobacillus helveticus starter activity in the presence of facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 results in atypical eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; McSweeney, Paul L H; Cotter, Paul D; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2016-04-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are commonly implicated in undesirable gas formation in several varieties, including Cheddar, Dutch-, and Swiss-type cheeses, primarily due to their ability to ferment a wide variety of substrates. This effect can be magnified due to factors that detrimentally affect the composition or activity of starter bacteria, resulting in the presence of greater than normal amounts of fermentable carbohydrates and citrate. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei DPC6987) isolated from a cheese plant environment to promote gas defects in the event of compromised starter activity. A Swiss-type cheese was manufactured, at pilot scale and in triplicate, containing a typical starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) together with propionic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus helveticus populations were omitted in certain vats to mimic starter failure. Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 was added to each experimental vat at 4 log cfu/g. Cheese compositional analysis and X-ray computed tomography revealed that the failure of starter bacteria, in this case L. helveticus, coupled with the presence of a faculatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (L. casei) led to excessive eye formation during ripening. The availability of excess amounts of lactose, galactose, and citrate during the initial ripening stages likely provided the heterofermentative L. casei with sufficient substrates for gas formation. The accrual of these fermentable substrates was notable in cheeses lacking the L. helveticus starter population. The results of this study are commercially relevant, as they demonstrate the importance of viability of starter populations and the control of specific nonstarter lactic acid bacteria to ensure appropriate eye formation in Swiss-type cheese. PMID:26805985

  7. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  8. Luminosity distance in ``Swiss cheese'' cosmology with randomized voids. II. Magnification probability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Éanna É.; Kumar, Naresh; Wasserman, Ira; Vanderveld, R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    We study the fluctuations in luminosity distances due to gravitational lensing by large scale (≳35Mpc) structures, specifically voids and sheets. We use a simplified “Swiss cheese” model consisting of a ΛCDM Friedman-Robertson-Walker background in which a number of randomly distributed nonoverlapping spherical regions are replaced by mass-compensating comoving voids, each with a uniform density interior and a thin shell of matter on the surface. We compute the distribution of magnitude shifts using a variant of the method of Holz and Wald , which includes the effect of lensing shear. The standard deviation of this distribution is ˜0.027 magnitudes and the mean is ˜0.003 magnitudes for voids of radius 35 Mpc, sources at redshift zs=1.0, with the voids chosen so that 90% of the mass is on the shell today. The standard deviation varies from 0.005 to 0.06 magnitudes as we vary the void size, source redshift, and fraction of mass on the shells today. If the shell walls are given a finite thickness of ˜1Mpc, the standard deviation is reduced to ˜0.013 magnitudes. This standard deviation due to voids is a factor ˜3 smaller than that due to galaxy scale structures. We summarize our results in terms of a fitting formula that is accurate to ˜20%, and also build a simplified analytic model that reproduces our results to within ˜30%. Our model also allows us to explore the domain of validity of weak-lensing theory for voids. We find that for 35 Mpc voids, corrections to the dispersion due to lens-lens coupling are of order ˜4%, and corrections due to shear are ˜3%. Finally, we estimate the bias due to source-lens clustering in our model to be negligible.

  9. The effect of different composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts on the consistency of processed cheese spreads manufactured from Swiss-type cheese with different degrees of maturity.

    PubMed

    Salek, R N; Černíková, M; Maděrová, S; Lapčík, L; Buňka, F

    2016-05-01

    The scope of this work was to investigate the dependence of selected textural (texture profile analysis, TPA) and viscoelastic properties of processed cheese on the composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts [disodium hydrogenphosphate, DSP; tetrasodium diphosphate, TSPP; sodium salt of polyphosphate (with mean length n ≈ 20), P20; and trisodium citrate, TSC] during a 60-d storage period (6±2°C). The processed cheese samples [40% wt/wt dry matter (DM) content, 50% wt/wt fat in DM content] were manufactured using Swiss-type cheese (as the main raw material) with 4 different maturity degrees (4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of ripening). Moreover, the pH of the samples was adjusted (the target values within the range of 5.60-5.80), corresponding to the standard pH values of spreadable processed cheese. With respect to the individual application of emulsifying salts (regardless of the maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese applied), the samples prepared with P20 were the hardest, followed by those prepared with TSPP, TSC, and DSP. Furthermore, a specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) led to a significant increase in the hardness of the samples. On the whole, the hardness of all processed cheese samples increased with the prolonging storage period, whereas their hardness significantly dropped with the rising ripening stage of the raw material utilized. In all of the cases, the trends of hardness development remained analogous, and only the absolute values differed significantly. Moreover, the findings of TPA were in accordance with those of the rheological analysis. In particular, the specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) resulted in the highest gel strength and interaction factor values, followed by P20, TSPP, TSC, and DSP (used individually), reporting the same trend which was demonstrated by TPA. The monitored values of the gel strength and interaction factor decreased with the increasing maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese used. The intensity of the rigidity of the

  10. Luminosity distance in Swiss-cheese cosmology with randomized voids and galaxy halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Éanna É.; Kumar, Naresh; Wasserman, Ira

    2013-08-01

    We study the fluctuations in luminosity distance due to gravitational lensing produced both by galaxy halos and large-scale voids. Voids are represented via a “Swiss-cheese” model consisting of a ΛCDM Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background from which a number of randomly distributed, spherical regions of comoving radius 35 Mpc are removed. A fraction of the removed mass is then placed on the shells of the spheres, in the form of randomly located halos. The halos are assumed to be nonevolving and are modeled with Navarro-Frenk-White profiles of a fixed mass. The remaining mass is placed in the interior of the spheres, either smoothly distributed or as randomly located halos. We compute the distribution of magnitude shifts using a variant of the method of Holz and Wald [Phys. Rev. D 58, 063501 (1998)], which includes the effect of lensing shear. In the two models we consider, the standard deviation of this distribution is 0.065 and 0.072 magnitudes and the mean is -0.0010 and -0.0013 magnitudes, for voids of radius 35 Mpc and the sources at redshift 1.5, with the voids chosen so that 90% of the mass is on the shell today. The standard deviation due to voids and halos is a factor ˜3 larger than that due to 35 Mpc voids alone with a 1 Mpc shell thickness, which we studied in our previous work. We also study the effect of the existence of evacuated voids, by comparing to a model where all the halos are randomly distributed in the interior of the sphere with none on its surface. This does not significantly change the variance but does significantly change the demagnification tail. To a good approximation, the variance of the distribution depends only on the mean column density of halos (halo mass divided by its projected area), the concentration parameter of the halos, and the fraction of the mass density that is in the form of halos (as opposed to smoothly distributed); it is independent of how the halos are distributed in space. We derive an approximate analytic

  11. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of REC(FAT). The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CY(CURD)=14.97±1.86, %CY(SOLIDS)=7.18±0.92, %CY(WATER)=7.77±1.27, dCY(CURD)=3.63±1.17, dCY(SOLIDS)=1.74±0.57, dCY(WATER)=1.88±0.63, REC(FAT)=89.79±3.55, REC(PROTEIN)=78.08±2.43, REC(SOLIDS)=51.88±3.52, and REC(ENERGY)=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CY(CURD) and dCY(CURD) depended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CY(SOLIDS). All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level. PMID:24094531

  12. Delayed Induction of Human NTE (PNPLA6) Rescues Neurodegeneration and Mobility Defects of Drosophila swiss cheese (sws) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Rainier, Shirley; Fink, John K.; Wessells, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Human PNPLA6 gene encodes Neuropathy Target Esterase protein (NTE). PNPLA6 gene mutations cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG39 HSP), Gordon-Holmes syndrome, Boucher-Neuhäuser syndromes, Laurence-Moon syndrome, and Oliver-McFarlane syndrome. Mutations in the Drosophila NTE homolog swiss cheese (sws) cause early-onset, progressive behavioral defects and neurodegeneration characterized by vacuole formation. We investigated sws5 flies and show for the first time that this allele causes progressive vacuolar formation in the brain and progressive deterioration of negative geotaxis speed and endurance. We demonstrate that inducible, neuron-specific expression of full-length human wildtype NTE reduces vacuole formation and substantially rescues mobility. Indeed, neuron-specific expression of wildtype human NTE is capable of rescuing mobility defects after 10 days of adult life at 29°C, when significant degeneration has already occurred, and significantly extends longevity of mutants at 25°C. These results raise the exciting possibility that late induction of NTE function may reduce or ameliorate neurodegeneration in humans even after symptoms begin. In addition, these results highlight the utility of negative geotaxis endurance as a new assay for longitudinal tracking of degenerative phenotypes in Drosophila. PMID:26671664

  13. Delayed Induction of Human NTE (PNPLA6) Rescues Neurodegeneration and Mobility Defects of Drosophila swiss cheese (sws) Mutants.

    PubMed

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Rainier, Shirley; Fink, John K; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Human PNPLA6 gene encodes Neuropathy Target Esterase protein (NTE). PNPLA6 gene mutations cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG39 HSP), Gordon-Holmes syndrome, Boucher-Neuhäuser syndromes, Laurence-Moon syndrome, and Oliver-McFarlane syndrome. Mutations in the Drosophila NTE homolog swiss cheese (sws) cause early-onset, progressive behavioral defects and neurodegeneration characterized by vacuole formation. We investigated sws5 flies and show for the first time that this allele causes progressive vacuolar formation in the brain and progressive deterioration of negative geotaxis speed and endurance. We demonstrate that inducible, neuron-specific expression of full-length human wildtype NTE reduces vacuole formation and substantially rescues mobility. Indeed, neuron-specific expression of wildtype human NTE is capable of rescuing mobility defects after 10 days of adult life at 29°C, when significant degeneration has already occurred, and significantly extends longevity of mutants at 25°C. These results raise the exciting possibility that late induction of NTE function may reduce or ameliorate neurodegeneration in humans even after symptoms begin. In addition, these results highlight the utility of negative geotaxis endurance as a new assay for longitudinal tracking of degenerative phenotypes in Drosophila. PMID:26671664

  14. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Design Randomised controlled crossover study. Participants 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Interventions Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium 13Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Main outcome measures Cumulative percentage dose of 13C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Results Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, −0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference −0.40, −0.01 to −0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Conclusions Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696. PMID:21156747

  15. Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC334 in a cheese model system: A biochemical approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densit...

  16. Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model queso fresco cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hispanic-style cheeses are one of the fastest growing cheese varieties in the U. S., making up approximately 2% of the total cheese production in this country. Of these varieties, Queso Fresco is one of most popular Hispanic-style cheeses. Protein extracts from a number of varieties of Mexican Queso...

  17. Towards large volume big divisor D3/D7 " μ-split supersymmetry" and Ricci-flat Swiss-cheese metrics, and dimension-six neutrino mass operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok

    2012-02-01

    We show that it is possible to realize a " μ-split SUSY" scenario (Cheng and Cheng, 2005) [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of μ-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the three-body decays of the gluino into either a quark, a squark and a neutralino or a quark, squark and goldstino, as well as two-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino and a gluon or a goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kähler potential for Σ obtained in Misra and Shukla (2010) [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm (Barun et al., 2008) [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in Misra and Shukla (2011) [4] pertaining to our proposed metric for the full Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau (the geometric Kähler potential being needed to be included in the full moduli space Kähler potential in the presence of the mobile space-time filling D3-brane), but for simplicity of calculation, close to the big divisor, which is Ricci-flat in the large volume limit. Also, as an application of the one-loop RG flow solution for the higgsino mass parameter, we show that the contribution to the neutrino masses at the EW scale from dimension-six operators arising from the Kähler potential, is suppressed relative to the Weinberg-type dimension-five operators.

  18. Collision tectonics in the Swiss Alps: Insight from geodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, O. A.; Ellis, S.; Beaumont, C.

    2000-12-01

    This paper compares results from two-dimensional finite element dynamic modeling with the kinematic evolution of the Swiss Alps during the collision phase. In particular, we investigate the role of inherited lateral strength heterogeneities on orogenesis. A number of first-order characteristics are directly comparable at crustal scales. In the models the entry of continental crust into the convergent margin marks the end of near-perfect subduction. Accretion of material of the subducting plate to the upper plate creates an orogenic wedge on the incoming (pro)side and initiates a retroshear zone (or model backthrust). The addition of material to the upper plate builds a bivergent orogen. Heterogeneities in the pro-crust focus shear and lead to the development of "nappe structures" The combined action of pro-shear (nappe stacking) and retroshear (backthrusting) uplifts a plug between the two shear zones. Subsequent focusing of shear along the retroshear zone results in rotation of the plug and overlying units, leading to crustal-scale backfolds as observed in the Swiss Alps. The model experiments predict features relevant to Alpine dynamics, including (1) similar crustal thicknesses and exhumation patterns to those observed in the Swiss Alps today for erosion rates comparable to natural ones (1 mm yr-1), (2) continued accretion and subduction of upper crustal fragments allowing high-pressure metamorphic conditions, (3) tilting and exhumation of lower crust when a midcrustal weak zone is present, and (4) "shunting" of material across the strong lower crustal wedge of the upper plate.

  19. Modelling the Maillard reaction during the cooking of a model cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Emmanuel; Meyer, Xuân-Mi; Machado-Maturana, Elizabeth; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-10-01

    During processing and storage of industrial processed cheese, odorous compounds are formed. Some of them are potentially unwanted for the flavour of the product. To reduce the appearance of these compounds, a methodological approach was employed. It consists of: (i) the identification of the key compounds or precursors responsible for the off-flavour observed, (ii) the monitoring of these markers during the heat treatments applied to the cheese medium, (iii) the establishment of an observable reaction scheme adapted from a literature survey to the compounds identified in the heated cheese medium (iv) the multi-responses stoichiokinetic modelling of these reaction markers. Systematic two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for the semi-quantitation of trace compounds. Precursors were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental data obtained were fitted to the model with 14 elementary linked reactions forming a multi-response observable reaction scheme. PMID:25872449

  20. SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information

    PubMed Central

    Biasini, Marco; Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; Arnold, Konstantin; Studer, Gabriel; Schmidt, Tobias; Kiefer, Florian; Cassarino, Tiziano Gallo; Bertoni, Martino; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure homology modelling has become a routine technique to generate 3D models for proteins when experimental structures are not available. Fully automated servers such as SWISS-MODEL with user-friendly web interfaces generate reliable models without the need for complex software packages or downloading large databases. Here, we describe the latest version of the SWISS-MODEL expert system for protein structure modelling. The SWISS-MODEL template library provides annotation of quaternary structure and essential ligands and co-factors to allow for building of complete structural models, including their oligomeric structure. The improved SWISS-MODEL pipeline makes extensive use of model quality estimation for selection of the most suitable templates and provides estimates of the expected accuracy of the resulting models. The accuracy of the models generated by SWISS-MODEL is continuously evaluated by the CAMEO system. The new web site allows users to interactively search for templates, cluster them by sequence similarity, structurally compare alternative templates and select the ones to be used for model building. In cases where multiple alternative template structures are available for a protein of interest, a user-guided template selection step allows building models in different functional states. SWISS-MODEL is available at http://swissmodel.expasy.org/. PMID:24782522

  1. Glial expression of Swiss cheese (SWS), the Drosophila orthologue of neuropathy target esterase (NTE), is required for neuronal ensheathment and function

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sudeshna; Rieche, Franziska; Eckl, Nina; Duch, Carsten; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in Drosophila Swiss cheese (SWS) or its vertebrate orthologue neuropathy target esterase (NTE), respectively, cause progressive neuronal degeneration in Drosophila and mice and a complex syndrome in humans that includes mental retardation, spastic paraplegia and blindness. SWS and NTE are widely expressed in neurons but can also be found in glia; however, their function in glia has, until now, remained unknown. We have used a knockdown approach to specifically address SWS function in glia and to probe for resulting neuronal dysfunctions. This revealed that loss of SWS in pseudocartridge glia causes the formation of multi-layered glial whorls in the lamina cortex, the first optic neuropil. This phenotype was rescued by the expression of SWS or NTE, suggesting that the glial function is conserved in the vertebrate protein. SWS was also found to be required for the glial wrapping of neurons by ensheathing glia, and its loss in glia caused axonal damage. We also detected severe locomotion deficits in glial sws-knockdown flies, which occurred as early as 2 days after eclosion and increased further with age. Utilizing the giant fibre system to test for underlying functional neuronal defects showed that the response latency to a stimulus was unchanged in knockdown flies compared to controls, but the reliability with which the neurons responded to increasing frequencies was reduced. This shows that the loss of SWS in glia impairs neuronal function, strongly suggesting that the loss of glial SWS plays an important role in the phenotypes observed in the sws mutant. It is therefore likely that changes in glia also contribute to the pathology observed in humans that carry mutations in NTE. PMID:26634819

  2. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mold-ripened cheese

    PubMed Central

    Schvartzman, M. Sol; Gonzalez-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw) of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model, and the Logistic model) and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model, and the Presser model) mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modeled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (μmax) were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram. PMID:25072033

  3. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  4. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    PubMed

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. PMID:27375251

  5. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in mold-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lobacz, Adriana; Kowalik, Jaroslaw; Tarczynska, Anna

    2013-06-01

    This study presents possible applications of predictive microbiology to model the safety of mold-ripened cheeses with respect to bacteria of the species Listeria monocytogenes during (1) the ripening of Camembert cheese, (2) cold storage of Camembert cheese at temperatures ranging from 3 to 15°C, and (3) cold storage of blue cheese at temperatures ranging from 3 to 15°C. The primary models used in this study, such as the Baranyi model and modified Gompertz function, were fitted to growth curves. The Baranyi model yielded the most accurate goodness of fit and the growth rates generated by this model were used for secondary modeling (Ratkowsky simple square root and polynomial models). The polynomial model more accurately predicted the influence of temperature on the growth rate, reaching the adjusted coefficients of multiple determination 0.97 and 0.92 for Camembert and blue cheese, respectively. The observed growth rates of L. monocytogenes in mold-ripened cheeses were compared with simulations run with the Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP 7.0, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA) and ComBase Predictor (Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK). However, the latter predictions proved to be consistently overestimated and contained a significant error level. In addition, a validation process using independent data generated in dairy products from the ComBase database (www.combase.cc) was performed. In conclusion, it was found that L. monocytogenes grows much faster in Camembert than in blue cheese. Both the Baranyi and Gompertz models described this phenomenon accurately, although the Baranyi model contained a smaller error. Secondary modeling and further validation of the generated models highlighted the issue of usability and applicability of predictive models in the food processing industry by elaborating models targeted at a specific product or a group of similar products. PMID:23548297

  6. Use of a miniature laboratory fresh cheese model for investigating antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, M L; Ibarra-Sánchez, L A; Takhar, S R; Amaya-Llano, S L; Miller, M J

    2015-12-01

    Hispanic-style fresh cheeses, such as queso fresco, have relatively low salt content, high water activity, and near neutral pH, which predisposes them to growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Biosafety constraints limit the incorporation of L. monocytogenes into cheeses manufactured via traditional methods in challenge studies, so few have focused on in situ testing of novel antimicrobials in fresh cheeses. We have developed a modular, miniaturized laboratory-scale queso fresco model for testing the incorporation of novel antilisterials. We have demonstrated the assessment of the antilisterials nisin and ferulic acid, alone and in combination, at various levels. Our results support the inhibitory effects of ferulic acid in cheese, against both L. monocytogenes and its common surrogate Listeria innocua, and we provide preliminary evaluation of its consumer acceptability. PMID:26454301

  7. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Gkogka, Elissavet; Rosshaug, Per Sand; Dalgaard, Paw

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth rate model was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter μref25°C-broth of 1.031/h was calibrated by fitting the model to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. This resulted in a μref25°C-cottage cheese value of 0.621/h. Predictions from both growth rate models were evaluated by comparison with literature and experimental data. Growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in heat-treated milk (n=33) resulted in a bias factor (Bf) of 1.08 and an accuracy factor (Af) of 1.32 (μref25°C-broth), whereas growth in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing and in non-heated milk (n=26) resulted in Bf of 1.08 and Af of 1.43 (μref25°C-cottage cheese). Lag phase models were developed by using relative lag times and data from both the present study and from literature. The acceptable simulation zone method showed the developed models to successfully predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese at both constant and dynamic temperature storage conditions. The developed models can be used to predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads and shelf life of chilled cottage cheese and milk at constant and dynamic storage temperatures. The applied methodology and the developed models seem likely to be applicable for shelf life assessment of other types of products where psychrotolerant pseudomonads are important for spoilage. PMID:26457626

  8. Influence of bacterial dynamics upon the final characteristics of model Portuguese traditional cheeses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia I; Graça, João A; Ogando, Natacha S; Gomes, Ana M P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The microbiological profile in raw milk cheeses is typically characterized by a multitude of microbial groups, with interactions among them throughout ripening that are not fully understood to date. Incidence of undesired microorganisms in raw cheesemaking milk, as is the case of either spoilage or even pathogenic ones, is a common trait in Portuguese traditional cheeses. Hence, they will likely contribute to the physicochemical changes occurring therein and, consequently, to the characteristics of the final product. In order to gain insight into their role, model cheese systems, manufactured as far as possible according to artisanal practices (except that the initial microbial load and biodiversity were controlled), were experimentally tested. Single contaminants, or a consortium thereof, were inoculated at two levels in sterilized raw ewe's milk, and duly combined with inocula containing one or two lactic acid bacteria normally found in those traditional cheeses. The physicochemical composition, organic acid profile, and evolution of both protein breakdown and rheology were monitored throughout a 60 d-ripening period. Modifications brought about within the cheese matrix as a result of microbial metabolism, especially those arising from the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and unwanted microorganisms, included the enhanced release of peptides and free amino acids, which in turn led to higher viscoelastic moduli. The final model cheeses could be well discriminated, based on the impact of the various inocula considered upon the levels of organic acids. Conversely, proteolysis and viscoelastic properties appeared to be essentially independent of the initial microflora. PMID:20227598

  9. Modeling structure-sensory texture relations in semi-hard cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, T. J. Timo; Schreurs, P. J. G. Piet; Luyten, J. M. J. G. Hannemieke; Meijer, H. E. H. Han

    2015-01-01

    Product and process design in the food industry often still remains a very empirical activity. This will not lead to leap changes in product functionality or composition. We aim at developing quantitative models which relate the microstructure of semi-hard cheese to sensory texture. With these models we want to design more resource efficient process routes and healthier options for full fat semi-hard cheese. In this paper the role of multi-scale simulations using a Finite Element Method in developing these models will be discussed.

  10. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. II. Simulation and comparison with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    A cybernetic model for microbial growth on mixed substrates was used to simulate the anaerobic fermentation of cheese whey and multiple sugars in semisynthetic media by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397. The model simulations quite successfully predicted the observed behavior in batch and during transients in continuous operation, in single-substrate systems as well as in media involving multiple substrates, and in semisynthetic and reconstituted cheese whey solutions. The results of simulations and their comparison with the experimental data are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect

  12. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    PubMed Central

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  13. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    PubMed

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  14. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  15. Preparation of fresh cheese from caprine milk as a model for the reduction of allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Katagiri, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Masaru; Yamato, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    Fresh cheese was prepared from caprine milk by isoelectric precipitation as a model experiment for reducing the allergenicity of milk. After acidic precipitation of casein, the beta-lactoglobulin content in curd was determined by ELISA using monoclonal antibody (MAb-beta209). The beta-lactoglobulin content was very high in the fresh cheese obtained from heat-treated (85 degrees C) bovine or caprine milk, while that obtained from untreated milk contained none of this protein. Taking it into account that caprine milk has only a small amount of alpha(s1)-casein, one of the major bovine milk allergens, the caprine fresh cheese sterilized after processing by precipitation may be useful as a protein source of low allergenicity. PMID:19602841

  16. Modeling the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Blue-White Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Ann; Ingmer, Hanne; Larsen, Marianne Halberg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model simulating growth over time of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes in a soft blue-white cheese. The physicochemical properties in a matrix such as cheese are essential controlling factors influencing the growth of L. monocytogenes. We developed a predictive tertiary model of the bacterial growth of L. monocytogenes as a function of temperature, pH, NaCl, and lactic acid. We measured the variations over time of the physicochemical properties in the cheese. Our predictive model was developed based on broth data produced in previous studies. New growth data sets were produced to independently calibrate and validate the developed model. A characteristic of this tertiary model is that it handles dynamic growth conditions described in time series of temperature, pH, NaCl, and lactic acid. Supplying the model with realistic production and retail conditions showed that the number of L. monocytogenes cells increases 3 to 3.5 log within the shelf life of the cheese. PMID:22983971

  17. Nonstarter Lactobacillus strains as adjunct cultures for cheese making: in vitro characterization and performance in two model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Briggiler-Marcó, M; Capra, M L; Quiberoni, A; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J A; Hynes, E

    2007-10-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are the main uncontrolled factor in today's industrial cheese making and may be the cause of quality inconsistencies and defects in cheeses. In this context, adjunct cultures of selected lactobacilli from nonstarter lactic acid bacteria origin appear as the best alternative to indirectly control cheese biota. The objective of the present work was to study the technological properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese by in vitro and in situ assays. Milk acidification kinetics and proteolytic and acidifying activities were assessed, and peptide mapping of trichloroacetic acid 8% soluble fraction of milk cultures was performed by liquid chromatography. In addition, the tolerance to salts (NaCl and KCl) and the phage-resistance were investigated. Four strains were selected for testing as adjunct cultures in cheese making experiments at pilot plant scale. In in vitro assays, most strains acidified milk slowly and showed weak to moderate proteolytic activity. Fast strains decreased milk pH to 4.5 in 8 h, and continued acidification to 3.5 in 12 h or more. This group consisted mostly of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Approximately one-third of the slow strains, which comprised mainly Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus curvatus, were capable to grow when milk was supplemented with glucose and casein hydrolysate. Peptide maps were similar to those of lactic acid bacteria considered to have a moderate proteolytic activity. Most strains showed salt tolerance and resistance to specific phages. The Lactobacillus strains selected as adjunct cultures for cheese making experiments reached 10(8) cfu/g in soft cheeses at 7 d of ripening, whereas they reached 10(9) cfu/g in semihard cheeses after 15 d of ripening. In both cheese varieties, the adjunct culture population remained at high counts during all ripening, in some cases overcoming or equaling primary starter. Overall

  18. Combining Individual-Based Modeling and Food Microenvironment Descriptions To Predict the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Smear Soft Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, Rachel; Hezard, Bernard; Lintz, Adrienne; Stahl, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    An individual-based modeling (IBM) approach was developed to describe the behavior of a few Listeria monocytogenes cells contaminating smear soft cheese surface. The IBM approach consisted of assessing the stochastic individual behaviors of cells on cheese surfaces and knowing the characteristics of their surrounding microenvironments. We used a microelectrode for pH measurements and micro-osmolality to assess the water activity of cheese microsamples. These measurements revealed a high variability of microscale pH compared to that of macroscale pH. A model describing the increase in pH from approximately 5.0 to more than 7.0 during ripening was developed. The spatial variability of the cheese surface characterized by an increasing pH with radius and higher pH on crests compared to that of hollows on cheese rind was also modeled. The microscale water activity ranged from approximately 0.96 to 0.98 and was stable during ripening. The spatial variability on cheese surfaces was low compared to between-cheese variability. Models describing the microscale variability of cheese characteristics were combined with the IBM approach to simulate the stochastic growth of L. monocytogenes on cheese, and these simulations were compared to bacterial counts obtained from irradiated cheeses artificially contaminated at different ripening stages. The simulated variability of L. monocytogenes counts with the IBM/microenvironmental approach was consistent with the observed one. Contrasting situations corresponding to no growth or highly contaminated foods could be deduced from these models. Moreover, the IBM approach was more effective than the traditional population/macroenvironmental approach to describe the actual bacterial behavior variability. PMID:23872572

  19. Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Aprea, E; Betta, E; Biasioli, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Gasperi, F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk, and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred fifty model cheeses were selected from 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2kg/d), stages of lactation (10-412 d in milk), and parity (1-7). In total, 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene, and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one compared with those reared in freestalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed rations had higher contents of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate) and lower contents of acetic acid compared with those using separate feeds. Moreover, dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), compared with those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one

  20. Transport phenomena in a model cheese: the influence of the charge and shape of solutes on diffusion.

    PubMed

    Silva, J V C; Peixoto, P D S; Lortal, S; Floury, J

    2013-10-01

    During cheese ripening, microorganisms grow as immobilized colonies, metabolizing substrates present in the matrix and generating products from enzymatic reactions. Local factors that limit the rates of diffusion, either within the general cheese matrix or near the colonies, may influence the metabolic activity of the bacteria during ripening, affecting the final quality of the cheese. The objective of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficients of solutes as a function of their different physicochemical characteristics (size, charge, and shape) in an ultrafiltrate (UF) model cheese (based on ultrafiltered milk) to enable better understanding of the ripening mechanisms. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 kDa to 2 MDa) and FITC-labeled dairy proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) were measured using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This study showed that macromolecules up to 2 MDa and proteins could diffuse through the UF model cheese. The larger FITC-dextrans were not more hindered by the structure of the UF model cheese compared with the smaller ones. Any decrease in the diffusion coefficients of solutes was related only to their hydrodynamic radii. The FITC-dextran diffusion data were fitted to an obstruction model, resulting in a constant obstruction factor (k ~0.42). Diffusion in the model cheese was sensitive to the physicochemical characteristics of the solute. The FITC-dairy proteins studied (rigid and negatively charged molecules) were hindered to a greater degree than the FITC-dextrans (flexible and charge-neutral molecules) in the UF model cheese. The existence of steric and electrostatic interactions between the protein matrix of the UF model cheese and the FITC-dairy proteins could explain the decrease in diffusion compared with FITC-dextrans. PMID:23958000

  1. Modeling of Camembert-type cheese mass loss in a ripening chamber: main biological and physical phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hélias, A; Mirade, P-S; Corrieu, G

    2007-11-01

    A model of the mass loss of Camembert-type cheese was established with data obtained from 2 experimental ripening trials carried out in 2 pilot ripening chambers. During these experiments, a cheese was continuously weighed and the relative humidity, temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in the ripening chamber were recorded online. The aim was to establish a simple but accurate model that would predict cheese mass changes according to available online measurements. The main hypotheses were that 1) the cheese water activity was constant during ripening, 2) the respiratory activity of the microflora played a major role by inducing heat production, combined with important water evaporation, 3) the temperature gradient existing inside the cheese was negligible, and the limiting phenomenon was the convective transfer. The water activity and the specific heat of the cheeses were assessed by offline measurements. The others parameters in the model were obtained from the literature. This dynamic model was built with 2 state variables: the cheese mass and the surface temperature of the cheese. In this way, only the heat transfer coefficient had to be fitted, and it was strongly determined by the airflow characteristics close to the cheeses. Model efficiency was illustrated by comparing the estimated and measured mass and the mass loss rate for the 2 studied runs; the relative errors were less than 1.9 and 3.2% for the mass loss and the mass loss rate, respectively. The dynamic effects of special events, such as room defrosting or changes in chamber relative humidity, were well described by the model, especially in terms of kinetics (mass loss rates). PMID:17954773

  2. Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 in a cheese model system: a biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Budinich, M F; Perez-Díaz, I; Cai, H; Rankin, S A; Broadbent, J R; Steele, J L

    2011-11-01

    Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densities of 5.9×10(8), 1.2×10(8), and 2.1×10(7)cfu/mL, respectively. Biochemical analysis and mass balance equations were used to determine substrate consumption patterns and products formed in 2mCCE. The products formed included formate, acetate, and D-lactate. These data allowed us to identify the pathways likely used and to initiate metabolic flux analysis. The production of volatiles during growth of Lb. paracasei ATCC 334 in 8mCCE was monitored to evaluate the metabolic pathways utilized by Lb. paracasei during the later stages of ripening Cheddar cheese. The 2 volatiles detected at high levels were ethanol and acetate. The remaining detected volatiles are present in significantly lower amounts and likely result from amino acid, pyruvate, and acetyl-coenzyme A metabolism. Carbon balance of galactose, lactose, citrate, and phosphoserine/phosphoserine-containing peptides in terms of D-lactate, acetate, and formate are in agreement with the amounts of substrates observed in 2mCCE; however, this was not the case for 6mCCE and 8mCCE, suggesting that additional energy sources are utilized during growth of Lb. paracasei ATCC 334 in these CCE. This study provides valuable information on the biochemistry and physiology of Lb. paracasei ATCC 334 in ripening cheese. PMID:22032349

  3. A nonlinear programming optimization model to maximize net revenue in cheese manufacture.

    PubMed

    Papadatos, A; Berger, A M; Pratt, J E; Barbano, D M

    2002-11-01

    A nonlinear programming optimization model was developed to maximize net revenue in cheese manufacture and is described in this paper. The model identifies the optimal mix of milk resources together with the types of cheeses and co-products that maximize net revenue. It works in Excel while it takes the data specified by the user from a user-friendly interface created in Access. The user can specify any number of resources, cheese types, and co-products. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, we determined the impact of variation in milk price and composition in the period 1998 to 2000 on the optimal mix of resources and optimal type of co-product for Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella. It was also desired to determine the impact of variation in protein content of nonfat dry milk (NDM) on net revenue, and examine the effect of reconstitution of NDM with water versus milk on net revenue. The optimal mix of resources and the net revenue markedly varied as milk resource prices and composition varied. The net revenue for Mozzarella was much higher than for Cheddar when the price of cream was high. Cheese plants that did not optimize the use of resources in response to variations in prices and composition missed a significant profit opportunity. Whey powder was more profitable than 34% whey protein concentrate and lactose in most months. The use of high-protein NDM led to an appreciable increase in net revenue. When the value of the nonfat portion of raw milk was high, reconstitution of NDM with water rather than milk markedly raised net revenue. PMID:12487444

  4. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. I: Model development and parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    The cybernetic approach to modeling of microbial kinetics in a mixed-substrate environment has been used in this work for the fermentative production of ethanol from cheese whey. In this system, the cells grow on multiple substrates and generate metabolic energy during product formation. This article deals with the development of a mathematical model in which the concept of cell maintenance was modified in light of the specific nature of product formation. Continuous culture data for anaerobic production of ethanol by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 on glucose and lactose were used to estimate the kinetic parameters for subsequent use in predicting the behavior of microbial growth and product formation in new situations. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Artisanal cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  6. Genome-wide association of coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, protein percentage, and acidity in milk from Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Dadousis, C; Biffani, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Nicolazzi, E L; Rossoni, A; Santus, E; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-05-01

    Cheese production is increasing in many countries, and a desire toward genetic selection for milk coagulation properties in dairy cattle breeding exists. However, measurements of individual cheesemaking properties are hampered by high costs and labor, whereas traditional single-point milk coagulation properties (MCP) are sometimes criticized. Nevertheless, new modeling of the entire curd firmness and syneresis process (CFt equation) offers new insight into the cheesemaking process. Moreover, identification of genomic regions regulating milk cheesemaking properties might enhance direct selection of individuals in breeding programs based on cheese ability rather than related milk components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies to identify genomic regions linked to traditional MCP and new CFt parameters, milk acidity (pH), and milk protein percentage. Milk and DNA samples from 1,043 Italian Brown Swiss cows were used. Milk pH and 3 MCP traits were grouped together to represent the MCP set. Four CFt equation parameters, 2 derived traits, and protein percentage were considered as the second group of traits (CFt set). Animals were genotyped with the Illumina SNP50 BeadChip v.2 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Multitrait animal models were used to estimate variance components. For genome-wide association studies, the genome-wide association using mixed model and regression-genomic control approach was used. In total, 106 significant marker traits associations and 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified on 12 chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 26, and 28). Sharp peaks were detected at 84 to 88 Mbp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, with a peak at 87.4 Mbp in the region harboring the casein genes. Evidence of quantitative trait loci at 82.6 and 88.4 Mbp on the same chromosome was found. All chromosomes but BTA6, BTA11, and BTA28 were associated with only one trait. Only BTA6 was in common between MCP

  7. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  8. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  9. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-03-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  10. Kinetic modeling of lactic acid production from batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Tango, M.S.A.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic model for the production of lactic acid through batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus was developed. The model accounts for the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition, lactic acid inhibition, maintenance energy and cell death on the cell growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production during the fermentation process. The model was evaluated using experimental data from Tango and Ghaly (1999). The predicted results obtained from the model compared well with experimental (R{sup 2} = 0.92--0.98). The model was also used to investigate the effect of the initial substrate concentration on the lag period, fermentation time, specific growth rate, and cell productivity during batch fermentation. The maximum specific growth rate ({micro}{sub m}), the saturation constant (K{sub S}), the substrate inhibition constant (K{sub IS}), and the lactic acid inhibition constant (K{sub IP}) were found to be 0.25h{sup {minus}1}, 0.9 g/L, 250.0 g/L, and 60.0 g/L, respectively. High initial lactose concentration in cheese whey reduced both the specific growth rate and substrate utilization rate due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The maximum lactic acid production occurred at about 100 g/L initial lactose concentration after 40 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration above which Lactobacillus helveticus did not grow was found to be 80.0 g/L.

  11. Swiss bare mice: a suitable model for transcutaneous in vivo Raman spectroscopic studies of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, T; Kumar, Piyush; Maru, G; Ingle, A; Krishna, C Murali

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting females worldwide. As early detection results in better prognosis, screening tools for breast cancer are being explored. Raman spectroscopy, a rapid, objective, and noninvasive tool, has shown promising results in the diagnosis of several cancers including breast cancer. For development as a screening tool, a study of spectral signatures associated with breast cancer progression is imperative. However, such studies are not possible in human subjects. Hence, there is a need for a suitable animal model, which is conducive to transcutaneous in vivo Raman spectroscopic measurements of breast with minimal interference from skin and hair and has contribution from functional mammary epithelium of breast. In this study, rodent models like C57, Swiss albino, Swiss bare, agouti mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. Among these models, transcutaneous breast spectra of hairless Swiss bare mice have the best signal-to-noise ratio and were closest to reported ex vivo as well as intraoperative in vivo human breast spectra. Principal component-linear discriminant analysis of several anatomical sites confirms minimal skin interference and suggests contribution from functional mammary epithelium of breast. Moreover, transcutaneous spectra from normal breast and breast tumors of Swiss bare mice could be classified with 99% efficiency, which is better than the previous reports. Thus, Swiss bare mice model may be better suited for transcutaneous in vivo Raman spectroscopic studies of breast physiology and pathology, especially breast cancer. Prospectively, in addition to cancer progression, breast-to-bone metastasis can also be studied, since these anatomical sites can be uniquely classified. PMID:23708992

  12. Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without D3¯-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-08-01

    We consider two sets of issues in this paper. The first has to do with moduli stabilization, existence of "area codes" [A. Giryavets, New attractors and area codes, JHEP 0603 (2006) 020, hep-th/0511215] and the possibility of getting a non-supersymmetric dS minimum without the addition of D3¯-branes as in KKLT for type II flux compactifications. The second has to do with the "inverse problem" [K. Saraikin, C. Vafa, Non-supersymmetric black holes and topological strings, hep-th/0703214] and "fake superpotentials" [A. Ceresole, G. Dall'Agata, Flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes, JHEP 0703 (2007) 110, hep-th/0702088] for extremal (non-)supersymmetric black holes in type II compactifications. We use (orientifold of) a "Swiss cheese" Calabi-Yau [J.P. Conlon, F. Quevedo, K. Suruliz, Large-volume flux compactifications: Moduli spectrum and D3/D7 soft supersymmetry breaking, JHEP 0508 (2005) 007, hep-th/0505076] expressed as a degree-18 hypersurface in WCP[1,1,1,6,9] in the "large-volume-scenario" limit [V. Balasubramanian, P. Berglund, J.P. Conlon, F. Quevedo, Systematics of moduli stabilisation in Calabi-Yau flux compactifications, JHEP 0503 (2005) 007, hep-th/0502058]. The main result of our paper is that we show that by including non-perturbative α and instanton corrections in the Kähler potential and superpotential [T.W. Grimm, Non-perturbative corrections and modularity in N=1 type IIB compactifications, arXiv: 0705.3253 [hep-th

  13. Modelling biological phosphorus removal from a cheese factory effluent by an SBR.

    PubMed

    Ky, R C; Comeau, Y; Perrier, M; Takacs, I

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model, named A3DX, based on ASM3(A3) for C and N removal, on the bio-P metabolic model of the Technological University of Delft (D), and on extra processes (X) for chemical and biological phosphorus removal, was developed and used to simulate the treatment of a fermented cheese factory effluent by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Experimental data obtained from a pilot-scale SBR were used to calibrate the model. The model calibration was performed by changing a minimal number (four) of default values for parameters, and by introducing a Monod function to account for magnesium limitation. This study suggests that the value of stoichiometric and kinetic model parameters determined with municipal effluents or enriched bio-P cultures can be reasonably used with some agro-industrial effluents with minimal parameter adjustment for calibration. PMID:11381914

  14. What to eat in the land of cheese and chocolate: a content analysis of Swiss print media messages on a healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Peter J; Hartung, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a specific coding scheme for measuring health-related media content on the level of single assertions and in relative complexity. The basic idea is to code messages into an if-part (nutrition, physical activity, body weight) and a then-part (weight and health). Detailed codeplans can then be used to determine the specific nature of the if- and then-parts of an assertion. An exemplary analysis of Swiss-German newspaper and magazine messages between March 1, 2003 and June 30, 2005 provides evidence of recommendations that are more or less in line with official suggestions for a healthy diet: Newspapers and magazines tell their readers to eat vegetables, fruit, grain and cereal products, dairy products, and to care about vitamin and minerals intake. They also advise to stay away from tobacco, alcohol, fast food, sugar, and animal fat. Results are interpreted as evidence for the existence of a rather good source for diet information in print media, which is, however, very likely to be counteracted by other media content. PMID:22616360

  15. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  16. Estimation of Swiss methane emissions by near surface observations and inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Stephan; Brian, Oney; Leuenberger, Markus; Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Steinbacher, Martin; Meinhardt, Frank; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. It is released from both natural and anthropogenic processes and its atmospheric burden has more than doubled since preindustrial times. Current CH4 emission estimates are associated with comparatively large uncertainties both globally and regionally. For example, the Swiss national greenhouse gas inventory assigns an uncertainty of 18% to the country total anthropogenic CH4 emissions as compared to only 3% for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In Switzerland, CH4 is thought to be mainly released by agricultural activities (ruminants and manure management >80%), while natural emissions from wetlands and wild animals represent a minor source (~3 %). The country total and especially the spatial distribution of CH4 emission within Switzerland strongly differs between the national and different European scale inventories. To validate the 'bottom-up' Swiss CH4 emission estimate and to reduce its uncertainty both in total and spatially, 'top-down' methods combining atmospheric CH4 observations and regional scale transport simulations can be used. Here, we analyse continuous, near surface observations of CH4 concentrations as collected within the newly established CarboCountCH measurement network (http://www.carbocount.ch). The network consists of 4 sites situated on the Swiss Plateau, comprising a tall tower site (217 m), two elevated (mountaintop) sites and a small tower site (32 m) in flat terrain. In addition, continuous CH4 observations from the nearby high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (Alps) and the mountaintop site Schauinsland (Germany) were used. Two inversion frameworks were applied to the CH4 observations in combination with source sensitivities (footprints) calculated with the regional scale version of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. One inversion system was based on a Bayesian framework, while the other utilized an extended Kalman filter approach. The transport

  17. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes. PMID:25847186

  18. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  19. The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, T; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and several milk technological traits at the individual cow level. In particular, we determined the effects of very low to very high SCC on traits related to (1) milk yield and composition; (2) coagulation properties, including the traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the new curd firming model parameters; and (3) cheese yield and recovery of milk nutrients in the curd (or loss in the whey). Milk samples from 1,271 Brown Swiss cows from 85 herds were used. Nine coagulation traits were measured: 3 traditional MCP [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firming rate (k20, min), and curd firmness after 30 min (a30, mm)] and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotic curd firmness at infinite time (CFP, mm), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), rennet coagulation time estimated using the equation (RCTeq, min), maximum curd firmness achieved within 45 min (CFmax, mm), and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax, min)]. The observed cheese-making traits included 3 cheese yield traits (%CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, which represented the weights of curd, total solids, and water, respectively, as a percentage of the weight of the processed milk) and 4 nutrient recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, which each represented the percentage ratio between the nutrient in the curd and milk). Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model with the fixed effects of days in milk, parity, and somatic cell score (SCS), and the random effect of herd-date. Somatic cell score had strong influences on casein number and lactose, and also affected pH; these were traits characterized by a quadratic pattern of the data. The results also showed a negative linear relationship between SCS and milk yield. Somatic cell score influenced almost all of the tested

  20. Modeling potential herbicide loss to surface waters on the Swiss plateau.

    PubMed

    Siber, Rosi; Stamm, Christian; Reichert, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Lack of sufficiently detailed data often limits the applicability of complex transport-reaction models for estimating potential herbicide loss to surface waters. Therefore, there is also a need for simple models that are easy to apply but still capture the main features of the underlying processes. In this study, a simple regression model was developed to assess the vulnerability of catchments in the Swiss Plateau to diffuse herbicide loss to surface waters. The model is designed as a screening tool to rank the catchments in a relative sense and not to calculate Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) of pesticides. The main goal is to capture two dominating factors controlling diffuse herbicide transport into streams and rivers. These factors are herbicide application and fast flow processes that are mainly responsible for herbicide transport. In a first step vulnerability of sites to herbicide loss is estimated based on site-specific conditions irrespective of actual herbicide application. In the second step, this vulnerability assessment is combined with actual herbicide application data to estimate the potential herbicide loss. The fast flow index (FFI), derived from discharge data using a base flow separation method, was applied as a proxy for the amount of fast flow occurring. The influence of catchment attributes (including topographic, climatic and soil data) on the FFI was analyzed using a multiple regression approach based on data from 57 catchments of the Swiss Plateau. By combining regression analysis with mechanistic knowledge, a two factor non-linear model based on river density and soil permeability as dominant input factors was selected as the best model for FFI prediction given the available data. Higher dimensional models had to be excluded because the strong correlation between the potential input factors led to unrealistic dependences while only minimally improving the quality of the fit. The spatial pattern of the predicted FFI as a

  1. High Hats, Swiss Cheese, and Fluorescent Lighting?

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2002-08-30

    For DOE, PNNL is conducting a competitive procurement to promote market introduction of new residential recessed downlights (also known as ''recessed cans'' or ''high hats'') that are airtight, rated for insulated ceilings, and hard-wired for CFLs. This paper discusses the potential energy savings of new high-efficiency downlights, and the results of product testing to date. Recessed downlights are the most popular residential lighting fixtures in the United States, with 21.7 million fixtures sold in 2000. An estimated 350 million are currently installed in American homes. Recessed cans are relatively inexpensive, and provide an unobtrusive, directed source of light for kitchens, hallways, and living rooms. Recessed cans are energy-intensive in three ways. First, virtually all recessed cans currently installed in the residential sector use incandescent light sources, typically reflector-type lamps drawing 65-150 watts. Second, heat from incandescent lamps adds to air-conditioning loads. Third, most installed recessed cans are not airtight, so they allow conditioned air to escape from the living area into unconditioned spaces such as attics. Addressing both lighting energy use and air leakage in recessed cans has proven challenging. Lighting energy efficiency is greatly improved by using CFLs. Air leakage can be addressed by making fixtures airtight. But when CFLs are used in an airtight recessed can, heat generated by the lamp and ballast is trapped within the fixture. Excessive heat causes reduced light output and shorter lifespan of the CFL. The procurement was designed to overcome these technical challenges and make new products available in the marketplace.

  2. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Flasarová, Radka; Pachlová, Vendula; Buňková, Leona; Menšíková, Anna; Georgová, Nikola; Dráb, Vladimír; Buňka, František

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biogenic amine production of two starter strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms - CCDM 824 and CCDM 946) with decarboxylase positive activity in a model system of Dutch-type cheese during a 90-day ripening period at 10°C. During ripening, biogenic amine and free amino acid content, microbiological characteristics and proximate chemical properties were observed. By the end of the ripening period, the putrescine content in both samples with the addition of the biogenic amine producing strain almost evened out and the concentration of putrescine was >800mg/kg. The amount of tyramine in the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 824 approached the limit of 400mg/kg by the end of ripening. In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant. PMID:26471528

  3. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. PMID:26338117

  4. STAT5A expression in Swiss 3T3 cells promotes adipogenesis in vivo in an athymic mice model system.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William C; Pearcy, Lisa A; Floyd, Z Elizabeth; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2011-09-01

    Many studies from our laboratories and others have shown that STAT5 expression and activity are increased during adipogenesis of murine and human adipocytes. Ectopic expression of STAT5A in fibroblasts or preadipocytes can confer or enhance adipogenesis. To determine whether STAT5A also plays a role in adipogenesis in vivo, we injected athymic mice with Swiss 3T3 cells expressing an empty pBABE retrovirus, Swiss cells expressing a pBABE retrovirus-containing STAT5A, or 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. Athymic mice injected with either 3T3-F442A cells or Swiss 3T3 cells expressing STAT5A resulted in fat pad formation at the site of injection. However, mice injected with Swiss cells containing the parent retroviral vector did not have any observable fat pads. An analysis of the ectopic fat pads obtained from the Swiss 3T3 STAT5A mice revealed abundant expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and adiponectin. The protein levels of both of these fat cell markers were comparable to expression levels in epididymal fat pads. These results demonstrate that STAT5A can promote adipogenesis in vivo in this model system which supports a role of this transcription factor in adipocyte development in the whole animal. PMID:21494231

  5. Constructing a Swiss health space model of self-perceived health.

    PubMed

    Lengen, Charis; Blasius, Jörg

    2007-07-01

    This study aims to analyse the relationship between self-reported health characteristics and to explore latent cultural structures in the Swiss health survey. Based on categorical principal component analysis, a conceptual model of 'health space' was constructed which can be interpreted as a collective perception of health. The first dimension of the constructed health space model reflects the 'level of general health', and the second dimension the 'composition of physical and mental health symptoms'. These dimensions may reflect deeply rooted cultural structures--the good vs. bad dichotomy as a generic categorization scheme of human thought and the body/mind dualism. These latent structures provide a framework of the health space model and allow a better interpretation of the relationships of health perception characteristics and its related socio-demographic aspects. PMID:17475384

  6. Substrate and metabolite diffusion within model medium for soft cheese in relation to growth of Penicillium camembertii.

    PubMed

    Aldarf, Mazen; Fourcade, Florence; Amrane, Abdeltif; Prigent, Yves

    2006-08-01

    Penicillium camembertii was cultivated on a jellified peptone-lactate based medium to simulate the composition of Camembert cheese. Diffusional limitations due to substrate consumption were not involved in the linear growth recorded during culture, while nitrogen (peptone) limitation accounted for growth cessation. Examination of gradients confirmed that medium neutralization was the consequence of lactate consumption and ammonium production. The diffusion of the lactate assimilated from the core to the rind and that of the ammonium produced from the rind to the core was described by means of a diffusion/reaction model involving a partial linking of consumption or production to growth. The model matched experimental data throughout growth. PMID:16491357

  7. Manufacture of Cheddar cheese using probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum K25 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in a mice model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Chunhong; Li, Changying; Li, Shengyu; Li, Tiezhu; Li, Da; Zhao, Yujuan; Yang, Zhennai

    2013-01-01

    The probiotic adjunct Lactobacillus plantarum K25 was inoculated into milk to produce probiotic cheese. The effect of Lb. plantarum K25 on cheese composition, microbiological growth and survival during the manufacturing and ripening period, primary and secondary proteolysis during cheese ripening, and the in vivo cholesterol-lowering ability of the probiotic cheese were investigated. The results showed that the use of adjunct Lb. plantarum K25 in Cheddar cheese did not affect the cheese components including moisture, protein, fat, salt content and the pH value of cheese. During the whole ripening period, the probiotic adjunct maintained its viability, suggesting the effectiveness of Cheddar cheese as a vehicle for delivery of probiotic bacteria. No significant differences were observed in water-soluble nitrogen, 70 % ethanol-soluble nitrogen, 5 % phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen, free amino acids and urea-PAGE patterns between the control and probiotic cheeses. Assessment of the in vivo cholesterol-lowering property of cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 showed that the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly, and the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in mice fed with the probiotic cheese. The results indicated the potential function as a dietary item of the probiotic cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22956024

  8. Systematic validation of disease models for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sendi, P P; Craig, B A; Pfluger, D; Gafni, A; Bucher, H C

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacoeconomic evaluations are often based on computer models which simulate the course of disease with and without medical interventions. The purpose of this study is to propose and illustrate a rigorous approach for validating such disease models. For illustrative purposes, we applied this approach to a computer-based model we developed to mimic the history of HIV-infected subjects at the greatest risk for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in Switzerland. The drugs included as a prophylactic intervention against MAC infection were azithromycin and clarithromycin. We used a homogenous Markov chain to describe the progression of an HIV-infected patient through six MAC-free states, one MAC state, and death. Probability estimates were extracted from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study database (1993-95) and randomized controlled trials. The model was validated testing for (1) technical validity (2) predictive validity (3) face validity and (4) modelling process validity. Sensitivity analysis and independent model implementation in DATA (PPS) and self-written Fortran 90 code (BAC) assured technical validity. Agreement between modelled and observed MAC incidence confirmed predictive validity. Modelled MAC prophylaxis at different starting conditions affirmed face validity. Published articles by other authors supported modelling process validity. The proposed validation procedure is a useful approach to improve the validity of the model. PMID:10461580

  9. Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Oney, B.; Leuenberger, M.; Eugster, W.; Bamberger, I.; Meinhardt, F.; Steinbacher, M.; Emmenegger, L.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4) from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high resolution Lagrangian transport model. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr-1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty). This result is in close agreement with the recently revised "bottom-up" estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr-1 published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment as part of the Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI). Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, covariance settings, baseline treatments, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman Filter), and two different transport models confirms the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest "bottom-up" inventory the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %), waste handling (15 %) and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %). The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent national inventory, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results suggesting that leakages from natural gas disribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr-1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr-1 implied by the EDGARv4.2 inventory for this sector. Increased CH4 emissions (up to 30 % compared to the prior) were deduced for the north-eastern parts of Switzerland. This

  10. Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Stephan; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus; Eugster, Werner; Bamberger, Ines; Meinhardt, Frank; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional-scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4) from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model. In our reference inversion, prior emissions were taken from the "bottom-up" Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI) as published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment in 2014 for the year 2012. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr-1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty). This result is in close agreement with the recently revised SGHGI estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr-1 as reported in 2015 for the year 2012. Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, uncertainty covariance settings, large-scale background mole fractions, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter), and two different transport models confirm the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest SGHGI estimate the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %), waste handling (15 %) and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %). The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent SGHGI, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results, suggesting that leakages from natural gas distribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr-1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr-1 implied by the EDGARv4.2 inventory for

  11. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  12. Demographic model of the Swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.

    PubMed

    Schärrer, Sara; Presi, Patrick; Hattendorf, Jan; Chitnis, Nakul; Reist, Martin; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD). The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef), age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years). The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm). The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants). PMID:25310680

  13. Demographic Model of the Swiss Cattle Population for the Years 2009-2011 Stratified by Gender, Age and Production Type

    PubMed Central

    Schärrer, Sara; Presi, Patrick; Hattendorf, Jan; Chitnis, Nakul; Reist, Martin; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD). The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef), age and gender (male and female calves: 0–1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1–2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years). The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm). The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants). PMID:25310680

  14. Spatial Distribution of Lactococcus lactis Colonies Modulates the Production of Major Metabolites during the Ripening of a Model Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Le Boucher, Clémentine; Gagnaire, Valérie; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Lortal, Sylvie; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In cheese, lactic acid bacteria are immobilized at the coagulation step and grow as colonies. The spatial distribution of bacterial colonies is characterized by the size and number of colonies for a given bacterial population within cheese. Our objective was to demonstrate that different spatial distributions, which lead to differences in the exchange surface between the colonies and the cheese matrix, can influence the ripening process. The strategy was to generate cheeses with the same growth and acidification of a Lactococcus lactis strain with two different spatial distributions, big and small colonies, to monitor the production of the major ripening metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, peptides, free amino acids, and volatile metabolites, over 1 month of ripening. The monitored metabolites were qualitatively the same for both cheeses, but many of them were more abundant in the small-colony cheeses than in the big-colony cheeses over 1 month of ripening. Therefore, the results obtained showed that two different spatial distributions of L. lactis modulated the ripening time course by generating moderate but significant differences in the rates of production or consumption for many of the metabolites commonly monitored throughout ripening. The present work further explores the immobilization of bacteria as colonies within cheese and highlights the consequences of this immobilization on cheese ripening. PMID:26497453

  15. How three adventitious lactic acid bacteria affect proteolysis and organic acid production in model Portuguese cheeses manufactured from several milk sources and two alternative coagulants.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C I; Neto, D M; Capucho, J C; Gião, M S; Gomes, A M P; Malcata, F X

    2010-04-01

    Model cheeses were manufactured according to a full factorial experimental design to help shed light on the individual and combined roles played by 3 native lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum) upon proteolysis and organic acid evolution in cheese. The model cheeses were manufactured according to a generally representative Portuguese artisanal protocol, but the (ubiquitous) adventitious microflora in the cheesemaking milk were removed via sterilization before manufacture; therefore, the specific effects of only those lactic acid bacteria selected were monitored. In addition, 2 types of coagulant (animal and plant) and 3 types of cheesemaking milk (cow, sheep, and goat) were assessed to determine their influence on the final characteristics of the model cheeses. The nature of the coagulant appeared to be essential during the first stage of proteolysis as expected, whereas the contribution of those bacteria to the pools of total free AA and organic acids was crucial afterward. This was especially so in terms of the differences observed in the metabolisms of lactic acid (in the case of Lactococcus spp.) as well as acetic and citric acids (in the case of Lactobacillus spp.). PMID:20338410

  16. Freezing of lakes on the Swiss Plateau 1865-2100: combining long-term observations with modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huss, Matthias; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Keller, Felix; Funk, Martin; Hoelzle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The frequency of lake freeze-up on the Swiss plateau is a sensitive indicator of changes in central European winter climate. Whereas smaller and more shallow lakes are reported to completely freeze in more than 50% of the winters, large and deep lakes like Bodensee and Zurichsee only froze one to very few times during the 20th century. The ice cover lasted between some days and up to three months. The periodic freezing of lakes on the Swiss plateau exerts considerable public attraction and is, in some cases, even an economic factor. In this study, we rely on an exceptional data set presented by Hendricks-Franssen and Scherrer (2008) providing complete series of freeze-up events for a dozen lakes on the Swiss plateau since 1901 based on direct observations. A new physically-based 1-D model for the energy balance and the thermodynamics of lake ice is presented and validated against the long-term observations. The model is driven with measured meteorological data as well as with results of 10 regional climate models. We apply the model to compute continuous series of freeze-up events between 1865 and 2100 for 14 Swiss lakes. In addition, the model calculates the time evolution of the ice thickness and the corresponding bearing capacity. We discuss the potential of the model for simulating lake freeze-up events over the last century in connection with the direct observations and simplified approaches for estimating lake ice formation. Changes in freezing frequency are analysed over a period of more than 200 years extending from the beginning of the instrumental record into the future. Until 2050, freezing is still possible even for medium-sized lakes in extreme winters. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, lakes on the Swiss plateau are unlikely to freeze during winter with the exception of rare events on small lakes. For an additional study site located at higher elevation in the Alps the model predicts annual freezing until 2100 but with strongly reduced

  17. Diffusion of solutes inside bacterial colonies immobilized in model cheese depends on their physicochemical properties: a time-lapse microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Floury, Juliane; El Mourdi, Ilham; Silva, Juliana V. C.; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    During cheese processing and ripening, bacteria develop as colonies. Substrates and metabolites must then diffuse either from or into the colonies. Exploring how the inner cells of the colony access the substrates or get rid of the products leads to study the diffusion of solutes inside bacterial colonies immobilized in cheese. Diffusion limitations of substrates within the bacterial colony could lead to starvation for the cells in the center of the colony. This study aimed at better understands ripening at the colony level, by investigating how diffusion phenomena inside colonies vary depending on both the physicochemical properties of the solutes and Lactococcus lactis strain. Dextrans (4, 70, and 155 kDa) and milk proteins (BSA, lactoferrin and αS1-casein) of different sizes and physicochemical properties were chosen as model of diffusing solutes, and two L. lactis strains presenting different surface properties were immobilized as colonies in a model cheese. Diffusion of solutes inside and around colonies was experimentally followed by time-lapse confocal microscopy. Dextran solutes diffused inside both lactococci colonies with a non-significantly different effective diffusion coefficient, which depended mainly on size of the solute. However, whereas flexible and neutral hydrophilic polymers such as dextran can diffuse inside colonies whatever its size, none of the three proteins investigated in this study could penetrate inside lactococci colonies. Therefore, the diffusion behavior of macromolecules through bacterial colonies immobilized in a model cheese did not only depends on the size of the diffusing solutes, but also and mainly on their physicochemical properties. Milk caseins are probably first hydrolyzed by the cell wall proteases of L. lactis and/or other proteases present in the cheese, and then the generated peptides diffuse inside colonies to be further metabolized into smaller peptides and amino acids by all the cells located inside the colonies

  18. Latin American cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  19. The science of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  20. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    PubMed

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio. PMID:24128499

  1. Estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for birth weight of Brown Swiss calves in Turkey using an animal model.

    PubMed

    Sahin, A; Ulutas, Z; Yilmaz Adkinson, A; Adkinson, R W

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the influence of genetic and environmental factors on Brown Swiss calf birth weight, and to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values. Data were collected on 1,761 Brown Swiss calves born from 1990 to 2005 in the Konuklar State Farm in Turkey. Mean birth weight for all calves was 39.3 ± 0.09 kg. Least squares mean birth weights for male and female Brown Swiss calves were 40.3 ± 0.02 and 39.0 ± 0.02 kg, respectively. Variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values for birth weight in Brown Swiss calves were estimated by restricted error maximum likelihood (REML)-best linear unbiased prediction(BLUP) procedures using an MTDFREML (multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood) program employing an animal model. Direct heritability (h(d)(2)), maternal heritability (h(m)(2)), total heritability (h(T)(2)), r(am) and c(am) estimates were 0.12, 0.09, 0.23, -0.58, and -0.06, respectively. The estimated maternal permanent environmental variance expressed as a proportion of the phenotypic variance (c(2)) was 0.05. Breeding values were estimated for the trait and used to evaluate genetic trends across the time period investigated. The genetic trend linear regression was not different from zero. No genetic trend for birth weight was expected, since there had been no direct selection pressure on the trait. Absence of a trend confirms that there was no change due to selection pressure on correlated traits. Genetic and environmental parameter estimates were similar to literature values indicating that effective selection methods used in more developed improvement programs would be effective in Turkey as well. PMID:22203217

  2. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. 133.155 Section 133.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products §...

  3. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  4. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  5. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  6. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  7. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  8. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. PMID:24792787

  9. Towards a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils for the Swiss greenhouse gas reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, K.; Leifeld, J.; Bretscher, D.; Fuhrer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss inventory submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports on changes in soil organic carbon stocks under different land-uses and land-use changes. The approach currently employed for cropland and grassland soils combines Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods and is considered overly simplistic. As the UNFCC encourages countries to develop Tier 3 methods for national greenhouse gas reporting, we aim to build up a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. We conducted a literature research on currently employed higher-tier methods using process-based models in four countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the USA. The applied models stem from two major groups differing in complexity - those belonging to the group of general ecosystem models that include a plant-growth submodel, e.g. Century, and those that simulate soil organic matter turnover but not plant-growth, e.g. ICBM. For the latter group, carbon inputs to the soil from plant residues and roots have to be determined separately. We will present some aspects of the development of a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. Criteria for model evaluation are, among others, modeled land-use classes and land-use changes, spatial and temporal resolution, and coverage of relevant processes. For model parameterization and model evaluation at the field scale, data from several long-term agricultural experiments and monitoring sites in Switzerland is available. A subsequent regional application of a model requires the preparation of regional input data for the whole country - among others spatio-temporal meteorological data, agricultural and soil data. Following the evaluation of possible models and of available data, preference for application in the Swiss inventory will be given to simpler model structures, i.e. models without a plant-growth module. Thus, we compared different allometric relations

  10. The perils and promises of microbial abundance: novel natures and model ecosystems, from artisanal cheese to alien seas.

    PubMed

    Paxson, Heather; Helmreich, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Microbial life has been much in the news. From outbreaks of Escherichia coli to discussions of the benefits of raw and fermented foods to recent reports of life forms capable of living in extreme environments, the modest microbe has become a figure for thinking through the presents and possible futures of nature, writ large as well as small. Noting that dominant representations of microbial life have shifted from an idiom of peril to one of promise, we argue that microbes--especially when thriving as microbial communities--are being upheld as model ecosystems in a prescriptive sense, as tokens of how organisms and human ecological relations with them could, should, or might be. We do so in reference to two case studies: the regulatory politics of artisanal cheese and the speculative research of astrobiology. To think of and with microbial communities as model ecosystems offers a corrective to the scientific determinisms we detect in some recent calls to attend to the materiality of scientific objects. PMID:24941610

  11. Modeling of Ice Flow and Internal Layers Along a Flow Line Through Swiss Camp in West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. L.; Zwally, H. Jay; Abdalati, W.; Luo, S.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An anisotropic ice flow line model is applied to a flow line through Swiss Camp (69.57 N, 49.28 W) in West Greenland to estimate the dates of internal layers detected by Radio-Echo Sounding measurements. The effect of an anisotropic ice fabric on ice flow is incorporated into the steady state flow line model. The stress-strain rate relationship for anisotropic ice is characterized by an enhancement factor based on the laboratory observations of ice deformation under combined compression and shear stresses. By using present-day data of accumulation rate, surface temperature, surface elevation and ice thickness along the flow line as model inputs, a very close agreement is found between the isochrones generated from the model and the observed internal layers with confirmed dates. The results indicate that this part of Greenland ice sheet is primarily in steady state.

  12. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  13. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  14. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  15. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing...

  16. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    PubMed

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. PMID:26919819

  17. Human dimension in scientific models in high-mountain climate change and risk projects: Peruvian-Swiss experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Minan, Fiorella; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Models in a range of scientific disciplines are increasingly seen as indispensable for successful adaptation. Governments as well as international organizations and cooperations put their efforts in basing their adaptation projects on scientific results. Thereby, it is critical that scientific models are first put into the particular context in which they will be applied. This paper addresses the experience of the project 'Glaciers 513- Climate change adaptation and disaster risk management for glacier retreat in the Andes' conducted in the districts of Carhuaz (Ancash region) and Santa Teresa (Cusco region) in Peru. The Peruvian and the Swiss governments put their joint efforts in an adaptation project in the context of climate change and the retreat of the glaciers. The project is led by a consortium of Care Peru and the University of Zurich with additional Swiss partners and its principal aim is to improve the capacity for integral adaptation and reduce the risk of disasters from glaciers and high-mountain areas, and effects of climate change, particularly in the regions of Cusco and Ancash. The paper shows how the so called "human dimension" on the one hand, and models from a range of disciplines, including climatology, glaciology, and hydrology on the other hand, were conceptualized and perceived by the different actors involved in the project. Important aspects have been, among others, the role of local knowledge including ancestral knowledge, demographic information, socio-economic indicators as well as the social, political and cultural framework and the historical background. Here we analyze the role and context of local knowledge and the historical background. The analysis of the implications of the differences and similarities of the perceptions of a range of actors contributes to the discussion about how, and to what extent scientific models can be contextualized, what kind of information can be helpful for the contextualization and how it can be

  18. Establishment of a Swiss Webster Mouse Model of Pneumonic Plague To Meet Essential Data Elements under the Animal Rule

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Winston; Detrisac, Carol; Hu, Shu-Chieh; Rajendran, Narayanan; Gingras, Bruce; Holland, Louis; Price, Jessica; Bolanowski, Mark; House, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant vaccine (rF1V) is being developed for protection against pneumonic plague. This study was performed to address essential data elements to establish a well-characterized Swiss Webster mouse model for licensing the rF1V vaccine using the FDA's Animal Rule. These elements include the documentation of challenge material characteristics, aerosol exposure parameters, details of the onset and severity of clinical signs, pathophysiological response to disease, and relevance to human disease. Prior to animal exposures, an evaluation of the aerosol system was performed to determine and understand the variability of the aerosol exposure system. Standardized procedures for the preparation of Yersinia pestis challenge material also were developed. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was estimated to be 1,966 CFU using Probit analysis. Following the LD50 determination, pathology was evaluated by exposing mice to a target LD99 (42,890 CFU). Mice were euthanized at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h postexposure. At each time point, samples were collected for clinical pathology, detection of bacteria in blood and tissues, and pathology evaluations. A general increase in incidence and severity of microscopic findings was observed in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver from 36 to 72 h postchallenge. Similarly, the incidence and severity of pneumonia increased throughout the study; however, some mice died in the absence of pneumonia, suggesting that disease progression does not require the development of pneumonia. Disease pathology in the Swiss Webster mouse is similar to that observed in humans, demonstrating the utility of this pneumonic plague model that can be used by researchers investigating plague countermeasures. PMID:22336286

  19. Redshift drift in axially symmetric quasispherical Szekeres models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Priti; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle; Singh, Tejinder P.

    2012-10-01

    Models of inhomogeneous universes constructed with exact solutions of Einstein’s general relativity have been proposed in the literature with the aim of reproducing the cosmological data without any need for a dark energy component. Besides large scale inhomogeneity models spherically symmetric around the observer, Swiss-cheese models have also been studied. Among them, Swiss cheeses where the inhomogeneous patches are modeled by different particular Szekeres solutions have been used for reproducing the apparent dimming of the type Ia supernovae. However, the problem of fitting such models to the type Ia supernovae data is completely degenerate and we need other constraints to fully characterize them. One of the tests which is known to be able to discriminate between different cosmological models is the redshift drift. This drift has already been calculated by different authors for Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models. We compute it here for one particular axially symmetric quasispherical Szekeres Swiss cheese which has previously been shown to reproduce to a good accuracy the type Ia supernovae data, and we compare the results to the drift in the ΛCDM model and in some Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi models that can be found in the literature. We show that it is a good discriminator between them. Then, we discuss our model’s remaining degrees of freedom and propose a recipe to fully constrain them.

  20. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  1. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  2. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  3. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  4. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  5. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  6. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  7. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  8. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  9. Studying the precision of ray tracing techniques with Szekeres models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koksbang, S. M.; Hannestad, S.

    2015-07-01

    The simplest standard ray tracing scheme employing the Born and Limber approximations and neglecting lens-lens coupling is used for computing the convergence along individual rays in mock N-body data based on Szekeres swiss cheese and onion models. The results are compared with the exact convergence computed using the exact Szekeres metric combined with the Sachs formalism. A comparison is also made with an extension of the simple ray tracing scheme which includes the Doppler convergence. The exact convergence is reproduced very precisely as the sum of the gravitational and Doppler convergences along rays in Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi swiss cheese and single void models. This is not the case when the swiss cheese models are based on nonsymmetric Szekeres models. For such models, there is a significant deviation between the exact and ray traced paths and hence also the corresponding convergences. There is also a clear deviation between the exact and ray tracing results obtained when studying both nonsymmetric and spherically symmetric Szekeres onion models.

  10. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-01

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  11. The effect of milling on proteins in model Queso Fresco cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the manufacturing factors important in traditional raw milk Queso Fresco (QF) made in Mexico is the milling of the fresh curd. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of milling procedures on protein composition in a model Queso Fresco, made according to U. S. quality standards from pas...

  12. HISPANIC-STYLE CHEESE RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for Hispanic-style cheeses has grown tremendously in the U.S. because of the increasing Hispanic population, the popularity of the Mexican/Latin American cuisine, and the unique quality traits of the cheeses. A few areas of concern for manufacturers of Hispanic-style cheeses include the ...

  13. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  14. 3D FEM modeling of fold nappe formation in the Western Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fold nappes are recumbent folds with amplitudes exceeding 10 km and have been presumably formed by heterogeneous simple shear. They often exhibit a constant sense of shearing and a non-linear increase of shear strain towards their overturned limb. The fold axes of the Morcles fold nappe in western Switzerland plunges to the ENE whereas the fold axes in the more eastern Doldenhorn nappe plunges to the WSW. These opposite plunge directions characterize the Wildstrubel depression (Rawil depression, Ramsay, 1981). The Morcles nappe is mainly the result of layer contraction and shearing (Ramsay, 1981). During the compression the massive limestones were more competent than the surrounding marls and shales, which led to the buckling characteristics of the Morcles nappe, especially in the north-dipping normal limb. There are still no 3D numerical studies which investigate the fundamental dynamics of the formation of the large-scale 3D structure including the Morcles and Doldenhorn fold nappes and the related Wildstrubel depression. Such studies require a numerical algorithm that can accurately track material interfaces for large differences in material properties (e.g. between limestone and shale) and for large deformations. We present a numerical algorithm based on the finite element method (FEM) which can simulate 3D fluid flow for a power-law viscous rheology. Our FEM code combines a numerical marker technique and a deformable Lagrangian mesh with re-meshing (Poliakov and Podladchikov, 1992) and is used to study the formation of 3D fold nappes similar to the ones in the Western Swiss Alps. The numerical method requires the interpolation of material properties to the integration points because the layer interface can lie within a finite element. To guarantee accuracy the number of integration points in the finite elements is increased considerably. The interpolation is only performed during several re-meshing steps when the deformed Lagrangian mesh is too distorted

  15. The influence of fat and monoacylglycerols on growth of spore-forming bacteria in processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Hauerlandová, Iva; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František; Navrátil, Jan; Janečková, Kristýna; Buňková, Leona

    2014-07-16

    Highly undesirable microbial contaminants of processed cheese are endospore-forming bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Survival of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Clostridium butyricum and C. sporogenes was examined in model processed cheese samples supplemented with monoacylglycerols. In processed cheese samples, monoacylglycerols of undecanoic, undecenoic, lauric and adamantane-1-carboxylic acid at concentration of 0.15% w/w prevented the growth and multiplication of both Bacillus species throughout the storage period. The two species of Clostridium were less affected by monoacylglycerols in processed cheese samples and only partial inhibition was observed. The effect of milk fat content on microbial survival in processed cheese was also evaluated. The growth of Bacillus sp. was affected by the fat level of processed cheese while population levels of Clostridium sp. did not differ in processed cheese samples with 30, 40 and 50% fat in dry matter. PMID:24859188

  16. Proof of concept of using chromogenic arrays as a tool to identify blue cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Ros-Lis, José V; Vivancos, José-Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    A new chromogenic array for the identification and classification of blue cheeses has been developed. It is based on the response of a chromogenic array composed of five sensing materials prepared by the incorporation of pH indicators to MCM-41 and alumina. Four blue cheeses were tested: Roquefort, Blue Stilton, blue cheese with leaves and blue cheese spread. The colour modulations of the chromogenic array were processed by the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The statistical PCA analysis showed different responses to each cheese. PLS-DA models were developed by incorporating the data measured at diverse times, and this approach allowed us to obtain a perfect classification of all five cheeses in 5.5h. The results suggest that chromogenic arrays and optoelectronic noses can be a suitable approach to develop simple systems to classify blue cheeses and of potential use for the detection of food fraud. PMID:25442626

  17. Occurrence and fate modeling of MTBE and BTEX compounds in a Swiss Lake used as drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Torsten C; Haderlein, Stefan B; Pfister, Rolf; Forster, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Emissions of fuel components from boating use on multiple-use lakes and reservoirs are of high concern with regard to the drinking water supply from such water bodies. We report results of a detailed study on the occurrence, sources and fate of aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a typical holomictic lake, Lake Zurich, that supplies drinking water for the largest Swiss city. Emphasis of the investigation was on the fuel oxygenate MTBE, which was found in concentrations up to 1.4 microg/L in the epilimnion and up to 0.05microg/L in the hypolimnion of the lake. The concentration difference was due to the stratification of the lake during the boating season with very limited water exchange across the thermocline. MTBE and BTEX nearly completely volatilized before vertical lake mixing occurred in winter. Spatial and temporal variations of MTBE concentrations in the lake were observed and successfully predicted using two complementary box models (MASAS Light and Aquasim). The drinking water supply from holomictic lakes is not at risk for the scenarios studied if water is extracted from well below the thermocline. Since emissions of unburned gasoline into such water bodies are caused predominantly by boating activities, restrictions of highly emitting two-stroke engines could substantially reduce the MTBE and BTEX load of the epilimnion during the boating season. PMID:15016529

  18. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese....

  4. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese....

  5. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese....

  6. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Romano cheese. 133.183 Section 133.183 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.183 Romano cheese....

  7. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neufchatel cheese. 133.162 Section 133.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.162 Neufchatel cheese....

  8. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grated cheeses. 133.146 Section 133.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses....

  9. Detachment folds versus thrust-folds: numerical modelling and applications to the Swiss Jura Mountains and the Canadian Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Bauville, Arthur; Epard, Jean-Luc; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Jura Mountains and the Foothills of the Canadian Rockies fold-and-thrust belts are classical examples of thin-skinned belts where folds develop over weak detachment horizons. They offer the possibility to observe and measure strain in folds. In these two belts, a large spectrum of fold geometries is expressed, from symmetric box-fold or pop-up structures to asymmetric thrust-related folds. In this study, we focus on the quantification and prediction of the brittle strain distribution in folds as a function of the fold geometry. Fold geometry is considered as a continuum between two end-member structural styles: symmetric detachment folds and asymmetric foreland-vergent thrust-folds. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of visco-plastic detachment folding. The models are used (1) to systematically examine the influence of different initial parameters on the resulting geometry and style of folding and (2) to quantify the local strain pattern through time. The different parameters tested are the following: presence and size of initial geometrical perturbation at the detachment-sediment interface, rheology of the detachment (frictional vs. viscous), additional detachment layer within the series and overbunden thickness. Results of single detachment layer models show that the asymmetry of folds is primarily controlled by the height of the initial geometrical perturbation, regardless to the rheology of the detachment (frictional vs. viscous). Additional detachment interlayer within the series decreases the brittle strain within the stiff layers and favours more rounded anticlines geometry. The models were then adapted to the Swiss Jura and the Canadian Foothills settings. Compared to field observations and cross-sections of existing fault-related anticlines, the proposed simulations agree with the first order geometry and the development of associated localized zones of brittle deformation.

  10. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propionic acid-producing bacterial cultures. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b... enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  11. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propionic acid-producing bacterial cultures. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b... enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  12. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... propionic acid-producing bacterial cultures. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b... enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  13. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treated with hydrogen peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of lactic acid-producing and... artificial coloring is not used. (vi) Hydrogen peroxide, followed by a sufficient quantity of catalase... percent of the weight of the milk and the weight of the catalase shall not exceed 20 parts per million...

  14. Swiss Cheese Syndrome: Knowing Myself as a Learner and Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakui, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship between one individual's own English learning and teaching experiences. Employs the self-study method of inquiry in the form of narratives to illuminate how learning experiences influence beliefs and practices in language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  15. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. PMID:26765502

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of glacial erosion in the Rhône valley (Swiss Alps): insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternai, Pietro; Herman, Frédéric; Valla, Pierre; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Willett, Sean

    2013-04-01

    The present-day topography of the European Alps shows evidence of intense glacial reshaping. However, significant questions regarding Alpine landscape evolution during glaciations still persist. For example, large-scale topographic analyses suggest that glacial erosion is maximized at and above the glaciers' long-term Equilibrium Line Altitude. In contrast, measurements of long-term denudation rates from low temperature thermochronology suggest high erosion towards low altitudes, leading to an increase of local relief in response to glacial erosion. Based on sediment record, low-temperature thermochronology and burial cosmogenic nuclide dating, it has also been proposed that the mid-Pleistocene climatic transition from symmetric, 40kyr to asymmetric, 100kyr glacial/interglacial oscillations sets the onset of intense glacial erosion within the Alps. However, this climate threshold in glacial erosion has not been showed in other orogens, and positive feedbacks between climate periodicity and glacial erosion efficiency still remain to be proven. We focus on the Rhône valley (Swiss Alps), and use a numerical model to estimate patterns and magnitudes of glacial erosion. Comparing modeling results on an advanced reconstruction of the pre-glacial topography (Sternai et al., 2012) and the present-day landforms, we found that erosion propagates headward as the landscape evolves from a fluvial to a glacial state, leading to an initial increase of local relief in the major valley trunk followed by subsequent erosion at high elevations. We also test the mid-Pleistocene transition hypothesis by running a 2Myr numerical experiment including a shift from symmetric, 40kyr to asymmetric, 100kyr glacial/interglacial oscillations at 1Myr. Although the change of climate periodicity may have produced an intensification of glacial erosion, our results suggest that other factors such as an increase of rock uplift and/or progressive climate cooling are required to explain enhanced valley

  17. Lipids in cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  18. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The

  19. A spatial model for predicting effects of climate change on Swiss needle cast disease severity in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swiss needle cast disease of Douglas-fir is caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms of the disease are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Severe defol...

  20. ENZYMAP: Exploiting Protein Annotation for Modeling and Predicting EC Number Changes in UniProt/Swiss-Prot

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Sabrina de Azevedo; de Melo-Minardi, Raquel Cardoso; da Silveira, Carlos Henrique; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Meira Jr, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    The volume and diversity of biological data are increasing at very high rates. Vast amounts of protein sequences and structures, protein and genetic interactions and phenotype studies have been produced. The majority of data generated by high-throughput devices is automatically annotated because manually annotating them is not possible. Thus, efficient and precise automatic annotation methods are required to ensure the quality and reliability of both the biological data and associated annotations. We proposed ENZYMatic Annotation Predictor (ENZYMAP), a technique to characterize and predict EC number changes based on annotations from UniProt/Swiss-Prot using a supervised learning approach. We evaluated ENZYMAP experimentally, using test data sets from both UniProt/Swiss-Prot and UniProt/TrEMBL, and showed that predicting EC changes using selected types of annotation is possible. Finally, we compared ENZYMAP and DETECT with respect to their predictions and checked both against the UniProt/Swiss-Prot annotations. ENZYMAP was shown to be more accurate than DETECT, coming closer to the actual changes in UniProt/Swiss-Prot. Our proposal is intended to be an automatic complementary method (that can be used together with other techniques like the ones based on protein sequence and structure) that helps to improve the quality and reliability of enzyme annotations over time, suggesting possible corrections, anticipating annotation changes and propagating the implicit knowledge for the whole dataset. PMID:24586563

  1. Growth reduction of Listeria spp. caused by undefined industrial red smear cheese cultures and bacteriocin-producing Brevibacterium lines as evaluated in situ on soft cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Eppert, I; Valdés-Stauber, N; Götz, H; Busse, M; Scherer, S

    1997-01-01

    The undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheese which are used for the ripening of commercial red smear cheeses have a strong impact on the growth of Listeria spp. In some cases, these microbial consortia inhibit Listeria almost completely. From such undefined industrial cheese-ripening floras, linocin M18-producing (lin+) (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994) and -nonproducing Brevibacterium linens strains were isolated and used as single-strain starter cultures on model red smear cheeses to evaluate their potential inhibitory effects on Listeria strains in situ. On cheeses ripened with lin+ strains, a growth reduction of L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes of 1 to 2 log units was observed compared to cheeses ripened with lin strains. Linocin M18 activity was detected in cheeses ripened with lin+ strains but was not found in those ripened with lin strains. We suggest that production of linocin M18 contributes to the growth reduction of Listeria observed on model red smear cheeses but is unsufficient to explain the almost complete inhibition of Listeria caused by some undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheeses. PMID:9406400

  2. The importance of entrainment and bulking on debris flow runout modeling: examples from the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, F.; McArdell, B. W.; Huggel, C.; Vieli, A.

    2015-11-01

    This study describes an investigation of channel-bed entrainment of sediment by debris flows. An entrainment model, developed using field data from debris flows at the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, was incorporated into the existing RAMMS debris-flow model, which solves the 2-D shallow-water equations for granular flows. In the entrainment model, an empirical relationship between maximum shear stress and measured erosion is used to determine the maximum potential erosion depth. Additionally, the average rate of erosion, measured at the same field site, is used to constrain the erosion rate. The model predicts plausible erosion values in comparison with field data from highly erosive debris flow events at the Spreitgraben torrent channel, Switzerland in 2010, without any adjustment to the coefficients in the entrainment model. We find that by including bulking due to entrainment (e.g., by channel erosion) in runout models a more realistic flow pattern is produced than in simulations where entrainment is not included. In detail, simulations without entrainment show more lateral outflow from the channel where it has not been observed in the field. Therefore the entrainment model may be especially useful for practical applications such as hazard analysis and mapping, as well as scientific case studies of erosive debris flows.

  3. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  4. Regional modelling of nitrate leaching from Swiss organic and conventional cropping systems under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calitri, Francesca; Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Zaccone, Claudio; Spiess, Ernst; Herrera, Juan; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Organic cropping systems have been promoted as a sustainable alternative to minimize the environmental impacts of conventional practices. Relatively little is known about the potential to reduce NO3-N leaching through the large-scale adoption of organic practices. Moreover, the potential to mitigate NO3-N leaching and thus the N pollution under future climate change through organic farming remain unknown and highly uncertain. Here, we compared regional NO3-N leaching from organic and conventional cropping systems in Switzerland using a terrestrial biogeochemical process-based model DayCent. The objectives of this study are 1) to calibrate and evaluate the model for NO3-N leaching measured under various management practices from three experiments at two sites in Switzerland; 2) to estimate regional NO3-N leaching patterns and their spatial uncertainty in conventional and organic cropping systems (with and without cover crops) for future climate change scenario A1B; 3) to explore the sensitivity of NO3-N leaching to changes in soil and climate variables; and 4) to assess the nitrogen use efficiency for conventional and organic cropping systems with and without cover crops under climate change. The data for model calibration/evaluation were derived from field experiments conducted in Liebefeld (canton Bern) and Eschikon (canton Zürich). These experiments evaluated effects of various cover crops and N fertilizer inputs on NO3-N leaching. The preliminary results suggest that the model was able to explain 50 to 83% of the inter-annual variability in the measured soil drainage (RMSE from 12.32 to 16.89 cm y-1). The annual NO3-N leaching was also simulated satisfactory (RMSE = 3.94 to 6.38 g N m-2 y-1), although the model had difficulty to reproduce the inter-annual variability in the NO3-N leaching losses correctly (R2 = 0.11 to 0.35). Future climate datasets (2010-2099) from the 10 regional climate models (RCM) were used in the simulations. Regional NO3-N leaching

  5. Ice flow and precipitation change over the Swiss Alps during the last glaciation, a modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Patrick; Jouvet, Guillaume; Funk, Martin; Seguinot, Julien

    2015-04-01

    About 20,000 years before present at the end of the Würm glaciation, glaciers in Europe have reached their maximum extent and wide parts of the forelands were covered by ice. Our goal is to reconstruct the European alpine ice cap during the last glaciation using numerical simulations of the ice flow. To do that, we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to simulate the ice flow. PISM is capable to simulate the time evolution of a large scale ice sheet for millenniums by accounting for the dynamics of ice, englacial temperature, bedrock temperature, lithosphere deformation and surface mass balance. The latter is computed using a positive degree day model that is forced by climate data. A classical approach consists of applying a constant temperature offset to present-day temperature data, while keeping constant today's precipitation patterns. However, geomorphological hints show that the prevailing precipitation regime during the last glaciation was dominated by a southerly atmospheric circulation pattern, in contrast to today's prevalent westerly airflow. Due to this fact we propose several empirical corrections to the present-day precipitation patterns and select those which yield the best match between modeled ice cap extents and geomorphologically-based margin reconstructions.

  6. An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Effect of Memantine in Animal Models of Anxiety in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    AK, Afzal Khan; Shivaramegowda, Rekha M

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the adverse effects produced by the present conventional medicines for anxiety disorders, research for newer drugs is still desirable. From the literature it is evident that NMDA receptors play a key role in animal models of anxiety. Aim The present study is done to evaluate the antianxiety effect of memantine in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods The experimental study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015. Animals were divided into four groups. Twelve mice were randomly allotted in each group. Animals in the first group received normal saline as a control 10ml/kg, lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to second group, memantine 3mg/kg as a test drug was given to the third group and memantine 3mg/kg + lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to the fourth group. All the drugs were given for 7 consecutive days by intraperitoneal route. Results Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Post-hoc Tukey’s test. On the 1st day, memantine treated group did not show statistical significant anxiolytic effect in both the behavioural paradigms when compared to control group. On the 8th day, the animals showed significant decrease p<0.001 in step down latency period in shock free zone (185.4±3.87 Vs 278.3±5.49), significant increase p<0.001 in step down errors (6.8±0.78 Vs 1.4±0.19) and significant increase p<0.001 in total time spent in shock zone (32.1±2.22 Vs 5.6±0.6). In open field test, on 8th day the animals treated with memantine when compared to control group, showed significant increase p<0.001 in number of squares crossed (112.7± 2.69 Vs 83.2±2.96), time spent in central square (11.5±1.26 Vs 3.4±0.65), no. of rearings (32.4±2.61 Vs 17±1.81) and significant decrease p<0.001 in freezing time (15.2±1.12 Vs 20.2±2.29). Memantine showed synergistic antianxiety effect when combined with lorazepam. Conclusion Memantine showed significant anxiolytic effect in open field and passive avoidance response tests which are

  7. Hospital-Use Pharmaceuticals in Swiss Waters Modeled at High Spatial Resolution.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Itten, René; Kovalova, Lubomira; Ort, Christoph; Weissbrodt, David G; McArdell, Christa S

    2016-05-01

    A model to predict the mass flows and concentrations of pharmaceuticals predominantly used in hospitals across a large number of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and river waters was developed at high spatial resolution. It comprised 427 geo-referenced hospitals and 742 STPs serving 98% of the general population in Switzerland. In the modeled base scenario, domestic, pharmaceutical use was geographically distributed according to the population size served by the respective STPs. Distinct hospital scenarios were set up to evaluate how the predicted results were modified when pharmaceutical use in hospitals was allocated differently; for example, in proportion to number of beds or number of treatments in hospitals. The hospital scenarios predicted the mass flows and concentrations up to 3.9 times greater than in the domestic scenario for iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) used in computed tomography (CT), and up to 6.7 times greater for gadolinium, a contrast medium used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Field measurements showed that ICM and gadolinium were predicted best by the scenarios using number of beds or treatments in hospitals with the specific facilities (i.e., CT and/or MRI). Pharmaceuticals used both in hospitals and by the general population (e.g., cyclophosphamide, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac) were predicted best by the scenario using the number of beds in all hospitals, but the deviation from the domestic scenario values was only small. Our study demonstrated that the bed number-based hospital scenarios were effective in predicting the geographical distribution of a diverse range of pharmaceuticals in STP effluents and rivers, while the domestic scenario was similarly effective on the scale of large river-catchments. PMID:27009776

  8. Multiplexed Digital mRNA Profiling of the Inflammatory Response in the West Nile Swiss Webster Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José; Plante, Jessica A.; Carillo, Alda Celena; Roberts, Kimberly K.; Smith, Jennifer K.; Juelich, Terry L.; Beasley, David W. C.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Labute, Montiago X.; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The ability to track changes in gene expression following viral infection is paramount to understanding viral pathogenesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the nCounter, a high throughput digital gene expression system, as a means to better understand West Nile virus (WNV) dissemination and the inflammatory response against WNV in the outbred Swiss Webster (SW) mouse model over the course of infection. Methodology The nCounter Mouse Inflammation gene expression kit containing 179 inflammation related genes was used to analyze gene expression changes in multiple tissues over a nine day course of infection in SW mice following intraperitoneal injection with WNV. Protein expression levels for a subset of these cytokine/chemokine genes were determined using a multiplex protein detection system (BioPlex) and comparisons of protein/RNA expression levels made. Results Expression analysis of spleen, lung, liver, kidney and brain of SW mice infected with WNV revealed that Cxcl10 and Il12b are differentially expressed in all tissues tested except kidney. Data stratification of positively confirmed infected (WNV (+)) versus non-infected (WNV (−) tissues allowed differentiation of the systemic inflammatory gene response from tissue-specific responses arising from WNV infection. Significant (p<0.05) decrease in C3ar1 was found in WNV (−) spleen. Il23a was significantly upregulated, while Il10rb was down-regulated in WNV (−) lung. Il3 and Mbl2 were down-regulated in WNV (−) liver. In WNV (+) livers, Stat1, Tlr2, chemokines Cxcl1, Cxcl3, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, cytokines Il6, Il18, cytokine-related gene Il1r and cytokine agonist Ilrn were significantly upregulated. In WNV (−) brain tissues, Csf2 and Cxcl10 were significantly upregulated. Similar gene and protein expression kinetics were found for Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4 and Ccl5 and correlated with the presence of infectious virus. In summary, the utility of the nCounter platform for rapid identification of

  9. Assessing the yield, microstructure, and texture properties of miniature Chihuahua-type cheese manufactured with a phospholipase A1 and exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Trancoso-Reyes, N; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Sepulveda, D R; Hernández-Ochoa, L R

    2014-02-01

    Chihuahua cheese or Mennonite cheese is one of the most popular and consumed cheeses in Mexico and by the Hispanic community in the United States. According to local producers the yield of Chihuahua cheese ranges from 9 to 9.5 kg of cheese from 100 kg of milk. Cheese yield is a crucial determinant of profitability in cheese-manufacturing plants; therefore, different methods have been developed to increase it. In this work, a miniature Chihuahua-type cheese model was used to assess the effect of a phospholipase A1 (PL-A1) and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (separately and in combination) on the yield, microstructure, and texture of cheese. Four different cheeses were manufactured: cheese made with PL-A1, cheese made with EPS-producing bacteria, cheese with both PL-A1 and EPS-producing bacteria, and a cheese control without PL-A1 or EPS-producing bacteria. The compositional analysis of cheese was carried out using methods of AOAC International (Washington, DC). The actual yield and moisture-adjusted yield were calculated for all cheese treatments. Texture profile analyses of cheeses were performed using a texture analyzer. Micrographs were obtained by electron scanning microscopy. Fifty panelists carried out sensorial analysis using ranking tests. Incorporation of EPS-producing bacteria in the manufacture of cheese increased the moisture content and water activity. In contrast, the addition of PL-A1 did not increase fat retention or cheese yield. The use of EPS alone improved the cheese yield by increasing water and fat retention, but also caused a negative effect on the texture and flavor of Chihuahua cheese. The use of EPS-producing bacteria in combination with PL-A1 improved the cheese yield and increased the moisture and fat content. The cheeses with the best flavor and texture were those manufactured with PL-A1 and the cheeses manufactured with the combination of PL-A1 and EPS-producing culture. PMID:24290815

  10. WINE PRODUCTION FROM CHEESE WHEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate commercial feasibility of producing an alcoholic beverage by wine yeast fermentation of supplemented cheese and cottage cheese wheys. Results indicated that the preferred processing route was (1) fractionation of the whey into prot...

  11. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1–5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6–11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making—P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13–15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  12. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus in natural and processed cheese in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyunga; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-09-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the microbial risk of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese in Korea. The quantitative microbial risk assessment was carried out for natural and processed cheese from factory to consumption. Hazards for S. aureus in cheese were identified through the literature. For exposure assessment, the levels of S. aureus contamination in cheeses were evaluated, and the growth of S. aureus was predicted by predictive models at the surveyed temperatures, and at the time of cheese processing and distribution. For hazard characterization, a dose-response model for S. aureus was found, and the model was used to estimate the risk of illness. With these data, simulation models were prepared with @RISK (Palisade Corp., Ithaca, NY) to estimate the risk of illness per person per day in risk characterization. Staphylococcus aureus cell counts on cheese samples from factories and markets were below detection limits (0.30-0.45 log cfu/g), and pert distribution showed that the mean temperature at markets was 6.63°C. Exponential model [P=1 - exp(7.64×10(-8) × N), where N=dose] for dose-response was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Mean temperature of home storage was 4.02°C (log-logistic distribution). The results of risk characterization for S. aureus in natural and processed cheese showed that the mean values for the probability of illness per person per day were higher in processed cheese (mean: 2.24×10(-9); maximum: 7.97×10(-6)) than in natural cheese (mean: 7.84×10(-10); maximum: 2.32×10(-6)). These results indicate that the risk of S. aureus-related foodborne illness due to cheese consumption can be considered low under the present conditions in Korea. In addition, the developed stochastic risk assessment model in this study can be useful in establishing microbial criteria for S. aureus in cheese. PMID:26162789

  13. Characterization of alkylmethoxypyrazines contributing to earthy/bell pepper flavor in farmstead cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Farmstead Cheddar cheeses with natural bandage wrappings have a distinctive flavor profile that is appealing to many consumers. An earthy/bell pepper (EBP) flavor has been previously recognized in some of these cheeses. This study characterized the alkylmethoxypyrazine compounds causing EBP flavor in Farmstead Cheddar cheeses. Eight cheeses were divided into inner, outer, rind, and wrapper sections, and tested for descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses. To assess reproducibility of EBP flavor, cheeses from the same facilities were purchased and tested after 6 and 12 mo. EBP flavor was detected in four out of 8 Farmstead Cheddar cheeses by a trained sensory panel. 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine were identified as the main sources of EBP flavor in these cheeses by GC/O and GC/MS. In general, those alkylmethoxypyrazines were prevalent in the wrapper (106 to 730 ppb) and rind (39 to 444 ppb) sections of the cheeses. They were either not detected in inner and outer sections of the cheeses or were present at low concentrations. These results suggest that 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine are formed near the surface of the cheeses and migrate into the cheese during ripening. Threshold values in water and whole milk were 1 and 16 ppt for 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 0.4 and 2.3 ppt for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, respectively. Sensory analysis of mild Cheddar cheese model systems confirmed that direct addition of those individual alkylmethoxypyrazines (0.4 to 20 ppb) resulted in EBP flavor. PMID:19021793

  14. Spatial Distribution of the Metabolically Active Microbiota within Italian PDO Ewes' Milk Cheeses.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) Fiore Sardo (FS), Pecorino Siciliano (PS) and Pecorino Toscano (PT) ewes' milk cheeses were chosen as hard cheese model systems to investigate the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota and the related effects on proteolysis and synthesis of volatile components (VOC). Cheese slices were divided in nine sub-blocks, each one separately subjected to analysis and compared to whole cheese slice (control). Gradients for moisture, and concentrations of salt, fat and protein distinguished sub-blocks, while the cell density of the main microbial groups did not differ. Secondary proteolysis differed between sub-blocks of each cheese, especially when the number and area of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide peaks were assessed. The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) agreed with these data. As determined through Purge and Trap (PT) coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (PT-GC/MS), and regardless of the cheese variety, the profile with the lowest level of VOC was restricted to the region identified by the letter E defined as core. As shown through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting RNA, the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota agreed with the VOC distribution. Differences were highlighted between core and the rest of the cheese. Top and bottom under rind sub-blocks of all three cheeses harbored the widest biodiversity. The cheese sub-block analysis revealed the presence of a microbiota statistically correlated with secondary proteolysis events and/or synthesis of VOC. PMID:27073835

  15. Spatial Distribution of the Metabolically Active Microbiota within Italian PDO Ewes' Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) Fiore Sardo (FS), Pecorino Siciliano (PS) and Pecorino Toscano (PT) ewes’ milk cheeses were chosen as hard cheese model systems to investigate the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota and the related effects on proteolysis and synthesis of volatile components (VOC). Cheese slices were divided in nine sub-blocks, each one separately subjected to analysis and compared to whole cheese slice (control). Gradients for moisture, and concentrations of salt, fat and protein distinguished sub-blocks, while the cell density of the main microbial groups did not differ. Secondary proteolysis differed between sub-blocks of each cheese, especially when the number and area of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide peaks were assessed. The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) agreed with these data. As determined through Purge and Trap (PT) coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (PT-GC/MS), and regardless of the cheese variety, the profile with the lowest level of VOC was restricted to the region identified by the letter E defined as core. As shown through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting RNA, the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota agreed with the VOC distribution. Differences were highlighted between core and the rest of the cheese. Top and bottom under rind sub-blocks of all three cheeses harbored the widest biodiversity. The cheese sub-block analysis revealed the presence of a microbiota statistically correlated with secondary proteolysis events and/or synthesis of VOC. PMID:27073835

  16. Biobutanol from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Manuel; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    At present, due to environmental and economic concerns, it is urgent to evolve efficient, clean and secure systems for the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable cheap sources. Biobutanol has proved better characteristics than the more widely used bioethanol, however the main disadvantage of biobutanol is that it is produced in low yield and titer by ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, this process being not competitive from the economic point of view. In this review we summarize the natural metabolic pathways for biobutanol production by Clostridia and yeasts, together with the metabolic engineering efforts performed up to date with the aim of either enhancing the yield of the natural producer Clostridia or transferring the butanol production ability to other hosts with better attributes for industrial use and facilities for genetic manipulation. Molasses and starch-based feedstocks are main sources for biobutanol production at industrial scale hitherto. We also review herewith (and for the first time up to our knowledge) the research performed for the use of whey, the subproduct of cheese making, as another sustainable source for biobutanol production. This represents a promising alternative that still needs further research. The use of an abundant waste material like cheese whey, that would otherwise be considered an environmental pollutant, for biobutanol production, makes economy of the process more profitable. PMID:25889728

  17. Analysis of spreadable cheese by Raman spectroscopy and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Kamila de Sá; Callegaro, Layce de Souza; Stephani, Rodrigo; Almeida, Mariana Ramos; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa

    2016-03-01

    In this work, FT-Raman spectroscopy was explored to evaluate spreadable cheese samples. A partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to identify the spreadable cheese samples containing starch. To build the models, two types of samples were used: commercial samples and samples manufactured in local industries. The method of supervised classification PLS-DA was employed to classify the samples as adulterated or without starch. Multivariate regression was performed using the partial least squares method to quantify the starch in the spreadable cheese. The limit of detection obtained for the model was 0.34% (w/w) and the limit of quantification was 1.14% (w/w). The reliability of the models was evaluated by determining the confidence interval, which was calculated using the bootstrap re-sampling technique. The results show that the classification models can be used to complement classical analysis and as screening methods. PMID:26471577

  18. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  19. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  20. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  1. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  2. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  3. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  4. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  5. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  6. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  7. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  8. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  9. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  10. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  11. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  12. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  13. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  14. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  15. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  16. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  17. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  18. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  19. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  20. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  1. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  2. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  3. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  4. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  5. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  6. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  7. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  8. Turning cheese wastes into energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    In a project sponsored by New York State, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor system - developed by Ecolotrol, Inc. of Bethpage, N.Y. - was used to produce biogas from cheese whey and bottling plant residues.

  9. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Tales of Mold-Ripened Cheese.

    PubMed

    Marcellino O S B, Sister Noëlla; Benson, David R

    2013-10-01

    The history of cheese manufacture is a "natural history" in which animals, microorganisms, and the environment interact to yield human food. Part of the fascination with cheese, both scientifically and culturally, stems from its ability to assume amazingly diverse flavors as a result of seemingly small details in preparation. In this review, we trace the roots of cheesemaking and its development by a variety of human cultures over centuries. Traditional cheesemakers observed empirically that certain environments and processes produced the best cheeses, unwittingly selecting for microorganisms with the best biochemical properties for developing desirable aromas and textures. The focus of this review is on the role of fungi in cheese ripening, with a particular emphasis on the yeast-like fungus Geotrichum candidum. Conditions that encourage the growth of problematic fungi such as Mucor and Scopulariopsis as well as Arachnida (cheese mites), and how such contaminants might be avoided, are discussed. Bethlehem cheese, a pressed, uncooked, semihard, Saint-Nectaire-type cheese manufactured in the United Sates without commercial strains of bacteria or fungi, was used as a model for the study of stable microbial succession during ripening in a natural environment. The appearance of fungi during a 60-day ripening period was documented using light and scanning electron microscopy, and it was shown to be remarkably reproducible and parallel to the course of ripening of authentic Saint-Nectaire cheese in the Auvergne region of France. Geotrichum candidum, Mucor, and Trichothecium roseum predominate the microbiotas of both cheese types. Geotrichum in particular was shown to have high diversity in different traditional cheese ripening environments, suggesting that traditional manufacturing techniques selected for particular fungi. This and other studies suggest that strain diversity arises in relation to the lore and history of the regions from which these types of cheeses arose

  10. Release of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO cheese and their absorption through an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Basiricò, L; Catalani, E; Morera, P; Cattaneo, S; Stuknytė, M; Bernabucci, U; De Noni, I; Nardone, A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of 8 bovine casein-derived peptides (VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP, and HLPLP) reported as angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACE-I) was investigated in the 3-kDa ultrafiltered water-soluble extract (WSE) of Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry via an electrospray ionization source. Only VPP, IPP, LHLPLP, and HLPLP were revealed in the WSE, and their total amount was in the range of 8.46 to 21.55 mg/kg of cheese. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion, the same ACE-I peptides along with the newly formed AYFYPEL and AYFYPE were found in the 3 kDa WSE of PR digestates. Digestates presented high amounts (1,880-3,053 mg/kg) of LHLPLP, whereas the remaining peptides accounted for 69.24 to 82.82 mg/kg. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values decreased from 7.92 ± 2.08 in undigested cheese to 3.20 ± 1.69 after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The 3-kDa WSE of digested cheeses were used to study the transport of the 8 ACE-I peptides across the monolayers of the Caco-2 cell culture grown on a semipermeable membrane of the transwells. After 1h of incubation, 649.20 ± 148.85 mg/kg of LHLPLP remained in the apical compartment, whereas VPP, IPP, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, and HLPLP accounted in total for less than 36.78 mg/kg. On average, 0.6% of LHLPLP initially present in the digestates added to the apical compartment were transported intact to the basolateral chamber after the same incubation time. Higher transport rate (2.9%) was ascertained for the peptide HLPLP. No other intact ACE-I peptides were revealed in the basolateral compartment. For the first time, these results demonstrated that the ACE-I peptides HLPLP and LHLPLP present in the in vitro digestates of PR cheese are partially absorbed through an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium. PMID:26364103

  11. Control of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli in cheese by dairy bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Callon, Cécile; Arliguie, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2016-02-01

    Bio-preservation could be a valuable way to control Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cheese. To this end, 41 strains were screened for their inhibitory potential on model cheese curd and on pasteurized and raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Strains of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus sp, Carnobacterium mobile, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Hafnia alvei reduced STEC O26:H11 counts by 1.4-2.5 log cfu g(-1) and to a lesser extent STEC O157:H7 counts in pasteurized milk cheeses. Some strains can act in synergy to inhibit STEC in raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Inhibitory associations had no adverse effect on the sensory characteristics of these cheeses. The association of H. alvei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lc. lactis was the most inhibitory: after inoculation of this consortium into milk, STEC O26:H11 and O157:H7, inoculated at 2 log cfu ml(-1), were reduced by up to 3 log cfu g(-1) in ripened cheese. Inhibition in cheese cannot be predicted from H2O2 production in BHI medium, decreased pH or milk reduction. It is not clear what role the rapid decrease in pH during the first 6 h may play in the inhibition. Further studies will be needed to determine the nature of the inhibition. PMID:26678131

  12. Diversity and activities of yeasts from different parts of a Stilton cheese.

    PubMed

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos; Yunita, Dewi; Linforth, Robert S T; Dickinson, Matthew; Dodd, Christine E R

    2014-05-01

    Blue cheeses are very complex food matrices presenting significant spatial differentiation between sections and the Stilton variety also has a hard brown crust making its matrix even more complex. The mycobiota communities in the three sections (blue veins, white core and outer crust) of a Stilton blue cheese were studied by employing culture-independent (TRFLP, DGGE) and culture-dependent analyses. Yeasts isolated from the cheese were studied for aroma production in a dairy model system with and without the starter Lactococcus lactis and filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti using SPME GC-MS. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the yeast communities between the cheese sections with all the techniques. Yarrowia lipolytica presented strong synergistic activity with P. roqueforti enhancing the production of ketone aroma compounds, characteristic of blue cheeses. Culture techniques allowed the observation of the presence and uneven distribution of two different morphological groups of Debaryomyces hansenii in the different sections and of Trichosporon ovoides but failed to isolate Candida catenulata which dominated some parts of the cheese in the culture-independent analysis. This suggests that this species may be an important early coloniser but fails to survive into the final cheese. The study indicated that the yeast flora in the cheese sections differ including isolates that could affect their aroma profiles. PMID:24631634

  13. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. PMID:24746129

  14. Tyramine content of some Cuban cheeses.

    PubMed

    Vidaud, Z E; Chaviano, J; Gonzáles, E; García Roché, M O

    1987-01-01

    The tyramine content of 8 types of cheeses made in Cuba were determined. Values obtained ranged from 0-425 micrograms/g. Highest results were found in Camembert-type cheese and lowest ones in Salami (processed type) cheese. It may be concluded that patients taking monoamine-oxidase inhibiting drugs should better not eat cheese, except processed or short-maturing types. PMID:3614331

  15. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk. PMID:23212008

  16. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and up until a little over a century ago, all types of cheese were made from raw milk. Over the centuries, signature quality traits were established for the many different types, styles, and varieties of cheese found around the world. ...

  17. UTILIZATION OF CHEESE WHEY FOR WINE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wine was successfully produced in the laboratory from cheese whey. The method used involves the deproteinization of either sweet (cheddar cheese) whey or acid (cottage cheese) whey by heat or ultrafiltration, the addition of sulfur dioxide to stabilize the whey by Kruyveromyces f...

  18. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  19. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  20. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  1. Effects of highly ripened cheeses on HL-60 human leukemia cells: antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, S; Ohkura, N; Suzuki, K; Yamasaki, M; Nishiyama, K; Kobayashi, H; Hoshi, Y; Kadooka, Y; Igoshi, K

    2010-04-01

    To establish cheese as a dairy product with health benefits, we examined the multifunctional role of cheeses. In this report, we clarify whether different types of commercial cheeses may possess antiproliferative activity using HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines as a cancer model. Among 12 cheese extracts tested, 6 (Montagnard, Pont-l'Eveque, Brie, Camembert, Danablue, and Blue) revealed strong growth inhibition activity and induction of DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells. Based on the quantification of nitrogen contents in different cheese samples, a positive correlation between the ripeness of various cheeses and their antiproliferative activity tested in HL-60 cells was displayed. Four varieties of Blue cheese ripened for 0, 1, 2, or 3 mo demonstrated that the Blue cheese ripened for a long term was capable of causing the strong suppression of the cell growth and the induction of apoptotic DNA damage as well as nucleic morphological change in HL-60 cells. Collectively, these results obtained suggest a potential role of highly ripened cheeses in the prevention of leukemic cell proliferation. PMID:20338416

  2. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  3. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  4. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  5. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  6. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  10. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  11. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  13. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  14. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  15. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  16. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  17. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  18. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  19. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  20. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  10. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  11. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food... statement of ingredients, prescribed for pasteurized process cheese spread by § 133.179, except that...

  12. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients used as a salt substitute. (d) Low sodium cheddar cheese is subject to § 105.69 of this chapter. ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  13. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. PMID:25048865

  14. The Secreted Esterase of Propionibacterium freudenreichii Has a Major Role in Cheese Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abeijón Mukdsi, María Claudia; Falentin, Hélène; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Chuat, Victoria; Medina, Roxana Beatriz; Parayre, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Free fatty acids are important flavor compounds in cheese. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the main agent of their release through lipolysis in Swiss cheese. Our aim was to identify the esterase(s) involved in lipolysis by P. freudenreichii. We targeted two previously identified esterases: one secreted esterase, PF#279, and one putative cell wall-anchored esterase, PF#774. To evaluate their role in lipolysis, we constructed overexpression and knockout mutants of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T for each corresponding gene. The sequences of both genes were also compared in 21 wild-type strains. All strains were assessed for their lipolytic activity on milk fat. The lipolytic activity observed matched data previously reported in cheese, thus validating the relevance of the method used. The mutants overexpressing PF#279 or PF#774 released four times more fatty acids than the wild-type strain, demonstrating that both enzymes are lipolytic esterases. However, inactivation of the pf279 gene induced a 75% reduction in the lipolytic activity compared to that of the wild-type strain, whereas inactivation of the pf774 gene did not modify the phenotype. Two of the 21 wild-type strains tested did not display any detectable lipolytic activity. Interestingly, these two strains exhibited the same single-nucleotide deletion at the beginning of the pf279 gene sequence, leading to a premature stop codon, whereas they harbored a pf774 gene highly similar to that of the other strains. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate that PF#279 is the main lipolytic esterase in P. freudenreichii and a key agent of Swiss cheese lipolysis. PMID:24242250

  15. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10(-11)) was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g) and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g) were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α 1 = 1, α 2 = 91; α 1 = 1, α 2 = 309)×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8) to be -2.35 and -2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10(-14) and 3.58×10(-14), respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness

  16. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11) was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g) and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g) were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309)×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8) to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness

  17. Application of salt whey in process cheese food made from Cheddar cheese containing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Janevski, O; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3-wk-old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was used. Because salt reduction causes undesirable physiochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar cheese was used in making process cheese. An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain (JFR) and a non-EPS-producing culture (DVS) were applied in making Cheddar cheese. To obtain similar composition and pH in the EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses, the cheese making protocol was modified in the latter cheese to increase its moisture content. No differences were seen in the proteolysis between EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses. Cheddar cheese made with the EPS-producing strain was softer, and less gummy and chewy than that made with the EPS-negative culture. Three-week-old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS-positive PCF and EPS-negative PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1% salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the rapid visco analyzer at 1,000 rpm and heated at 95°C for 3 min; then, the process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed, and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein, and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the EPS-positive and EPS-negative PCF. The texture profile analysis showed that EPS-positive PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy than EPS-negative PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability were higher in EPS-positive PCF than in EPS-negative PCF, whereas emulsification time was shorter in the former cheese. Sensory evaluation indicated that salt whey at the level used in this study did not affect

  18. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry. PMID:26210276

  19. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

  20. Homogenization and lipase treatment of milk and resulting methyl ketone generation in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingkai; Fonseca, Leorges M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Rankin, Scott A

    2014-06-25

    A specific range of methyl ketones contribute to the distinctive flavor of traditional blue cheeses. These ketones are metabolites of lipid metabolism by Penicillium mold added to cheese for this purpose. Two processes, namely, the homogenization of milk fat and the addition of exogenous lipase enzymes, are traditionally applied measures to control the formation of methyl ketones in blue cheese. There exists little scientific validation of the actual effects of these treatments on methyl ketone development. The present study evaluated the effects of milk fat homogenization and lipase treatments on methyl ketone and free fatty acid development using sensory methods and the comparison of selected volatile quantities using gas chromatography. Initial work was conducted using a blue cheese system model; subsequent work was conducted with manufactured blue cheese. In general, there were modest effects of homogenization and lipase treatments on free fatty acid (FFA) and methyl ketone concentrations in blue cheese. Blue cheese treatments involving Penicillium roqueforti lipase with homogenized milk yielded higher FFA and methyl ketone levels, for example, a ∼20-fold increase for hexanoic acid and a 3-fold increase in 2-pentanone. PMID:24460517

  1. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Erkus, Oylum; de Jager, Victor C L; Geene, Renske T C M; van Alen-Boerrigter, Ingrid; Hazelwood, Lucie; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-07-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem. Gouda cheese manufacturing is a proper model to evaluate the use of PMA for selective detection of intact cells since large fraction of membrane compromised cells emerges as a background in the cheese matrix during ripening. In this study, the effect of PMA on cheese community profiles was evaluated throughout manufacturing and ripening using quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA effectively inhibited the amplification of DNA derived from membrane compromised cells and enhanced the analysis of the intact fraction residing in the cheese samples. Furthermore, a two-step protocol, which involves whole genome amplification (WGA) to enrich the DNA not modified with PMA and subsequent sequencing, was developed for the selective metagenome sequencing of viable fraction in the Gouda cheese microbial community. The metagenome profile of PMA treated cheese sample reflected the viable community profile at that time point in the cheese manufacturing. PMID:27077825

  2. Processes that contribute to radiocesium decontamination of feta cheese

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, C.P.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Mantzios, A.S.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of experiments, the transfer of radiocesium from ovine milk to feta cheese was investigated through modifications of the standard cheese making procedure. All variations explored showed no significant change in the percentage of radiocesium transfer and the milk-to-cheese transfer coefficient was determined as f=.79 plus/minus .04 L.kg-1. It is concluded that cesium, like the rest of the alkali metals, remains in the water phase and thus follows very closely the distribution of moisture into the products of cheese making. The possibility of radiocesium decontamination of mature feta during the customary storage of the product in brine was also explored in a second series of experiments. The theoretical model employed in the analysis of cesium transport from feta to brine is presented in the Appendix to this paper. Predictions of the model were validated by experiments. A procedure is thus proposed for decontaminating mature feta during storage through successive replacements of the storage medium. Nomograms are presented for the determination of the optimum time interval between changes of the brine and the radiocesium concentration remaining in the feta. Changes in the properties of the product induced by the proposed treatment were also investigated with respect to composition, taste, and overall quality.

  3. A least-squares collocation procedure to merge local geoids with the aid of satellite-only global gravity models: the Italian-Swiss geoid case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilardoni, M.; Reguzzoni, M.; Sampietro, D.

    2012-04-01

    Neighbouring countries often have national geoids that do not fit to each other, typically showing a discontinuity along the border. This discontinuity is mainly due to the different height datum used, producing biased local geoids which can also have different accuracies and spatial resolutions. In addition, each local geoid has its own border effects giving rise to unwanted features. In some applications, for instance in case of international civil engineering works, a merging between two neighbouring geoids is necessary. Obviously this procedure cannot be done by simply averaging overlapping areas, completely disregarding biases. To solve this problem the availability of a global geoid coming from satellite data, such as one of the GOCE models or a GOCE-GRACE combined model, can be of great importance. These models in fact are not affected by local biases (local reference systems) since they do not make use of any ground gravity data or levelling. Basically this means that these models can provide the long wavelengths of the resulting merged geoid, in this way removing national biases or other systematic effects. On the other hand, the short wavelengths will directly come from a combination of the available local geoids. This merging strategy is implemented by a unique collocation procedure, also taking into account the estimation error covariance matrix of the global model spherical harmonic coefficients. In this paper the solution to the problem is first described from the methodological point of view and then applied to the merging of the Italian and Swiss geoids. Particular attention is dedicated to the estimate of the signal covariance function, which is adapted to the Alpine area characteristics and is derived by a proper variogram to be independent from local geoid biases.

  4. Kinetic Behavior of Escherichia coli on Various Cheeses under Constant and Dynamic Temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Lee, H; Gwak, E; Yoon, Y

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we developed kinetic models to predict the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli on cheeses during storage at constant and changing temperatures. A five-strain mixture of pathogenic E. coli was inoculated onto natural cheeses (Brie and Camembert) and processed cheeses (sliced Mozzarella and sliced Cheddar) at 3 to 4 log CFU/g. The inoculated cheeses were stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30°C for 1 to 320 h, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacteria and E. coli cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and MacConkey sorbitol agar, respectively. E. coli growth data were fitted to the Baranyi model to calculate the maximum specific growth rate (μ max; log CFU/g/h), lag phase duration (LPD; h), lower asymptote (log CFU/g), and upper asymptote (log CFU/g). The kinetic parameters were then analyzed as a function of storage temperature, using the square root model, polynomial equation, and linear equation. A dynamic model was also developed for varying temperature. The model performance was evaluated against observed data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated. At 4°C, E. coli cell growth was not observed on any cheese. However, E. coli growth was observed at 10°C to 30°C with a μ max of 0.01 to 1.03 log CFU/g/h, depending on the cheese. The μ max values increased as temperature increased, while LPD values decreased, and μ max and LPD values were different among the four types of cheese. The developed models showed adequate performance (RMSE = 0.176-0.337), indicating that these models should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of E. coli on various cheeses. PMID:25050044

  5. Kinetic Behavior of Escherichia coli on Various Cheeses under Constant and Dynamic Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K.; Lee, H.; Gwak, E.; Yoon, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed kinetic models to predict the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli on cheeses during storage at constant and changing temperatures. A five-strain mixture of pathogenic E. coli was inoculated onto natural cheeses (Brie and Camembert) and processed cheeses (sliced Mozzarella and sliced Cheddar) at 3 to 4 log CFU/g. The inoculated cheeses were stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30°C for 1 to 320 h, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacteria and E. coli cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and MacConkey sorbitol agar, respectively. E. coli growth data were fitted to the Baranyi model to calculate the maximum specific growth rate (μmax; log CFU/g/h), lag phase duration (LPD; h), lower asymptote (log CFU/g), and upper asymptote (log CFU/g). The kinetic parameters were then analyzed as a function of storage temperature, using the square root model, polynomial equation, and linear equation. A dynamic model was also developed for varying temperature. The model performance was evaluated against observed data, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated. At 4°C, E. coli cell growth was not observed on any cheese. However, E. coli growth was observed at 10°C to 30°C with a μmax of 0.01 to 1.03 log CFU/g/h, depending on the cheese. The μmax values increased as temperature increased, while LPD values decreased, and μmax and LPD values were different among the four types of cheese. The developed models showed adequate performance (RMSE = 0.176–0.337), indicating that these models should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of E. coli on various cheeses. PMID:25050044

  6. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  7. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food... specified in paragraph (e) of this section may be used. (2) All cheeses used in a cold-pack cheese food...

  8. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    PubMed

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  9. Shelf life of Crescenza cheese as measured by electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, S; Sinelli, N; Buratti, S; Riva, M

    2005-09-01

    The shelf life of Crescenza, a traditional Italian soft cheese, was measured using classical analysis and a commercial electronic nose. Two lots of samples directly supplied by a manufacturer at the beginning of their commercial life were stored at 2 constant temperatures (8 and 15 degrees C) and analyzed until their respective expiration dates. Among the physicochemical parameters, pH, acidity, hue, and apparent yield rheological index appeared to be the best predictors of the quality decay. Changes in these indices were described with a sigmoidal transition function allowing definition of a loose and a severe shelf-life protocol, based on the trend of first and second time derivatives. A time range of 1 to 3 d at 15 degrees C and 4 to 8 d at 8 degrees C was accordingly assessed to maintain the freshness of Crescenza cheese. The quality decay of cheese aroma was evaluated by inspecting the headspace fingerprint of the same set of samples using the electronic nose. Sample classification through the aroma fingerprint confirmed the predicted shelf-life time ranges. A clear discrimination between "fresh," "aged," and "very aged" samples was obtained using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and linear discriminant analysis statistical techniques. The predictive ability of the linear discriminant analysis classification model was confirmed by considering a new set of cheese samples purchased at the beginning of their commercial life from a local market and analyzed until their expiration date. PMID:16107392

  10. An Intradermal Inoculation Model of Scrub Typhus in Swiss CD-1 Mice Demonstrates More Rapid Dissemination of Virulent Strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi

    PubMed Central

    Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Paris, Daniel H.; Chan, Teik-Chye; Jones, Margaret; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Anantatat, Tippawan; Turner, Gareth D. H.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease of the Asia-Pacific region caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. To develop an effective vaccine to prevent scrub typhus infection, a better understanding of the initial host-pathogen interaction is needed. The objective of this study was to investigate early bacterial dissemination in a CD-1 Swiss outbred mouse model after intradermal injection of O. tsutsugamushi. Three human pathogenic strains of O. tsutsugamushi (Karp, Gilliam, and Woods) were chosen to investigate the early infection characteristics associated with bacterial virulence. Tissue biopsies of the intradermal injection site and draining lymph nodes were examined using histology and immunohistochemistry to characterize bacterial dissemination, and correlated with quantitative real-time PCR for O. tsutsugamushi in blood and tissue from major organs. Soluble adhesion molecules were measured to examine cellular activation in response to infection. No eschar formation was seen at the inoculation site and no clinical disease developed within the 7 day period of observation. However, O. tsutsugamushi was localized at the injection site and in the draining lymph nodes by day 7 post inoculation. Evidence of leukocyte and endothelial activation was present by day 7 with significantly raised levels of sL-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. Infection with the Karp strain was associated with earlier and higher bacterial loads and more extensive dissemination in various tissues than the less pathogenic Gilliam and Woods strains. The bacterial loads of O. tsutsugamushi were highest in the lungs and spleens of mice inoculated with Karp and Gilliam, but not Woods strains. Strains of higher virulence resulted in more rapid systemic infection and dissemination in this model. The CD-1 mouse intradermal inoculation model demonstrates features relevant to early scrub typhus infection in humans, including the development of regional lymphadenopathy, leukocyte activation and distant

  11. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Vânia F.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella. PMID:22438717

  12. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    PubMed

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  13. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus on cheese during extended storage at 25°C.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wan Mei; Geier, Renae; Engstrom, Sarah; Ingham, Steve; Ingham, Barbara; Smukowski, Marianne

    2014-08-01

    Potentially hazardous foods require time/temperature control for safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code, most cheeses are potentially hazardous foods based on pH and water activity, and a product assessment is required to evaluate safety of storage >6 h at 21°C. We tested the ability of 67 market cheeses to support growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella spp. (SALM), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) over 15 days at 25°C. Hard (Asiago and Cheddar), semi-hard (Colby and Havarti), and soft cheeses (mozzarella and Mexican-style), and reduced-sodium or reduced-fat types were tested. Single-pathogen cocktails were prepared and individually inoculated onto cheese slices (∼10(5) CFU/g). Cocktails were 10 strains of L. monocytogenes, 6 of Salmonella spp., or 5 of E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus. Inoculated slices were vacuum packaged and stored at 25°C for ≤ 15 days, with surviving inocula enumerated every 3 days. Percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, percent titratable acidity, pH, water activity, and levels of indigenous/starter bacteria were measured. Pathogens did not grow on 53 cheeses, while 14 cheeses supported growth of SA, 6 of SALM, 4 of LM, and 3 of EC. Of the cheeses supporting pathogen growth, all supported growth of SA, ranging from 0.57 to 3.08 log CFU/g (average 1.70 log CFU/g). Growth of SALM, LM, and EC ranged from 1.01 to 3.02 log CFU/g (average 2.05 log CFU/g), 0.60 to 2.68 log CFU/g (average 1.60 log CFU/g), and 0.41 to 2.90 log CFU/g (average 1.69 log CFU/g), respectively. Pathogen growth varied within cheese types or lots. Pathogen growth was influenced by pH and percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, and these two factors were used to establish growth/no-growth boundary conditions for safe, extended storage (≤25°C) of pasteurized milk cheeses. Pathogen growth/no-growth could not be predicted for Swiss-style cheeses, mold-ripened or bacterial surface-ripened cheeses, and cheeses

  14. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  15. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (P<0·05), but a significant effect of storage temperature on λ values was only observed between 4 and 15 °C (P<0·05). The square root model and linear equation were found to be appropriate for description of the effect of storage temperature on growth kinetics (R 2=0·894-0·983). Our results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of Staph. aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses. PMID:24731395

  16. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    PubMed

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future. PMID:23219122

  17. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  18. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  19. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  20. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  1. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  2. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  3. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  4. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  5. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  6. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  7. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  8. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  9. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.134...

  10. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  11. 21 CFR 133.148 - Hard grating cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hard grating cheeses. 133.148 Section 133.148 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.148 Hard...

  12. 21 CFR 133.165 - Parmesan and reggiano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parmesan and reggiano cheese. 133.165 Section 133.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.165...

  13. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  14. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  15. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  16. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  17. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  18. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack...

  19. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... common name or names of the ingredient or ingredients used as a salt substitute. (f) Low sodium colby... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  20. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review. PMID:26082126

  1. Cheese flavors: chemical origin and detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hundreds of flavor compounds found in cheese arise from the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates it contains. Flavor compounds are products of diverse reactions that occur in milk during processing, in curd during manufacture, and in cheese during storage, and are detected by a number of methods...

  2. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  3. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  4. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  5. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  6. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  7. The microbiota of high-moisture mozzarella cheese produced with different acidification methods.

    PubMed

    Guidone, Angela; Zotta, Teresa; Matera, Attilio; Ricciardi, Annamaria; De Filippis, Francesca; Ercolini, Danilo; Parente, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of high-moisture Mozzarella cheese made from cow's milk and produced with different acidification methods was evaluated at the end of refrigerated storage by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The cheeses were clearly separated on the basis of the acidification methods. Cheeses produced with the addition of starters were dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, but a variety of lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms appeared at low levels (0.01-1%). Cheeses produced by direct addition of citric acid were dominated by a diverse microbiota, including both lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophic γ-proteobacteria. For five brands the acidification system was not declared on the label: the microbiota was dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus) but a variety of other subdominant lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae were present, with a diversity comparable or higher to cheeses produced by direct acid addition. This led to the conclusion that undefined starters were used for acidification. Both ordination methods and network analysis were used for the representation of beta-diversity: matrix cluster analysis, principal coordinate analysis and OTU networks uncovered different aspects of the microbial community structure. For three cheese brands both biological replicates (cheeses from different lots) and technical replicates (replicate cheeses from the same lot) were analyzed. Repeatability was acceptable for OTUs appearing at frequencies >1%, but was low otherwise. A linear mixed model showed that the starter system was responsible for most differences related to dairies, while difference due to psychrotrophic contaminants was more related to lot-to-lot variability. PMID:26384211

  8. Current knowledge of soft cheeses flavor and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Sablé, S; Cottenceau, G

    1999-12-01

    Cheese aroma is the result of the perception of a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. The volatile compounds involved in the soft cheese flavor have received a great deal of attention. However, there has been less work concerning the volatile compounds in the soft smear-ripened cheeses than in the mold-ripened cheeses. This paper reviews the components that contribute to the characteristic flavor in the soft cheeses such as surface-ripened, Camembert-type, and Blue cheeses. The sensory properties and quantities of the molecules in the different cheeses are discussed. PMID:10606538

  9. Detection of milk mixtures in Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Recio, I; García-Risco, M R; Amigo, L; Molina, E; Ramos, M; Martín-Alvarez, P J

    2004-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method has been applied to the detection of illegal addition of milk from goat and/ or cow in Halloumi cheese, traditionally made with sheep milk. The electrophoretic profiles of the casein from Halloumi cheeses have revealed that caprine para-kappa-casein and bovine alphas1-casein peaks point to the presence of low percentages of goat's and/or cow's milk added to Halloumi cheese. Stepwise multiple linear regression has been used to predict these percentages with a standard error of the estimation of 2.14%. The analytical method combined with the statistical application is valid for the prediction of percentages higher than 2% of goat's and percentages of 5% of cow's milk added to the cheese either in fresh or ripened cheese. The standard error of estimation was higher for the prediction of cow's milk than for goat's milk. PMID:15453472

  10. Quantitation of Key Tastants and Re-engineering the Taste of Parmesan Cheese.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Hedda; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Targeted quantitation of 65 candidate taste compounds and ranking on the basis of dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, followed by taste re-engineering and omission experiments in aqueous solution as well as in a cheese-like model matrix, led to the identification of a total of 31 key tastants (amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, biogenic amines, and minerals) with DoT factors ≥1.0 and a total of 15 subthreshold, but kokumi-enhancing, γ-glutamyl peptides in extraordinarily high concentrations of 20468 μmol/kg. Among the γ-glutamyl peptides, γ-Glu-Gly, γ-Glu-Ala, γ-Glu-Thr, γ-Glu-Asp, γ-Glu-Lys, γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Trp, γ-Glu-Gln, and γ-Glu-His have been identified for the first time in Parmesan cheese. The excellent match of the sensory profile of the taste recombinants and the authentic cheese demonstrated the identified taste compounds to be fully sufficient to create the characteristic taste profile of the Parmesan cheese. This molecular blueprint of a Parmesan's chemosensory signature might be a useful molecular target for visualizing analytically the changes in taste profiles throughout cheese manufacturing and opens new avenues for a more scientifically directed taste improvement of cheese by tailoring manufacturing parameters ("molecular food engineering"). PMID:26870875

  11. Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A high-throughput and innovative method to study the influence of dairy system and cow characteristics on the volatile compound fingerprint of cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Biasioli, F; Cappellin, L; Cecchinato, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cornu, A; Gasperi, F; Martin, B; Bittante, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of dairy system and individual cow-related factors on the volatile fingerprint of a large number of individual model cheeses analyzed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). A total of 1,075 model cheeses were produced using milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows reared in 72 herds located in mountainous areas of Trento province (Italy). The herds belonged to 5 main dairy systems ranging from traditional to modern and the cows presented different daily milk yields (24.6±7.9kg × d(-1)), stages of lactation (199±138 d in milk), and parities (2.7±1.8). The PTR-ToF-MS revealed 619 peaks, of which the 240 most intense were analyzed, and 61 of these were tentatively attributed to relevant volatile organic compounds on the basis of their fragmentation patterns and data from the literature. Principal component analysis was used to convert the multiple responses characterizing the PTR-ToF-MS spectra into 5 synthetic variables representing 62% of the total information. These principal components were related to groups of volatile compounds tentatively attributed to different peaks and used to investigate the relationship of the volatile compound profile obtained by PTR-ToF-MS to animal and farm characteristics. Lactation stage is related to 4 principal components which brought together 52.9% of the total variance and 57.9% of the area of analyzed peaks. In particular, 2 principal components were positively related to peaks tentatively attributed to aldehydes and ketones and negatively related to alcohols, esters, and acids, which displayed a linear increase during lactation. The second principal component was affected by dairy system; it was higher in the modern system in which cows received total mixed rations. The third principal component was positively related to daily milk production. In summary, we report the first application of this innovative, high

  12. Composition of Ragusano cheese during aging.

    PubMed

    Licitra, G; Campo, P; Manenti, M; Portelli, G; Scuderi, S; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M

    2000-03-01

    Ragusano cheese is a brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Composition changes during 12 mo of aging were determined. Historically, Ragusano cheese has been aged in caves at 14 to 16 degrees C with about 80 to 90% relative humidity. Cheeses (n = 132) included in our study of block-to-block variation were produced by 20 farmhouse cheese makers in the Hyblean plain region of the Province of Ragusa in Sicily. Mean initial cheese block weight was about 14 kg. The freshly formed blocks of cheese before brine salting contained about 45.35% moisture, 25.3% protein, and 25.4% fat, with a pH of 5.25. As result of the brining and aging process, a natural rind forms. After 12 mo of aging, the cheese contained about 33.6% moisture, 29.2% protein, 30.0% fat, and 4.4% salt with a pH of 5.54, but block-to-block variation was large. Both soluble nitrogen content and free fatty acid (FFA) content increased with age. The pH 4.6 acetate buffer and 12% TCA-soluble nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen were 16 and 10.7%, respectively, whereas the FFA content was about 643 mg/100 g of cheese at 180 d. Five blocks of cheese were selected at 180 d for a study of variation within block. Composition variation within block was large; the center had higher moisture and lower salt in moisture content than did the outside. Composition variation within blocks favored more proteolysis and softer texture in the center. PMID:10750095

  13. How NaCl and water content determine water activity during ripening of Gouda cheese, and the predicted effect on inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Wemmenhove, E; Wells-Bennik, M H J; Stara, A; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Zwietering, M H

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the diffusion of NaCl and water in Gouda cheese during brining and ripening. Furthermore, we established water activity as a function of the NaCl-in-moisture content in Gouda cheese during ripening. We determined NaCl content, water content, and water activity in block-type Gouda cheeses that were brined for 3.8d and foil-ripened for a period of 26 wk, and in wheel-type Gouda cheeses that were brined for 0.33, 2.1, or 8.9d and subsequently nature-ripened for a period of 26 wk. The calculated diffusion coefficients of NaCl during brining were 3.6·10(-10) m(2)s(-1) in the block-type Gouda cheeses and 3.5·10(-10) m(2)s(-1) in the wheel-type Gouda cheeses. Immediately after brining, gradients of NaCl and water were observed throughout both types of cheese. During ripening, these gradients disappeared, except for the water gradient in nature-ripened cheeses. An empirical model was derived for Gouda cheese, in which water activity is expressed as a function of the NaCl-in-moisture content, as established for different brining times, locations and ripening times. Moreover, the effect of reduced water activity on inhibition of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Gouda cheese was calculated. In addition to the presence of lactate and a pH of 5.2 to 5.3, the reduced water activity as seen in Gouda cheese can substantially contribute to inhibition of microbial growth and even to inactivation when cheeses are brined and ripened for extended times and subjected to nature-ripening. PMID:27085417

  14. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (<40°C) and harder at high temperatures (>50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. PMID:23706488

  15. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a soil profile: Model insights and application to a restored Swiss riparian area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, Alessandro; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Luster, Jörg; Shrestha, Juna; Huber, Benjamin; Niklaus, Pascal; Barry, D. Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The key environmental importance of natural, healthy ecosystems has been progressively recognized and restoration of degraded lands towards their former natural state has become an area of active research worldwide. During restoration, environmental conditions (such as vegetation type and water availability) are manipulated to create ecological conditions suitable for the successful establishment of a target composition of species. Often, ecological restoration induces changes to adjacent ecosystems. This is the case of riparian ecosystems, and their restoration to their original undisturbed situation is likely to cause changes in nutrient cycles. For example, following the restoration of a riparian zone, microbial communities adapted to one set of environmental conditions have to acclimatize to another, and the subsequent changes in the composition of the biomass populations might induce changes in soil organic matter mineralization and soil respiration rates. Since the biogeochemical cycles are tightly interconnected, these changes can trigger nutrient storing or release, therefore inducing changes in nutrient cycles of adjacent ecosystems. Overall, the effects of the restoration activities on the hydrologic regime, soil properties and vegetation are still largely unknown and poorly understood. Within the RECORD project (http://www.cces.ethz.ch/projects/nature/Record), a large collaborative research effort undertaken to monitor and understand the changes in ecosystem functioning in riparian areas undergoing restoration, a numerical model has been developed to simulate the vertical transport of the mobile C and N components in a soil profile (model development discussed in the companion submitted abstract Batlle-Aguilar et al.). In the model, microbial decomposition of the soil organic matter drives biogeochemical transformations of C and N, while the activity of the soil biota is primarily controlled by the soil moisture content. The temporal evolution of the

  16. Use of haloperidol and risperidone in highly aggressive Swiss Webster mice by applying the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA).

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; de Araújo-Jorge, Tânia Cremonini; de Azevedo, Marcos José; Campos, Jerônimo Diego de Souza; Cortez, Célia Martins; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo

    2016-03-15

    Aggression is defined as the act in which an individual intentionally harms or injures another of their own species. Antipsychotics are a form of treatment used in psychiatric routine. They have been used for decades in treatment of patients with aggressive behavior. Haloperidol and risperidone promote the control of psychiatric symptoms, through their respective mechanisms of action. Experimental models are obtained by behavioral, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations, and use a reduced number of animals. In this context, we applied the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA), originating the presence of highly aggressive mice (AgR) when reassembled in adulthood. We administered haloperidol and risperidone in escalating doses, for ten consecutive days. Using positive and negative control groups, we evaluated the effectiveness of these drugs and the reversal of the aggressive behavior, performing the tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) on 10th day of treatment and 10 days after its discontinuation. The results showed that both antipsychotic drugs were effective in AgR and reversed the aggressive phenotype, reducing the number of attacks by AgR and the extent of lesions in the subordinate mice (AgD) exposed to the pattern of aggressive behavior (PAB) of the aggressors. This conclusion is based on the reduction in the animals' motor and exploratory activity, and on the reversal of patterns of aggressive behavior. The association between the MSA and experiments with other therapeutic protocols and different antipsychotics can be an important methodology in the study of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. PMID:26698401

  17. Spatial and temporal modelling of fluvial aggradation in the Hasli Valley (Swiss Alps) during the last 1300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, Jaime; Schulte, Lothar; Carvalho, Filipe

    2016-04-01

    The Haslital delta (upper Aare River catchment, Bernese Alps) progradated into the Lake Brienz after the retreat of the Aare Glacier (post-LGM). Present delta plain geomorphology and spatial distribution of sedimentary facies result from historical fluvial dynamics and aggradation. Over centuries, local communities have struggled to control the Aare floods and to mitigate their effects on the floodplain (by means of raising artificial levees, channelizing the course, creating an underground drainage network, constructing dams at the basin headwaters). This study focuses on the spatial and temporal evolution of sediment dynamics of the floodplain by analyzing fluvial sedimentary records . The internal variability of lithostratigraphic sequences is a key issue to understand hydrological processes in the basin under the effect of environmental and anthropogenic changes of the past. The floodplain lithostratigraphy was reconstructed by coring alongside four cross-sections; each one is composed of more than 25 shallow boreholes (2 m deep) and two long drillings (variable depth, up to 9 m). The chronostratigraphical models were obtained by AMS 14C dating, and information of paleofloods and channel migration were reconstructed from historical sources (Schulte et al., 2015). The identification of different sedimentary facies, associated with the fluvial architecture structures, provides information on variations of vertical and lateral accretion processes (Houben, 2007). The location and geometry of buried channel-levee facies (gravel and coarse sand layers) indicate a significant mobility of the riverbed of the Hasli-Aare river, following an oscillatory pattern during the last millennia. Furthermore, fine sedimentary deposits and peat layers represent the existence of stable areas where floods have a low incidence. Once the different types of deposits were identified, aggradation rates were estimated in order to determine the spatial variability of the accumulation

  18. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  19. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  20. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G

    2001-05-01

    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  1. Inference about species richness and community structure using species-specific occupancy models in the National Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MUB

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is the most widely used biodiversity measure. Virtually always, it cannot be observed but needs to be estimated because some species may be present but remain undetected. This fact is commonly ignored in ecology and management, although it will bias estimates of species richness and related parameters such as occupancy, turnover or extinction rates. We describe a species community modeling strategy based on species-specific models of occurrence, from which estimates of important summaries of community structure, e.g., species richness, occupancy, or measures of similarity among species or sites, are derived by aggregating indicators of occurrence for all species observed in the sample, and for the estimated complement of unobserved species. We use data augmentation for an efficient Bayesian approach to estimation and prediction under this model based on MCMC in WinBUGS. For illustration, we use the Swiss breeding bird survey (MHB) that conducts 2?3 territory-mapping surveys in a systematic sample of 267 1 km2 units on quadrat-specific routes averaging 5.1 km to obtain species-specific estimates of occupancy, and estimates of species richness of all diurnal species free of distorting effects of imperfect detectability. We introduce into our model species-specific covariates relevant to occupancy (elevation, forest cover, route length) and sampling (season, effort). From 1995 to 2004, 185 diurnal breeding bird species were known in Switzerland, and an additional 13 bred 1?3 times since 1900. 134 species were observed during MHB surveys in 254 quadrats surveyed in 2001, and our estimate of 169.9 (95% CI 151?195) therefore appeared sensible. The observed number of species ranged from 4 to 58 (mean 32.8), but with an estimated 0.7?11.2 (mean 2.6) further, unobserved species, the estimated proportion of detected species was 0.48?0.98 (mean 0.91). As is well known, species richness declined at higher elevation and fell above the timberline, and most

  2. Genetic and environmental relationships of different measures of individual cheese yield and curd nutrients recovery with coagulation properties of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between various cheesemaking-related traits, namely the well-known traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the new curd firming and syneresis traits, the cheese yield, and the curd nutrient recoveries or whey losses (all measured at the individual level). Data were obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds. A 2-L milk sample was collected once from each animal and assessed for 10 phenotypes related to changes in curd firmness (CF) over time, plus 7 cheesemaking traits. The CF-related traits included 4 traditional single-point lactodynamographic properties [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min); time to a CF of 20mm, min; and the CF 30 and 45 min after rennet addition (a30 and a45, respectively)], 4 parameters used to model the 360 CF data recorded over time for each milk sample [the potential asymptotic CF at infinite time (CFP, mm); the CF instant rate constant, % × min(-1); the syneresis instant rate constant, % × min(-1); and the RCT obtained from modeling individual samples], and 2 traits calculated from individual equations [the maximum CF(CFmax, mm); and the time at CFmax, min]. The cheesemaking traits included 3 cheese yield traits (weights of the fresh curd, curd solids and curd moisture as percent of the weights of the processed milk) and 4 milk nutrient recoveries in the curd (calculated as the percent ratios between a given nutrient in the curd versus that in the processed milk). Bayesian methodology-based multivariate analyses were used to estimate the phenotypic, additive genetic, herd/date, and residual relationships between the aforementioned traits, whereas statistical inferences were based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of concern. The a45, CFP, and CFmax traits were genetically associated with all of the percent cheese yield traits (the additive genetic correlations varied from 0.752 to 0.855 for a45; 0.496 to 0.583 for CFP; and 0.750 to 0

  3. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  4. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  5. [Formation of nitrosamines in cheese products].

    PubMed

    Klein, D; Keshavarz, A; Lafont, P; Hardy, J; Debry, G

    1980-01-01

    Several strains of micromycetes used as fermentation agents in the cheese industry or having led to accidents during cheese making are able to favor the formation of nitrosamines in 60% of the cases. The concentrations observed are similar to those found by other authors with other microorganisms. The results obtained in a semi-synthetic medium are checked during the ripening of experimental camembert type cheese made from milk containing nitrates and cultured with a strain of Penicillium camemberti, which favors very much the synthesis of nitrosamines. The amount of nitrosodimethylamine formed in this cheese increases from 5 to 20 ppb during ripening. A tentative explanation of the mechanism of formation is outlined. PMID:7258908

  6. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... equivalent thereto in phosphatase destruction. Colby cheese shall be deemed not to have been made...

  7. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rennet paste, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces equivalent curd formation... phosphatase destruction. A semisoft cheese shall be deemed not to have been made from pasteurized milk if...

  8. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rennet paste, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces equivalent curd formation... phosphatase destruction. A semisoft cheese shall be deemed not to have been made from pasteurized milk if...

  9. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... equivalent thereto in phosphatase destruction. Colby cheese shall be deemed not to have been made...

  10. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... coloring may be added. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces... equivalent thereto in phosphatase destruction. Colby cheese shall be deemed not to have been made...

  11. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rennet paste, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting enzyme that produces equivalent curd formation... phosphatase destruction. A semisoft cheese shall be deemed not to have been made from pasteurized milk if...

  12. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Bone, F J; Bogie, D; Morgan-Jones, S C

    1989-12-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  13. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  14. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  15. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  16. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  17. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  18. The Arthrobacter arilaitensis Re117 Genome Sequence Reveals Its Genetic Adaptation to the Surface of Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Christophe; Loux, Valentin; Gibrat, Jean-François; Spinnler, Eric; Barbe, Valérie; Vacherie, Benoit; Gavory, Frederick; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Chandler, Michaël; Elleuch, Rayda

    2010-01-01

    Arthrobacter arilaitensis is one of the major bacterial species found at the surface of cheeses, especially in smear-ripened cheeses, where it contributes to the typical colour, flavour and texture properties of the final product. The A. arilaitensis Re117 genome is composed of a 3,859,257 bp chromosome and two plasmids of 50,407 and 8,528 bp. The chromosome shares large regions of synteny with the chromosomes of three environmental Arthrobacter strains for which genome sequences are available: A. aurescens TC1, A. chlorophenolicus A6 and Arthrobacter sp. FB24. In contrast however, 4.92% of the A. arilaitensis chromosome is composed of ISs elements, a portion that is at least 15 fold higher than for the other Arthrobacter strains. Comparative genomic analyses reveal an extensive loss of genes associated with catabolic activities, presumably as a result of adaptation to the properties of the cheese surface habitat. Like the environmental Arthrobacter strains, A. arilaitensis Re117 is well-equipped with enzymes required for the catabolism of major carbon substrates present at cheese surfaces such as fatty acids, amino acids and lactic acid. However, A. arilaitensis has several specificities which seem to be linked to its adaptation to its particular niche. These include the ability to catabolize D-galactonate, a high number of glycine betaine and related osmolyte transporters, two siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters and a high number of Fe3+/siderophore transport systems. In model cheese experiments, addition of small amounts of iron strongly stimulated the growth of A. arilaitensis, indicating that cheese is a highly iron-restricted medium. We suggest that there is a strong selective pressure at the surface of cheese for strains with efficient iron acquisition and salt-tolerance systems together with abilities to catabolize substrates such as lactic acid, lipids and amino acids. PMID:21124797

  19. Lensing effects in inhomogeneous cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Ghassemi, Sima; Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh; Mansouri, Reza

    2009-05-15

    Concepts developed in the gravitational lensing techniques such as shear, convergence, tangential, and radial arcs maybe used to see how tenable inhomogeneous models proposed to explain the acceleration of the universe models are. We study the widely discussed Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) cosmological models. It turns out that for the observer sitting at origin of a global LTB solution the shear vanishes as in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models, while the value of convergence is different, which may lead to observable cosmological effects. We also consider Swiss-cheese models proposed recently based on LTB with an observer sitting in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker part. It turns out that they have different behavior as far as the formation of radial and tangential arcs are concerned.

  20. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process. PMID:26869115

  1. Salt Reduction in a Model High-Salt Akawi Cheese: Effects on Bacterial Activity, pH, Moisture, Potential Bioactive Peptides, Amino Acids, and Growth of Human Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution with potassium chloride on Akawi cheese during storage for 30 d at 4 °C. Survival of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum) and starter bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory and antioxidant activities, and concentrations of standard amino acids as affected by storage in different brine solutions (10% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl+KCl [1:1], 5% NaCl, and 5% NaCl+KCl [1:1]) were investigated. Furthermore, viability of human colon cells and human colon cancer cells as affected by the extract showing improved peptide profiles, highest release of amino acids and antioxidant activity (that is, from cheese brined in 7.5% NaCl+KCl) was evaluated. Significant increase was observed in survival of probiotic bacteria in cheeses with low salt after 30 d. Calcium content decreased slightly during storage in all cheeses brined in various solutions. Further, no significant changes were observed in ACE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of cheeses during storage. Interestingly, concentrations of 4 essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, and leucine) increased significantly during storage in brine solutions containing 7.5% total salt. Low concentration of cheese extract (100 μg/mL) significantly improved the growth of normal human colon cells, and reduced the growth of human colon cancer cells. Overall, the study revealed that cheese extracts from reduced-NaCl brine improved the growth of human colon cells, and the release of essential amino acids, but did not affect the activities of potential bioactive peptides. PMID:26919457

  2. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories.

    PubMed

    Moosavy, Mir-Hassan; Esmaeili, Saber; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Lighvan cheese is a semi-hard cheese which has a popular market in Iran and neighboring countries. The aim of this study was evaluating the contamination of milks used for Lighvan cheese making with Listeria monocytogenes. Raw milk samples were randomly collected from different cheese producing factories (sampling carried out from large milk tanks used cheese making in factories). Isolation of L. monocytogenes was performed according to ISO 11290 and biochemical tests were done to identify and confirm L. monocytogenes. 9 samples (50%) of the 18 collected samples from milk tanks in Lighvan cheese producing factories were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The concentration of L. monocytogenes in all 9 positive samples was 40 CFU/ml. This study is the first report of L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milks used for Lighvan cheese production in Iran. Regarding the fact that these cheeses are produced from raw milk and no heating process is performed on them its milk contamination can be a potential risk for consumers. PMID:25528910

  3. Complete Genome Sequence for Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, an Industrial Cheese Starter and Cheese Flavor Adjunct

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Steele, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the manufacture of cheese and for production of bioactive peptides from milk proteins. We present the complete genome sequence for L. helveticus CNRZ 32, a strain particularly recognized for its ability to reduce bitterness and accelerate flavor development in cheese. PMID:23969047

  4. Biogenic Amines in Italian Pecorino Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes’ milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA’s in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100

  5. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific... meat ingredient is pimentos in such quantity that the weight of the solids thereof is not less than...

  6. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section, or by another procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used....

  7. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, or by another procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used....

  8. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section, or by another procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used....

  9. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  10. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  11. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  12. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  13. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  14. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  16. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  17. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  18. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  19. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  20. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  2. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  3. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  4. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  5. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  6. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  7. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  8. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  9. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  10. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  11. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  12. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  13. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  14. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  15. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  16. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  17. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  18. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  19. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  20. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  1. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  2. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. 58.426 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.426 Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably...

  3. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  4. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  5. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  6. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  7. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  8. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  9. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  10. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  11. Fully Characterizing Axially Symmetric Szekeres Models with Three Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Célérier, Marie-Nöelle Mishra, Priti; Singh, Tejinder P.

    2015-01-01

    Inhomogeneous exact solutions of General Relativity with zero cosmological constant have been used in the literature to challenge the ΛCDM model. From one patch Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models to axially symmetric quasi-spherical Szekeres (QSS) Swiss-cheese models, some of them are able to reproduce to a good accuracy the cosmological data. It has been shown in the literature that a zero Λ LTB model with a central observer can be fully determined by two data sets. We demonstrate that an axially symmetric zero Λ QSS model with an observer located at the origin can be fully reconstructed from three data sets, number counts, luminosity distance and redshift drift. This is a first step towards a future demonstration involving five data sets and the most general Szekeres model.

  12. Construction and potential application of controlled autolytic systems for Lactobacillus casei in cheese manufacture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Kong, Jian

    2013-07-01

    The rapid release of intracellular enzymes into the curd by the autolysis of lactic acid bacteria starters is universally recognized as a critical biological process to accelerate cheese ripening. Lactobacillus casei is typically the dominant nonstarter lactic acid bacterium in the ripening cheese. In this study, two controlled autolytic systems were established in L. casei BL23, based on the exploitation of the autolysins sourced from Lactococcus lactis (AcmA) and Enterococcus faecalis (AtlA). The lysis abilities of the systems were demonstrated both in broth and a model cheese, in which a fivefold increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity was detected in the curd with sufficient viable starter cells being maintained, indicating that they could lead to the timely release of intracellular enzymes. PMID:23834793

  13. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in

  14. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  15. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Martins, José M; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J; Ribeiro, José I; Furtado, Mauro M; Ferreira, Célia L L F

    2015-03-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April-September) and rainy season (October-March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g (-1) ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g (-1) ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  16. Exploratory study of acid-forming potential of commercial cheeses: impact of cheese type.

    PubMed

    Gore, Ecaterina; Mardon, Julie; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-06-01

    Due to their composition, cheeses are suspected to induce an acid load to the body. To better understand this nutritional feature, the acid-forming potential of five cheeses from different cheese-making technologies and two milk was evaluated on the basis of their potential renal acid load (PRAL) index (considering protein, P, Cl, Na, K, Mg and Ca contents) and organic anions contents. PRAL index ranged from -0.8 mEq/100 g edible portion for fresh cheese to 25.3 mEq/100 g for hard cheese Cantal and 28 mEq/100 g for blue-veined cheese Fourme d'Ambert. PRAL values were greatly subjected to interbatch fluctuations. This work emphasized a great imbalance between acidifying elements of PRAL calculation (Cl, P and proteins elements) and alkalinizing ones (Na and Ca). Particularly, Cl followed by P elements had a strong impact on the PRAL value. Hard cheeses were rich in lactate, thus, might be less acidifying than suspected by their PRAL values only. PMID:27050124

  17. Lactate metabolism by pediococci isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T D; McKay, L L; Morris, H A

    1985-04-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus is commonly found among the adventitious microflora of Cheddar cheese. When this organism was incubated with L-(+)-lactate under anaerobic conditions, L-(+)-lactate was rapidly converted to D-(-)-lactate until racemic (DL) lactate was present. Under aerobic conditions this initial reaction was followed by a slower reaction resulting in the use of both lactate isomers and in the production of acetate and CO2. With intact cells the lactate oxidation system had an optimum pH of 5 to 6, depending on the initial lactate concentration. Cells grown anaerobically possessed lactate-oxidizing activity which increased two- to fourfold as sugar was exhausted from the medium. Aerobic growth further increased specific activities. Cheddar cheese was made with the deliberate addition of P. pentosaceus. When the resulting cheese was grated to expose a large surface area to O2, lactate was converted to acetate at a rate which depended on the density of pediococci in the cheese. The lactate oxidation system remained active in cheese which had been ripened for 6 months. PMID:4004222

  18. Altering renneting pH changes microstructure, cell distribution, and lysis of Lactococcus lactis AM2 in cheese made from ultrafiltered milk.

    PubMed

    Hannon, J A; Lopez, C; Madec, M-N; Lortal, S

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the lysis of a highly autolytic strain of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris AM2 in a model cheese made from concentrated ultrafiltered milk. From the same initial ultrafiltered retentate inoculated with L. lactis AM2, 5 cheeses were made by the addition of rennet at different pH values (6.6, 6.2, 5.8, 5.4, and 5.2). Lysis was monitored by measurement of the release of lactate dehydrogenase, an intracellular marker enzyme, and by immunodetection of intracellular proteins with species-specific antibodies. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) was used to investigate the cheese microstructure by staining for protein and fat. Dual staining with a bacterial viability kit with CSLM was performed to reveal the integrity and localization of the bacterial cells. Levels of soluble calcium significantly increased when the pH at which the rennet was added decreased. In cheese renneted at pH 6.6, CSLM revealed an open porous structure containing a dense protein network with fat globules of different sizes distributed in the aqueous phase. In cheese renneted at pH 5.2, the protein network was homogeneous, with a less dense protein network, and an even distribution of fat globules. On d 1, bacterial cells were organized into colonies in cheese renneted at pH 6.6, whereas in cheeses renneted at pH 5.2, bacteria were evenly dispersed as single cells throughout the protein network. Lysis was detected on d 1 in cheeses renneted at high pH values and continued to increase throughout ripening, whereas induction of lysis was delayed in cheeses renneted at lower pH values until the end of ripening. This study demonstrates that alterations in the microstructure of the cheese and the distribution of cells play a role in lysis induction of L. lactis AM2. PMID:16507673

  19. Test for measuring the stretchability of melted cheese.

    PubMed

    Fife, R L; McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J

    2002-12-01

    A test for measuring the stretchability of cheese was developed by adapting a texture-profile analyzer to pull strands of cheese upwards from a reservoir of melted cheese. Seven different cheeses were analyzed using the Utah State University stretch test. The cheeses were also analyzed for apparent viscosity with a helical viscometer, for meltability using a tube melt test, and for stretch using the pizza-fork test. Cheese was placed into a stainless steel cup and tempered in a water bath at 60, 70, 80, or 90 degrees C for 30 min before analysis. The cup was then placed in a water-jacketed holder mounted on the base of the instrument. A three-pronged hook-shaped probe was lowered into the melted cheese and then pulled vertically until all cheese strands broke or 30 cm was reached. This produced a stretch profile as the probe was lifted through the reservoir of melted cheese and then pulled strands of cheese upwards. Three parameters were defined to characterize the stretchability of the cheese. The maximum load, obtained as the probe was lifted through the cheese, was defined as melt strength (F(M)). The distance to which cheese strands were lifted was defined as stretch length (SL). The load exerted on the probe as the strands of cheese were being stretched was defined as stretch quality (SQ). There was a correlation between F(M) and apparent viscosity. There was also some correlation between SL measured by the fork test and SL when the cheese was tested at 90 degrees C, but no correlation occurred at lower temperatures. PMID:12512629

  20. Fifteen years SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: life science databases, tools and support.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Heinz; Altenhoff, Adrian M; Arnold, Konstantin; Bairoch, Amos; Bastian, Frederic; Bergmann, Sven; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bucher, Philipp; Delorenzi, Mauro; Lane, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Lisacek, Frédérique; Michielin, Olivier; Palagi, Patricia M; Rougemont, Jacques; Schwede, Torsten; von Mering, Christian; van Nimwegen, Erik; Walther, Daniel; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zavolan, Mihaela; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zoete, Vincent; Appel, Ron D

    2014-07-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years. PMID:24792157

  1. Fifteen years SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: life science databases, tools and support

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Heinz; Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Arnold, Konstantin; Bairoch, Amos; Bastian, Frederic; Bergmann, Sven; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bucher, Philipp; Delorenzi, Mauro; Lane, Lydie; Mercier, Philippe Le; Lisacek, Frédérique; Michielin, Olivier; Palagi, Patricia M.; Rougemont, Jacques; Schwede, Torsten; von Mering, Christian; van Nimwegen, Erik; Walther, Daniel; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zavolan, Mihaela; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zoete, Vincent; Appel, Ron D.

    2014-01-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years. PMID:24792157

  2. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained. PMID:18372078

  3. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review. PMID:22029912

  4. Growth of Aerobic Ripening Bacteria at the Cheese Surface Is Limited by the Availability of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Back, Alexandre; Irlinger, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    The microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses is composed of various species of bacteria and yeasts that contribute to the production of the desired organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to show that iron availability is a limiting factor in the growth of typical aerobic ripening bacteria in cheese. For that purpose, we investigated the effect of iron or siderophore addition in model cheeses that were coinoculated with a yeast and a ripening bacterium. Both iron and the siderophore desferrioxamine B stimulated the growth of ripening bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, and Brevibacterium. The extent of stimulation was strain dependent, and generally, the effect of desferrioxamine B was greater than that of iron. Measurements of the expression of genes related to the metabolism of iron by Arthrobacter arilaitensis Re117 by real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that these genes were transcribed during growth in cheese. The addition of desferrioxamine B increased the expression of two genes encoding iron-siderophore ABC transport binding proteins. The addition of iron decreased the expression of siderophore biosynthesis genes and of part of the genes encoding iron-siderophore ABC transport components. It was concluded that iron availability is a limiting factor in the growth of typical cheese surface bacteria. The selection of strains with efficient iron acquisition systems may be useful for the development of defined-strain surface cultures. Furthermore, the importance of iron metabolism in the microbial ecology of cheeses should be investigated since it may result in positive or negative microbial interactions. PMID:22367081

  5. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. PMID:25597978

  6. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  7. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  8. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  9. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  10. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  11. Low-sodium Cheddar cheese: Effect of fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration retentate and high-hydrostatic pressure treatment of cheese.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, M; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2015-10-01

    Low-sodium cheeses often exhibit an acidic flavor due to excessive acid production during the manufacturing and the initial stage of ripening, which is caused by ongoing starter culture activity facilitated by the low salt-in-moisture levels. We proposed that this excessive starter-induced acidity could be prevented by the fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration (UF) retentates (to increase curd buffering), and by decreasing microbial activity using the application of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (that is, to reduce residual starter numbers). Camel chymosin was also used as a coagulant to help reduce bitterness development (a common defect in low-sodium cheeses). Three types of low-Na (0.8% NaCl) Cheddar cheeses were manufactured: non-UF fortified, no HHP applied (L-Na); UF-fortified (cheese milk total solids = 17.2 ± 0.6%), no HHP applied (L-Na-UF); and UF-fortified, HHP-treated (L-Na-UF-HHP; 500 MPa for 3 min applied at 1 d post-cheese manufacture). Regular salt (2% NaCl) non-UF fortified, non-HHP treated (R-Na) cheese was also manufactured for comparison purposes. Analysis was performed at 4 d, 2 wk, and 1, 3, and 6 mo after cheese manufacture. Cheese functionality during ripening was assessed using texture profile analysis and dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology. Sensory Spectrum and quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted with 9 trained panelists to evaluate texture and flavor attributes using a 15-point scale. At 4 d and 2 wk of ripening, L-Na-UF-HHP cheese had ~2 and ~4.5 log lower starter culture numbers, respectively, than all other cheeses. Retentate fortification of cheese milk and HHP treatment resulted in low-Na cheeses having similar insoluble calcium concentrations and pH values compared with R-Na cheese during ripening. The L-Na-UF cheese exhibited significantly higher hardness values (measured by texture profile analysis) compared with L-Na cheese until 1 mo of ripening; however, after 1 mo, all low-Na cheeses

  12. CH Stands for Cheese, Right? A Swiss Culture Class and the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidlitz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Culture has always been a part of foreign language learning. However, in recent years, more and more language professors advocate placing culture at the center of our classes. The question of just how to teach culture remains a topic of debate. This paper describes the reworking of a traditional German grammar and reading course into a class that…

  13. Skiing, Cheese Fondue and Swiss Watches: Analogical Discourse in Vocational Training Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filliettaz, Laurent; de Saint-Georges, Ingrid; Duc, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    When trainers or teachers in the field of initial vocational education explain abstract notions, refer to technical objects or emphasize the specificities of technical skills, they often call forth concepts and practices different from those that are directly salient in the training situations in which they engage. The aim of this paper is to…

  14. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities in Poro cheese, an artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Aldrete-Tapia, Alejandro; Escobar-Ramírez, Meyli C; Tamplin, Mark L; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and structure of Poro cheese, an artisanal food, was analysed by high-throughput sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) in order to gain insight about changes in bacterial communities associated with the cheese-making process. Dairy samples consisting of milk, fermented whey, curd and ripened cheese (during 7 and 60 d) were collected from three manufacturers located in the state of Tabasco, México during dry (March-June) and rainy (August-November) seasons. Independently of producer and season, raw milk samples displayed the highest diversity in bacterial communities. In raw milk, genera found were Macrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enhydrobacter. Diversity in whey, curd and cheese was lower, principally containing Streptococcus and Lactobacillus; however, bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Bacillus, Sediminibacter, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were occasionally present. After curdling step, the most dominant and abundant species were Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. PMID:25084655

  15. A new method for the production of low-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Amelia, Irma; Drake, MaryAnne; Nelson, Brandon; Barbano, David M

    2013-08-01

    Our objective was to develop an alternative process to produce low-fat Cheddar cheese (LFCC) by combining reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (RFCC) made by a fat-removal process with micellar casein concentrate (MCC) to try to achieve the texture and flavor characteristics of full-fat Cheddar cheese (FFCC). The production of LFCC was replicated 3 times. The MCC was produced by ultrafiltration of skim milk, followed by 3 stages of microfiltration, and the final MCC was spray dried. The LFCC was formulated to achieve 6% fat, 28% protein, and 1.2% salt by a combination of RFCC, MCC powder, salt, and water. The 6% fat target was selected to comply with the FDA standard for a low-fat label claim. The pH of the LFCC mixture was adjusted to 5.3 by lactic acid. Rennet was added to the LFCC mixture, followed by pressing and packaging. Chemical and sensory data were analyzed by ANOVA using the Proc GLM of SAS to determine if any differences in chemical composition and sensory properties were present among different cheeses. Descriptive sensory scores were used to construct a principal component analysis biplot to visualize flavor profile differences among cheeses. The LFCC had 83% less fat, 32% less sodium, and higher protein and moisture content than FFCC. When the cheese texture was evaluated in the context of a filled-gel model consisting of matrix and filler (100% minus percentage of matrix) the LFCC had lower filler volume than FFCC, yet the LFCC had a softer texture than FFCC. The LFCC contained some of the original FFCC cheese matrix that had been disrupted by the fat-removal process, and this original FFCC matrix was embedded in the new LFCC matrix formed by the action of rennet on casein from the continuous phase of hydrated MCC. Thus, the texture of the LFCC was desirable and was softer than the FFCC it was made from, whereas commercial RFCC (50 and 75% fat reduction) were firmer than the FFCC. The sulfur flavor in LFCC was closer to FFCC than commercial RFCC. The LFCC had

  16. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  17. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  18. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  19. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  20. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  1. MOLECULES TO MOZZARELLA: THE CHEMISTRY OF CHEESE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almost ten billion pounds of cheese are produced in the US each year, and chemistry is involved in every step of the manufacturing process. The milk coagulates into a curd when starter culture bacteria digest lactose and rennet enzyme destabilizes casein micelles. Cooking and piling the curd force...

  2. MEMBRANE PROCESSING OF COTTAGE CHEESE WHEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scale whey processing plant using membranes was constructed to process 300,000 pounds per day of cottage cheese whey. The two-step system uses ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) according to a design previously demonstrated in the Phase I portion of this project...

  3. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health.

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health.Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet.Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination "Protected Designation of Origin" is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups. PMID:22461827

  4. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the curd. The whey is drained off, and the curd is matted and cut, immersed in hot water, and... water, salted in brine, and dried. It is given some additional curing. Provolone cheese may be smoked... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  5. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from the curd. The whey is drained off, and the curd is matted and cut, immersed in hot water, and... water, salted in brine, and dried. It is given some additional curing. Provolone cheese may be smoked... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes...

  6. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable...

  7. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... of approximately 50 °F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  8. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health

    PubMed Central

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health. Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination “Protected Designation of Origin” is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups. PMID:22461827

  9. Detection of milk powder and caseinates in Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, L; Cattaneo, S; Masotti, F; Psathas, G

    2010-08-01

    Halloumi cheese is traditionally manufactured from fresh milk. Nevertheless, dried dairy ingredients are sometimes illegally added to increase cheese yield. Lysinoalanine and furosine are newly formed molecules generated by heating and drying milk protein components. The levels of these molecular markers in the finished Halloumi have been investigated to verify their suitability to reveal the addition of skim milk powder and calcium caseinate to cheese milk. Because of the severe heating conditions applied in curd cooking, genuine Halloumi cheeses (n=35), representative of the Cyprus production, were characterized by levels of lysinoalanine (mean value=8.1 mg/100g of protein) and furosine (mean value=123 mg/100g of protein) unusual for natural cheeses. Despite the variability of the values, a good correlation between the 2 parameters (R=0.975) has been found in all cheeses, considering both the fresh and mature cheeses as well as those obtained from curd submitted to a prolonged cooking following a traditional practice adopted by a very small number of manufacturers. Experimental cheeses made by adding as low as 5% of skim milk powder, or calcium caseinate, or both, to cheese milk fell outside the prediction limits at +/-2 standard deviation of the above-reported correlation regardless of curd cooking conditions or ripening length. This correlation may be adopted as a reliable index of Halloumi cheese genuineness. PMID:20655413

  10. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment. PMID:11324629

  11. The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics’ resources: focus on curated databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) provides world-class bioinformatics databases, software tools, services and training to the international life science community in academia and industry. These solutions allow life scientists to turn the exponentially growing amount of data into knowledge. Here, we provide an overview of SIB's resources and competence areas, with a strong focus on curated databases and SIB's most popular and widely used resources. In particular, SIB's Bioinformatics resource portal ExPASy features over 150 resources, including UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, ENZYME, PROSITE, neXtProt, STRING, UniCarbKB, SugarBindDB, SwissRegulon, EPD, arrayMap, Bgee, SWISS-MODEL Repository, OMA, OrthoDB and other databases, which are briefly described in this article. PMID:26615188

  12. The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics' resources: focus on curated databases.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) provides world-class bioinformatics databases, software tools, services and training to the international life science community in academia and industry. These solutions allow life scientists to turn the exponentially growing amount of data into knowledge. Here, we provide an overview of SIB's resources and competence areas, with a strong focus on curated databases and SIB's most popular and widely used resources. In particular, SIB's Bioinformatics resource portal ExPASy features over 150 resources, including UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, ENZYME, PROSITE, neXtProt, STRING, UniCarbKB, SugarBindDB, SwissRegulon, EPD, arrayMap, Bgee, SWISS-MODEL Repository, OMA, OrthoDB and other databases, which are briefly described in this article. PMID:26615188

  13. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its new supplement TREMBL.

    PubMed Central

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1996-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc), a minimal level of redundancy and a high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope of model organisms; cross-references to seven additional databases; a variety of new documentation files; the creation of TREMBL, and unannotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. This supplement consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. PMID:8594581

  14. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL in 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1998-01-01

    SWISS-PROT (http://www.expasy.ch/) is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domains structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope of model organisms; cross-references to two additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and improvements to TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. TrEMBL consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. PMID:9399796

  15. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL.

    PubMed Central

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1997-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, structure of its domains, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope of model organisms; cross-references to two additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and the creation of TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. This supplement consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. PMID:9016499

  16. The great Swiss solar drive

    SciTech Connect

    Muntwyler, U.

    1992-03-01

    In 1984 some solarmobile freaks decided to organize a solarmobile race across Switzerland as a promotional tour for the use of solar energy, and the first solarmobiles constructed for the race used mainly bicycle parts. Since then, a galaxy of annual events - races, exhibitions, conferences - connected with solar cars has become a feature of life in Switzerland. Already over 1,000 solar-mobiles are running on Swiss roads, being integrated into the traffic without any problems. The number of solar plants feeding the mains power grid has risen from 1 to 300. Swiss ministers are calling for 200,000 zero pollution cars by the year 2010. Stimulating all these developments is the Tour de Sol. This is the name given to both an annual solar car race and to the organization which works throughout the year to coordinate this and other events in the field of solarmobiles. This article reports on the race of 1992 and the results of the organization's efforts to promote solar vehicles.

  17. Effect of brine composition and brining temperature on cheese physical properties in Ragusano cheese.

    PubMed

    Fucà, N; McMahon, D J; Caccamo, M; Tuminello, L; La Terra, S; Manenti, M; Licitra, G

    2012-01-01

    Composition and physical properties of cheeses are influenced by temperature, salt, and calcium concentration of brine. This work aimed to examine conditions of brine under which the cheese matrix contracts or expands in absence of restrictions imposed by surface rind development during overnight block formation. Three experimental 4-kg blocks of Ragusano cheese were produced at 3 different stretching temperatures (70, 80, and 90°C) and cut into pieces weighing approximately 40 to 50 g. One piece from each was chemically analyzed at time 0. All other pieces were measured for weight and volume and placed in plastic bags containing 300 mL of different brine solutions (2% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; 10% NaCl with 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% Ca; 18% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; and 26% NaCl with 0.1% Ca) at 3 different temperatures (4, 12, and 20°C). After 24h of brining, the cheeses were analyzed for weight, volume, chemical, and microstructural changes. Salt concentration in brine significantly influenced composition, weight, and volume of the cheeses after brining. Salt concentration was inversely related to cheese volume and weight. Changes in weight caused by altering the brining temperature were sufficient to reach statistical significance, and statistically significant volume changes were induced by brining temperature and its interaction with salt content. The highest volume increase (30%) occurred in the cheese stored in the 2% NaCl brine at the coldest temperature, whereas the greatest volume decrease was recorded in cheeses brined in the 26% NaCl brine. Composition was not affected by brining temperature. Calcium concentration did influence weight, volume, and composition, except on a fat-on-dry-basis. When cheeses were brined without added calcium, cheese volume and weight increased at all temperatures. At high calcium levels (0.4%), syneresis occurred and volume decreased, especially at 20°C (-16.5%). Microstructural investigation with porosity measurement confirmed weight and

  18. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  19. Redshift-Drift as a Test for Discriminating Between Decelerating Inhomogeneous and Accelerating Universe Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Priti; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle Singh, Tejinder P.

    2015-01-01

    Exact inhomogeneous solutions of Einstein's equations have been used in the literature to build models reproducing the cosmological data without dark energy. However, owing to the degrees of freedom pertaining to these models, it is necessary to get rid of the degeneracy often exhibited by the problem of distinguishing between them and accelerating universe models. We give an overview of redshift drift in inhomogeneous cosmologies, and explain how it serves to this purpose. One class of models which fits the data is the Szekeres Swiss-cheese class where non-spherically symmetric voids exhibit a typical size of about 400 Mpc. We present our calculation of the redshift drift in this model, and compare it with the results obtained by other authors for alternate scenarios.

  20. Effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate concentration and cooking time on the physicochemical properties of process cheese.

    PubMed

    Shirashoji, N; Aoyagi, H; Jaeggi, J J; Lucey, J A

    2016-09-01

    Tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) is widely used as an emulsifying salt (ES) in process cheese. Previous reports have indicated that TSPP exhibits some unusual properties, including the gelation of milk proteins at specific ES concentrations. We studied the effect of various concentrations (0.25-2.75%) of TSPP and cooking times (0-20min) on the rheological, textural, and physical properties of pasteurized process Cheddar cheese using a central composite rotatable experimental design. Cheeses were made with a constant pH value to avoid pH as a confounding factor. Modeling of the textural properties of process cheese made with TSPP exhibited complex behavior, with polynomial models (cubic) giving better predictions (higher coefficient of determination values) than simpler quadratic models. Meltability indices (degree of flow from the UW MeltProfiler (University of Wisconsin-Madison), loss tangent value at 60°C from rheological testing, and Schreiber melt area) initially decreased with increasing TSPP concentrations, but above a critical ES concentration (~1.0%) meltability increased at higher TSPP concentrations. The storage modulus values measured at 70°C for process cheese initially increased with increasing TSPP concentration, but above a concentration of 1% ES, the storage modulus values decreased. Cooking time had little effect on the various melting or rheological properties. With an increase in TSPP concentration, the insoluble Ca and P contents increased, suggesting that TSPP addition resulted in the formation of insoluble calcium pyrophosphate complexes; some of which were likely associated with caseins. A portion of the added TSPP remained in the soluble phase. The acid-base buffering profiles also indicated that calcium pyrophosphate complexes were formed in cheese made with TSPP. In milk systems, low levels of TSPP have been shown to induce protein crosslinking and gelation, whereas at higher TSPP concentrations milk gelation was inhibited due to

  1. A Temporal -omic Study of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T Adaptation Strategies in Conditions Mimicking Cheese Ripening in the Cold

    PubMed Central

    Dalmasso, Marion; Aubert, Julie; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Chuat, Victoria; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Even, Sergine; Falentin, Hélène; Jan, Gwénaël; Jardin, Julien; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Parayre, Sandrine; Piot, Michel; Tanskanen, Jarna; Thierry, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. It grows when cheeses are ripened in a warm room (about 24°C). Cheeses with an acceptable eye formation level are transferred to a cold room (about 4°C), inducing a marked slowdown of propionic fermentation, but P. freudenreichii remains active in the cold. To investigate the P. freudenreichii strategies of adaptation and survival in the cold, we performed the first global gene expression profile for this species. The time-course transcriptomic response of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T strain was analyzed at five times of incubation, during growth at 30°C then for 9 days at 4°C, under conditions preventing nutrient starvation. Gene expression was also confirmed by RT-qPCR for 28 genes. In addition, proteomic experiments were carried out and the main metabolites were quantified. Microarray analysis revealed that 565 genes (25% of the protein-coding sequences of P. freudenreichii genome) were differentially expressed during transition from 30°C to 4°C (P<0.05 and |fold change|>1). At 4°C, a general slowing down was observed for genes implicated in the cell machinery. On the contrary, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1T strain over-expressed genes involved in lactate, alanine and serine conversion to pyruvate, in gluconeogenesis, and in glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, the expression of different genes involved in the formation of important cheese flavor compounds, remained unchanged at 4°C. This could explain the contribution of P. freudenreichii to cheese ripening even in the cold. In conclusion, P. freudenreichii remains metabolically active at 4°C and induces pathways to maintain its long-term survival. PMID:22253706

  2. Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Tham, W. A.; Hajdu, L. J.; Danielsson-Tham, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of 198 ripened soft or semi-soft goat cheeses obtained from dairy farms and the retail trade was investigated. The cheeses were examined for total counts of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria (37 and 44 degrees C respectively), enterococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Cheeses obtained from dairy-farms were also determined for pH value. In terms of all tests performed, cheeses made of heat-treated milk with starter culture had the best prospects for fulfilling the criteria for 'fit for consumption'. Cheeses made of raw milk without starter culture made up the most unsatisfactory group from a food-hygiene point of view. Bacteriological guidelines for on-farm manufactured goat cheese are suggested. PMID:2106443

  3. Growth and adaptation of microorganisms on the cheese surface.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Christophe; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Swennen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities living on cheese surfaces are composed of various bacteria, yeasts and molds that interact together, thus generating the typical sensory properties of a cheese. Physiological and genomic investigations have revealed important functions involved in the ability of microorganisms to establish themselves at the cheese surface. These functions include the ability to use the cheese's main energy sources, to acquire iron, to tolerate low pH at the beginning of ripening and to adapt to high salt concentrations and moisture levels. Horizontal gene transfer events involved in the adaptation to the cheese habitat have been described, both for bacteria and fungi. In the future, in situ microbial gene expression profiling and identification of genes that contribute to strain fitness by massive sequencing of transposon libraries will help us to better understand how cheese surface communities function. PMID:25790503

  4. Fortification of cheese with vitamin D3 using dairy protein emulsions as delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Tippetts, M; Martini, S; Brothersen, C; McMahon, D J

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D is an essential vitamin that is synthesized when the body is exposed to sunlight or after the consumption of fortified foods and supplements. The purpose of this research was to increase the retention of vitamin D(3) in Cheddar cheese by incorporating it as part of an oil-in-water emulsion using a milk protein emulsifier to obtain a fortification level of 280 IU/serving. Four oil-in-water vitamin D emulsions were made using sodium caseinate, calcium caseinate, nonfat dry milk (NDM), or whey protein. These emulsions were used to fortify milk, and the retention of vitamin D(3) in cheese curd in a model cheesemaking system was calculated. A nonemulsified vitamin D(3) oil was used as a control to fortify milk. Significantly more vitamin D(3) was retained in the curd when using the emulsified vitamin D(3) than the nonemulsified vitamin D(3) oil (control). No significant differences were observed in the retention of vitamin D(3) when emulsions were formulated with different emulsifiers. Mean vitamin D(3) retention in the model system cheese curd was 96% when the emulsions were added to either whole or skim milk compared with using the nonemulsified oil, which gave mean retentions of only 71% and 64% when added to whole and skim milk, respectively. A similar improvement in retention was achieved when cheese was made from whole and reduced-fat milk using standard manufacturing procedures on a small scale. When sufficient vitamin D(3) was added to produce cheese containing a target level of approximately 280 IU per 28-g serving, retention was greater when the vitamin D(3) was emulsified with NDM than when using nonemulsified vitamin D(3) oil. Only 58±3% of the nonemulsified vitamin D(3) oil was retained in full-fat Cheddar cheese, whereas 78±8% and 74±1% were retained when using the vitamin D(3) emulsion in full-fat and reduced-fat Cheddar cheese, respectively. PMID:22916880

  5. Survival kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes on raw sheep milk cured cheese under different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Valero, Antonio; Hernandez, Marta; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; González-García, Patricia; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2014-08-01

    Raw sheep milk cured cheese produced in the Castilla y Leon region (Spain) constitutes a traditional semi-hard aromatic cheese typically aged for three to six months. This product is catalogued as ready-to-eat since it is not submitted to any further treatment before consumption. Thus, foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes can represent a health concern for susceptible consumers. This study was aimed at evaluating the survival of L. monocytogenes on raw sheep milk cured cheese under different storage temperatures. Log-linear+shoulder and Weibull type models were fitted to data observed in order to estimate kinetic parameters. The Arrhenius relationship was further used to predict the impact of temperature on L. monocytogenes behavior during storage at 4, 12 and 22°C. Additionally, growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a representative group of the indigenous microbiota was evaluated. Results obtained indicated that the time to eradication (time when absence of L. monocytogenes in the analyzed samples was observed) was 114, 104, and 77 days for cheese samples stored at 4, 12 and 22°C, respectively. The LAB population showed an increase at 12 and 22°C during storage. However, an increase of 1 log CFU/g was observed during the first 2 weeks irrespectively of the storage temperature. The log-linear+shoulder model indicated a good fit to observed data. Likewise, the Arrhenius relationship explained sufficiently the dependency of temperature on L. monocytogenes behavior. This study demonstrated that cheese storage at ambient temperatures could lead to the preservation of its quality properties as well as its safety against L. monocytogenes. PMID:24630556

  6. The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase and its supplement TrEMBL in 2003.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Brigitte; Bairoch, Amos; Apweiler, Rolf; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Estreicher, Anne; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Martin, Maria J; Michoud, Karine; O'Donovan, Claire; Phan, Isabelle; Pilbout, Sandrine; Schneider, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase (http://www.expasy.org/sprot/ and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/swissprot/) connects amino acid sequences with the current knowledge in the Life Sciences. Each protein entry provides an interdisciplinary overview of relevant information by bringing together experimental results, computed features and sometimes even contradictory conclusions. Detailed expertise that goes beyond the scope of SWISS-PROT is made available via direct links to specialised databases. SWISS-PROT provides annotated entries for all species, but concentrates on the annotation of entries from human (the HPI project) and other model organisms to ensure the presence of high quality annotation for representative members of all protein families. Part of the annotation can be transferred to other family members, as is already done for microbes by the High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes (HAMAP) project. Protein families and groups of proteins are regularly reviewed to keep up with current scientific findings. Complementarily, TrEMBL strives to comprise all protein sequences that are not yet represented in SWISS-PROT, by incorporating a perpetually increasing level of mostly automated annotation. Researchers are welcome to contribute their knowledge to the scientific community by submitting relevant findings to SWISS-PROT at swiss-prot@expasy.org. PMID:12520024

  7. The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase and its supplement TrEMBL in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Brigitte; Bairoch, Amos; Apweiler, Rolf; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Estreicher, Anne; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Martin, Maria J.; Michoud, Karine; O'Donovan, Claire; Phan, Isabelle; Pilbout, Sandrine; Schneider, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase (http://www.expasy.org/sprot/ and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/swissprot/) connects amino acid sequences with the current knowledge in the Life Sciences. Each protein entry provides an interdisciplinary overview of relevant information by bringing together experimental results, computed features and sometimes even contradictory conclusions. Detailed expertise that goes beyond the scope of SWISS-PROT is made available via direct links to specialised databases. SWISS-PROT provides annotated entries for all species, but concentrates on the annotation of entries from human (the HPI project) and other model organisms to ensure the presence of high quality annotation for representative members of all protein families. Part of the annotation can be transferred to other family members, as is already done for microbes by the High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes (HAMAP) project. Protein families and groups of proteins are regularly reviewed to keep up with current scientific findings. Complementarily, TrEMBL strives to comprise all protein sequences that are not yet represented in SWISS-PROT, by incorporating a perpetually increasing level of mostly automated annotation. Researchers are welcome to contribute their knowledge to the scientific community by submitting relevant findings to SWISS-PROT at swiss-prot@expasy.org. PMID:12520024

  8. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses. PMID:16269673

  9. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses. PMID:26396342

  10. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for evaluating cheese quality].

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiang; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Wei; He, Yong

    2011-10-01

    Near infrared spectrocopy, widely used in food industry, is a fast, nondestructive analysis method. Although it has been in the detection of the quality of cheese for many years, related research is few in our country. The principle of near infrared spectroscopy and the characteristics are introduced. Cheese process, shrinkage control, maturation process, shelf life, brand classification and detection of components in the application of near infrared spectroscopy are summarized. There is great potential to apply near infrared spectroscopy in cheese quality analysis. It is an urgent task to promote the application of near infrared spectroscopy and the development of China's cheese industry. PMID:22250544

  11. Statistical distribution of the vacuum energy density in racetrack Kähler uplift models in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wong, Sam S. C.

    2013-07-01

    We study a racetrack model in the presence of the leading α'-correction in flux compactification in Type IIB string theory, for the purpose of getting conceivable de-Sitter vacua in the large compactified volume approximation. Unlike the Kähler Uplift model studied previously, the α'-correction is more controllable for the meta-stable de-Sitter vacua in the racetrack case since the constraint on the compactified volume size is very much relaxed. We find that the vacuum energy density Λ for de-Sitter vacua approaches zero exponentially as the volume grows. We also analyze properties of the probability distribution of Λ in this class of models. As in other cases studied earlier, the probability distribution again peaks sharply at Λ = 0. We also study the Racetrack Kähler Uplift model in the Swiss-Cheese type model.

  12. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. PMID:27060831

  13. Toxic and essential elements in Lebanese cheese.

    PubMed

    Bou Khozam, Rola; Pohl, Pawel; Al Ayoubi, Baydaa; Jaber, Farouk; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 20 minor, trace and ultratrace elements relevant to human health (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, V) were determined in four different varieties of the most consumed cheese in Lebanon (Halloumi, Double Crème, Baladi, Labneh) sampled at five different provinces (Grand Beirut, South of Lebanon, North of Lebanon, Mount of Lebanon and Beka'a) during the wet and dry seasons. The analyses were carried out by double focussing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to avoid errors due to polyatomic interferences. Levels of toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb) were generally below the WHO permissible levels in dairy products. Concentrations of most elements were considerably affected by the type of cheese, the geographical site and the season of sampling. PMID:24779782

  14. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  15. Cheese cultures: transforming American tastes and traditions.

    PubMed

    Paxson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Although the history of cheesemaking in the United States tells largely a tale of industrialization, there is a submerged yet continuous history of small-batch, hands-on, artisan cheese manufacture. This tradition, carried on in artisan cheese factories across the country, although concentrated in Wisconsin, is often overlooked by a new generation of artisan cheesemakers. Continuities in fabrication methods shared by preindustrial and post-industrial artisan creameries have been obscured by changes in the organization and significance of artisan production over the last one hundred years. Making cheese by hand has morphed from chore to occupation to vocation; from economic trade to expressive endeavor; from a craft to an art. American artisan cheesemaking tradition was invented and reinvented as a tradition of innovation. Indeed, ideological commitment to innovation as modern, progressive, American—and thus a marketable value—further obscures continuities between past and present, artisan factories, and new farmstead production. The social disconnect between the current artisan movement and American's enduring cheesemaking tradition reproduces class hierarchies even as it reflects growing equity in gendered occupational opportunities. PMID:21568042

  16. Biopreservation of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Zambrini, A V; Del Nobile, M A

    2014-09-01

    In this study a new biopreservation system consisting of an active sodium alginate coating containing Lactobacillus reuteri applied to Fior di Latte cheese was studied. The final aim was to extend cheese shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin. Experimental trials were carried out with and without glycerol. How the fermentation time could improve the production of reuterin, enabling Fior di Latte shelf life, was also assessed. To this aim, the experimental analyses were conducted in 2 different trials, using 2 different production batches of samples. In the first one, Fior di Latte samples were dipped into the active sodium alginate solution prepared on the same day of their production, whereas in the second trial, samples were dipped into the active solution prepared 48h before their production to allow a proper fermentation of the inoculated microorganism. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to prove the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. In the first trial, the combination of the probiotic microorganism with glycerol improved the microbial quality by 1 d compared with the same active solution without glycerol, whereas the 48-h-fermented active alginate solution (second trial) showed a further improved microbial quality. The application of an active coating enriched with L. reuteri and glycerol to Fior di Latte cheese is an optimal and innovative way to preserve the product and at the same time, with a combination of an optimal fermentation time, to prolong its microbial quality and thus its shelf life. PMID:24952776

  17. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Eric; Duboz, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics. These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the knowledge of the cheesemaker and affineur. In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, some of which have protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. Among these cheeses, some are made in the Alps or Jura Mountains, including Comté, Beaufort, Abondance, and Emmental, which are made from raw milk. The principle of hard or semihard cooked cheese, produced in the Alps and Jura Mountains, was to make a product during the summer-a period during which the animals feed more and milk production is high-with a shelf life of several months that could be consumed in winter. Today, these traditional cheeses are produced according to a specific approach combining science and tradition in order to better understand and preserve the elements that contribute to the distinctiveness of these cheeses. To address this complex problem, a global approach to the role of the raw milk microflora in the final quality of cheeses was initially chosen. The modifications resulting from the elimination of the raw milk microflora, either by pasteurization or by microfiltration, to the biochemistry of the ripening process and ultimately the sensory quality of the cheeses were evaluated. This approach was achieved mainly with experimental hard cooked cheeses. Other types of traditional cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk are also considered when necessary. Besides the native raw milk microflora, traditional lactic starters (natural or wild starters) also participate in the development of the characteristics of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. After an

  18. Swiss popular initiative for a single health insurer… once again!

    PubMed

    De Pietro, Carlo; Crivelli, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The article describes a recent Swiss popular initiative, aiming to replace the current system of statutory health insurance run by 61 competing private insurers with a new system run by a single public insurer. Despite the rejection of the initiative by 62% of voters in late September 2014, the campaign and ballot results are interesting because they show the importance of (effective) public communication in shaping the outcome of a popular ballot. The relevance of the Swiss case goes beyond the peculiarities of its federalism and direct democracy and might be useful for other countries debating the pros and cons of national unitary health insurance systems versus models using multiple insurers. After this electoral ballot, the project to establish a public sickness fund in Switzerland seems definitely stopped, at least for the next decade. Insurers, who opposed the initiative, have effectively fed the "fear of change" of the population and have stressed the good outcomes of the Swiss healthcare system. However, the political pressure favoured by the popular initiative opened a "windows of opportunity" and led the federal Parliament to pass a stricter regulation of health insurers, improving in this way the current system. PMID:26004844

  19. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  20. 21 CFR 133.156 - Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.156 Section 133.156 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products...

  1. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  2. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  3. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  4. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  5. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  6. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  7. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  8. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...

  9. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related foods. 133.10 Section 133.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  14. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  15. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  16. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  17. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  18. 21 CFR 133.161 - Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. 133... Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.161 Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing. Muenster cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for muenster...

  19. 21 CFR 133.102 - Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. 133.102 Section 133.102 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products §...

  20. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.123...