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Sample records for sydney sydney australia

  1. Sydney

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... metropolitan area. This city is host to the 2000 Olympic Games, which opened Friday, September 15. Sydney Harbour is the rugged-shaped ... central city area. Olympic Park, the main venue for the Games, is on a southern arm of the harbor, about 20 kilometers from the coast. ...

  2. Severe Bush Fires Near Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Raging brush fires are threatening the suburbs of Sydney, Australia, in the waning days of 2001. Lightning strikes started some of the fires in mid-December, but arsonists may have started more. So far the flames have damaged Blue Mountain and Royal National Parks, threatening the wildlife there. More than 100 homes in suburban Sydney have also been destroyed. The image above shows the fires on December 25, 2001, when smoke and haze covered the city of Sydney. The scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Smoke from fires near Sydney taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) December 27, 2001. (Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE) Although bush fires are common in Australia during the summer months, this outbreak is particularly severe. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

  4. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  5. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 ?g/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. PMID:26414085

  6. Toxicity of surficial sediments from Sydney Harbour and vicinity, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCready, S; Spyrakis, G; Greely, C R; Birch, G F; Long, E R

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological responses of three species to 103 surficial saltwater sediment samples from Sydney Harbour, and coastal lakes and estuaries on the south-east coast of New South Wales, Australia, were tested in a battery of four to six laboratory toxicity tests. This is the first large-scale toxicological study of sediments in Australia, the objective of which is to assess the protective and predictive abilities of North American biological effects-based sediment quality guidelines, recently adopted in Australia. Amphipods were exposed to whole sediments in survival and reburial tests, sea urchin fertilisation and larval development tests were conducted on porewaters, and bacterial bio-luminescence (Microtox) tests were conducted on organic solvent extracts and porewaters. Local indigenous species were used for the amphipod and sea urchin tests (Corophium sp. and Heliocidaris tuberculata, respectively). A wide range of responses, from <25 to 100% of negative controls were observed in all tests. Mean control-adjusted responses ranged from 46 to 96% for all tests. The percentages of highly toxic samples ranged from 11 to 83% in the various tests. The order of test sensitivity was: amphipod survival < Microtox test of porewaters < amphipod reburial < sea urchin larval development < sea urchin fertilisation < Microtox test of solvent extracts. Concordance between toxicity tests in classifying samples as highly toxic or not, ranged from 47 to 79%, indicating some similarities between test results, but not complete equivalence. Combined toxicity test results showed that the incidence of highly toxic responses occurring in the majority of tests (75-100% of tests) was low (5% of samples), but a large percentage of samples had highly toxic results in at least one test (76% of samples). Toxicity was more pervasive in the Sydney region than in coastal lakes and estuaries south of Sydney. The current study demonstrated the utility of indigenous invertebrate species and the Microtox bacterium in a sediment toxicity test battery for Australian saltwater sediments. PMID:15327149

  7. A Symposium on Sydney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Robert E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Four participants report briefly on their impressions and experiences concerning the Third International Conference on the teaching of English, held in Sydney, Australia, August 1980. The topics discussed include English instruction in a multicultural setting and response to literature. (RL)

  8. SEROLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS FINDINGS IN THE WATER SUPPLY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    From July to September, 1998, high levels of Cryptospordium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected in Sydney, Australia drinking water. To evaluate whether Sydney residents had an elevated risk of infection, serological responses to two Cryptospordium antigen groups (15/17 - an...

  9. Notes from an Unknown Presenter at the Third International Conference of English Teachers in Sydney, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Flossie

    1981-01-01

    Offers an English teacher's observations about an international conference held in Sydney, Australia, with particular emphasis on George Orwell's "1984" and his views on language, multiculturalism, and humanism and on George Steiner's "Language and Silence." (RL)

  10. MISR Looks at Sydney and the Southeastern Australia Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image from MISR's nadir-looking camera was acquired on July 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 3009) and shows a 200-kilometer section of the eastern Australian coast, centered around the Sydney metropolitan area. This city is host to the 2000 Olympics Games, which open Friday, September 15. Sydney Harbour is the rugged-shaped inlet toward the northern side of the grey-colored central city area. Olympic Park, the main venue for the Games, is on a southern arm of the harbor, about 20 kilometers from the coast.

    The areas to the north, west, and south of Sydney are characterized by rugged terrain and extensive forests. Just north of the city the Ku-ring-gai Chase and Brisbane Waters National Parks surround the Hawkesbury River estuary. Further north and separated from the ocean by narrow dunes are a series of lakes, the two largest in this image being Lake Macquarie (at the top) and Tuggerah Lake.

    West of the metropolitan area, some 65 kilometers inland, are the Blue Mountains. The primary transport corridor for road and rail across the mountains is clearly visible, and just north of it is the steep-sided Grose River valley. In the southern part of the mountains is a series of long valleys filled by Lake Burragorang, a major source of Sydney's water supply.

    South of Sydney's central area are Botany Bay, Bate Bay and Port Hacking, and the Royal National Park. Further south, the forested coastline gives way to the city of Wollongong, the adjacent steel-making complex at Port Kembla, and Lake Illawarra.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  11. Gastrointestinal pathogen distribution in symptomatic children in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Van Hal, Sebastian; Andresen, David; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Ellis, John

    2013-03-01

    There is limited information on the causes of paediatric diarrhoea in Sydney. This cross-sectional study used clinical and microbiological data to describe the clinical features and pathogens associated with gastrointestinal illnesses for children presenting to two major public hospitals in Sydney with diarrhoea, for the period January 2007-December 2010. Of 825 children who tested positive for an enteric pathogen, 430 medical records were reviewed. Adenovirus, norovirus and rotavirus were identified in 20.8%, 20.3% and 21.6% of reviewed cases, respectively. Younger children were more likely to have adenovirus and norovirus compared with rotavirus (P=0.001). More viruses were detected in winter than in the other three seasons (P=0.001). Rotavirus presented a distinct seasonal pattern with the lowest rates occurring in the warm months and peaking in the cooler months. Adenovirus showed a less consistent monthly trend, and norovirus detection increased in the cooler months (P=0.008). A decline in the number of rotavirus cases was observed after mid-2008. The majority of childhood diarrhoeal illnesses leading to hospital presentations in Sydney are caused by enteric viruses with most infections following clear seasonal patterns. However, a sustained decrease in the incidence of rotavirus infections has been observed over the study period. PMID:23856534

  12. Everyday astronomy @ Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parello, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    Catering to a broad range of audiences, including many non-English speaking visitors, Sydney Observatory offers everything from school programmes to public sessions, day care activities to night observing, personal interactions to web-based outreach. With a history of nearly 150 years of watching the heavens, Sydney Observatory is now engaged in sharing the wonder with everybody in traditional and innovative ways. Along with time-honoured tours of the sky through two main telescopes, as well as a small planetarium, Sydney Observatory also boasts a 3D theatre, and offers programmes 363 days a year - rain or shine, day and night. Additionally, our website neversleeps, with a blog, YouTube videos, and night sky watching podcasts. And for good measure, a sprinkling of special events such as the incomparable Festival of the Stars, for which most of northern Sydney turns out their lights. Sydney Observatory is the oldest working observatory in Australia, and we're thrilled to be looking forward to our 150th Anniversary next year in anticipation of the International Year of Astronomy immediately thereafter.

  13. Sydney Anglicans and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, D

    1997-01-01

    The city of Sydney in Australia has one of the largest gay and lesbian communities in the English-speaking world, while the Anglican Church in Sydney is proud of its reputation as a strong-hold and guardian of conservative evangelicalism. Since the early 1970s the Anglican diocese, in its official statements and pastoral policies, has been strongly opposed to homosexuality and the organized gay movement. In 1973 a report on homosexuality by its Ethics and Social Questions Committee was unusual at the time because it recommended the continuance of legal sanctions against male homosexual behavior. There have been many confrontations between Anglican institutions and Sydney's increasingly confident gay community. This paper examines these tensions, the reasons for the stance of the diocese, and the responses of gay Christian groups such as Cross+Section and AngGays. PMID:9210015

  14. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  15. The decomposition of wood products in landfills in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, F A; Gardner, W D; Cowie, A L

    2008-11-01

    Three landfill sites that had been closed for 19, 29 and 46 years and had been operated under different management systems were excavated in Sydney. The mean moisture content of the wood samples ranged from 41.6% to 66.8%. The wood products recovered were identified to species, and their carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin concentration were determined and compared to those of matched samples of the same species. No significant loss of dry mass was measured in wood products buried for 19 and 29 years, but where refuse had been buried for 46 years, the measured loss of carbon (as a percentage of dry biomass) was 8.7% for hardwoods and 9.1% for softwoods, equating to 18% and 17% of their original carbon content, respectively. The results indicate that published decomposition factors based on laboratory research significantly overestimate the decomposition of wood products in landfill. PMID:18178075

  16. Identification of lead sources in residential environments: Sydney Australia.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, M A S; Zahran, S; Pingitore, N; Clague, J; Devlin, G; Taylor, M P

    2014-01-01

    Interior and exterior dust, soil and paint were analysed at five brick urban Sydney homes over 15 months to evaluate temporal variations and discriminate sources of lead (Pb) exposure. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates (?g/m(2)/28 days), interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations (mg/kg) and interior petri-dish Pb loading rates (?g/m(2)/28 days), were correlated positively with soil Pb concentrations. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates and interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations peaked in the summer. Lead isotope and Pb speciation (XAS) were analysed in soil and vacuum dust samples from three of the five houses that had elevated Pb concentrations. Results show that the source of interior dust lead was primarily from soil in two of the three houses and from soil and Pb paint in the third home. IEUBK child blood Pb modelling predicts that children's blood Pb levels could exceed 5?g/dL in two of the five houses. PMID:24071634

  17. High-Resolution View of Fires and Smoke near Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke obscures much of the landscape near Sydney, Australia, in the true-color image above (top). However, the areas with active fires are revealed by the false-color image (bottom), which was made using shortwave infrared data that are sensitive to heat and provide the ability to 'see' through smoke. In the bottom scene, the black areas show fresh burn scars, while greens show landscape untouched by fire. Apparently, the fire burned up to the edge of a road (the thin black line snaking from the lefthand side of the image and disappearing off the bottom) and was unable to jump across. The thick dark line along the bottom of the scene is a river. Both images were made using data acquired on December 28, 2001, by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), flying aboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. For more images of the recent fires in Australia, read Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia, Fires Continue to Rage Near Sydney, Australia, and Severe Bush Fires Near Sydney, Australia. For more information about the effects of fire on the environment, read the Biomass Burning fact sheet. Images by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by Lawrence Ong, EO-1 Science Team

  18. Historic change in catchment land use and metal loading to Sydney estuary, Australia (1788-2010).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-09-01

    Sydney estuary has a long history of environmental degradation and is one of the most modified water ways in Australia due to a highly urbanised catchment (~77 %) and a high population (4.6 million). The objectives of the present study were to map historical land use change from European settlement (1788) to 2010 to determine catchment evolutionary pathways and to estimate catchment loading (total suspended solids, Cu, Pb and Zn) to the estuary over this period. Land use distribution in Sydney catchment, determined for seven time horizons over this period, indicated that a substantial increase in residential land use through subdivision of large estates and an increase in road area resulted in a marked increase in metal loading to Sydney estuary between 1892 and 1936. The decline in industrial activity from a maximum in 1978 (3.9 %) to 1.8 % in 2010 and the introduction of unleaded fuel during this time was accompanied by reduction in metal loading to the estuary. Land use time horizon maps enabled the creation of novel, ternary diagrams to represent temporal evolution in catchment land use. The 15 sub-catchments of Sydney estuary were combined into three major catchment categories, i.e., urban, dense urban and commercial. Present-day annual discharge of stormwater from the Sydney catchment was calculated to be 466,000 ML and annual loadings of total suspended sediment (TSS), Cu, Pb and Zn in tonnes were 49,239, 27, 37 and 57, respectively. Stormwater has superseded industry as the main source of anthropogenic metals to this estuary in recent times. PMID:26311263

  19. Effect of wharves on intertidal assemblages on seawalls in Sydney Harbour, Australia.

    PubMed

    Blockley, David J

    2007-05-01

    Worldwide, urbanisation has resulted in extensive replacement of natural habitats with man-made habitats. In Sydney Harbour, Australia, approximately half of the natural foreshore has been replaced by seawalls. Many of these have wharves built over part of their length, which could affect intertidal assemblages on seawalls beneath the wharves. This was tested by sampling and comparing assemblages under and not under wharves in Sydney Harbour. Assemblages differed between the two habitats, with greater cover of macro-algae and abundance of grazing molluscs on seawalls without a wharf and, to a lesser extent, greater cover of sessile invertebrates on seawalls under a wharf. There was, however, considerable spatial variability among locations in composition of assemblages and the species dominating differences between the two habitats. The impact of multiple artificial structures in close proximity and the variability among apparently homogeneous artificial habitats must be considered for the management of urbanised estuaries. PMID:17166577

  20. Metal-contaminated resuspended sediment particles are a minor metal-uptake route for the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) - A mesocosm study, Sydney Harbour estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Birch, G F; Simpson, S L

    2016-03-15

    Resuspension of surficial sediments is considered a key process influencing bioaccumulation of metals in filter-feeders in the contaminated Sydney Harbour estuary (Australia). However, previous investigations were unable to establish a significant relationship between metals in sediments or suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster tissue concentrations. This study used a 60-d laboratory mesocosm experiment to expose Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, to a natural range of SPM concentrations with different SPM-metal concentrations. Dissolved metal concentrations were low and the availability of algae provided as food was constant for all treatments. Tissue metal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn increased significantly, however, no relationship was determined between tissue metal concentrations in the oyster and either SPM or SPM-metal concentrations. The results indicated that exposure to resuspended contaminated sediment particles contributed little to the observed metal uptake. Dissolved or algae food sources appear to be more important for metal accumulation in these oysters. PMID:26849915

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Sibbritt, David; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Rawlinson, William; Andresen, David; Van Hal, Sebastian; Merif, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of information about the prevalence of gastrointestinal illnesses in Australia. Current disease surveillance systems capture only a few pathogens. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who visited tertiary public hospitals in Sydney was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Patients with diarrhoea or loose stools with an enteric pathogen detected were identified. Demographic, clinical and potential risk factor data were collected from their medical records. Measures of association, descriptive and inferential statistics were analysed. Results In total, 1722 patients were included in this study. Campylobacter (22.0%) and Clostridium difficile (19.2%) were the most frequently detected pathogens. Stratified analysis showed that rotavirus (22.4%), norovirus (20.7%) and adenovirus (18.1%) mainly affected children under 5 years; older children (5–12 years) were frequently infected with Campylobacter spp. (29.8%) and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. (24.4%); infections with C. difficile increased with age.Campylobacter and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. showed increased incidence in summer months (December to February), while rotavirus infections peaked in the cooler months (June to November). Discussion This study revealed that gastrointestinal illness remains a major public health issue in Sydney. Improvement of current disease surveillance and prevention and control measures are required. This study emphasizes the importance of laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections and the need for better clinical data collection to improve management of disease risk factors in the community. PMID:26798556

  2. Azithromycin-Resistant Syphilis-Causing Strains in Sydney, Australia: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jeoffreys, Neisha; Tagg, Kaitlin; Guy, Rebecca J.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Donovan, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin has shown high efficacy in randomized trials when used for treating infectious syphilis in Africa. However, its use in clinical practice has been limited by the development of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance has not previously been reported from Australasia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for azithromycin-resistant syphilis-causing strains in Sydney, Australia. We evaluated 409 samples that were PCR positive for Treponema pallidum DNA collected between 2004 and 2011 for the presence of the A2058G mutation, which confers resistance to macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin. Overall, 84% of samples harbored the mutation. The prevalence of the mutation increased during the study period (P trend, 0.003). We also collected clinical and demographic data on 220 patients from whom these samples had been collected to determine factors associated with the A2058G mutation; 97% were from men who have sex with men. Reporting sex in countries other than Australia was associated with less macrolide resistance (adjusted odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.66; P = 0.005), with other study factors showing no association (age, HIV status, recent macrolide use, stage of syphilis, or history of prior syphilis). Azithromycin cannot be recommended as an alternative treatment for syphilis in Sydney. PMID:24850356

  3. Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 42 x 32 km (25.1 x 19.2 miles) Location: 33.7 deg. South lat., 151.4 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 12, 2001

  4. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations. PMID:25937494

  5. The nature and source of irregular discharges to stormwater entering Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Beck, H J; Birch, G F

    2014-05-01

    Irregular discharges of polluted stormwater into drainage systems during base flow (no rainfall) result in acute ecological impacts within fluvial and estuarine environments. In this study, metal and TSS concentrations were significantly more variable during business hours of weekdays (i.e. high-business activity) than weekends/public holidays (i.e. low-business activity) within three highly-urbanised catchments of Sydney estuary (Australia), as determined by analysing multivariate dispersion (PERMDISP). Concentrations of TSS and all metals analysed (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb and Zn) were also significantly greater during high- than low-business periods within at least one of the three catchments. In no case were concentrations significantly higher during low- than high-business periods. This pattern of contamination supports the hypothesis that commercial and industrial sources are major contributors of irregular discharges of contamination to Sydney estuary. Irregular discharges and consequential ecological impacts may be effectively reduced in this environment by focussing management efforts on these activities. PMID:24529494

  6. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations. PMID:23852467

  7. Seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection among men who have sex with men in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    James, Rodney; Barratt, Joel; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2010-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Sydney, Australia. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 429 high risk human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), 446 low risk HIV-uninfected MSM, and 456 HIV-uninfected controls were assessed. Seroprevalence rates were 5.13% for the high risk HIV-infected MSM group, 0.22% for the low risk HIV-uninfected MSM group, and 0.44% for the control group. We found that high risk HIV-infected MSM have a significantly greater seroprevalence of E. histolytica with a relative risk of 22.87, when compared with low risk HIV-uninfected MSM and 11.69 when compared with controls. These findings show that in Sydney, sexually active HIV-infected MSM are at greater risk of developing amoebic disease caused by E. histolytica than HIV-uninfected MSM and the general population. PMID:20889891

  8. 5 for Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    ASE has a long history of sending students to the International Science School (ISS), having been doing so since 1968. The ISS is a free science education programme run biennially by the Science Foundation for Physics at the University of Sydney. ASE's role is to select the students and organise funding to enable the students and escorts to

  9. Five for Sydney 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Professor Harry Messel International Science School is organised by the Science Foundation for Physics within the University of Sydney. In 1968, the Foundation extended the participation to the UK and Japan and each country sends five scholars to the Science Schools, which are held every second year. Nowadays, scholars from Singapore,

  10. 5 for Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    ASE has a long history of sending students to the International Science School (ISS), having been doing so since 1968. The ISS is a free science education programme run biennially by the Science Foundation for Physics at the University of Sydney. ASE's role is to select the students and organise funding to enable the students and escorts to…

  11. DEVELOPMENTS AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH (8TH), HELD IN SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA ON OCTOBER 17-22, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a critical analysis of formal and informal developments of potential interest to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at the Eighth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Sydney, Australia, on October 17-22, 1976. The conference subject ma...

  12. Catchment condition as a major control on the quality of receiving basin sediments (Sydney Harbour, Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; McCready, S

    2009-04-01

    The current work aimed to compile existing information to better understand the source, fate and effects of metallic contaminants in one catchment-receiving basin system (Iron Cove) in Sydney Harbour (Australia). Copper, Pb and Zn concentrations of potential source materials, i.e. soils (mean 62, 410 and 340 microg g(-1), respectively) and road dust (mean 160, 490 and 520 microg g(-1), respectively) and in materials being transported to the estuary, i.e. in gully pots (mean 110, 200 and 260 microg g(-1) for Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively), in bedload (mean 210, 880 and 1700 microg g(-1), respectively) and particulates in canals draining the catchment (mean 325, 290 and 1865 microg g(-1), respectively) were highly enriched. Estuarine sediments in the receiving basin are enriched 20 times over pre-anthropogenic concentrations and are toxic to benthic animals at the canal mouths. Stormwater remediation is required to reduce metal loads to the adjacent estuary. PMID:19211135

  13. Bioactivity of POPs and their effects in mosquitofish in Sydney Olympic Park, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Christopher A; Tremblay, Louis A; Warne, Michael St J; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai; Laginestra, Edwina; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P

    2009-06-01

    The site of the 2000 Olympic Games (Sydney Olympic Park (SOP), Sydney, Australia) was contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) prior to remediation in the 1990s. This study investigates the bioactivity of POPs in the sediment and water of wetlands across SOP by in vitro 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalence (TCDDeq) measurement (H4IIE cell line bioassay). Further, it examines whether disturbance of these sediments is likely to mobilise ligands for this receptor into the water column. Exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands was measured in vivo using hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction (EROD) in the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Aqueous TCDDeq ranged from 0.013 to 0.057 pM in SOP wetlands which was significantly (p<0.05) less that in urban reference sites. These concentrations were not correlated to physical or chemical characteristics of the wetlands. In the sediments, TCDDeq ranged from 0.0016 to 7.06 microg/kg and these were not significantly (p>or=0.05) different to that measured in urban reference sites. Simulated disturbance of small quantities of sediment in water samples significantly (p<0.05) increased the levels of TCDDeq measured in the water. Sediment TCDDeq was correlated to sediment SigmaPAH concentration in 2006 and sediment SigmaPCB, SigmaDDT concentrations and fine sediment grain size in 2005. While fish at one SOP wetland had hepatic EROD activity elevated above the estimated basal level for this species, these were at the lower end of the range measured in urban impacted, non-remediated wetlands. EROD activity was positively correlated with both the sediment SigmaPCB load and aqueous TCDDeq. Increased catchment size was correlated with increased EROD activity suggesting an even spread of POPs throughout the residential areas of the Sydney metropolitan area. The concentration of bioactive POPs in the wetlands of SOP is therefore low relative to urban reference sites demonstrating the ongoing success of the remediation program. PMID:19303625

  14. Effectiveness of remediation of metal-contaminated mangrove sediments (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, Gavin; Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2015-04-01

    Industrial activities and urbanization have had a major consequence for estuarine ecosystem health and water quality globally. Likewise, Sydney estuary has been significantly impacted by widespread, poor industrial practices in the past, and remediation of legacy contaminants have been undertaken in limited parts of this waterway. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of remediation of a former Pb-contaminated industrial site in Homebush Bay on Sydney estuary (Australia) through sampling of inter-tidal sediments and mangrove (Avicennia marina) tissue (fine nutritive roots, pneumatophores, and leaves). Results indicate that since remediation 6 years previously, Pb and other metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) in surficial sediment have increased to concentrations that approach pre-remediation levels and that they were considerably higher than pre-settlement levels (3-30 times), as well as at the reference site. Most metals were compartmentalized in fine nutritive roots with bio-concentration factors greater than unity, while tissues of pneumatophores and leaves contained low metal concentrations. Lead concentrations in fine nutritive root, pneumatophore, and leaf tissue of mangroves from the remediated site were similar to trees in un-remediated sites of the estuary and were substantially higher than plants at the reference site. The situation for Zn in fine nutritive root tissue was similar. The source of the metals was either surface/subsurface water from the catchment or more likely remobilized contaminated sediment from un-remediated parts of Homebush Bay. Results of this study demonstrate the problems facing management in attempting to reduce contamination in small parts of a large impacted area to concentrations below local base level. PMID:25404497

  15. Epidemiology and Geographical Distribution of Enteric Protozoan Infections in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Caprarelli, Graziella; Merif, Juan; Andresen, David; Hal, Sebastian Van; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%), Giardia intestinalis (27%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%). The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1%) are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural areas is needed. Significance for public health This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted interventions for their prevention and control in high risk populations. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in this metropolitan setting underscores that microorganisms do not respect borders and that a collaborative approach is needed to contain the global spread of infectious diseases. Incorporating spatial analysis is valuable in providing a compelling picture of the geographical distribution of these often neglected diseases. Local and State Public Health departments can use this information to support further inves- PMID:25343139

  16. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  17. Synoptic analysis of heat-related mortality in Sydney, Australia, 1993-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaneckova, Pavla; Hart, Melissa A.; Beggs, Paul J.; de Dear, Richard J.

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to extremely hot weather has been associated with increased mortality. Temporal Synoptic Index is an effective method used to analyze the relationship between mortality and combined weather factors. The aim of this study is to examine the short-term effect of ambient heat on mortality in Sydney during the warmest 6-month period (October-March) for the years 1993-2001. Eleven synoptic categories were related to daily mortality rates in Sydney. Two distinctive warm categories were associated with significantly higher mortality rates. Hot, dry and relatively rare Synoptic Category 7 (SC7) days showed the highest daily mortality rates, followed by warm and humid SC3 days, which occurred more frequently. Increased mortality was more pronounced among the elderly population, and gender-stratified analysis showed women to be more vulnerable. Mortality on the day of the weather event was higher than 1 or 2 days after the adverse synoptic situation. Ozone and particulate matter smaller than 10 m were found at high concentrations in SC3 and SC7, respectively, but their impact on mortality was not clear. The population of Sydney was found to be vulnerable to high temperatures, with a lower susceptibility than those of some cities in the USA and Europe.

  18. Quantifying reduction in ecological risk in Penrhyn Estuary, Sydney, Australia, following groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The environmental risk associated with discharge of contaminated groundwater containing a complex mixture of at least 14 volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) to Penrhyn Estuary, Sydney, Australia has previously been assessed. That probabilistic ecological risk assessment (ERA) was undertaken using surface water monitoring data from 2004 to 2005. Subsequently, in 2006, a groundwater remediation system was installed and commissioned to prevent further discharge of VCHs into the estuary. The present study assessed the ecological risk posed to the estuary after 2006 to evaluate the success of the remediation system. The ERA was undertaken using toxicity data derived from direct toxicity assessment (DTA) of preremediation contaminated groundwater using indigenous species, exposure data from surface water monitoring between 2007 and 2008 and the joint probability curve (JPC) methodology. The risk posed was measured in 4 zones of the entire site: source area (2), tributary (2), the inner estuary and outer estuary at high, low, and a combination of high and low tides. In the 2 source areas, risk decreased by over 2 and over 1 orders of magnitude to maximum values of less than 0.5%. In 1 estuary, risk decreased by over 1 order of magnitude, from a maximum of 36% to a maximum of 2.3%. At the other tributary and both the inner and outer estuaries, the risk decreased to less than 1%, regardless of the tide. This analysis revealed that the remediation system was very effective and that the standard level of protection required for slightly to moderately affected ecosystems (95% of species) by the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality was met postremediation. PMID:21557465

  19. The mortality effect of ship-related fine particulate matter in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Cope, Martin E; Goldsworthy, Brett; Goldsworthy, Laurie; Emmerson, Kathryn; Jegasothy, Edward; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the mortality effect of primary and secondary PM2.5 related to ship exhaust in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of Australia. A detailed inventory of ship exhaust emissions was used to model a) the 2010/11 concentration of ship-related PM2.5 across the region, and b) the reduction in PM2.5 concentration that would occur if ships used distillate fuel with a 0.1% sulfur content at berth or within 300km of Sydney. The annual loss of life attributable to 2010/11 levels of ship-related PM2.5 and the improvement in survival associated with use of low-sulfur fuel were estimated from the modelled concentrations. In 2010/11, approximately 1.9% of the region-wide annual average population weighted-mean concentration of all natural and human-made PM2.5 was attributable to ship exhaust, and up to 9.4% at suburbs close to ports. An estimated 220years of life were lost by people who died in 2010/11 as a result of ship exhaust-related exposure (95% CIβ: 140-290, where CIβ is the uncertainty in the concentration-response coefficient only). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth would reduce the population weighted-mean concentration of PM2.5 related to ship exhaust by 25% and result in a gain of 390life-years over a twenty year period (95% CIβ: 260-520). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel within 300km of Sydney would reduce the concentration by 56% and result in a gain of 920life-years over twenty years (95% CIβ: 600-1200). Ship exhaust is an important source of human exposure to PM2.5 in the Sydney greater metropolitan region. This assessment supports intervention to reduce ship emissions in the GMR. Local strategies to limit the sulfur content of fuel would reduce exposure and will become increasingly beneficial as the shipping industry expands. A requirement for use of 0.1% sulfur fuel by ships within 300km of Sydney would provide more than twice the mortality benefit of a requirement for ships to use 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth. PMID:26641523

  20. A Sydney proteome story.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Gooley, Andrew A; Wilkins, Marc R; Packer, Nicolle H

    2014-07-31

    This is the story of the experience of a multidisciplinary group at Macquarie University in Sydney as we participated in, and impacted upon, major currents that washed through protein science as the field of Proteomics emerged. The large scale analysis of proteins became possible. This is not a history of the field. Instead we have tried to encapsulate the stimulating personal ride we had transiting from conventional academe, to a Major National Research Facility, to the formation of Proteomics company Proteome Systems Ltd. There were lots of blind alleys, wrong directions, but we also got some things right and our efforts, along with those of many other groups around the world, did change the face of protein science. While the transformation is by no means yet complete, protein science is very different from the field in the 1990s. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez. PMID:24735915

  1. Physical resuspension and vertical mixing of sediments on a high energy continental margin (Sydney, Australia).

    PubMed

    Matthai, C; Birch, G F; Jenkinson, A; Heijnis, H

    2001-01-01

    Four sediment cores from the continental margin adjacent to Sydney were analyzed for 210Pb, 137Cs, trace metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn), iron, dry bulk density, mud and moisture content. The concentrations of trace metals in the total sediment are low at all sites, although slightly elevated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn are present in the fine fraction of sediment (< 62.5 microns) near a major ocean outfall. Concentrations of trace metals in the fine fraction of sediment are similar in the upper 10-15 cm, indicating strong vertical mixing of the sediments, whereas an upward coarsening grain size in the upper 1-3 cm of sediment supports physical resuspension during storms. Sediment accumulation rates on the middle shelf adjacent to Sydney were estimated from downcore profiles of 210Pb and 137Cs and range between 0.2 and 0.4 cm yr-1. Although the mass fluxes of Cu, Pb and Zn within a distance of 2 km from the outfall (up to 36.1, 30.8 and 86.2 micrograms cm-2 yr-1, respectively) are greater than 20 km north of the outfall (< 23.5 micrograms cm-2 yr-1), the low concentrations of trace metals in sediments near the outfall support an efficient dispersal of anthropogenic contaminants on this continental margin. PMID:11202687

  2. Spatial analysis of heat-related mortality among the elderly between 1993 and 2004 in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vaneckova, Pavla; Beggs, Paul J; Jacobson, Carol R

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the geographical patterns of heat-related mortality among the population aged 65 and over within the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia between 1993 and 2004, and evaluated the role of some physical and socio-demographic risk factors associated with it. The effect of temperature on all-cause mortality during unusually hot days was investigated using spatial analytic techniques, such as cluster analysis and spatial regression analysis. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were used to investigate the role of daily average temperature, ozone (O(3)) and particulate matter of diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)) at the regions that showed a significant increase in mortality on unusually hot days. Spatial variation in mortality on unusually hot days was observed among the population 65 and over. Elderly people living within 5-20 km south-west and west of the Sydney Central Business District (CBD) were found to be more vulnerable. However, analysis using GLMs showed temperature to be a significant modifier of daily mortality in the region to the south-west of the CBD only. O(3) and PM(10) were found to be non-significant factors in the regions where air pollutants were studied. Socio-economic status and the proportion of vegetation or developed land in each Statistical Local Area (SLA) were also not a significant factor explaining the increased mortality. A combination of social and environmental factors may be at play. Our results suggest an effect of temperature on mortality of the elderly population in Sydney Statistical Division at the SLA level. More spatially-based research would be beneficial once climate datasets with improved spatial coverage become available. PMID:19880232

  3. Megaspores from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam, Sydney Basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Glasspool

    2000-07-01

    More than 300 megaspore specimens have been recovered from samples from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam of the Wittingham Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin. Only two species are recognised: Singhisporites surangei (Singh) Potoni, emend. and a new species of Singhisporites. Species distribution within the seam is controlled by a major fire event, as recognised by coal petrology and mesofossil content: Singhisporites surangei is dominant before the event, but following it, it is subordinate to the new species.The abundance of megaspores recovered has allowed recognition of the full range of morphologic variation of Singhisporites surangei, which encompasses specimens assigned previously to Singraulispora Pant & Mishra, 1986 and Mammilaespora Pant & Srivastava, 1961; both are regarded as junior synonyms of Singhisporites Potoni, emend. Ultrastructurally, the new species shows affinities with Mesozoic isoetalean megaspores. PMID:10930606

  4. Longitudinal fluvial drainage patterns within a foreland basin-fill: Permo-Triassic Sydney Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, E. Jun

    1993-05-01

    The north-south trending Permo-Triassic Sydney Basin (southern sector of the Sydney-Bowen Basin) is unique compared to many documented retro-arc foreland basins, in that considerable basin-fill was derived from a cratonic source as well as a coeval fold belt source. Quantitative analysis of up-sequence changes in sandstone petrography and palaeoflow directions, together with time-rock stratigraphy of the fluvial basin-fill, indicate two spatially and temporally separated depositional episodes of longitudinal fluvial dispersal systems. A longitudinal drainage-net similar in geometry to the modern Ganga River system (reduced to 60% original size) explains many of the palaeoflow patterns and cross-basinal petrofacies variation recorded in the basin-fill. The Late Permian to Early Triassic rocks reveal a basin-wide southerly directed fluvial drainage system, contemporaneous with east-west shortening recorded in the New England Fold Belt. In contrast, the Middle Triassic strata reveal a change to an easterly directed fluvial system, correlated to a shift in orogenic load to a NW-SE orientation in the fold belt northeast of the basin. The detailed petrofacies variation in the deposits of the second longitudinal fluvial dispersal system reveals vertical jumps in petrofacies compositions, with uniform compositions between jumps. The petrological jumps are interpreted as the result of minor fault adjustments in the fold belt, resulting in changing rates of sediment supply to the foreland basin. Uninterrupted erosion of the same terrain most likely caused the compositional uniformity between jumps. The identification of similar longitudinal fluvial systems, with transverse variation in detrital composition, is likely to help resolve the tectonic history of foreland fold belts elsewhere.

  5. Shooting Gallery Operation in the Context of Establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Center: Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Shooting galleries (SGs) are illicit off-street spaces close to drug markets used for drug injection. Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are low threshold health services where injecting drug users (IDUs) can inject pre-obtained drugs under supervision. This study describes SG use in Kings Cross, Sydney before and after the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), Australia’s first SIF. Operational and environmental characteristics of SGs, reasons for SG use, and willingness to use MSIC were also examined. An exploratory survey of SG users (n = 31), interviews with SG users (n = 17), and drug workers (n = 8), and counts of used needles routinely collected from SGs (6 months before and after MSIC) and visits to the MSIC (6 months after MSIC) were triangulated. We found five SGs operated during the study period. Key operational characteristics were 24-h operation, AUS$10 entry fee, 30-min time limit, and dual use for sex work. Key reasons for SG use were to avoid police, a preference not to inject in public, and assistance from SG operators in case of overdose. SG users reported high levels of willingness to use the MSIC. The number of used needles collected from SGs decreased by 69% (41,819 vs. 12,935) in the 6 months after MSIC opened, while MSIC visits increased incrementally. We conclude that injections were transferred from SGs to the MSIC, but SGs continued to accommodate injections and harm reduction outreach should be maintained. PMID:17273925

  6. Teachers' and Parents' Roles in the Sexuality Education of Primary School Children: A Comparison of Experiences in Leeds, UK and in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joy; Milton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    There is little international research focusing on parents' and teachers' roles in sexuality education during children's primary school years. This paper focuses on teachers' and parents' key experiences as sexuality educators of primary-school-age children in both Leeds, UK and in Sydney, Australia. Based on research findings from both the United

  7. The Declaration of Sydney on human death

    PubMed Central

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; de la C García, M; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-01-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of “irreversible coma” established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  8. The emergence of potent forms of methamphetamine in Sydney, Australia: a case study of the IDRS as a strategic early warning system.

    PubMed

    Topp, Libby; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kaye, Sharlene; Darke, Shane

    2002-12-01

    A striking finding of the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) in recent years has concerned the emergence in Sydney of a number of different forms of potent methamphetamine. This paper demonstrates the operation of the IDRS in detecting and documenting an increase in both the availability and use of these forms of methamphetamine in Sydney, and Australia more widely, since 1998. Data from different components of the IDRS are utilized to propose that there are currently at least three forms of methamphetamine available in Sydney that are considered by the market to be distinct commodities: methamphetamine powder ('speed'), base methamphetamine ('base') and crystalline methamphetamine ('ice'/'shabu'/'crystal meth'). Base and ice are more potent forms of methamphetamine than speed, and international experience, along with preliminary data obtained from the IDRS, suggest that their use is associated with harms in a number of domains. PMID:12537703

  9. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney, Australia, 8 14 July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-07-01

    At GR17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GR18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GR conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GR18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb overviews of the state of the art of: observational handles on dark energy; collider physics experiments designed to probe cosmology; gravitational dynamics of large stellar systems; and the use of analogue condensed-matter systems in the laboratory to investigate black hole event horizons. In the more mainstream areas we were given timely reviews of: the Gravity Probe B and STEP missions; quasi-local black hole horizons and their applications; cosmic censorship; the spin foam model approach to quantum gravity; the causal dynamical triangulations approach to quantum gravity; superstring theory applied to questions in particle physics; the current status and prospects for gravitational wave astronomy; ground-based gravitational wave detection; and technology developments for the future LISA mission. A special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity (Volume 25, Number 11, 7 June 2008) is published as the proceedings of GR18 and Amaldi7. It contains the overview articles by the plenary speakers, the summaries of each GR18 workshop parallel session as provided by the workshop chairs, and the highlights of the Amaldi7 meeting as selected by the Amaldi7 chairs. Other Amaldi7 talks and posters appear in this refereed issue of the electronic Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This issue of JPCS and the CQG Special Issue are electronically linked. The conference organisers would like to acknowledge the financial support of: The Australian National University; IUPAP; The Australian Institute of Physics; BHP Billiton; The University of Western Australia; The University of New South Wales; The Institute of Physics; The Gravity Research Foundation; SGI; CosNet; The Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute; Springer; Duraduct; the New South Wales Government; The Australasian Society for General Relativity and Gravitation; the Mexican GR bid; the Centre for Precision Optics; The Anglo-Australian Observatory; Newspec; CSIRO; and The University of Melbourne. We would like to thank the GR18 Scientific Organising Committee, GWIC and the Local Organising Committee for all their hard work in putting together these very successful combined conferences, which attracted 520 participants. Many of the practical aspects of the organisation were handled by the event management company Conexion, and their professionalism, expertise and dedication were greatly appreciated. Finally, we would like to thank all the participants for their lively and colourful contributions to making these conferences a success. Susan M Scott Chair, Local Organising Committee David E McClelland Deputy Chair, Local Organising Committee Centre for Gravitational Physics, The Australian National University, Australia Guest Editors Participants gather prior to opening ceremony Participants gather prior to opening ceremony Participants entering auditorium for opening ceremony Participants entering auditorium for opening ceremony Chair of Local Organising Committee Susan M Scott opening ceremony Chair of Local Organising Committee Susan M Scott opening ceremony President of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation Clifford M Will opening ceremony President of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation Clifford M Will opening ceremony Amusing moment at opening ceremony Amusing moment at opening ceremony Chair of the Gravitational Wave International Committee James Hough opening ceremony Chair of the Gravitational Wave International Committee James Hough opening ceremony Welcome to the land by traditional land owner Welcome to the land by traditional land owner Welcome to the land by traditional land owner Welcome to the land by traditional land owner First plenary speaker Stan E Whitcomb First plenary speaker Stan E Whitcomb Exhibition booth Australian National University College of Science Kimberley Heenan (left), Lachlan McCalman (right) Exhibition booth Australian National University College of Science Kimberley Heenan (left), Lachlan McCalman (right) Exhibition booth Springer Exhibition booth Springer Exhibition booth GR19 Mexico City Exhibition booth GR19 Mexico City Amaldi7 posters Amaldi7 posters Participants gather before Kip Thorne's public lecture Participants gather before Kip Thorne's public lecture Participants gather before Kip Thorne's public lecture Participants gather before Kip Thorne's public lecture Entering auditorium for Kip Thorne's public lecture Entering auditorium for Kip Thorne's public lecture Public lecture by Kip Thorne Public lecture by Kip Thorne Public lecture by Kip Thorne Public lecture by Kip Thorne Kip Thorne public lecture Kip Thorne public lecture Kip Thorne public lecture Kip Thorne public lecture Roger Penrose (left), Adam Spencer (right) Roger Penrose (left), Adam Spencer (right) From left to right: John Steele, Susan Scott, Roger Penrose, David McClelland, John Webb, Adam Spencer From left to right: John Steele, Susan Scott, Roger Penrose, David McClelland, John Webb, Adam Spencer Opening of Roger Penrose's public lecture from left to right: John Webb, Adam Spencer, Roger Penrose Opening of Roger Penrose's public lecture from left to right: John Webb, Adam Spencer, Roger Penrose Roger Penrose at opening of his public lecture Roger Penrose at opening of his public lecture Public lecture by Roger Penrose Public lecture by Roger Penrose Public lecture by Roger Penrose Public lecture by Roger Penrose

  10. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant. PMID:21879398

  11. Seasonal influence on urban dust PAH profile and toxicity in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rupak; Baral, Bivek; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Naidu, Ravi; Loganathan, Paripurnanda

    2011-01-01

    Road dust is one of the major threats to the urban environment due to wash-off of dust to the surrounding catchments during wet weather period. The dust contains wide range of toxic contaminants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Among the toxic contaminants, PAHs are of environmental concern due to their potential carcinogenic and mutagenic effect besides endocrine disruptive behaviour. Eighteen road dust samples from Sydney were collected in different time periods for a year and analysed for 16 US EPA PAHS. Total PAHs content range in the dust was 9-105 pg/g. Total and individual PAH contents were highest in the finest size fraction (<75 microm) and in winter compared to the other seasons. The PAH profiles in the different particle sizes were similar but different between the four seasons. The concentrations of higher molecular weight PAHS (4- and 5-rings) were much greater than the concentrations of lower molecular weight PAHs (2- and 3-rings). Toxicity equivalency factor application showed that the longer the dry weather period the higher the total PAHs content and toxicity in the dust. PMID:21977644

  12. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context. PMID:26344369

  13. Three-dimensional braid-plain architecture, Bulgo Formation, Sydney basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.A.; Glasford, J.L.

    1989-03-01

    The Triassic Bulgo Formation of the Sydney basin was deposited by a basin-wide braid-plain system. Detailed outcrop analysis of facies relationships and correlation with subsurface data allow for recognition of three-dimensional facies architecture and paleogeography reconstruction. The Lachlan foldbelt was the primary source for the Bulgo Formation. Three outcrop sites in varying proximity to the source area were examined: (1) Blue Mountains, (2) Burragorrang Walls, and (3) Royal National Park. Proximal deposits of the Blue Mountains consist of two members. Both the lower and upper Bulgo are coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheets. They are separated by a paleosoil horizon which is the only criterion for separation. Medial deposits at Burrangorang Walls can be distinguished on the basis of shale content. The lower Bulgo remains a coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheet. The upper Bulgo is also a coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheet. The upper Bulgo is also a coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheet. The upper Bulgo is also a coarse-grained sandstone sheet but contains a significant proportion of interchannel shale deposits and mud plugs. Distal deposits of the Royal National Park are characterized by a similar coarse-grained lower member which was deposited by a large braid-plain system where smaller braided systems coalesced into a basin-wide tabular sandstone sheet. However, the upper Bulgo member shows a further downdip evolution to a fine-grained sandstone sheet deposited by small, interconnected braided streams which were separated by numerous flood-plain and paludal deposits. This upsection and lateral evolution reflects waning sediment supply and denudation of the Lachlan foldbelt source area.

  14. Genetic stratigraphic sequence analysis in terrestrial aggrading basin: sequence stratigraphy of Narrabeen Group, Sydney basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.A.; Galloway, W.E.

    1989-03-01

    Development of event/sequence stratigraphy concepts over the past 15 years has been one of the most significant contributions to systematic stratigraphic analyses of sedimentary basins. Most of these approaches, however, have not been applied to terrestrial aggradational settings but rather were developed in marginal basin settings where progradational and transgressive units are important components of the sequence framework. The principal objective of sequence definition is the identification of genetic stratigraphic units that share a common paleogeographic, climatic, and tectonic origin. Thus, the basic premise of sequence stratigraphy should be useful in the delineation of the depositional framework for any basin. Criteria were devised to identify three genetic stratigraphic sequences within the Triassic Narrabeen Group of the Sydney basin, an aggrading basin with a terrestrial fill. Individual sequences were chosen to emphasize significant changes in tectonic and climatic conditions, as reflected in the distinguishing characteristics of depositional style, sediment composition, and paleodrainage trends. The Munmorah sequence is characterized by lithic sandstone deposits of an extensive alluvial plain sourced by the New England foldbelt to the northeast. The overlying Bulgo sequence is distinguished by changes in sediment transport direction, lithology, and depositional style. The western Lachlan foldbelt emerged as a source of a quartz-rich braid-plain system. The Bald Hill sequence lies above the Bulgo and consists of sandstones and kaolinitic claystones that were deposited in extensive, highly oxidized alluvial plains that were dissected by numerous small streams. The distinctive mineralogy and depositional style of the Bald Hill deposits suggest climatic and tectonic changes in the Lachlan foldbelt source area.

  15. Cause-Specific Hospital Admissions on Hot Days in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Vaneckova, Pavla; Bambrick, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background While morbidity outcomes for major disease categories during extreme heat have received increasing research attention, there has been very limited investigation at the level of specific disease subcategories. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular (CVD), respiratory (RD), genitourinary (GU) and mental diseases (MD), diabetes (DIA), dehydration (DEH) and the effects of heat and light (HEAT) in Sydney between 1991 and 2009. We further investigated the sensitivity to heat of subcategories within the major disease groups. We defined hot days as those with temperatures in the 95th and 99th percentiles within the study period. We applied time-stratified case-crossover analysis to compare the hospital admissions on hot days with those on non-hot days matched by day of the week. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) of admissions between the two types of days, accounting for other environmental variables (relative humidity, ozone and particulate matter) and non-environmental trends (public and school holidays). On hot days, hospital admissions increased for all major categories except GU. This increase was not shared homogeneously across all diseases within a major category: within RD, only other diseases of the respiratory system (includes pleurisy or empyema) increased significantly, while admissions for asthma decreased. Within MD, hospital admissions increased only for psychoses. Admissions due to some major categories increased one to three days after a hot day (e.g., DIA, RD and CVD) and on two and three consecutive days (e.g., HEAT and RD). Conclusions/Significance High ambient temperatures were associated with increased hospital admissions for several disease categories, with some within-category variation. Future analyses should focus on subgroups within broad disease categories to pinpoint medical conditions most affected by ambient heat. PMID:23408986

  16. The spatial domain of wildfire risk and response in the wildland urban interface in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In order to quantify the risks from fire at the wildland urban interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of the 999 fires in the Sydney region we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire's weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting >2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances >10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the region. We examined whether the management responses to wildfires are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of wildfires with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than wildfires as a whole, but further away than wildfires that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). Overall, 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.

  17. An objective index of walkability for research and planning in the Sydney Metropolitan Region of New South Wales, Australia: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Walkability describes the capacity of the built environment to support walking for various purposes. This paper describes the construction and validation of two objective walkability indexes for Sydney, Australia. Methods Walkability indexes using residential density, intersection density, land use mix, with and without retail floor area ratio were calculated for 5,858 Sydney Census Collection Districts in a geographical information system. Associations between variables were evaluated using Spearman’s rho (ρ). Internal consistency and factor structure of indexes were estimated with Cronbach’s alpha and principal components analysis; convergent and predictive validity were measured using weighted kappa (κw) and by comparison with reported walking to work at the 2006 Australian Census using logistic regression. Spatial variation in walkability was assessed using choropleth maps and Moran’s I. Results A three-attribute abridged Sydney Walkability Index comprising residential density, intersection density and land use mix was constructed for all Sydney as retail floor area was only available for 5.3% of Census Collection Districts. A four-attribute full index including retail floor area ratio was calculated for 263 Census Collection Districts in the Sydney Central Business District. Abridged and full walkability index scores for these 263 areas were strongly correlated (ρ=0.93) and there was good agreement between walkability quartiles (κw=0.73). Internal consistency ranged from 0.60 to 0.71, and all index variables loaded highly on a single factor. The percentage of employed persons who walked to work increased with increasing walkability: 3.0% in low income-low walkability areas versus 7.9% in low income-high walkability areas; and 2.1% in high income-low walkability areas versus 11% in high income-high walkability areas. The adjusted odds of walking to work were 1.05 (0.96–1.15), 1.58 (1.45–1.71) and 3.02 (2.76–3.30) times higher in medium, high and very high compared to low walkability areas. Associations were similar for full and abridged indexes. Conclusions The abridged Sydney Walkability Index has predictive validity for utilitarian walking, will inform urban planning in Sydney, and will be used as an objective measure of neighbourhood walkability in a large population cohort. Abridged walkability indexes may be useful in settings where retail floor area data are unavailable. PMID:24365133

  18. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and

  19. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  20. Social and environmental factors drive variation in plant and bird communities across urban greenspace in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Ashlea J; Luck, Gary W

    2016-03-15

    We examined whether environmental or social factors alone, or a combination of social-ecological factors were more effective at explaining patterns in plant and bird assemblages across urban greenspaces. Thirty publicly accessible, passive recreation greenspaces provided by municipal councils (i.e. city parks) were surveyed in a highly urbanised city - Sydney, Australia. Plant communities were influenced most by topography and park management approach, and to a lesser extent by land-use history. Greenspaces with greater topographic variation and that were co-managed with local citizen groups hosted higher plant species richness and abundance. Bird species richness within greenspaces increased with increasing distance from the central business district and decreasing distance from freshwater. Bird abundance was best explained by a combination of social-ecological factors, with abundance increasing with increasing site (greenspace) age, increasing percent concrete groundcover of a site and increasing proximity to the central business district. We identified a group of 'rare city parks', dissimilar in ecological composition that hosted more complex and species rich plant communities compared to 'common city parks'. We suggest this difference is likely because rare city parks received management and maintenance input from local citizen groups, whereas common city parks were managed and maintained exclusively by local councils. How different social factors, such as management approach and ongoing maintenance, are linked to the ecology of urban greenspaces are key areas for future investigation to help create sustainable urban landscapes that provide maximum benefits to urban residents. PMID:26773425

  1. Emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, a food additive and pesticides) in waters of Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Drage, D S; Thompson, K; Eaglesham, G; Mueller, J F

    2015-08-15

    The current investigation of marine water from 30 sites adjacent to stormwater outlets across the entire Sydney estuary is the first such research in Australia. The number of analytes detected were: 8/59 pharmaceutical compounds (codeine, paracetamol, tramadol, venlafaxine, propranolol, fluoxetine, iopromide and carbamazepine), 7/38 of the pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,4-dichloroaniline, carbaryl, diuron, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop and simazine) and 0/3 of the personal care products (PCPs) analysed. An artificial sweetener (acesulfame) was detected, however none of the nine antibiotics analysed were identified. Sewage water is not discharged to this estuary, except infrequently as overflow during high-precipitation events. The presence of acesulfame (a recognised marker of domestic wastewater) and pharmaceuticals in water from all parts of the estuary after a dry period, suggests sewage water is leaking into the stormwater system in this catchment. The pesticides are applied to the environment and were discharged via stormwater to the estuary. PMID:26130525

  2. The discrepancy in concentration of metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in oyster tissue (Saccostrea glomerata) and ambient bottom sediment (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Melwani, A; Lee, J-H; Apostolatos, C

    2014-03-15

    The current study aimed to examine the relationship between metals in sediments and metal bioaccumulation in oyster tissue in a highly-modified estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia). While extensive metal contamination was observed in surficial sediments, suspended particulate matter and oyster tissue, a significant relationship between these media could not be established. No relationship was determined between sediment quality guidelines and oyster size or weight, nor with human consumption levels for metals in oyster tissue. Moreover, oyster tissue metal concentrations varied greatly at a single locality over temporal scales of years. Oyster tissue at all 19 study sites exceeded consumptions levels for Cu. Bioaccumulation of metals in oyster tissue is a useful dynamic indicator of anthropogenic influence within estuaries, however oysters cannot be used in Sydney estuary as a valid biomonitor due to overriding internal regulation (homoestasis) by the animal, or by external natural (sediment resuspension) and anthropogenic (sewer/stormwater discharges) pressures, or both. PMID:24461696

  3. Evaluating the transport, health and economic impacts of new urban cycling infrastructure in Sydney, Australia – protocol paper

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are repeated calls to build better cycling paths in Australian cities if the proportion of people cycling is to increase. Yet the full range of transport, health, environmental and economic impacts of new cycling infrastructure and the extent to which observed changes are sustained is not well understood. The City of Sydney is currently building a new bicycle network, which includes a new bicycle path separated from road traffic in the south Sydney area. This protocol paper describes a comprehensive method to evaluate this new cycling infrastructure. Method A cohort of residents within two kilometres of the new bicycle path will be surveyed at baseline before a new section of bicycle path is built, and again 12 and 24 months later to assess changes in travel behaviour, sense of community, quality of life and health behaviours. Residents in a comparable area of Sydney that will not get a new separated bike path will act as a comparison group. At baseline a sub-set of residents who volunteer will also take a small GPS device with them for one week to assess travel behaviour. Discussion This research should contribute to the advancement in evaluation and appraisal methods for cycling projects. PMID:24131667

  4. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC) Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart) of a cohort of residents (n = 909) in the intervention area (n = 520) (Fairfield and Liverpool) and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389) (Bankstown). Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p < 0.05) in the intervention area, with significantly higher rates of cycling in the intervention area (32.9%) compared with the comparison area (9.7%) amongst those aware of the project. There was a significant increase in use of bicycle paths in the intervention area (28.3% versus 16.2%, p < 0.05). These findings were confirmed by the bike count data. Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels. PMID:20181019

  5. Assessment of biotic response to heavy metal contamination in Avicennia marina mangrove ecosystems in Sydney Estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Birch, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    Mangrove forests act as a natural filter of land-derived wastewaters along industrialized tropical and sub-tropical coastlines and assist in maintaining a healthy living condition for marine ecosystems. Currently, these intertidal communities are under serious threat from heavy metal contamination induced by human activity associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. Studies on the biotic responses of these plants to heavy metal contamination are of great significance in estuary management and maintaining coastal ecosystem health. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the biotic response in Avicennia marina ecosystems to heavy metal contamination through the determination of metal concentrations in leaves, fine nutritive roots and underlying sediments collected in fifteen locations across Sydney Estuary (Australia). Metal concentrations (especially Cu, Pb and Zn) in the underlying sediments of A. marina were enriched to a level (based on Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines) at which adverse biological effects to flora could occasionally occur. Metals accumulated in fine nutritive roots greater than underlying sediments, however, only minor translocation of these metals to A. marina leaves was observed (mean translocation factors, TFs, for all elements <0.13, except for Mn). Translocation factors of essential elements (i.e., common plant micro-nutrients, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn) were greater than non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb), suggesting that A. marina mangroves of this estuary selectively excluded non-essential elements, while regulating essential elements and limiting toxicity to plants. This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination. PMID:25011126

  6. Water-saving impacts of Smart Meter technology: An empirical 5 year, whole-of-community study in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirsten; Doolan, Corinna; van den Honert, Robin; Shi, Rose

    2014-09-01

    In 2009-2010 Sydney Water, the primary water utility in Sydney, conducted a comprehensive Smart Metering trial in residential homes in the suburb of Westleigh, in Sydney's north. The trial involved 1923 participants residing in 630 households. A whole-of-community method of engagement was applied to capture the views of residents from 12 to 70+ years of age. The trial examined the effects of the technology on the water consumption of an intervention group compared with that of a matched control group. After removing properties that had been sold since the beginning of the trial, properties in the study group were matched with a control group property on the basis of the household size, property size and the presence (or otherwise) of a swimming pool. The effects of the technology on consumption were measured and analyzed for the period July 2009 to June 2010, coupled with qualitative information that was collected throughout the duration of the study. A key finding was that households with the in-home display (IHD) installed, reduced their consumption by an average of over 6.8% over the study period when compared to the control group. Since completion of the study the community has not had any further interventions. The trial created an opportunity to examine the longer-term effects of the technology (June 2008 to September 2013). Consumption data collected over the 3 year posttrial period revealed that the participant group consumed 6.4% per month less water when compared to the pretrial period, whilst the matched control group consumed 1.3% per month more water when compared to the pretrial period. The reduced consumption of the participant group was maintained over time, demonstrating the long-term value of this technology.

  7. Interpretation at Wetland Sites in the Sydney Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadhokar, Yojana; McLoughlin, Lynette C.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretive and educational facilities at five wetland sites near Sydney (Australia) were studied to determine their goals, range of facilities and activities, and themes related to wetlands and their conservation covered in informal visitor programs and formal education programs for school groups. Program objectives and activities were generally

  8. A pre-and-post study of an urban renewal program in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban renewal programs aim to target both the physical and social environments to improve the social capital, social connectedness, sense of community and economic conditions of residents of the neighbourhoods. We evaluated the impact of an urban renewal program on the health and well-being of residents of a socially disadvantaged community in south-western Sydney, Australia. Methods Pre- and post-urban renewal program surveys were conducted with householders by trained interviewers. The urban renewal program was conducted over 16?months and consisted of internal upgrades (including internal painting; replacement of kitchens, bathrooms and carpets; general maintenance), external upgrades (including property painting; new fencing, carports, letterboxes, concrete driveways, drainage and landscaping), general external maintenance, and social interventions such as community engagement activities, employment initiatives, and building a community meeting place. The questionnaire asked about demographic characteristics, self-reported physical activity, psychological distress, self-rated health, and perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. We used the paired chi-square test (McNemars test) to compare paired proportions. A Bonferroni corrected p-value of <0.0013 denoted statistical significance. Results Following the urban renewal program we did not find statistically significant changes in perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. However, post-urban renewal, more householders reported there were attractive buildings and homes in their neighbourhood (18% vs 64%), felt that they belonged to the neighbourhood (48% vs 70%), that their area had a reputation for being a safe place (8% vs 27%), that they felt safe walking down their street after dark (52% vs 85%), and that people who came to live in the neighbourhood would be more likely to stay rather than move elsewhere (13% vs 54%). Changes in psychological distress and self-rated health were not statistically significant. Conclusions We found an increase, in the short-term, in the proportion of householders reporting improvements in some aspects of their immediate neighbourhood following the urban renewal program. It will be important to repeat the survey in the future to determine whether these positive changes are sustained. PMID:22788536

  9. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osso, F; Dominey-Howes, D; Moore, C; Summerhayes, S; Withycombe, G

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney. PMID:25492514

  10. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney. PMID:25492514

  11. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

  12. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  13. Unpacking Time: Minutes from Reggio Emilia, Australia and America. Conference Proceedings (5th, Sydney, Australia, July 8-9, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    This conference proceedings compiles papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2000, the fifth in a series examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on time and play in preschool education. Paper topics related to the history of

  14. Use of 210Pb and 137Cs to simultaneously constrain ages and sources of post-dam sediments in the Cordeaux reservoir, Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ava D; Woodroffe, Colin; Jones, Brian G; Heijnis, Henk; Mann, Rob A; Harrison, Jennifer

    2008-07-01

    Environmental radionuclides can be employed as tracers of sediment movement and delivery to water bodies such as lakes and reservoirs. The chronologies of sediments that have accumulated in the Cordeaux reservoir in Sydney, Australia, were determined by the rate of change of (210)Pb(ex) with depth and indicate slow accretion in the reservoir. The ratio of enrichment of radionuclides in sediment cores to (210)Pb(ex) and (137)Cs concentrations in a reference soil sample within the Cordeaux catchment indicates that the dominant source of sediment in the Cordeaux reservoir is surface erosion (detachment and removal of sediment at depths less than 30 cm). However, in the Kembla Creek arm of the reservoir a mixture of sources was detected and includes sheet and rill erosion together with sub-soil contributions. Implications for the utility of these radionuclide sedimentation assessments, especially where samples are limited, are that well-constrained chronologies and sources of soil erosion are facilitated. PMID:18289748

  15. Field Evaluation of Melolure, a Formate Analogue of Cuelure, and Reassessment of Fruit Fly Species Trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Campbell, Angus J; Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure or methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol is a very effective lure, but cuelure is less effective likely due to low volatility. A new formate analogue of cuelure, melolure, has increased volatility, resulting in improved efficacy with the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett. We tested the efficacy of melolure with fruit fly species in Sydney as part of the National Exotic Fruit Fly Monitoring programme. This monitoring programme has 71 trap sites across Sydney, with each trap site comprising separate Lynfield traps containing either cuelure, methyl eugenol, or capilure lure. In 2008, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure plugs was added to seven sites. In 2009 and 2010, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure wicks was added to 11 trap sites and traps were monitored fortnightly for 2 yr. Capture rates for melolure traps were similar to cuelure traps for Dacus absonifacies (May) and Dacus aequalis (Coquillet), but melolure traps consistently caught fewer Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) than cuelure traps. However, trap sites with both a cuelure and melolure traps had increased capture rates for D. absonifacies and D. aequalis, and a marginally significant increase for B. tryoni. Melolure plugs were less effective than melolure wicks, but this effect may be related to lure concentration. The broader Bactrocera group species were attracted more to cuelure than melolure while the Dacus group species were attracted more to melolure than cuelure. There is no benefit in switching from cuelure to melolure to monitor B. tryoni, the most important fruit fly pest in Australia. PMID:26470243

  16. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. PMID:23973180

  17. Fluid flow histories in Permo-Triass sediments of the Sydney Basin, SE Australia; isotope and fluid inclusion constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.J. ); Bai, G.P. )

    1996-01-01

    A petrographic, isotopic and fluid inclusion investigation of Permo-Triassic sandstones in the Sydney Basin has enabled reconstruction of the history of fluid flow. Diagenetic cements in Triassic sandstones comprise, in order, grain coating clays and carbonates, pore filling carbonates, kaolin, quartz, late interstitial carbonate and illite. Diagenesis in the Permian sandstones began with pore filling siderite prior to saddle ankerite, followed by quartz and then illite and late carbonates. Fluid rock interaction during burial resulted in increases in pore water 8180 from depositional values of -17[per thousand] to about -12[per thousand] to -7[per thousand] at the time of quartz overgrowth crystallization and to between -7[per thousand] to -1[per thousand] at the time of illite crystallisation. Interpretation of fluid inclusion data and maturity measurements indicates that heat flow increased during the Triassic and Jurassic, reaching a maximum of about 2.1 HFU in the Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous uplift, cooling and erosion was initiated at the same time as, and probably related to, the initiation of Tasman Sea rifting. The rocks had previously been more deeply buried by 1500-2100m. The uplift resulted in cessation of illite diagenesis timed at 90Ma and meteoric water invasion of the sandstones in turn causing partial resetting of [delta]D compositions of the diagenetic clays to less D-depleted values.

  18. Fluid flow histories in Permo-Triass sediments of the Sydney Basin, SE Australia; isotope and fluid inclusion constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.J.; Bai, G.P.

    1996-12-31

    A petrographic, isotopic and fluid inclusion investigation of Permo-Triassic sandstones in the Sydney Basin has enabled reconstruction of the history of fluid flow. Diagenetic cements in Triassic sandstones comprise, in order, grain coating clays and carbonates, pore filling carbonates, kaolin, quartz, late interstitial carbonate and illite. Diagenesis in the Permian sandstones began with pore filling siderite prior to saddle ankerite, followed by quartz and then illite and late carbonates. Fluid rock interaction during burial resulted in increases in pore water 8180 from depositional values of -17{per_thousand} to about -12{per_thousand} to -7{per_thousand} at the time of quartz overgrowth crystallization and to between -7{per_thousand} to -1{per_thousand} at the time of illite crystallisation. Interpretation of fluid inclusion data and maturity measurements indicates that heat flow increased during the Triassic and Jurassic, reaching a maximum of about 2.1 HFU in the Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous uplift, cooling and erosion was initiated at the same time as, and probably related to, the initiation of Tasman Sea rifting. The rocks had previously been more deeply buried by 1500-2100m. The uplift resulted in cessation of illite diagenesis timed at 90Ma and meteoric water invasion of the sandstones in turn causing partial resetting of {delta}D compositions of the diagenetic clays to less D-depleted values.

  19. The mismatch of bioaccumulated trace metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in field and transplanted oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to ambient surficial sediments and suspended particulate matter in a highly urbanised estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Birch, Gavin F

    2016-04-01

    A significant correlation between sedimentary metals, particularly the 'bio-available' fraction, and bioaccumulated metal concentrations in the native Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) tissues has been successfully demonstrated previously for Cu and Zn in a number of estuaries in New South Wales, Australia. However, this relationship has been difficult to establish in a highly modified estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia) where metal contamination is of greatest concern and where a significant relationship would be most useful for environmental monitoring. The use of the Sydney rock oyster as a biomonitoring tool for metal contamination was assessed in the present study by investigating relationships between metals attached to sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) to bioaccumulated concentrations in oyster tissues. Surficial sediments (both total and fine-fraction), SPM and wild oysters were collected over 3 years from three embayments (Chowder Bay, Mosman Bay and Iron Cove) with each embayment representing a different physiographic region of Sydney estuary. In addition, a transplant experiment of farmed oysters was conducted in the same embayments for 3 months. No relationship was observed between sediments or SPM metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) to tissue of wild oysters; however, significant relationship was observed against transplanted oysters. The mismatch between wild and farmed, transplanted oysters is perplexing and indicates that wild oysters are unsuitable to be used as a biomonitoring tool due to the involvement of unknown complex factors while transplanted oysters hold strong potential. PMID:27003401

  20. Ethnomedicine and dominant medicine in multicultural Australia: a critical realist reflection on the case of Korean-Australian immigrants in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; Ballis, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Background Viewed through the micro focus of an interpretive lens, medical anthropology remains mystified because interpretivist explanations seriously downplay the given context in which individual health seeking-behaviours occur. This paper draws upon both the interpretivist and political economy perspectives to reflect on the ethno medical practices within the Korean-Australian community in Sydney. Methods We draw on research data collected between 1995 and 1997 for an earlier study of the use of biomedical and traditional medicine by Korean-Australians in Sydney. A total of 120 interviews were conducted with a range of participants, including biomedical doctors, traditional health professionals, Korean community leaders and Korean migrants representing a range of socio-economic backgrounds and migration patterns. Results and Discussion First, the paper highlights the extent to which the social location of migrants in a host society alters or restructures their initial cultural practices they bring with them. Second, taking hanbang medicine in the Korean-Australian community as an illustrative case, the paper explores the transformation of the dominant biomedicine in Australia as a result of the influx of ethnomedicine in the era of global capitalism and global movement. Conclusion In seeking to explain the popularity and supply of alternative health care, it is important to go beyond the culture of each kind of health care itself and to take into consideration the changes occurring at societal, national and global levels as well as consequential individual response to the changes. New social conditions influence the choice of health care methods, including herbal/alternative medicine, health foods and what are often called New Age therapies. PMID:17201916

  1. A human thermal climatology of subtropical Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, J. C.; de Dear, R. J.

    2003-09-01

    Using a physiologically relevant thermal comfort index (OUT_SET*), an analysis of the week-by-week human thermal climate of Sydney was carried out for three levels of metabolic activity. The OUT_SET* index is an outdoor version of the widely used indoor comfort index called the standard effective temperature (SET*) incorporating air and mean radiant temperatures, relative humidity, air velocity, clothing insulation and activity level. The outdoor comfort zone for Sydney in terms of OUT_SET* was found from earlier subjective field studies to be in the range 23.8-28.5C. The analysis indicated that the mid-summer period (weeks 43 through to 12 in the Southern Hemisphere) was most suitable for sedentary outdoor activities (e.g. watching spectator sport), whereas the mid-winter period was more suitable for light activities such as walking. Sydney's winter was found to be a very suitable season for tourism in many respects because of (a) low rainfall months, like August, and (b) the ability to undertake light activities while remaining within the outdoor comfort zone. For high metabolic activities during the day, for example the mass participation Sydney City-to-Surf fun run, it was found that the threshold limit value for increased risk of heat stress (as defined by ISO 7243, 1989) is exceeded up to 50% of the time during the summer (weeks 50 through to 9 at 3 p.m.) at the 90th percentile probability level. The methods and results of this study should be relevant to end-users such as architects, engineers, outdoor-event planners and the tourism industry in general.

  2. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami - an application of the revised Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) Model in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Dall'Osso, Fillippo; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.

    2010-05-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009a, b) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience. Last, we propose the wider application of the PTVA-3 Model as a tool for building vulnerability assessment. Dall'Osso, D., Gonella, M., Gabbianelli, G., Withycombe, G. and Dominey-Howes, D. (2009a). A revised (PTVA) model for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1557-1565. Dall'Osso, D., Gonella, M., Gabbianelli, G., Withycombe, G. and Dominey-Howes, D. (2009b). Assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunami (in Sydney). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 2015-2026.

  3. Explaining ecological clusters of maternal depression in South Western Sydney

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to: 1) explain the observed clustering of postnatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney; and 2) identify group-level mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the social determinants of maternal depression. Methods Critical realism provided the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was four local government areas in South Western Sydney, Australia. Child and Family practitioners and mothers in naturally occurring mothers groups were interviewed. Results Using an open coding approach to maximise emergence of patterns and relationships we have identified seven theoretical concepts that might explain the observed spatial clustering of maternal depression. The theoretical concepts identified were: Community-level social networks; Social Capital and Social Cohesion; "Depressed community"; Access to services at the group level; Ethnic segregation and diversity; Supportive social policy; and Big business. Conclusions We postulate that these regional structural, economic, social and cultural mechanisms partially explain the pattern of maternal depression observed in families and communities within South Western Sydney. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situation. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their families within this adverse regional and global-economic context. PMID:24460690

  4. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

  5. Palaeogeographic reconstruction of sandstones using weighted mean grain-size maps, with examples from the Karoo Basin (South Africa) and the Sydney Basin (Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, J. P.

    1992-12-01

    Although sandstone grain-size maps can be a powerful means of reconstructing ancient depositional environments, they have rarely been used in the past. In this paper, two case studies are presented to illustrate the potential of this technique where other, more conventional methods may not be applicable. In the first case, a braided to anastomosing river system in the Triassic Molteno Formation of the South African Karoo Basin is examined. The weighted mean grain-size map clearly portrays the distribution of channels and islands and compares very well with other methods of reconstruction. The second case study examines an offshore shoal in the Permian Nowra Sandstone of the Sydney Basin in Australia. Here the grain-size map shows a north-northeasterly trend parallel to the orientation of the shoal, with a zone of coarsest grains displaced to the east of the shoal crest. This probably reflects the location of the breaker zone. As grain size is an important factor controlling the porosity and permeability of sediments, these maps can provide very useful information when exploring for epigenetic, stratabound ore deposits such as uranium, or planning production wells for oil and gas.

  6. Public assessment of the usefulness of "draft" tsunami evacuation maps from Sydney, Australia - implications for the establishment of formal evacuation plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2010-08-01

    Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas - a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b), we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b) to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans) in the future.

  7. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM. PMID:17360882

  8. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 4: Kerr, Shain, Higgins and the Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; George, Martin; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Between 1949 and 1952 the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics was a world leader in low frequency radio astronomy, through research conducted mainly by Alex Shain and Charlie Higgins at their Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney. In this paper we discuss the personnel, radio telescopes and research programs (mainly conducted at 9.15 and 18.3 MHz) associated with the Hornsby Valley site.

  9. The prevalence of urogenital micro-organisms detected by a multiplex PCR-reverse line blot assay in women attending three sexual health clinics in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Michelle L; Hillman, Richard J; Jones, Rachel; Lowe, Penelope C; Couldwell, Deborah L; Davies, Stephen C; King, Fiona; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2011-07-01

    This study used a previously described multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay to assess the prevalence and distribution of 14 urogenital pathogens or putative pathogens, namely Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and human adenovirus. First-voided urine specimens and endocervical and self-collected vaginal swabs from each of 216 women attending three sexual health clinics in Sydney, Australia, were tested and the results were compared with those of reference methods for each organism. One hundred and sixty-eight women (77.7?%) had at least one and 105 (48.6?%) had more than one target organism, most commonly G. vaginalis and Ureaplasma spp. The prevalence of each of the four known sexually transmissible pathogens was <5?%. Of the 216 women, 111 (51.4?%) reported at least one symptom consistent with genital or urethral infection, including discharge, pain or discomfort. Only G. vaginalis was detected more frequently in women with symptoms (P?=?0.05). The specificity of the mPCR/RLB assay compared with that of the reference methods for each organism and for all specimen types was 100?%. The mean sensitivities of the mPCR/RLB assay compared with those of the reference methods for self-collected vaginal swabs, cervical swabs and first-voided urine specimens for all organisms were 99.3, 98.1 and 84.6?%, respectively; however, these differences were not significant. There were no differences in sensitivities between specimen types for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis and H. influenzae, although all were found infrequently. Overall, the mPCR/RLB platform was found to be an accurate testing platform in a sexual health clinic setting. PMID:21415210

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road-deposited sediments, water sediments, and soils in Sydney, Australia: Comparisons of concentration distribution, sources and potential toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Chung; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Slee, Danny; Stevenson, Gavin; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered as priority environmental pollutants were analysed in surface natural soils (NS), road-deposited sediments (RDS), and water sediments (WS) at Kogarah in Sydney, Australia. Comparisons were made of their concentration distributions, likely sources and potential toxicities. The concentrations (mg/kg) in NS, RDS, and WS ranged from 0.40 to 7.49 (mean 2.80), 1.65 to 4.00 (mean 2.91), and 0.49 to 5.19 (mean 1.76), respectively. PAHs were dominated by relatively high molecular weight compounds with more than three fused benzene rings, indicating that high temperature combustion processes were their predominant sources. The proportions of high molecular weight PAHs with five or six fused benzene rings were higher in NS than in RDS, whereas the low molecular weight PAHs were higher in RDS. Concentrations of all PAHs compounds were observed to be the lowest in WS. The concentrations of most of the high molecular weight PAHs significantly correlated with each other in RDS and WS. All PAHs (except naphthalene) were significantly correlated in NS suggesting a common PAH source. Ratios for individual diagnostic PAHs demonstrated that the primary source of PAHs in WS and NS was of pyrogenic origin (combustion of petroleum (vehicle exhaust), grass, and wood) while in RDS it was petrogenic (i.e. unburned or leaked fuel and oil, road asphalt, and tyre particles) as well as pyrogenic. The potential toxicities of PAHs calculated using a toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ) were all low but higher for NS compared to WS and RDS. PMID:24732030

  11. Adequacy of nutritional intake among older men living in Sydney, Australia: findings from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP).

    PubMed

    Waern, Rosilene V R; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Le Couteur, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Kendig, Hal; Hirani, Vasant

    2015-09-14

    Previous research shows that older men tend to have lower nutritional intakes and higher risk of under-nutrition compared with younger men. The objectives of this study were to describe energy and nutrient intakes, assess nutritional risk and investigate factors associated with poor intake of energy and key nutrients in community-dwelling men aged ?75 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - a longitudinal cohort study on older men in Sydney, Australia. A total of 794 men (mean age 814 years) had a detailed diet history interview, which was carried out by a dietitian. Dietary adequacy was assessed by comparing median intakes with nutrient reference values (NRV): estimated average requirement, adequate intake or upper level of intake. Attainment of NRV of total energy and key nutrients in older age (protein, Fe, Zn, riboflavin, Ca and vitamin D) was incorporated into a 'key nutrients' variable dichotomised as 'good' (?5) or 'poor' (?4). Using logistic regression modelling, we examined associations between key nutrients with factors known to affect food intake. Median energy intake was 8728 kJ (P5=5762 kJ, P95=12 303 kJ), and mean BMI was 277 (sd 40) kg/m2. Men met their NRV for most nutrients. However, only 1 % of men met their NRV for vitamin D, only 19 % for Ca, only 30 % for K and only 33 % for dietary fibre. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only country of birth was significantly associated with poor nutritional intake. Dietary intakes were adequate for most nutrients; however, only half of the participants met the NRV of ?5 key nutrients. PMID:26266529

  12. Tackling the Issues of Landscape Characterisation for Natural Resource Management in Urban and Peri-urban Western Sydney, Australia: Application of the Hydro-Geologic Landscapes Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. L.; Harvey, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dryland salinity is a natural resource management issue and a planning hazard in urban/peri-urban Western Sydney, where there is enormous development pressure. The level of detail available on local geological, hydrogeologic and soils maps commonly does not provide sufficient detail for sub-catchment scale urban development planning and natural resource management (NRM) decision-making. The dominant lithologies for the area are relatively thick (up to 300m), flat-lying, Triassic fluvial and shallow marine siliciclastic sediments of the Sydney Basin. Localised areas of Cainozoic gravels cover the palaeo-landscapes developed on older rocks, and modern fluvial processes along the Hawkesbury River and tributaries continue to modify the landscape. Salt is concentrated in this landscape through aeolian accession and deposition from oceanic aerosols, but almost never as fossil (connate) salts. The redistribution of salts by the process of aeolian accession typically takes place when the salts are coupled with windblown dust known as parna. For south-eastern NSW, this dust originates from areas which are more arid, such as the western regions of the NSW and Victorian states. Aerosols from the ocean can be responsible for the deposition of salts up to a few hundred kilometres from their source. This process is responsible for a significant contribution of salt in the Sydney area. Field observations have shown that salt outbreaks are more dominant on some Sydney Basin units, specifically the Wianamatta Group sediments, some Cainozoic units, and along many active drainage systems. The Wianamatta Group sediments comprise three sub-groups; the Bringelly Shale, Minchinbury Sandstone and Ashfield Shale. The Cainozoic sediments comprise at least three units; the Saint Mary's Formation, Rickaby's Creek Gravels and Londonderry Clay. In Western Sydney these successions form an east-west oriented, tear-drop-shaped sub-basin, the Cumberland Basin, that narrows and thins to the east. In the field, it has proven difficult to consistently discriminate between the Wianamatta Group sequence and the Cainozoic sediments without precise geomorphological characterisation of the landscape coupled with stratigraphic profiling. Further, terraces in the Recent fluvial deposits contribute to the development of a complex "stepped" landscape structure. Detailed biophysical typing of landscapes in this area using Hydro-Geologic Landscape characterisation, a scaled and modified Groundwater Flow System approach, allows constraint of salt storage and distribution, and development of conceptual models for saline fluid flow, and hence informs urban planning and NRM decision-making and provides evidence for implementation of preferred land use practices. Strategic planning for dryland salinity, with respect to urban development, must address two principal concerns: the manifestation of land salinisation, and salinisation of waterways in this landscape; and, the impact of a high runoff, high recharge, low perenniality, low groundwater-consumption land use model (e.g. high density suburban housing). Land salinisation impacts on engineering structures, roads, and built infrastructure, and stresses vegetation. Water quality is an issue, especially if development occurs in a drinking water catchment. In order to minimise these impacts on future urban developments, a well-structured decision support system that underpins planning is required. Biophysical characterisation of the landscapes, using the Hydro-Geologic Landscapes (HGL) technique, is complimented by careful studies of the stratigraphy of the Wianamatta Group sediments, the overlying Cainozoic sediments and the Quaternary-Recent deposits in this area. In addition a preliminary groundwater study has been undertaken. Understanding of the detailed regolith geology, hydrology, geomorphology and geological structures allows for appropriate management in a delicate landscape and underpins development planning in outer urban Sydney.

  13. Suicidal electrocution in Sydney: a 10-year case review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Peter; Duflou, Johan

    2008-03-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of all cases of death due to suicidal electrocution in Sydney, Australia between 1996 and 2005. A total of 25 cases were identified with 20 cases (80%) as a result of direct attachment to an electrical outlet and five cases (20%) as a result of immersion in a body of water with an electrical appliance. Twenty of the 25 individuals were men (mean age = 57 years, range 22-90) and five were women (mean age 67, range 53-88). At least 35% of decedents were either currently working or had worked as electricians. Electrical timers had been used in eight (32%) cases, the fuse blown in one case, but the remaining 16 (64%) bodies were "live" on arrival of witnesses or electricity personnel. This study demonstrates the phenomenon of electrical suicide as a regular occurrence in Sydney. We highlight the need for investigators and emergency workers to remain vigilant upon discovery of electrical suicides, due to the fact that most bodies remain electrically active after death. PMID:18366579

  14. A longitudinal study of smoking in year 7and 8students speaking English or a language other than English at home in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, K. C.; Rissel, C.; Bauman, A.; Fay, J.; Porter, S.; Dawes, A.; Steven, B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo compare the rates and predictors of smoking uptake between adolescents speaking English and those speaking a language other than English (LOTE) at home.?DESIGNA cross-sectional survey of year 7and 8students (aged 12and 13years) was conducted in 1994and repeated 12months later. A cohort of students was identified with respondents at baseline matched at follow up. ?2 and logistic regression were used for analysis.?SETTING38 schools in southern, east, and northern Sydney, Australia.?SUBJECTSYear 7and 8students in the schools were included and examined on two occasions, with complete data for 5947(80%) students at baseline and 6177(98%) students at a 12-month follow up. Records were able to be matched perfectly for 3513respondents (59%).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESSmoking rates and predictors of smoking uptake among students speaking English or a LOTE at home.?RESULTSAt baseline, 6.1% of students surveyed were smokers. Twelve months later, 15.8% of student surveyed were smokers. There were significantly lower smoking rates among students speaking a LOTE at home compared with those speaking English at home at baseline and at 12months. Using matched data, for students speaking English at home, five variables were significant predictors of smoking uptake: thinking it acceptable to smoke, perceived benefits of smoking, and having a brother, sister, or close friend who smokes. For students speaking a LOTE, the only predictor was the smoking status of close friends.?CONCLUSIONSDespite the higher smoking prevalence among men with a non-English-speaking background, and the reported strong association between fathers' smoking status and smoking onset of their children, adolescents speaking a LOTE at home were significantly less likely to be smokers than their English-speaking counterparts. Thus, there would seem to be a delay of smoking onset among students speaking a LOTE at home. The smoking rates among respondents speaking a LOTE at home in this study are lower than those obtained from the studies conducted in Europe and the United States. Effective smoking prevention interventions need to be implemented at an early stage of adolescence.???Keywords: cigarette smoking; adolescents; ethnicity PMID:9706752

  15. A novel insect-specific flavivirus replicates only in Aedes-derived cells and persists at high prevalence in wild Aedes vigilax populations in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    McLean, Breeanna J; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Webb, Cameron E; Watterson, Daniel; Prow, Natalie A; Nguyen, Hong Duyen; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Warrilow, David; Johansen, Cheryl A; Jansen, Cassie C; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Beebe, Nigel W; Schnettler, Esther; Barnard, Ross T; Hall, Roy A

    2015-12-01

    To date, insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) have only been isolated from mosquitoes and increasing evidence suggests that ISFs may affect the transmission of pathogenic flaviviruses. To investigate the diversity and prevalence of ISFs in Australian mosquitoes, samples from various regions were screened for flaviviruses by ELISA and RT-PCR. Thirty-eight pools of Aedes vigilax from Sydney in 2007 yielded isolates of a novel flavivirus, named Parramatta River virus (PaRV). Sequencing of the viral RNA genome revealed it was closely related to Hanko virus with 62.3% nucleotide identity over the open reading frame. PaRV failed to grow in vertebrate cells, with only Aedes-derived mosquito cell lines permissive to replication, suggesting a narrow host range. 2014 collections revealed that PaRV had persisted in A. vigilax populations in Sydney, with 88% of pools positive. Further investigations into its mode of transmission and potential to influence vector competence of A. vigilax for pathogenic viruses are warranted. PMID:26519596

  16. Tracing Discourses of Social Action: Inner-City Sydney Neighbourhood Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, John

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on my doctoral research around community organizations in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. The neighbourhood centres (NCs) provide a case study of sites where discourses of feminism, multiculturalism and urban environmentalism have been activated within a social justice framework. The research participants were activists

  17. Status and Conditions of Employment at the University of Sydney 1850-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of the faculty and working conditions at the University of Sydney (Australia) since its founding are chronicled, focusing on academic ranks and promotion, the growth of the faculty, internal governance, tenure, policy on sabbatical leave, salary levels, and the status of academics in the community. (MSE)

  18. "A Reservoir of Learning": The Beginnings of Continuing Education at the University of Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl

    2009-01-01

    Adult education has often been on the margin of university offerings in Australia and elsewhere, sometimes regarded as "non-core" business or at least as a financial drain on the institution. At the University of Sydney, however, adult education has managed to survive in one form or other for over 140 years, currently through the Centre for

  19. Creating Effective Holocaust Education Programmes for Government Schools with Large Muslim Populations in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and…

  20. Creating Effective Holocaust Education Programmes for Government Schools with Large Muslim Populations in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and

  1. Extreme Droughts In Sydney And Melbourne Since The 1850s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Selim

    2014-05-01

    Sydney and Melbourne are the two highly populated and very well known Australian cities. Population is over 4 million for each. These cities are subject to extreme droughts which affect regional water resources and cause substantial agricultural and economic losses. This study presents a drought analysis of Sydney and Melbourne for the period of 1850s to date by using Effective Drought Index (EDI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). EDI is a function of precipitation needed for return to normal conditions, the amount of precipitation necessary for recovery from the accumulated deficit since the beginning of a drought. SPI is the most popular and widely used drought index for the last decades. According to the results of EDI analysis; 8 different extreme drought events identified in Sydney, and 5 events in Melbourne since 1850s. The characterization of these extreme drought events were investigated in terms of magnitude, duration, intensity and interarrival time between previous drought event. EDI results were compared with the results of SPI and the similarities and differences were then discussed in more detail. The most severe drought event was identified for the period of July 1979 to February 1981 (lasted 19 months) for Sydney, while the most severe drought took longer in Melbourne for the period of March 2006 to February 2010 (47 months). This study focuses on the benefits of the use of EDI and SPI methods in order to monitor droughts beside presenting the extreme drought case study of Sydney and Melbourne.

  2. Outbreak of hepatitis A among homosexual men in Sydney.

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, M L; Ferson, M J; Young, L C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined an outbreak of hepatitis A in eastern Sydney during 1991-1992. METHODS: Data were based on cases of hepatitis A in eastern Sydney residents reported from January 1991 to October 1992. RESULTS: Five hundred seventy cases of hepatitis A were reported. Of these, 515 (90%) occurred in male patients, of whom 330 were reported to be homosexual or bisexual. The highest attack rate (71/10,000) occurred in men aged 20 to 29 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak affected large numbers of young homosexual men living in the inner eastern suburbs of Sydney. Hepatitis A vaccination should be considered for all susceptible homosexual men. Further research into the use of hepatitis A vaccine as an outbreak control measure is also recommended. PMID:9431300

  3. Instrumental developments for the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. Gordon; Ireland, Michael J.; Tango, William J.; Davis, John; Tuthill, Peter G.; Jacob, Andrew P.; Kok, Yitping; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.

    2010-07-01

    The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) has been enhanced by installation of the PAVO beam combiner, which uses an electron-multiplying CCD detector giving a fast, low-noise 2D readout. This allows PAVO to provide wide-band wavelength dispersed beam combination, which improves sensitivity and scientific productivity. PAVO also provides pupil segmentation which improves the instrumental fringe visibility. A remote operations facility has been established, which allows SUSI to be operated from Sydney or elsewhere. A new control system for the longitudinal dispersion corrector and siderostats is under development. Installation has commenced of a high precision differential astrometry system (MUSCA) which aims to detect planets in binary star systems.

  4. Future Training Issues in Australia's Industries. A Collection of the Papers Presented at the NCVER 1998 Conference: Industry Training Outlook '98 (Sydney, Australia, October 12-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This book contains 31 papers from a conference on future training issues in Australia's industries. The following papers are included: "Training Development in Australia" (Chris Ellison); "Meeting National and Employer Training Requirements" (Mark Paterson); "Meeting Employee Training Requirements" (Bill Mansfield); "Training Challenges in

  5. Future Training Issues in Australia's Industries. A Collection of the Papers Presented at the NCVER 1998 Conference: Industry Training Outlook '98 (Sydney, Australia, October 12-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This book contains 31 papers from a conference on future training issues in Australia's industries. The following papers are included: "Training Development in Australia" (Chris Ellison); "Meeting National and Employer Training Requirements" (Mark Paterson); "Meeting Employee Training Requirements" (Bill Mansfield); "Training Challenges in…

  6. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  7. The University of Sydney Library Catalogue Data Entry System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, M. E. L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This report is a description of the history, development, and present state of the University of Sydney Library Catalog Data Entry System. The system has been designed for use on an IBM System 360/20 using assembler programing language. While its primary objective is the generation of machine-readable catalogs, a byproduct of the system has been

  8. Rewriting "The Road to Nowhere": Place Pedagogies in Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Negative representations of parts of our cities are endemic in the Australian media, where certain suburbs function as motifs for failure--past, present, and future. Indeed, as one journalist put it after invoking the "interchangeable" triumvirate of Sydney's Mount Druitt, Melbourne's West Heidelberg, and Brisbane's Inala, "geography is destiny"

  9. Engaging the Refugee Community of Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the community engagement program, "Refugee Action Support" (RAS) at the University of Western Sydney. RAS is a partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation, The NSW Department of Education and Training and the university. The Refugee Action Support program prepares pre-service teachers to teach

  10. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jessica Veliscek; Hughes, Catherine E; Hoffmann, Emmy L

    2011-10-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater out falls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae,which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal out fall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STP's as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline out falls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively. PMID:22180886

  11. Unpacking Interpretation: De-Constructions from Australia, America and Reggio Emilia. Selected Conference Papers from the Unpacking Conference (6th, Sydney, Australia, July 16-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    This conference proceedings compiles a representative sample of the papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2001, one in a series of conferences examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on the interpretation of experiences and

  12. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (<0.05 μg g(-1)), except during year 2 remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental quality. PMID:24105125

  13. Travel Mode and Physical Activity at Sydney University

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Mulley, Corinne; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    How staff and students travel to university can impact their physical activity level. An online survey of physical activity and travel behaviour was conducted in early November 2012 to inform planning of physical activity and active travel promotion programs at the University of Sydney, Australia as part of the Sit Less, Move More sub-committee of the Healthy University Initiative, and as baseline data for evaluation. There were 3,737 useable responses, 60% of which were from students. Four out of five respondents travelled to the University on the day of interest (Tuesday, November 30, 2012). The most frequently used travel modes were train (32%), car as driver (22%), bus (17%), walking (17%) and cycling (6%). Staff were twice as likely to drive as students, and also slightly more likely to use active transport, defined as walking and cycling (26% versus 22%). Overall, 41% of respondents were sufficiently active (defined by meeting physical activity recommendations of 150 min per week). Participants were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations if they travelled actively to the University. With a high proportion of respondents using active travel modes or public transport already, increasing the physical activity levels and increasing the use of sustainable travel modes would mean a mode shift from public transport to walking and cycling for students is needed and a mode shift from driving to public transport or active travel for University staff. Strategies to achieve this are discussed. PMID:23939390

  14. Outcomes of Ethnic Minority Groups with Node-Positive, Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer in Two Tertiary Referral Canters in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephanie H.; Delaney, Geoff P.; Descallar, Joseph; Sayaloune, Phan; Papadatos, George; de Souza, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is a lack of information in ethnic minority groups with regard to presentation and treatment of early node-positive breast cancer. We carried out a retrospective study of patients referred to two tertiary cancer centers in South Western Sydney, both of which serve a high proportion of this ethnic minority population. Patients and methods Women who had pathologically node-positive non-metastatic breast cancer (T1-3, N1-3, M0) diagnosed between 2003 and 2006 were studied, with variables of interest being tumor size, number of positive nodes, histological grade, hormone receptor status, age at diagnosis, country of birth and treatment. We compared the Asian and Western subgroups with regard to tumor characteristics, treatment and clinical outcomes. Results A total of 652 eligible patients were identified, with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Women with Asian backgrounds (n?=?125, 20%) were significantly younger at presentation (48 years versus 55 years, p-value <0.0001) and more likely to undergo mastectomy (53% versus 39%, p-value 0.0009) and chemotherapy (86% versus 72%, p-value 0.0063) than their non-Asian counterparts. Tumor stage, grade and receptor status were not statistically different between these two groups. There were also no differences in disease-free survival and overall survival, with medians of 12.7 and 14.8 years respectively. Conclusion Women of Asian background are younger at diagnosis, which may reflect population epidemiology and likely results in higher uptake of chemotherapy. Higher mastectomy rates may be influenced by cultural factors. Future research is warranted to investigate potential differences in tumor biology, psychosocial, economic and cultural factors. PMID:24752636

  15. What They Want: Inclusion of Blood and Marrow Transplanation Survivor Preference in the Development of Models of Care for Long-Term Health in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Gemma; Gilroy, Nicole; Brown, Louisa; Hogg, Megan; Brice, Lisa; Kabir, Masura; Greenwood, Matt; Larsen, Stephen R; Moore, John; Hertzberg, Mark; Kwan, John; Huang, Gillian; Tan, Jeff; Ward, Christopher; Kerridge, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Four hundred forty-one adult allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors participated in a cross-sectional survey to assess long-term follow-up (LTFU) model of care preference. Survey instruments included the Sydney Post BMT Survey, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-BMT, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, the Chronic GVHD Activity Assessment-Patient Self Report (Form B), the Lee Chronic GVHD Symptom Scale and the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. We found most BMT survivors (74%) would prefer LTFU with their transplantation physicians alone or in combination with transplantation center-linked services (satellite clinics or telemedicine) Over one-quarter indicated a preference for receiving comprehensive post-transplantation care in a "satellite" clinic staffed by their BMT team situated closer to their place of residence, with higher income, higher educational level, and sexual morbidity being significant social factors influencing this preference. Regular exercise was reported less often in those who preferred telemedicine, which may reflect reduced mobility. The factor most strongly associated with a preference for transplantation center follow-up was the severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Full- and part-time work were negatively associated with transplantation center follow-up, possibly implying decreased dependency on the center and some return to normalcy. This study is the first to explore the preferences of BMT survivors for long-term post-transplantation care. These data provides the basis for LTFU model of care development and health service reform consistent with the preferences of BMT survivors. PMID:26746819

  16. Should cities hosting mass gatherings invest in public health surveillance and planning? Reflections from a decade of mass gatherings in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thackway, Sarah; Churches, Timothy; Fizzell, Jan; Muscatello, David; Armstrong, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings have been defined by the World Health Organisation as "events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of a community, state or nation". This paper explores the public health response to mass gatherings in Sydney, the factors that influenced the extent of deployment of resources and the utility of planning for mass gatherings as a preparedness exercise for other health emergencies. Discussion Not all mass gatherings of people require enhanced surveillance and additional response. The main drivers of extensive public health planning for mass gatherings reflect geographical spread, number of international visitors, event duration and political and religious considerations. In these instances, the implementation of a formal risk assessment prior to the event with ongoing daily review is important in identifying public health hazards. Developing and utilising event-specific surveillance to provide early-warning systems that address the specific risks identified through the risk assessment process are essential. The extent to which additional resources are required will vary and depend on the current level of surveillance infrastructure. Planning the public health response is the third step in preparing for mass gatherings. If the existing public health workforce has been regularly trained in emergency response procedures then far less effort and resources will be needed to prepare for each mass gathering event. The use of formal emergency management structures and co-location of surveillance and planning operational teams during events facilitates timely communication and action. Summary One-off mass gathering events can provide a catalyst for innovation and engagement and result in opportunities for ongoing public health planning, training and surveillance enhancements that outlasted each event. PMID:19735577

  17. Summarising climate and air quality (ozone) data on self-organising maps: a Sydney case study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ningbo; Betts, Alan; Riley, Matt

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the classification and visualisation utility of the self-organising map (SOM) method in the context of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using gridded NCEP/NCAR geopotential height reanalysis for east Australia, together with multi-site meteorological and air quality data for Sydney from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Air Quality Monitoring Network. A twice-daily synoptic classification has been derived for east Australia for the period of 1958-2012. The classification has not only reproduced the typical synoptic patterns previously identified in the literature but also provided an opportunity to visualise the subtle, non-linear change in the eastward-migrating synoptic systems influencing NSW (including Sydney). The summarisation of long-term, multi-site air quality/meteorological data from the Sydney basin on the SOM plane has identified a set of typical air pollution/meteorological spatial patterns in the region. Importantly, the examination of these patterns in relation to synoptic weather types has provided important visual insights into how local and synoptic meteorological conditions interact with each other and affect the variability of air quality in tandem. The study illustrates that while synoptic circulation types are influential, the within-type variability in mesoscale flows plays a critical role in determining local ozone levels in Sydney. These results indicate that the SOM can be a useful tool for assessing the impact of weather and climatic conditions on air quality in the regional airshed. This study further promotes the use of the SOM method in environmental research. PMID:26787272

  18. The Sydney 2000 World Weather Research Programme Forecast Demonstration Project: Overview and Current Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, T.; Joe, P.; Wilson, J.; Collier, C.; Golding, B.; Burgess, D.; May, P.; Pierce, C.; Bally, J.; Crook, A.; Seed, A.; Sills, D.; Berry, L.; Potts, R.; Bell, I.; Fox, N.; Ebert, E.; Eilts, M.; O'Loughlin, K.; Webb, R.; Carbone, R.; Browning, K.; Roberts, R.; Mueller, C.

    2003-08-01

    The first World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP), with a focus on nowcasting, was conducted in Sydney, Australia, from 4 September to 21 November 2000 during a period associated with the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Through international collaboration, nine nowcasting systems from the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia were deployed at the Sydney Office of the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) to demonstrate the capability of modern forecast systems and to quantify the associated benefits in the delivery of a real-time nowcast service. On-going verification and impact studies supported by international committees assisted by the WWRP formed an integral part of this project. A description is given of the project, including component systems, the weather, and initial outcomes. Initial results show that the nowcasting systems tested were transferable and able to provide valuable information enhancing BOM nowcasts. The project provided for unprecedented interchange of concepts and ideas between forecasters, researchers, and end users in an operational framework where they all faced common issues relevant to real time nowcast decision making. A training workshop sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) was also held in conjunction with the project so that other member nations could benefit from the FDP.

  19. Were jobs more important than health in Sydney?

    PubMed Central

    Robb, N

    1995-01-01

    Unusually high cancer rates in Sydney, NS, have finally prompted an epidemiologic study that will look at the interplay of occupational and environmental exposure, smoking and genetic predisposition. The study is part of a $3.6 million healthy communities project, and it may determine the effect of coke-oven emissions on steelworkers and residents. Images p920-a p921-a p921-b p922-a PMID:7697582

  20. Preserving Sydney's built heritage in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Freestone, R

    1999-01-01

    Modernity has been antithetical to heritage conservation in the twentieth century. The value of inherited buildings was not widely acknowledged by government officials, politicians, architects, planners and the broader community until the' 1970s. From the turn of the century, a coalition of pioneering preservationists in Sydney confronted a formidable growth mentality, which linked preservation with economic and cultural stasis. This article explores the objectives, composition, ideology, modus operandi and record of the fledgeling preservation movement against the backdrop of modernisation. PMID:19400021

  1. The Sydney System for classification of gastritis 20 years ago.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Price, Ashley B

    2011-01-01

    The roots of research into gastritis go back into the early decades of the 20th century. Modern aspects of its classification and knowledge of its biological course and consequences were relatively well known even at the time that Helicobcter pylori was discovered by Robin Warren and Barry Marshall in 1982. This discovery, however, significantly changed the field, establishing that the commonest form of gastritis is simply an infectious disease, a finding that raised enormous interest in the subject amongst gastroenterologists, microbiologists, pathologists and basic researchers. However, many of these "new" players in the field often had a limited knowledge of the morphological aspects of gastric inflammations and chronic gastritis. As a consequence in the late 1980's a Working Party was set up to review the biology and natural course of chronic gastritis, to propose a new classification for gastritis, and to provide simple guidelines for reporting the pathology of gastritis in endoscopic biopsies in an attempt to bring uniformity to the subject and facilitate comparative studies in what was to be an era of high research activity. These guidelines, The Sydney System: A New Classification of Gastritis was presented to the World Congress of Gastroenterology in Sydney in 1990, and was later published as six papers in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Now, twenty years on, this review looks back on the birth of Sydney System and why it is still important and successful. PMID:21199511

  2. Legacy contaminant bioaccumulation in rock crabs in Sydney Harbour during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin; Weaver, Peter

    2013-12-15

    Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, metals and lipids in hepatopancreas of rock crabs (Cancer irroratus) were measured in Sydney Harbour (SH) for one year prior to remediation and three years of remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP), Nova Scotia. Low level concentrations of PCBs and metals were measured, although PAHs were mostly undetected. Metal concentrations showed little spatio-temporal variability, although highest concentrations of As, Cd and Cu were measured at reference stations furthest from the STP remediation site. Mercury concentrations were at least an order of magnitude lower than Canadian guidelines. Moderately elevated PCB concentrations were detected in crabs near Muggah Creek, but these were generally not higher than those measured during baseline. Despite remediation activities, current contaminant burdens measured in crabs were much lower than previously reported in other studies of crabs and lobster in industrial harbours in eastern Canada, due in part to natural recovery of SH sediments. PMID:24119312

  3. Sharing Todays Resources--Meeting Tomorrows Needs. Papers, Workshop Reports and Associated Material Presented at the Seminar on Resources Coordination and Librarians' Groups: An Information Exchange Day (Sydney, Australia, July 26, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne, Ed.

    This booklet brings together papers, reports, and associated material from the seminar on school library resource coordination and librarians' groups in New South Wales held at Summer Hill Public School in Sydney. The collection includes a general introduction to the scope and goals of the seminar; a list of seminar speakers; papers on cooperative…

  4. Review of the analysis of relics associated with the HMAS Sydney II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treasure, Alana; Bailey, George; Challenor, Catherine; Otieno-Alego, Vincent; Creagh, Dudley

    2010-07-01

    The 1941 sinking of the HMAS Sydney II in action with the German raider KSN Kormoran off the coast of Western Australia has been a source of mystery and speculation for more than 60 years. HMAS Sydney II was lost with all hands. The largest item of flotsam found in the vicinity was a Carley float, which was riddled with holes some of which contained small metallic items. The float was subjected to various physical and elemental examination methods in 1992 in an attempt to determine what may have happened. Three months after sinking, the unidentified body of a man washed ashore at Christmas Island in another Carley float. Relics found in his unmarked grave in 2006 included several degraded and corroded press-studs, some containing fragments of fabric. A metal fragment was recovered from the man's skull. XRF, SEM-EDS, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray tomography analysis of these items was conducted in an attempt to determine what link the sailor may have to the HMAS Sydney II.

  5. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay. PMID:24840280

  6. Evidence for Recombination between Pandemic GII.4 Norovirus Strains New Orleans 2009 and Sydney 2012

    PubMed Central

    Martella, V.; Medici, M. C.; De Grazia, S.; Tummolo, F.; Calderaro, A.; Bonura, F.; Saporito, L.; Terio, V.; Catella, C.; Lanave, G.; Buonavoglia, C.

    2013-01-01

    During 2012, a novel pandemic GII.4 norovirus variant, Sydney 2012, emerged worldwide. A signature of the variant was a GII.Pe ORF1, in association with GII.4 Apeldoorn 2008-like ORF2-ORF3 genes. We report the detection of recombinant GII.4 Sydney 2012 strains, possessing the ORF1 gene of the former pandemic variant New Orleans 2009. PMID:23966499

  7. The Emancipation Years: Sport in the Female Colleges at the University of Sydney 1892-1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jessica; Georgakis, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the development of sport in the two female residential colleges (Women's and Sancta Sophia) at the University of Sydney. While the University of Sydney male residential colleges established an intercollegiate sporting competition in 1907 (Rawson Cup), it was not until 1958 that the female residential colleges established an…

  8. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare indicators of sexual health and predictors of condom use for commercial sex among local and international female sex workers first attending an STD clinic. SETTING: A public STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: All sex workers first attending between June 1991 and May 1993. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of demographic, behavioural and morbidity data from proforma medical records. RESULTS: 91 local sex workers and 123 international sex workers (predominantly from Thailand, Malaysia and China) first presented during the study period. There were significantly higher prevalences of chlamydia (0 v. 15%, p = 0.0002), gonorrhoea (0 v. 14%, p = 0.0006), syphilis (0 v. 10%, p = 0.006) and clinical genital herpes (0 v. 5%, p = 0.04) among international sex workers. The only case of HIV infection was in an international sex worker. Inconsistent condom use for commercial sex was significantly more common among international sex workers (RR = 4.5; 95% CI 3.1-6.5). On multivariate analysis, inconsistent condom use in international sex workers was associated with a recent history of prostitution outside Australia (p = 0.04), while inconsistent condom usage among local sex workers was associated with increasing age (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: These data illustrate the efficacy of condoms and the success of targeted education programmes in local sex workers in Sydney. By contrast, international sex workers continued to be at high risk of STDs. The international sex industry in Sydney requires enhanced culture-specific interventions. Immigration laws as they affect sex workers should also be reviewed. PMID:8655167

  9. Information Online 89. Selected Papers from the Australasian Online Information Conference and Exhibition (4th, Sydney, Australia, January 17-19, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Glenn R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in this collection discuss the database industry in Australia and New Zealand, networking activities in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region, intellectual property protection of databases, the development of land information systems in Australia, the development of expert systems, the use of optical data disks,

  10. Research in Geographical Education--Volume 2. Papers Presented to the National Meeting of the Australian Geographical Research Association (2nd, Sydney, Australia, December 4-6, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John, Ed.; And Others

    This publication contains 14 papers, most of which were written by instructors of higher education in Australia and Great Britain. Following an introduction, the first five papers are "The Development of Children's Map Ability" (Simon Catling), "Published Guidance to Pupils on Atlas Mapwork Skills" (Herbert Sandford), "Tactual Mapping and the Bold

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (8th, Sydney, Australia, August 16-19, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Beth, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 53 plenary and contributed papers presented at the eighth Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) meeting. Two plenary addresses focused on mathematics research in Australia and Japan, and problem solving and symbolism. Contributed papers were classified under 13 headings including: teaching and learning theory; cognition;…

  12. Field evaluation of melolure, a formate analogue of cuelure and reassessment of fruit fly species trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly surveillance programmes rely on the use of chemical lures to monitor and control Tephritid fruit flies incursions. Significant economic advantages could be achieved by increasing the effectiveness of these chemical lures. In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure (CL...

  13. Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (8th, Sydney, Australia, August 16-19, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Beth, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 53 plenary and contributed papers presented at the eighth Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) meeting. Two plenary addresses focused on mathematics research in Australia and Japan, and problem solving and symbolism. Contributed papers were classified under 13 headings including: teaching and learning theory; cognition;

  14. The Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis/mackerrasae Complex in Molluscs from the Sydney Region

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Lee, Rogan; Shea, Michael; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Malik, Richard; Jones, Malcolm; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500) of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%)], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%)], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% ± 0.8% (CI 95%). Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney. PMID:26000568

  15. Sydney epilepsy incidence study to measure illness consequences: the SESIMIC observational epilepsy study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects an estimated 50 million people and accounts for approximately 1% of days lost to ill health globally, making it one of the most common, serious neurological disorders. While there are abundant global data on epilepsy incidence, prevalence and treatment, there is a paucity of Australian incidence data. There is also a general lack of information on the psychosocial impact and socioeconomic consequences of a new diagnosis of epilepsy on an individual, their family, household, and community which are often specific to the health and social system of each country. Methods/Design The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC) is an Australian population-based epilepsy incidence and outcome study that will recruit every newly diagnosed case of epilepsy in the Sydney South West Area Health Service to an epilepsy register. Multiple and overlapping sources of notification will be used to identify all new cases of epilepsy over a 24 month period in the Eastern Zone of the Sydney South West Area Health Service (SSWAHS) and follow up will occur over 12 months. SEISMIC will use the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definitions and classifications for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. The study will examine outcomes including mood, quality of life, employment, education performance, driving status, marital and social problems, medication use, health care usage, costs and stigma. Discussion This study is designed to examine how clinical, psychological factors, socioeconomic circumstances, and healthcare delivery influence the experience of epilepsy for individuals and families allowing better targeting of specific services and informing policy makers and practitioners. In addition, the study will provide the basis for a longitudinal population-based cohort study and potentially inform qualitative sub-studies and randomised controlled trials of intervention strategies. The study has been registered on the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration database with ANZCTRN12609000059268. PMID:21214957

  16. The Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis/mackerrasae Complex in Molluscs from the Sydney Region.

    PubMed

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Lee, Rogan; Shea, Michael; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Malik, Richard; Jones, Malcolm; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500) of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%)], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%)], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% 0.8% (CI 95%). Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney. PMID:26000568

  17. Comparative labor market performance of visaed and non-visaed migrants: Pacific islanders in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of Samoans who have migrated to Australia have done so without visas, compared to only 20% of Tongans who have arrived without visas. 22% of the Samoan community in Sydney is unemployed, compared to only 5% of Tongans in the city. Findings are reported from a study conducted to determine whether the effective absence of visa screening for Samoan non-visaed immigrants can explain their poorer labor market performance relative to their Tongan peers. Findings are based upon the analysis of 1994 survey data for 523 Tongan and 329 Samoan migrant household heads in Sydney. Univariate analysis suggests a positive association between unemployment and the unrestricted entry of Samoan non-visaed migrants from New Zealand. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment was also estimated with controls for human capital and demographic variables. While human capital endowments are important, existing visa restrictions have no significant effect upon either group's employability. Policy implications are discussed, highlighting the complementarities between host country immigration policies and foreign aid programs. PMID:12294153

  18. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558?bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF) composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100?bp), ORF2 (1,623?bp), and ORF3 (807?bp). Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines. PMID:25688356

  19. Dreamtime astronomy: development of a new indigenous program at Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Geoffrey; Stephenson, Toner; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    The Australian National Curriculum promotes Indigenous culture in school education programs. To foster a broader appreciation of cultural astronomy, to utilise the unique astronomical heritage of the site, and to develop an educational program within the framework of the National Curriculum, Sydney Observatory launched Dreamtime Astronomy - a program incorporating Australian Indigenous culture, astronomy, and Sydney's astronomical history and heritage. This paper reviews the development and implementation of this program and discusses modifications following an evaluation that was conducted by schools.

  20. Family formation patterns among migrant women in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, F; Siedlecky, S

    1996-01-01

    A demographic survey among a probability sample of 980 married migrant women was carried out in Sydney in 1988. The sample included 507 Lebanese, 250 Turkish and 223 Vietnamese women. The study revealed differences in family formation patterns within and between the three groups and between them and the general population. Family size had declined among all three groups compared with their family of origin, and it was clear that the younger women would not achieve the same family sizes as the older women. Migrant women tended to marry earlier than the general population and to start their families earlier. While they showed a strong preference for their children to marry within their own ethnic and religious group, nearly one-third said it was up to the choice of the individual. Overall, the future family size of younger migrant women is expected to converge towards the Australian norm. Migrant families are in a state of transition between two cultures which needs to be recognised by health and family planning service providers. PMID:8690746

  1. Peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary hospital in Western Sydney.

    PubMed

    Shamsa, A; Harris, A; Anpalagan, A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review the incidence, indication, management and complications of peripartum hysterectomy (PH) in a tertiary level hospital over a decade. A retrospective review of all cases of PH performed at Westmead Hospital, Western Sydney, 2003-2012, was undertaken. PH was defined as hysterectomy performed after 20 weeks' gestation or any time after delivery but within 6 weeks' postpartum ( Awan et al. 2011 ). There were 56 cases of peripartum hysterectomy of 46,177 births, a rate of 1.22 per 1,000 births. The most common indication for PH was morbid adherence of the placenta (58.2%) followed by uterine atony. Having a history of both caesarean section and placenta praevia is highly associated with a morbidly adherent placenta in the index pregnancy (p = 0.002). The most common complication was coagulopathy followed by febrile illness and urinary tract injury. Our data showed previous caesarean section and placenta praevia to be associated with abnormal placentation, the leading indication for PH. Since there is an association between a planned caesarean hysterectomy and reduced amount of estimated blood loss and blood transfused, the knowledge of placentation and adequate preoperative planning and consideration for elective hysterectomy could be beneficial. The morbidity associated with PH is considerable. PMID:25264917

  2. The Albion Street Centre database, Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gold, J

    1998-01-01

    The Albion Street Centre was established in 1985 as an HIV testing and early management center. More than 22,000 people have been screened for HIV and other blood-borne infections at the Centre, and approximately 3,600 people with HIV/AIDS have been managed there. Approximately 1,600 patients with various stages of HIV disease are currently managed at the Centre by a staff of 60 health care professionals and about 1,000 volunteers. The Albion Street Centre's computer database began recording selected demographic, epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics when the first patient presented in 1985. Since then, the complexity and utilization of the database has increased in parallel with improvement in the understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection. Over 100 peer-reviewed publications and presentations have been produced from the database and 45 clinical trials have used the database to identify potential subjects. All data are de-identified and are protected by multiple password codes. Approximately 700 variables are collected from each HIV-positive patient at the initial visit to the Centre and up to 200 variables are added at each subsequent routine clinic visit. The variables collected include the following: standard epidemiologic characteristics; transmission and behavioral parameters, clinical signs and symptoms; laboratory test results; treatments; nutritional history; body composition parameters; psychological assessment results; and management history, including neuropsychological testing. The overall number and characteristics of patients recorded in the database are reported monthly, and are used to plan services, for prevention and educational programs, and as an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to encourage HIV-positive people to attend clinics for early management. When these patients have been identified they are invited to participate in the study. Individual patient records are identified and accessed if they meet certain criteria for flagging. For example, patients who have lost more than 5% of their maximal weight are flagged and referred to the dietician for assessment. Further uses for the database are to identify cohorts of patients who are seroconverters and to follow their natural history-the Centre has over 250 patients for whom a documented HIV-positive test has been obtained within 12 months of a documented HIV-negative test; to investigate clinical observations that have been associated with particular drug therapy, e.g., investigation of the reported association between the use of valacyclovir and the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS)-like complex showed patients with terminal-stage AIDS demonstrated this syndrome independently of their therapy and probably as a consequence of multiorgan failure; and to document the relationship between nutritional intervention and survival, for which use of the database enabled an historical cohort that matched the cases under investigation to be selected. In conclusion, the database is a dynamic and integral part of the assessment, management, and research program of the Albion Street Centre, where it is used by all professional staff. PMID:9586650

  3. B.M.A. Annual Meeting, Sydney, 1016 August: Report of Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    1968-01-01

    The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the British Medical Association was held in Sydney from 10 to 16 August jointly with the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Australian Medical Association. Both meetings were associated with the Third Australian Medical Congress. It was the second Annual Meeting of the Association to be held in Australia, the previous one having been in Melbourne in 1935. Four plenary sessions were held on successive mornings, while meetings of various sections were held in the afternoons. An account of the first part of the Meeting is given below. The remainder will be reported next week. Imagesp485-ap486-ap487-ap487-bp489-ap491-a

  4. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG18) and 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney, Australia, July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-06-01

    At GRG17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GRG18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GRG conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GRG18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb overviews of the state of the art of: observational handles on dark energy; collider physics experiments designed to probe cosmology; gravitational dynamics of large stellar systems; and the use of analogue condensed-matter systems in the laboratory to investigate black hole event horizons. In the more mainstream areas we were given timely reviews of: the Gravity Probe B and STEP missions; quasi-local black hole horizons and their applications; cosmic censorship; the spin foam model approach to quantum gravity; the causal dynamical triangulations approach to quantum gravity; superstring theory applied to questions in particle physics; the current status and prospects for gravitational wave astronomy; ground-based gravitational wave detection; and technological developments for the future LISA mission. This issue is published as the proceedings of GRG18 and Amaldi7. It contains the overview articles by the plenary speakers, the summaries of each GRG18 workshop parallel session as provided by the workshop chairs, and the highlights of the Amaldi7 meeting as selected by the Amaldi7 chairs. Other Amaldi7 talks and posters will appear as articles in a refereed issue of the electronic Journal of Physics Conference Series. This CQG special issue and the related issue of JPCS will be electronically linked. The conference organisers would like to acknowledge the financial support of: The Australian National University; IUPAP; The Australian Institute of Physics; BHP Billiton; The University of Western Australia; The University of New South Wales; The Institute of Physics; The Gravity Research Foundation; SGI; CosNet; The Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute; Springer; Duraduct; the New South Wales Government; The Australasian Society for General Relativity and Gravitation; the Mexican GR bid; the Centre for Precision Optics; The Anglo-Australian Observatory; Newspec; CSIRO; and The University of Melbourne. We would like to thank the GRG18 Scientific Organising Committee, GWIC and the Local Organising Committee for all their hard work in putting together these very successful combined conferences, which attracted 520 participants. Many of the practical aspects of the organisation were handled by the event management company Conexion, and their professionalism, expertise and dedication were greatly appreciated. We would also like to thank the editorial staff at CQG, especially Eirini Messaritaki and Joseph Tennant, for their support and efficiency in preparing this issue. Finally, we would like to thank all the participants for their lively and colourful contributions to making these conferences a success.

  5. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  6. Emergence of the GII-4 Norovirus Sydney2012 strain in England, winter 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Allen, David J; Adams, Natalie L; Aladin, Farah; Harris, John P; Brown, David W G

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus is the commonest cause of acute gastrointestinal disease and is the main aetiological agent of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, particularly in semi-closed environments. Norovirus infections in England typically peak between December and March each year. The most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4) genocluster and in the previous two norovirus winter seasons the majority of GII-4 strains in circulation worldwide have been genetically similar to the GII-4 strain New Orleans 1805/2009/USA. At the beginning of the 2012/13 season a genetically distinct GII-4 strain (Sydney 2012/NSW0514/2012/AU) was described which emerged worldwide during the winter of 2012/13. Here we describe the emergence of norovirus strains genetically related to Sydney2012 in England during the 2012/13 season to replace NewOrleans2009 strains as the most commonly detected variant of GII-4 norovirus in England. Furthermore, we demonstrate that whilst the emergence of Sydney2012 coincided with an early peak in the number of norovirus outbreaks, there was not an overall increase in norovirus activity compared to the previous season. Finally, we show that the Sydney2012 strain is associated with distinct genetic changes compared to the NewOrleans2009 strain, and these changes may have contributed to the emergence of the Sydney2012 strain. PMID:24551201

  7. Being alone and expectations lost: a critical realist study of maternal depression in South Western Sydney.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Kemp, Lynn A; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here is part of a critical realist multilevel study. It seeks to identify and explain complex perinatal contextual social and psychosocial mechanisms that may influence the developmental origins of health and disease, with a focus on the role of postnatal depression. The aims of the greater study are to: (1) describe the phenomenon of postnatal depression in South Western Sydney; and (2) identify mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the psycho-social causes of maternal depression. This paper will move beyond our previous quantitative descriptions of individual-level predictors of depressive symptoms by seeking the views of local mothers and practitioners, to explain the mechanisms that might be involved. The study was set in South Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. An Explanatory Theory Building Method was used. The previously reported quantitative study was a non-linear principal component analysis and logistic regression study of 15,389months delivering in 2002 and 2003. This intensive qualitative study used open coding of interviews, of seven practitioners and three naturally occurring mothers groups, to enable maximum emergence. The theoretical concepts identified were: attachment and nurturing, infant temperament, unplanned pregnancy and sole parenthood, support for mothers, access to services, stress, financial hardship, isolation and marginalisation, mothers' "loss of control" and "power", and expectations and dreams. Being alone and expectations lost emerged as possible triggers of stress and depression for mothers. These findings might also apply to others who have their dreams shattered during life's transitions. In these situations social and cultural context can either nurture and support or marginalise and isolate. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their partners during the transition to parenthood within a challenging social and material context. PMID:26609502

  8. The Impact of Climate Change on Ozone-Related Mortality in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Physick, William; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    Coupled global, regional and chemical transport models are now being used with relative-risk functions to determine the impact of climate change on human health. Studies have been carried out for global and regional scales, and in our paper we examine the impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality at the local scale across an urban metropolis (Sydney, Australia). Using three coupled models, with a grid spacing of 3 km for the chemical transport model (CTM), and a mortality relative risk function of 1.0006 per 1 ppb increase in daily maximum 1-hour ozone concentration, we evaluated the change in ozone concentrations and mortality between decades 1996–2005 and 2051–2060. The global model was run with the A2 emissions scenario. As there is currently uncertainty regarding a threshold concentration below which ozone does not impact on mortality, we calculated mortality estimates for the three daily maximum 1-hr ozone concentration thresholds of 0, 25 and 40 ppb. The mortality increase for 2051–2060 ranges from 2.3% for a 0 ppb threshold to 27.3% for a 40 ppb threshold, although the numerical increases differ little. Our modeling approach is able to identify the variation in ozone-related mortality changes at a suburban scale, estimating that climate change could lead to an additional 55 to 65 deaths across Sydney in the decade 2051–2060. Interestingly, the largest increases do not correspond spatially to the largest ozone increases or the densest population centres. The distribution pattern of changes does not seem to vary with threshold value, while the magnitude only varies slightly. PMID:24419047

  9. Environmental recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia: evidence of natural and anthropogenic sediment capping.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin; Weaver, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Contaminants were assessed in Sydney Harbour during baseline and three years of remediation of a former coking and steel facility. Concentrations of PAHs; PCBs; and lead measured in surface sediments indicate overall spatial distribution patterns of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported due to natural sediment recovery. Recovery rates were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations; or in some cases lower, despite remediation at the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP) site. Contaminants showed little temporal variability, except for detection of significant increases in PAH concentrations during onset of remediation compared to baseline which represented a short term interruption in the overall long term natural recovery of sediments in Sydney Harbour. Recovery (via "capping") was enhanced following recent harbour dredging activities where less contaminated outer harbour sediments were discharged into a confined disposal facility (CDF) required for a new container in the inner harbour. PMID:23820194

  10. Machine gaming in Sydney clubs: characteristics of the supporting resident populations.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Hing, Nerilee; Weeks, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This research provided background for surveys and interviews in later stages of a 3 part project. It aimed to identify, from secondary research, sociodemographic characteristics which tend to support registered clubs and their machine gaming activities in the Sydney Statistical Division. Using multiple methods including Pearson's Product Moment correlation, Principal Components factor analysis, and stepwise regression, the study profiled Sydney populations which spend highly on gaming machines. The most important sociodemographic predictors of Sydney statistical local areas where per capita gaming machine expenditure is high are large proportions of the adult resident population who were born in Malta, Greece, Lebanon, China, Italy, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, India or the Philippines; have no vocational or tertiary qualifications; or are unemployed. PMID:12375385

  11. Emergence of GII.4 Sydney norovirus in South Korea during the winter of 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Seok; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2013-11-28

    Norovirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Between November 2012 and June 2013, 1718 stool samples were requested for norovirus antigen testing in the metropolitan areas of South Korea, and 91 samples were genotyped. The norovirus antigen-positive rate peaked at 52.8% in December 2012. [corrected]. A novel norovirus GII.4 variant, GII.4 Sydney 2012, was the most frequently found genotype (60.4%) during this period. This study demonstrates that norovirus activity increased during the winter of 2012-2013 in South Korea and that norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the cause of the norovirus epidemic during this period. PMID:24043126

  12. Current issues in care and support for HIV-positive gay men in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Zablotska, I; Frankland, A; Imrie, J; Adam, P; Westacott, R; Canavan, P; Prestage, G

    2009-09-01

    We explored current access to care among HIV-positive people in Australia. In 2006, 270 HIV-positive gay men from a community-based Positive Health cohort in Sydney were asked about their health (including medical and social) service needs and, subsequently, about difficulty in accessing services. We report the prevalence of specific needs, barriers and associated factors. Participants most commonly used general practitioners (64%) for HIV management and needed at least one HIV-related medical service (usually several: doctors experienced in HIV management, dentists and hospital pharmacies). Most participants were able to access them. Barriers in accessing services were related to their convenience rather than lack or quality. Cost emerged as a substantial barrier to dental care and psychological counselling (91% and 48% respectively of those in need). Need for an HIV-related social service was reported by 46% of respondents. Difficulties in accessing these related to poor services and staff attitudes. Income was associated with limited access to multiple services. In Australia, HIV-related medical service needs outweigh those for social services. Complex health services remain essential to HIV-positive people, but some services are currently not meeting their needs. To remain adequate, services need to understand and constantly adapt to the changing needs of HIV-positive people. PMID:19710336

  13. University of Western Sydney Students at Risk: Profile and Opportunities for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid; Skaines, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have acknowledged a shift from elite to mass participation in Australian higher education over the last decade. As the diversity of the student intake rises there is a growing interest in the factors predicting their success or failure. This article identifies a set of variables predicting University of Western Sydney (UWS) student…

  14. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  15. A Structuration Theory Analysis of the Refugee Action Support Program in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Gidden's structuration theory to analyse the Refugee Action Support program in Greater Western Sydney. The study shows that many refugee students in Australian high schools experience difficulty with academic transition in mainstream classrooms due to their previous experiences in war-torn countries. As a result of the trauma…

  16. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,

  17. "Arrogant Conceit and Impertinence": John Metcalfe's Secondment to the University of Sydney Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Neil A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1956-57 John Metcalfe was seconded from the Public Library of New South Wales to the University of Sydney to report on the needs of the University Library. This is a forgotten chapter in that Library's history, and a hitherto unexamined aspect of Metcalfe's career. Metcalfe was apparently manoeuvering to leave the Public Library, and expected

  18. Monitoring effects of remediation on natural sediment recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; Macaskill, Devin; Rushton, Theresa; Thalheimer, Andrew; Weaver, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Chemical contaminants were assessed in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia during pre-remediation (baseline) and 3years of remediation of a former coking and steel facility after nearly a century of operation and historical pollution into the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and inorganic parameters measured in sediments and total suspended solids in seawater indicate that the overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported due to natural sediment recovery, despite remediation activities. Measured sediment deposition rates in bottom-moored traps during baseline were low (0.4-0.8cm?year(-1)), but during dredging operations required for construction of new port facilities in the inner Sydney Harbour, sedimentation rates were equivalent to 26-128cm year(-1). Measurements of sediment chemical contaminants confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, or in some cases, lower than originally predicted despite remediation activities at the STP site. Overall, most measured contaminants in sediments showed little temporal variability (4years), except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations during the onset of remediation monitoring compared to baseline. This slight increase represents only a short-term interruption in the overall natural recovery of sediments in Sydney Harbour, which were enhanced due to the positive impacts of large-scale dredging of less contaminated outer harbor sediments which were discharged into a confined disposal area located in the inner harbor. PMID:23512488

  19. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary; Lobstein, Tim; Rigby, Neville; Baur, Louise A; Brownell, Kelly D; Gill, Tim; Seidell, Jaap; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2008-09-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on feedback received from a global consultation (November 2006 to April 2007) on the Principles. The Principles state that actions to reduce marketing to children should: (i) support the rights of children; (ii) afford substantial protection to children; (iii) be statutory in nature; (iv) take a wide definition of commercial promotions; (v) guarantee commercial-free childhood settings; (vi) include cross-border media; and (vii) be evaluated, monitored and enforced. The draft principles were widely disseminated and 220 responses were received from professional and scientific associations, consumer bodies, industry bodies, health professionals and others. There was virtually universal agreement on the need to have a set of principles to guide action in this contentious area of marketing to children. Apart from industry opposition to the third principle calling for a statutory approach and several comments about the implementation challenges, there was strong support for each of the Sydney Principles. Feedback on two specific issues of contention related to the age range to which restrictions should apply (most nominating age 16 or 18 years) and the types of products to be included (31% nominating all products, 24% all food and beverages, and 45% energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages). The Sydney Principles, which took a children's rights-based approach, should be used to benchmark action to reduce marketing to children. The age definition for a child and the types of products which should have marketing restrictions may better suit a risk-based approach at this stage. The Sydney Principles should guide the formation of an International Code on Food and Beverage Marketing to Children. PMID:18510788

  20. Sudden temperature changes in the Sydney Basin: climatology and case studies during the Olympic months of September and October

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Bruce W.; Leslie, Lance M.

    2000-03-01

    The accurate prediction of sudden large changes in the maximum temperature from one day to the next remains one of the major challenges for operational forecasters. It is probably the meteorological parameter most commonly verified and used as a measure of the skill of a meteorological service and one that is immediately evident to the general public. Marked temperature changes over a short period of time have widespread social, economic, health and safety effects on the community. The first part of this paper describes a 40-year climatology for Sydney, Australia, of sudden temperature rises and falls, defined as maximum temperature changes of 5C or more from one day to the next, for the months of September and October. The nature of the forecasting challenge during the period of the Olympic and Paralympic Games to be held in Sydney in the year 2000 will be described as a special application. The international importance of the accurate prediction of all types of significant weather phenomena during this period has been recognized by the World Meteorological Organisation's Commission for Atmospheric Science. The first World Weather Research Program forecast demonstration project is to be established in the Sydney Office of the Bureau of Meteorology over this period in order to test the ability of existing systems to predict such phenomena. The second part of this study investigates two case studies from the Olympic months in which there were both abrupt temperature rises and falls over a 4-day interval. Currently available high resolution numerical weather prediction systems are found to have significant skill several days ahead in predicting a large amount of the detail of these events, provided they are run at an appropriate resolution. The limitations of these systems are also discussed, with areas requiring further development being identified if the desired levels of accuracy of predictions are to be reliably delivered. Differences between the predictability of sudden temperature rises and sudden temperature falls are also explored.

  1. Fire effects on reservoir water quality: lessons from the 2013 Sydney wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Chafer, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Unseasonally, early and severe forest fires burnt ca 10,000 ha of dry sclerophyl eucalypt forest in Oct. 2013 near Sydney (NSW, Australia). The fire affected parts of the Nepean catchment, which contributes to the greater Sydney water supply system. The spatial extent and severe nature of the burn raised concerns about the risk of water contamination from post-fire erosion. An investigation was launched with the aim to determine (i) the total loads of ash and loose charred topsoil that are particular susceptible to erosion, (ii) their chemical composition regarding constituents relevant to water quality, and (iii) the potential impacts of post-fire erosion events transferring some of this material into the reservoir. Sampling was carried out at a ridge in the Nepean catchment with a relatively homogeneous vegetation species composition, fuel load and soil characteristics, but with a range of burn severities, resulting from wind-driven differences in fire behaviour. This allowed sampling of three replicate sites each, with 30 sampling points each, for extreme, moderate-severe, and low burn severities, including also soil and litter sampling at a long-unburned control site. Burn severity was determined using the differenced normalised burn ratio (dNBR) obtained from satellite images immediately before (1 day) and after (1 week) the fire, validated by on site determination of fuel consumption completeness. Between the fire and the sampling campaign, rainfall was very limited so that there had been no significant redistribution of ash and loose charred topsoil by water erosion. The ash and loose charred topsoil were consistently wettable and the underlying uncharred soil highly water repellent at all sites and sampling points irrespective of burn severity. The total loads of ash and loose charred topsoil increased substantially with burn severity and changed in composition from comprising mainly charred litter and charcoal at low severity sites to charred litter, charcoal, mineral ash and charred mineral soil at extreme severity sites. Field sampling had just been completed at the time of producing this abstract. At the time of presentation, we expect to present (i) the total loads (t/ha) of ash and loose charred topsoil for each burn severity class; (ii) data on detailed chemical characterisation of the sampled materials including background values for litter and long-unburned soil; (iii) a spatially distributed estimation of ash and loose charred topsoil for the study catchment; and (iv) potential implications for water quality impacts based on a series of post-fire rainfall and erosion scenarios. Wider implications for water quality impacts in eucalypt forest catchments in relation to fuel loads and fire behaviour will also be discussed.

  2. Characteristics of the 14 April 1999 Sydney hailstorm based on ground observations, weather radar, insurance data and emergency calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, S. S.; Blong, R. J.; Leigh, R. J.; McAneney, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    Hailstorms occur frequently in metropolitan Sydney, in the eastern Australian State of New South Wales, which is especially vulnerable due to its building exposure and geographical location. Hailstorms challenge disaster response agencies and pose a great risk for insurance companies. This study focuses on the Sydney hailstorm of 14 April 1999 - Australia's most expensive insured natural disaster, with supporting information from two other storms. Comparisons are drawn between observed hailstone sizes, radar-derived reflectivity and damage data in the form of insurance claims and emergency calls. The "emergency response intensity" (defined by the number of emergency calls as a proportion of the total number of dwellings in a Census Collection District) is a useful new measure of the storm intensity or severity experienced. The area defined by a radar reflectivity ?55 dBZ appears to be a good approximation of the damage swath on ground. A preferred area for hail damage is located to the left side of storm paths and corresponds well with larger hailstone sizes. Merging hail cells appear to cause a substantially higher emergency response intensity, which also corresponds well to maximum hailstone sizes. A damage threshold could be identified for hailstone sizes around 2.5 cm (1 cm), based on the emergency response intensity (insurance claims). Emergency response intensity and claims costs both correlate positively with hailstone sizes. Higher claim costs also occurred in areas that experienced higher emergency response intensities.

  3. Prevailing Sydney like Norovirus GII.4 VLPs induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuqi; Wan, Xin; Ling, Tong; Wu, Jie; Wang, Zejun; Meng, Shengli; Shen, Shuo

    2015-12-01

    The newly emerged Norovirus (NoV) Sydney 2012 strain has been sweeping all over the world, causing acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in adults and children. Due to a lack of cell culture system, virus like particles (VLPs) has been assembled and used as vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical studies. Expression of the major capsid protein of NoVs using recombinant baculovirus expression system in Sf9 cells leads to formation of VLPs that are morphologically and antigenically similar to true virions. In this study, VLPs were successfully produced using the VP1 of Sydney-2012-like strain and its immunogenicity was evaluated by different routes and its capability in inducing mucosal immune responses in the presence and absence of adjuvants in BALB/c mice. Administration of NoV VLPs in the presence of Al(OH)3 or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL-A) led to high titers of VLP-specific IgG antibodies. Administration of VLPs orally in the presence of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) didn't enhance mucosal immune response as less fecal IgA positive mice were observed when compared with those given VLPs only. Our study represents the first immunogenicity study of VLPs derived from current pandemic Sydney 2012 strain and which might have implications in the development of NoVs vaccine in china. PMID:26375574

  4. Effects and Clinical Significance of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus, United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Wikswo, Mary; Barclay, Leslie; Brandt, Eric; Storm, William; Salehi, Ellen; DeSalvo, Traci; Davis, Tim; Saupe, Amy; Dobbins, Ginette; Booth, Hillary A.; Biggs, Christianne; Garman, Katie; Woron, Amy M.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Vinjé, Jan; Hall, Aron J.

    2013-01-01

    During 2012, global detection of a new norovirus (NoV) strain, GII.4 Sydney, raised concerns about its potential effect in the United States. We analyzed data from NoV outbreaks in 5 states and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in 1 state during the 2012–13 season and compared the data with those of previous seasons. During August 2012–April 2013, a total of 637 NoV outbreaks were reported compared with 536 and 432 in 2011–2012 and 2010–2011 during the same period. The proportion of outbreaks attributed to GII.4 Sydney increased from 8% in September 2012 to 82% in March 2013. The increase in emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness during the 2012–13 season was similar to that of previous seasons. GII.4 Sydney has become the predominant US NoV outbreak strain during the 2012–13 season, but its emergence did not cause outbreak activity to substantially increase from that of previous seasons. PMID:23886013

  5. "I'm Not a Dole-Bludger!" Attitudes of Yr 9 Sydney High School Students towards Work, Unemployment and the Dole. A Report of the Mount Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barltrop, Jenny

    A study investigated the view that the decline in the work ethic would be stronger in the Mount Druitt area west of Sydney, Australia, where unemployment is prominent in the community and the "dole-bludger" stereotype is correspondingly rife. (A "dole-bludger" cheats the system and is considered a parasite on the community.) The study described

  6. Longitudinal study of winter mortality disease in Sydney rock oysters Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Zoe B; Gabor, Melinda; Fell, Shayne A; Carnegie, Ryan B; Dove, Michael; O'Connor, Wayne; Frances, Jane; Go, Jeffrey; Marsh, Ian B; Jenkins, Cheryl

    2014-07-24

    Winter mortality (WM) is a poorly studied disease affecting Sydney rock oysters Saccostrea glomerata in estuaries in New South Wales, Australia, where it can cause significant losses. WM is more severe in oysters cultured deeper in the water column and appears linked to higher salinities. Current dogma is that WM is caused by the microcell parasite Bonamia roughleyi, but evidence linking clinical signs and histopathology to molecular data identifying bonamiasis is lacking. We conducted a longitudinal study between February and November 2010 in 2 estuaries where WM has occurred (Georges and Shoalhaven Rivers). Results from molecular testing of experimental oysters for Bonamia spp. were compared to clinical disease signs and histopathology. Available environmental data from the study sites were also collated and compared. Oyster condition declined over the study period, coinciding with decreasing water temperatures, and was inversely correlated with the presence of histological lesions. While mortalities occurred in both estuaries, only oysters from the Georges River study site showed gross clinical signs and histological changes characteristic of WM (lesions were prevalent and intralesional microcell-like structures were sometimes noted). PCR testing for Bonamia spp. revealed the presence of an organism belonging to the B. exitiosa-B. roughleyi clade in some samples; however, the very low prevalence of this organism relative to histological changes and the lack of reactivity of affected oysters in subsequent in situ hybridisation experiments led us to conclude that this Bonamia sp. is not responsible for WM. Another aetiological agent and a confluence of environmental factors are a more likely explanation for the disease. PMID:25060507

  7. The use of complementary and alternative medicine among people living with diabetes in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common in patients with chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of the study was to determine the overall prevalence and type of CAM use in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Western Sydney and to compare the prevalence and factors associated with CAM use with the literature. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-completed questionnaire distributed to patients with DM attending a public hospital and specialist endocrinology clinics in the region. The type of DM and pattern of CAM utilisation were analyzed. Results Sixty nine people responded to the questionnaire: age range of 18-75 years during a twelve week collection period. Overall, 32 respondents with diabetes were using some form of CAM, resulting in a utilisation rate of 46.3%. Twenty of the 32 CAM users used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes accounting for 28.9% of the respondent sample population. Multivitamins (40%), cinnamon, Co-enzyme q10 and prayer were the most frequently used CAM modalities. There was no significant difference between males and females, age range, income or diabetes complications between CAM and non-CAM users. (p values each > 0.05) The factor most significantly associated with CAM usage was being born overseas (p = 0.044). Conclusions Almost half the respondents (46.3%) used CAM: 28% used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes. Individuals born overseas were significantly more likely to use CAM than those born in Australia. Other factors such as age, gender, wealth and duration of living with diabetes were not associated with higher rate of CAM usage. PMID:22240113

  8. Multidisciplinary studies of the dust storm that affected Sydney in September 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, P.

    2012-04-01

    A major dust storm transgressed over southeastern Australia in September 2009 and continued as far as northern Queensland [to the north], New Zealand and New Caledonia [to the east] . We analysed samples of the dust for organic compounds, its microbiological composition, pollen, trace and rare earth elements as well as Sr and Nd isotopes. Grain size analysis was also performed on some of the samples. We also obtained information on the meteorological conditions that led to the large dust plume and its pathway. Our geochemical fingerprinting allowed us to determine the origin of the dust, and this was confirmed by meteorological observations and satellite imagery. As the pathway of the dust plume went over the city of Canberra, located to the southwest of Sydney, we were able to collect samples of dust that fell with rain, and the surprise was that the geochemical composition of the dust varied with time [and dust fall], identifying that as the dust plume transgressed over the landscape, it picked up additional material that was compositionally different from its point of origin. We also compared our data with those obtained from another major dust event that affected Canberra in October 2002, and a number of important differences are noted, particularly with respect of the microbiological composition of the dust, and its chemical composition. Collaborators on this project are: Chris Munday and Gwen Allison [microbiology]: Research School of Biology, ANU; Jochen Brocks and Janet Hope [organic chemistry] and Marc Norman [inorganic geochemistry]: Research School of Earth Sciences, ANU; Tadhg O'Loingsigh and Nigel Tapper [meteorology, satellite imagery] and Sander van der Kaars [palynology]: Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University; and J.-B. Stuut [grain size analysis], NIOZ.

  9. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  10. The Sydney Melanoma Unit--a multidisciplinary melanoma treatment center.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John F; Shaw, Helen M; Stretch, Jonathan R; McCarthy, William H; Milton, Gerald W

    2003-04-01

    The undoubted success of the SMU as a specialist multidisciplinary melanoma treatment center has clearly been the result of many factors. Perhaps chief among these was the vision and commitment that led Dr. Milton to establish it in the first place, and the sharing of that vision and commitment by those who were associated with him and by those who joined the SMU later. Another vitally important element, however, has been the continuing sense of unity and purpose fostered by the weekly SMU clinical meetings, which are truly multidisciplinary, in which all staff are encouraged to participate, and at which the desirability of adherence to agreed, evidence-based treatment guidelines is emphasized. A further influential factor has been the SMU's strong commitment to clinical and basic research as a concomitant of high quality clinical care, with stimulation, encouragement, and advice provided at its monthly multidisciplinary research meetings, where all current and proposed clinical and laboratory studies are discussed. As a result of these activities, despite an ever-increasing number of people working within it, the SMU has been able to present to referring doctors, to patients, and to the community a unified commitment to the best possible patient care and to high quality clinical and laboratory research. These groups have responded by recognizing the SMU as the major referral center for melanoma in Australia, as evidenced by the steadily increasing number of patients referred to it for treatment each year. Melanoma is a more pressing health problem in Australia than elsewhere, because it is the third most common cancer in women (after breast cancer and colorectal cancer), and the fourth most common cancer in men (after prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer). Nevertheless the experiences of the SMU as a large multidisciplinary melanoma treatment center are likely to have relevance and application in other countries, where the incidence of melanoma is lower but continues to rise, and may within a few years approach rates currently recorded in Australia. PMID:12744618

  11. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Smoothey, Amy F.; Gray, Charles A.; Kennelly, Steve J.; Masens, Oliver J.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Robinson, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  12. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    PubMed

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  13. Patterns of the Non-Indigenous Isopod Cirolana harfordi in Sydney Harbour

    PubMed Central

    Bugnot, Ana B.; Coleman, Ross A.; Figueira, Will F.; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    Biological introductions can alter the ecology of local assemblages and are an important driver of global environmental change. The first step towards understanding the impact of a non-indigenous species is to study its distribution and associations in the invaded area. In Sydney Harbour, the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi has been reported in densities up to 0.5 individuals per cm2 in mussel-beds. Abundances of this species have, however, been largely overlooked in other key habitats. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the abundances and distribution of C. harfordi across different habitats representative of Sydney Harbour. Results showed that C. harfordi occurred in oyster and mussel-beds, being particularly abundant in oyster-beds. We also aimed to determine the role of C. harfordi as a predator, scavenger and detritus feeder by investigating the relationships between densities of C. harfordi and (i) the structure of the resident assemblages, and (ii) deposited organic matter in oyster-beds. Densities of C. harfordi were not related to the structure of the assemblages, nor amounts of deposited organic matter. These findings suggested little or no ecological impacts of C. harfordi in oyster-beds. These relationships may, however, affect other variables such as growth of individuals, or be disguised by high variability of assemblages among different locations. Future studies should, therefore, test the impacts of C. harfordi on the size of organisms in the assemblage and use manipulative experiments to control for spatial variation. This study is the first published work on the ecology of the invasion of C. harfordi and provides the starting-point for the study of the impacts of this species in Sydney Harbour. PMID:24466227

  14. Patterns of the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi in Sydney Harbour.

    PubMed

    Bugnot, Ana B; Coleman, Ross A; Figueira, Will F; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M

    2014-01-01

    Biological introductions can alter the ecology of local assemblages and are an important driver of global environmental change. The first step towards understanding the impact of a non-indigenous species is to study its distribution and associations in the invaded area. In Sydney Harbour, the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi has been reported in densities up to 0.5 individuals per cm(2) in mussel-beds. Abundances of this species have, however, been largely overlooked in other key habitats. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the abundances and distribution of C. harfordi across different habitats representative of Sydney Harbour. Results showed that C. harfordi occurred in oyster and mussel-beds, being particularly abundant in oyster-beds. We also aimed to determine the role of C. harfordi as a predator, scavenger and detritus feeder by investigating the relationships between densities of C. harfordi and (i) the structure of the resident assemblages, and (ii) deposited organic matter in oyster-beds. Densities of C. harfordi were not related to the structure of the assemblages, nor amounts of deposited organic matter. These findings suggested little or no ecological impacts of C. harfordi in oyster-beds. These relationships may, however, affect other variables such as growth of individuals, or be disguised by high variability of assemblages among different locations. Future studies should, therefore, test the impacts of C. harfordi on the size of organisms in the assemblage and use manipulative experiments to control for spatial variation. This study is the first published work on the ecology of the invasion of C. harfordi and provides the starting-point for the study of the impacts of this species in Sydney Harbour. PMID:24466227

  15. Multi-criteria analysis towards the new end use of recycled water for household laundry: a case study in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; O'Halloran, K; Thompson, M; Muthukaruppan, M

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to put forward several management alternatives regarding the application of recycled water for household laundry in Sydney. Based on different recycled water treatment techniques such as microfiltration (MF), granular activated carbon (GAC) or reverse osmosis (RO), and types of washing machines (WMs), five alternatives were proposed as follows: (1) do nothing scenario; (2) MF+existing WMs; (3) MF+new WMs; (4) MF-GAC+existing WMs; and (5) MF-RO+existing WMs. Accordingly, a comprehensive quantitative assessment on the trade-off among a variety of issues (e.g., engineering feasibility, initial cost, energy consumption, supply flexibility and water savings) was performed over the alternatives. This was achieved by a computer-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using the rank order weight generation together with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) outranking techniques. Particularly, the generated 10,000 combinations of weights via Monte Carlo simulation were able to significantly reduce the man-made errors of single fixed set of weights because of its objectivity and high efficiency. To illustrate the methodology, a case study on Rouse Hill Development Area (RHDA), Sydney, Australia was carried out afterwards. The study was concluded by highlighting the feasibility of using highly treated recycled water for existing and new washing machines. This could provide a powerful guidance for sustainable water reuse management in the long term. However, more detailed field trials and investigations are still needed to effectively understand, predict and manage the impact of selected recycled water for new end use alternatives. PMID:22964402

  16. The Narrabeen Group in the east-central Sydney Basin: physical properties and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Donald W.; Branagan, David F.

    2011-09-01

    A mesoscale petrophysics and lithological logging study has been carried out on 413 core samples of the 623m thick Narrabeen Group succession penetrated by the Eveleigh No. 1 diamond drillhole. Mass properties, magnetic susceptibilities, and electrical estimates of mobile salt (EC 1:5 tests) were measured. A physical properties analysis posits a 3-fold subdivision of the succession: basal fluvio-deltaic and alluvial, upper lacustrine, and topmost fluvio-deltaic. Each division has cyclic sedimentation but from different provenances. The analysis has proved useful in the correlation of the Narrabeen Group present in a series of drillholes in the eastern part of the exposed Sydney Basin.

  17. Estimates of costs by DRG in Sydney teaching hospitals: an application of the Yale cost model.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised. PMID:10117339

  18. Firearm fatalities in Western Sydney 1994-2003.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, A; Hulewicz, B; Langlois, N; Little, D; Ellis, P

    2007-12-01

    This study reviews firearm-related deaths (homicidal, suicidal and accidental) from 1994 to 2003 in the Western Sidney area, Australia, serviced by the Westmead Department of Forensic Medicine, in order to document the features of the cases and to assess the effect of the introduction of the NSW Firearms Act in 1996. There were 211 fatalities involving firearms (1.8% of all of the Coroner's cases for the period); firearm deaths were classified as homicide (75), suicide (134) or accidental (2). There was a clear peak of homicide deaths by firearm in the 20-29 age group, whereas the suicide peak was broad, spanning the ages 20-69 years. More suicides occurred at home than homicides and a higher proportion of suicides were by rifle than homicides, which favoured hand guns. Entry wounds in suicides mostly involved the head, with the chest being the commonest entry site in homicides. The only statistically significant trend was for an increase in the number of firearm-related suicides in males, comparing the number of deaths pre- and post-firearm law introduction. The study includes reports of two suicides by unusual weapons: a home-made pipe gun and a spear gun. PMID:25869264

  19. Occurrence of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant-related Outbreaks in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sunyoung; Hwang, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Hyun Ju; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kang, Yeon-Ho; Lee, Deog-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of food and waterborne outbreaks of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we report the epidemiological features of three outbreak cases of norovirus in Korea, and we describe the clinical symptoms and distribution of the causative genotypes. The incidence rates of the three outbreaks were 16.24% (326/2,007), 4.1% (27/656), and 16.8% (36/214), respectively. The patients in these three outbreaks were affected by acute gastroenteritis. These schools were provided unheated food from the same manufacturing company. Two genotypes (GII.3 and GII.4) of the norovirus were detected in these cases. Among them, major causative strains of GII.4 (Hu-jeju-47-2007KR-like) were identified in patients, food handlers, and groundwater from the manufacturing company of the unheated food. In the GII.4 (Hu-jeju-47-2007KR-like) strain of the norovirus, the nucleotide sequences were identical and identified as the GII.4 Sydney variant. Our data suggests that the combined epidemiological and laboratory results were closely related, and the causative pathogen was the GII.4 Sydney variant strain from contaminated groundwater. PMID:26929914

  20. Building Personal Relationships as a Catalyst for Community Participation: The Case of Ethnic Market Gardeners in Sydney Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suriyabanadara, Karunasena; Parker, Frances

    An Australian study was conducted to develop a strategy for safe use of farm chemicals by Asian migrant market gardeners in Western Sydney. The researchers chose to use participatory approaches for which policy makers and development practitioners had in other studies shown enthusiasm, although this enthusiasm could not at times be sustained…

  1. Developing Social Inclusion through After-School Homework Tutoring: A Study of African Refugee Students in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    Schools represent the primary setting where refugee children learn about Australian life and culture. They serve as a broad context for acculturation not only for academic development and language acquisition but for cultural learning too. This paper focuses on the after-school homework tutoring programme that uses University of Western Sydney

  2. The Vanishing Idea of a Scholarly Life: Workload Calculations and the Loss of Academic Integrity in Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Ann Lazarsfeld; Morgan, Kylie

    2009-01-01

    The loss of collegiality and the loss of academic integrity were key themes raised during forums, personal interviews, a survey and focus groups conducted with University of Western Sydney academic staff as part of a research project into academic work load agreements. In this paper the experiences related by participants are placed in the light

  3. The Impact of a Pathway College on Reputation and Brand Awareness for Its Affiliated University in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ann; Zhao, Jingsong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect that a prospective pathway college affiliated to a large comprehensive university in Sydney may have on the university's reputation. In particular, the association of reputation with preference for a pathway college, brand awareness and the opinion of college brand are examined.…

  4. The Impact of a Pathway College on Reputation and Brand Awareness for Its Affiliated University in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ann; Zhao, Jingsong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect that a prospective pathway college affiliated to a large comprehensive university in Sydney may have on the university's reputation. In particular, the association of reputation with preference for a pathway college, brand awareness and the opinion of college brand are examined.

  5. The 2002 Sydney Gay Games: re-presenting "lesbian" identities through sporting space.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this article poetic representation in qualitative research is explored in relation to researching "lesbian" lives. Set within the context of The 2002 Sydney Gay Games the article considers how poetry can bring to light experiences at the intersection of sexuality, sport, and place. The article details three aspects to this process. First, by asking what queer theory could do for particular research subjects, a robust, malleable, and transportable theoretical concept of "queer" is proposed that is responsive to the participants' lives and experiences. Second, this concept is applied methodologically in order to unsettle more traditional academic modes of representing interview data through the use of poetic forms of representation. Finally, a poem constructed from the Opening Ceremony of The Gay Games is presented and analyzed. Poetic representation is thus offered as a distinct methodology that permits a particular kind of "queer" analysis when researching "lesbian" lives. PMID:19598051

  6. Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters

    PubMed Central

    Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:24795701

  7. Responding to a measles outbreak in a Pacific island community in western Sydney: community interviews led to church-based immunization clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Salwa; Sheppeard, Vicky; Peacock, Alisa; Scott, Caroline; Flego, Kristina; Forssman, Bradley; Seale, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are large Pacific island communities in western and south-western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. In 2011 and 2012, measles outbreaks disproportionally affected children and youth within these communities. The objectives of this study were to explore barriers to immunization in a Pacific island community from the perspectives of community members and health professionals and to conduct a pilot programme whereby immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. Methods Interviews were conducted with Pacific island community members (n=12) and health professionals connected with the Pacific island community (n=7) in 2013. A partnership with a local Samoan church was established to provide an accessible venue for immunization catch-up clinics. Results Among the community members there were high levels of belief in the importance of immunization and a positive view regarding the protection offered by immunization. A key barrier reported by community members was being busy and therefore having limited time to get children immunized. The important role of the church within the community was emphasized in the interviews, and as a result, two immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. The age range of attendees was 733 years. A total of 31 measles, mumps and rubella doses and 19 meningococcal C doses were given during the two clinics. Discussion The outcomes of the interviews and the subsequent clinics highlighted the potential of churches as a venue for providing public health interventions such as catch-up immunization. PMID:26306217

  8. Differential proteomic response of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to prolonged environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Melwani, A R; Thompson, E L; Raftos, D A

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to prolonged environmental stress can have impacts on the cellular homeostasis of aquatic organisms. The current study employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to test whether exposure to impaired water quality conditions in the Sydney Harbour estuary has significantly altered the proteomes of the resident Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). Adult S. glomerata were sampled from four bays in the estuary. Each bay consisted of a "high-impact" site adjacent to point sources of chemical contamination (e.g., storm drains/canals or legacy hotspots) and a "low-impact" site located ∼5km away from point sources. A mixture of environmental stressors differed significantly between high- and low-impact sites. Specifically, PAHs, PCBs, tributyltin, Pb, and Zn were significantly elevated in oyster tissues from high-impact sites, together with depleted dissolved oxygen and low pH in the water column. A 2-DE proteomics analysis subsequently identified 238 protein spots across 24 2-DE gels, of which 27-50 spots differed significantly in relative intensity between high- and low-impact sites per bay. Twenty-five percent of the differential spots were identified in more than one bay. The identities of 80 protein spots were determined by mass spectrometry. HSP 70, PPIB, and radixin were the three most highly expressed differential proteins. Despite the largely unique proteomes evident in each bay, functional annotations revealed that half of the differentially expressed proteins fell into just two subcellular functional categories-energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. These findings provide a framework to further investigate adaptation of cellular mechanisms to prolonged stress in S. glomerata. PMID:26844780

  9. [The emergence of novel GII.4 norovirus variant, Sydney_2012, in Shanghai, China].

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhen; Wang, Gang; Zai, Shu-Bei; Hu, Yun-Wen; Yuan, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of norovirus (NOV) associated acute gastroenteritis in Shanghai and characterize the evolution pattern of circulating strains. From March 2012 to February 2013, 502 stool specimens were collected from adult (> or = 16 years) outpatients who visited either of the two sentinel hospitals in Shanghai for acute gastroenteritis. Molecular detection and genotyping of NoV were performed and the phylogenetic relationship of the circulating strains has also been comprehensively analyzed. The epidemics level of GI NoV was low throughout the surveillance period, with the positive rate of 3.78% (19 cases), and no seasonality of GI NoV infection could be distinguished. For GII genogroup, higher epidemics in adults in Shanghai, with the detection rate of 17.13% (86 cases), were observed. And relatively high epidemics of GII NoV infection were spotted between October and December in 2012. The frequency of NoV associated acute gastroenteritis in older people is significantly higher than that in young individuals (P < 0.05). Sequencing and genotyping analysis revealed that the high epidemics of GII NoV infection between October and December in 2012 is associated with the emergence of a novel GII.4 norovirus strain, termed Sydney_2012. Sequence analysis also demonstrated that this was a recombinant virus between a GII.e polymerase and GII.4 capsid, which has also been the dominant circulating strain in Shanghai. In 2012, a new GII.4 variant, termed Sydney_2012, emerged in Shanghai and caused high epidemics of acute gastroenteritis during late autumn and winter. PMID:24520766

  10. The role of acculturation in health status and utilization of health services among the iranian elderly in metropolitan Sydney.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh-Khoei, Mahtab; Mathews, R Mark; Hossain, S Zakia

    2011-12-01

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on health status and use of health and community aged care services among elderly Iranian-born immigrants to Australia. Three hundred two Iranian immigrants aged 65years and over who had lived in the Sydney Metropolitan area for at least six months participated. Data were collected using a written survey instrument, face-to-face interviews, and telephone interviews. Iranian immigrants had higher levels of psychological distress, more limited physical function, greater need for help or assistance with activities of daily living, lower feelings of wellbeing, and were much less likely to use aged care services than the general population of older Australians. Participants who did not speak English at home were more likely to experience psychological distress and had greater limitations in their physical functioning. Elderly Iranians with better English proficiency had lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and reported less need for help and supervision in activities of daily living; they were also more likely to access health care services. Elderly Iranian immigrants experience higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of physical function than the general population of older Australians; those with limited proficiency in English are at greatest risk. These findings contribute to the enrichment of multicultural policy, social fairness, access, and equity for ethnic aged people. PMID:21986904

  11. Eight-channel video broadcast feed service using free-space optical wireless technology at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajowski, Paul F.; Rigas, A. J.; Robinson, J. W.; Nykolak, Gerald; Paulson, Bruce D.; Tourgee, G. E.; Auborn, James J.

    2001-02-01

    12 Terrestrial 1550 nm WDM free-space optical communication systems have been demonstrated to provide a viable means to transport data, voice and video channels for point-to-point applications without the use of optical fiber. Key features of free-space optical transmission systems are their ability to utilize present day telecommunication components such as: laser diode transmitters, high-power optical amplifiers operating within the 1550 nm optical transmission window and high-sensitivity optical receivers designed for multi-Giga- bit data rates. In this paper, we report on details of the world's first field test, demonstrating real time video transmission of eight uncompressed standard-definition (SD) video channels operating at an aggregate data rate of 1.485 Gb/s over a 0.89 km terrestrial free-space link. This data link was used in support of the 2000 Olympic games held recently in Sydney, Australia. Results from this eight- channel SD terrestrial free-space laser communications systems are presented. The transmission system operated error-free continuously from September 14, 2000 until October 1, 2000, twenty-four hours a day, throughout the coverage of the games. Modeling results predict that free- space SD video transmission systems can be designed and operated over significant link distances under nominal visibility conditions.

  12. Spatial mapping of lead, arsenic, iron, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: community impact from the coke ovens and steel plant.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy W; Boehmer, Jennifer; Feltham, Jason; Guyn, Lindsay; Shahid, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spatial maps of the arsenic, lead, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. The spatial maps were designed to create exposure cohorts to help understand the observed increase in health effects. To assess whether contamination can be a proxy for exposures, the following hypothesis was tested: residential soils were impacted by the coke oven and steel plant industrial complex. The spatial map showed contaminants are centered on the industrial facility, significantly correlated, and exceed Canadian health risk-based soil quality guidelines. Core samples taken at 5-cm intervals suggest a consistent deposition over time. The concentrations in Sydney significantly exceed background Sydney soil concentrations, and are significantly elevated compared with North Sydney, an adjacent industrial community. The contaminant spatial maps will also be useful for developing cohorts of exposure and guiding risk management decisions. PMID:21864102

  13. Elucidating the life cycle of Marteilia sydneyi, the aetiological agent of QX disease in the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Nolan, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Marteilia sydneyi (Phylum Paramyxea, Class Marteiliidea, Order Marteiliida) (the causative agent of QX disease) is recognised as the most severe parasite to infect Saccostrea glomerata, the Sydney rock oyster, on the east coast of Australia. Despite its potential impact on industry (>95% mortality), research towards lessening these effects has been hindered by the lack of an experimental laboratory model of infection as a consequence of our incomplete understanding of the life cycle of this parasite. Here, we explored the presence of this parasite in hosts other than a bivalve mollusc from two study sites on the Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, Australia. We employed PCR-based in situ hybridisation and sequence analysis of a portion of the first internal transcribed spacer of rDNA in an attempt to detect M. sydneyi DNA in 21 species of polychaete worm. Marteilia DNA was detected in 6% of 1247 samples examined by PCR; the analysis of all amplicons defined one distinct sequence type for first internal transcribed spacer, representing M. sydneyi. Of the polychaete operational taxonomic units test-positive in PCR, we examined 116 samples via in situ hybridisation DNA probe staining and identified M. sydneyi DNA in the epithelium of the intestine of two specimens of Nephtys australiensis. Two differing morphological forms were identified: a 'primordial' cell that contained a well-defined nucleus but had little differentiation in the cytoplasm, and a 'plasmodial' cell that showed an apparent syncytial structure. This finding represents the first known record of the identification of M. sydneyi being parasitic in an organism other than an oyster, and only the third record of any species of Marteilia identified from non-molluscan hosts. Future work aims at determining if N. australiensis and S. glomerata are the only hosts in the life cycle of this paramyxean, and the development of experimental models to aid the production of QX disease-resistant oysters. PMID:25765622

  14. Next generation sequence analysis of the transcriptome of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to a range of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Hook, Sharon E; Johnston, Emma L; Nair, Sham; Roach, Anthony C; Moncuquet, Philippe; Twine, Natalie A; Raftos, David A

    2014-12-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) were exposed to environmental stressors at contaminated field sites or in a controlled laboratory setting. RNA seq transcriptome data were generated for the gill and digestive gland using Roche's 454 pyrosequencing technology. 28,685 contigs were de novo assembled which encoded 11,671 different protein products. The data will act as a reference for future studies in ecology, immunology and environmental toxicology. PMID:25151890

  15. GII.4 Sydney_2012 norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients in Beijing and its rapid evolution in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huan; Gao, Yan; Cong, Xu; Wang, Hui; Liu, Ning; Huang, Xiaojun; Xu, Lanping; Chen, Yuhong; Wei, Lai

    2016-02-01

    To study the epidemiology and evolution of norovirus (NoV) in immunocompromised patients in a tertiary hospital in China. Stool specimens were collected from 131 hospitalized patients presenting with diarrhea from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013, and were tested for NoV using RT-PCR. RT-PCR was performed to amplify the complete capsid genome for a series of samples from chronic diarrhea patients, and nucleotide and amino acid changes were analyzed. There were nine NoV-positive patients among 124 immunocompromised patients (7.3%); all nine were infected with GII.4 Sydney_2012 strain. In three chronic diarrhea patients, the GII.4 Sydney_2012 strains accumulated 19, 18, and eight nucleotide mutations within 110, 113, and 22 days, respectively, most were non-synonymous. The greatest number of stable amino acid mutations was 10 in patient 2; eight stable mutations (including three in antigenic sites) occurred while the patient was asymptomatic and shedding the virus. GII.4 Sydney_2012 strain tends to undergo stable mutations during the asymptomatic shedding phase and may generate new variants in chronic diarrhea patients. J. Med. Virol. 88:224-233, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26185038

  16. Histopathologic and histochemical biomarker responses of Baltic clam, Macoma balthica, to contaminated Sydney Harbour sediment, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Kok-Leng; Teh, Swee Joo; Doe, Ken; Lee, Ken; Jackman, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Sediments in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia, are highly contaminated by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. Histopathologic and histochemical evaluations were made on the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica, exposed to 11 Sydney Harbour sediment samples. Histologic lesions in digestive gland (tubular dilation or atrophy, macrophage aggregates, tubular cell necrosis, and tissue inflammation) and gonads (macrophage aggregates, supporting cell, germ cell, and ovarian cell necroses) were frequently detected in clams exposed to the most contaminated sediments from the harbor. Clams exposed to these contaminated sediments also had the highest acid phosphatase activity. The average scores of tubular dilation or atrophy, ovarian cell necrosis, and the sums of mean digestive gland lesions correlated significantly with sediment PCBs, and the activities of acid phosphatase correlated significantly with sediment heavy metals, PAHs, and PCBs. Among the lesions, digestive gland tubular dilation or atrophy, tubular cell, germ cell, and ovarian cell necroses, and the activity of acid phosphatase are the best sublethal effect indicators in Macoma exposed to Sydney Harbour sediments. Key words: biomarkers, chronic biologic effects, clams, histology, histochemistry, Macoma balthica, marine sediment, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:12611654

  17. Changing Water Depths in the Eastern Part of Sydney Harbour due to Human Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    Sydney Harbour has been significantly modified by human impacts from the start of the European settlement in 1788. Land clearing has accelerated soil erosion, resulting in increased sedimentation. Dredging has deepened many areas to accommodate ever-larger ships. In this paper a GIS method is used to map bathymetric changes in the eastern part of the harbour from 1903 to more recently. Dredged areas are apparent in the entrance and in wharfage areas, while sedimentation is most marked around the deepest section, which is well inside the harbour itself. In this latter region sediment has built up considerably, to over 3 m in some locations, and ship-induced motions appear to have had an impact. Despite these changes the overall depth of the eastern part of the harbour has changed little. This work is of interest to maritime archaeologists because it brings out the types of processes by which sediments can accumulate and be removed thus altering a harbour's seabed and potentially burying, exposing or erasing archaeological sites and artefacts.

  18. Catering for the athletes village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the role of sports dietitians.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona; O'Connor, Helen; Denyer, Gareth; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the development, analysis, and implementation of the menu available to athletes and patrons in the main dining hall of the Athletes Village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the significant role of sports dietitians in this process. Menu design and development was informed by focus groups, literature reviews, and food-preference surveys of athletes. The final menu was also assessed by an expert panel of Australian sports dietitians. A custom-designed database (Foodweb) was developed to enable dietary analysis of food-production data and creation of point-of-choice nutrition labels. Dietitians assisted with quality assurance testing and training of catering staff. Athletes surveyed in the main dining hall (N=414) agreed that the menu contained sufficient variety and adequate meat, pasta/rice, vegetable/salad, fruit, and snack items. Sports dietitians played a significant role in ensuring that the menu met the needs of athletes from a range of differing cultural and sporting backgrounds. Dining-hall patrons provided positive feedback and few complaints about the overall dining experience. The information presented in this report can help future caterers and dietitians with the planning and provision of suitable food for athletic performance at an Olympic Games. PMID:19827460

  19. Musculoskeletal injuries in the ultramarathon: the 1990 Westfield Sydney to Melbourne run.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, K E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the injuries sustained by participants in a 1005 km ultramarathon. METHODS: Clinical notes were reviewed on entrants in the 1005 km Sydney to Melbourne ultramarathon. An injury was recorded following self referral by a participant or if the history obtained from the runner or his support crew indicated the likelihood of a significant injury which could have an impact upon performance. RESULTS: 64 injuries were found in 32 runners. The knee (31.3%) and ankle (28.1%) regions were most commonly injured. The most common single diagnosis was retropatellar pain syndrome, and Achilles tendinitis and medial tibial stress syndrome were the next most common injuries. Peritendinitis/tendinitis of the tendons passing under the extensor retinaculum at the ankle, an injury infrequently reported in other sports, was common (19% of all injuries). CONCLUSIONS: The injuries were typically associated with running but 12 (19% of the total) involved the tendons of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the lower leg, and in almost every case the major site of inflammation was at the extensor retinaculum at the anterior aspect of the ankle. This injury appears to be relatively specific to the ultramarathon-"ultramarathoner's ankle". Images p321-a PMID:9015594

  20. Implementing a space-time rainfall model for the Sydney region.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M; Metcalfe, A; Lambert, M; Kuczera, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a Spatial Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (SNSRP) model, which is one of only a few models capable of continuous simulation of rainfall in both space and time. The SNSRP is a spatial extension of the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse model at a single point. The model is highly idealized having six parameters: storm arrival, cell arrival, cell radius, cell lifetime and two cell intensity parameters. A spatial interpolation of the scale parameter is used so that the model can be simulated continuously in space, rather than as a multi-site model. The parameters are calibrated using least-squares fits to statistical moments based on data aggregated to hourly and daily totals. The SNSRP model is calibrated to a very large network of 85 gauges over metropolitan Sydney and shows a good agreement to calibrated statistics. A simulation of 50 replicates over the region compares favourably to several observed temporal statistics, with an example given for one site. A qualitative discussion of the simulated spatial images demonstrates the underlying structure of non-advecting cylindrical cells. PMID:17425070

  1. Evaluation of AirXpanders for Breast Reconstruction: Early Experience from Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Two-staged prosthetic breast reconstruction has become a popular option involving a series of saline injections to expanders to create a pocket large enough for a permanent implant. This, however, requires frequent visits to the surgeon and numerous needle pricks with potential infection risk. A new form of tissue expander, the AirXpanders, has recently been trialed in Perth and the United States. It uses a remote-controlled release of compressed CO2 where needle punctures are avoided. Methodology: Prospective data were collected on the first 10 patients to have the AirXpanders implant inserted for breast reconstruction at Western Sydney. The implants were inserted subpectorally as the saline expanders, and patients were instructed how to use the remote 4 weeks postoperation. Results: Ten patients (4 immediate and 6 delayed) aged between 30 and 65 (mean, 48.3 years) underwent 14 AirXpanders insertions. One patient passed away due to metastatic malignancy. With the remaining patients, the average period of active expansion was 15.8 days (r, 621). The average size of final implant used was 451?g (r, 195685). The only complications were 2 seromas. Conclusion: Our early results are consistent with the Perth trial. The new AirXpanders is safe to use and able to achieve satisfactory tissue expansion faster than saline expander. It also has the advantage of patient self-controlled without the need for multiple medical reviews and needle punctures. PMID:26495208

  2. Quantitative proteomics of heavy metal stress responses in Sydney rock oysters.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sridevi; Thompson, Emma; Raftos, David; Birch, Gavin; Haynes, Paul A

    2012-03-01

    Currently, there are few predictive biomarkers in key biomonitoring species, such as oysters, that can detect heavy metal pollution in coastal waterways. Several attributes make oysters superior to other organisms for positive biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. In particular, they are filter feeders with a high capacity for bioaccumulation. In this study, we used two proteomics approaches, namely label-free shotgun proteomics based on SDS-PAGE gel separation and gas phase fractionation, to investigate the heavy metal stress responses of Sydney rock oysters. Protein samples were prepared from haemolymph of oysters exposed to 100 ?g/L of PbCl(2), CuCl(2), or ZnCl(2) for 4 days in closed aquaria. Peptides were identified using a Bivalvia protein sequence database, due to the unavailability of a complete oyster genome sequence. Statistical analysis revealed 56 potential biomarker proteins, as well as several protein biosynthetic pathways to be greatly impacted by metal stress. These have the potential to be incorporated into bioassays for prevention and monitoring of heavy metal pollution in Australian oyster beds. The study confirms that proteomic analysis of biomonitoring species is a promising approach for assessing the effects of environmental pollution, and our experiments have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying oyster stress responses. PMID:22539440

  3. Per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men in Sydney in the era of HAART

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fengyi; Jansson, James; Law, Matthew; Prestage, Garrett P; Zablotska, Iryna; Imrie, John C G; Kippax, Susan C; Kaldor, John M; Grulich, Andrew E; Wilson, David P

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men due to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Data were collected from a longitudinal cohort study of community-based HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Methods A total 1427 participants were recruited from June 2001 to December 2004. They were followed up with 6-monthly detailed behavioral interviews and annual testing for HIV till June 2007. Data were used in a bootstrapping method, coupled with a statistical analysis that optimized a likelihood function for estimating the per-exposure risks of HIV transmission due to various forms of UAI. Results During the study, 53 HIV seroconversion cases were identified. The estimated per-contact probability of HIV transmission for receptive UAI was 1.43% (95% CI 0.48%-2.85%) if ejaculation occurred inside the rectum occurred, and it was 0.65% (95% CI 0.15%-1.53%) if withdrawal prior to ejaculation was involved. The estimated transmission rate for insertive UAI in participants who were circumcised was 0.11% (95% CI 0.02%-0.24%), and it was 0.62% (95% CI 0.07%-1.68%) in uncircumcised men. Thus, receptive UAI with ejaculation was found to be approximately twice as risky as receptive UAI with withdrawal or insertive UAI for uncircumcised men and over 10-times as risky as insertive UAI for circumcised men. Conclusion Despite the fact that a high proportion of HIV-infected men are on antiretroviral treatment and have undetectable viral load, the per-contact probability of HIV transmission due to UAI is similar to estimates reported from developed country settings in the pre-HAART era. PMID:20139750

  4. Sexual behaviour and contraceptive practices of year 10 schoolgirls in inner metropolitan Sydney.

    PubMed

    Kang, M S; Zador, D A

    1993-11-01

    308 female students from six State high schools in inner metropolitan Sydney responded to self-administered questionnaires on their sex behavior and contraceptive use. Respondents were in their tenth year of school and of mean age 15.6 years. The survey was conducted with no refusals over the period March-June 1991 upon the sample from four coed and two single-sex schools. 18% of the sample reported ever having sexual intercourse, although substantial interschool variation was observed; less than 5% of girls in one school with a predominantly non-English speaking population were sexually experienced, while almost 45% were experienced in another school with a predominantly Anglo-Saxon population. The mean age at first intercourse for the sexually active group was 14.5 years. 72% used condoms at first intercourse, while 17% used no form of contraception. There were no significant differences in the mean ages of sexually active and nonactive girls, nor between the percentage of sexually active girls in coed schools and in single-sex schools. 25 girls had ever had a total of one sex partner, 27 had 2-5, and two had more than five. The condom is the most commonly used form of contraception, with 38% of sexually active girls using condoms every time. The rest of the girls used them either occasionally or not at all. Oral contraceptive pills (OCP) were used by less than 15% of the sexually active group, with effective contraception overall used by only 43% of the group. Effective contraception is defined as either condom use during every act of sexual intercourse during the preceding six months or daily compliance with the OCP. Eight subjects used no contraception at all during the preceding six months. These findings indicate the need for more education targeted to adolescents and health professionals, especially general practitioners. PMID:12318952

  5. Toxicity of acid-sulfate soil leachate and aluminum to embryos of the Sydney Rock oyster.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S P; Hyne, R V

    1997-06-01

    The toxicity of leachate water from acid-sulfate soil to the early embryonic development of the Sydney Rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis, was assessed. Concentrations of acid-sulfate soil leachate water as low as 3.3% in seawater were found to decrease the normal development of oyster embryos after 48 hr exposure, and this effect could not be attributed to any significant change in pH or salinity. An EC50 value for the acid-sulfate soil leachate water of 2.5 to 2.9% in seawater was obtained, and the no observed effect concentration was determined at a concentration of 2% in seawater. In tests conducted with aluminum added to seawater, a significant decrease in the percentage of embryos developed to the D-veliger stage occurred at concentrations of 150 micrograms/liter and greater, with no effects at 100 micrograms/liter. An EC50 of 225 micrograms/liter for the effect of added aluminum on embryo survival was obtained and all embryos showed developmental abnormalities at concentrations of 400 micrograms/liter and greater. A significant decrease in the embryonic development occurred when the fertilized eggs were incubated in pH-adjusted seawater at pH values < or = 6.75, but no significant effects were found at pH 7.0 or above. Since aluminum was present in high concentrations in the acid-sulfate soil leachate water, it was concluded that aluminum was the main toxicant in the acid-sulfate water that disrupted the oyster embryonic development. PMID:9212333

  6. Dietary ingestion of fine sediments and microalgae represent the dominant route of exposure and metal accumulation for Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata): A biokinetic model for zinc.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Birch, G F; Cresswell, T; Johansen, M P; Adams, M S; Simpson, S L

    2015-10-01

    Past studies disagree on the extent to which dissolved or dietary uptake contribute to metal bioaccumulation in the filter-feeding Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) in urbanized estuaries. Although most data support the assumption that fine sediments are a major route of metal uptake in these bivalves, some studies based in the Sydney estuary, Australia, have indicated a poor correlation. In the present study, seawater, sediment and microalgae were radiolabelled with (65)Zn tracer and exposed to S. glomerata to assess the influence of dissolved and dietary sources to Zn bioaccumulation. Oysters in the dissolved-phase uptake experiment (5, 25 and 50 μg L(-1) (65)Zn for 4 d followed by 21 days of depuration) readily accumulated (65)Zn for all three concentrations with an uptake rate constant of 0.160±0.006 L dry weight g(-1) d(-1). Oysters in the dietary assimilation experiment (1h pulse-feed of either (65)Zn-radiolabelled suspended fine-fraction (<63 μm) sediment or the microalgae Tetraselmis sp.) accumulated (65)Zn, with assimilation efficiencies of 59 and 67% for fine sediment and microalgae, respectively. The efflux rates were low for the three experiments (0.1-0.5% d(-1)). A bioaccumulation kinetic model predicts that uptake of Zn will occur predominantly through the dietary ingestion of contaminated fine sediment particles and microalgae within the water column, with considerably greater metal bioaccumulation predicted if oysters ingested microalgae preferentially to sediments. However, the model predicts that for dissolved Zn concentrations greater than 40 μg L(-1), as observed during precipitation events, the uptake of the dissolved phase may contribute ≥50% to accumulation. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that all three sources may be important exposure routes to S. glomerata under different environmental conditions, but contributions from dietary exposure will often dominate. PMID:26261879

  7. Effects of water temperature and salinity on elimination of Salmonella charity and Escherichia coli from Sydney rock oysters (Crassostrea commercialis).

    PubMed

    Rowse, A J; Fleet, G H

    1984-11-01

    The elimination of Salmonella charity and Escherichia coli from the Sydney rock oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, was examined during commercial purification of oysters under different water temperatures and salinities. Both organisms were rapidly eliminated at 18 to 22 degrees C. Purification was effective but slower at 24 to 27 degrees C and incomplete and inconsistent at temperatures below 17 degrees C. The oysters suffered stress and were not effectively purified at water salinities of 15 to 20% but were rapidly purified at 32 to 47% salinity. Winter-harvested and summer-harvested oysters were purified similarly in water at 18 to 22 degrees C and 32 to 36% salinity. PMID:6391382

  8. Analysis of early strains of the norovirus pandemic variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 identifies mutations in adaptive sites of the capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, G M; De Grazia, S; Terio, V; Lanave, G; Catella, C; Bonura, F; Saporito, L; Medici, M C; Tummolo, F; Calderaro, A; Bnyai, K; Hansman, G; Martella, V

    2014-02-01

    Global surveillance for norovirus identified in 2012 the emergence of a novel pandemic GII.4 variant, termed Sydney 2012. In Italy, the novel pandemic variant was identified as early as November 2011 but became predominant only in the winter season 2012-2013. Upon sequencing and comparison with strains of global origin, the early Sydney 2012 strains were found to differ from those spreading in 2012-2013 in the capsid (ORF2) putative epitopes B, C and D, segregating into a distinct phylogenetic clade. At least three residues (333, 340 and 393, in epitopes B, C and D, respectively) of the VP1 varied among Sydney 2012 strains of different clades. These findings suggest that the spread of the pandemic variant in Italy during the winter season 2012-2013 was due to the introduction of strains distinct from those circulating at low frequency in the former winter season and that similar strains were also circulating elsewhere worldwide. PMID:24503099

  9. Seismic anisotropy in the upper 500 m of the Southern Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Urosevic, M.; Juhlin, C.

    1999-12-01

    An analysis of seismic anisotropy at a BHP mining site in the Southern Sydney Basin by combined use of crosshole and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data is presented. The upper 250 m in this area is highly heterogeneous and has a major impact on the analysis of P-wave travel times. It is shown that using P-wave information solely would not, at least in this case, lead to any reasonable estimate of the elastic constants, in particular C{sub 13}, even if the measurements contained a full range of incident angles. However, if the measurements of SV-waves are available, even over a small range of incident angles, then C{sub 13} is determined more accurately. P-wave velocities measured in the vertical and horizontal directions show that anisotropy is present in the area. Additional measurements, along different incident angles, indicate that the rock down to 500 m depth is predominantly transversely isotropic (TI) with a vertical axis of symmetry. The P-wave anisotropy can be approximated as elliptical. Using the elastic constants estimated from the data analyses, synthetic seismograms for heterogeneous TI media were generated. Comparison of the seismic modeling with real crosshole data shows that it is necessary to include both fault zones and gas accumulations in the model to qualitatively match the real data. By using SV-waves in the multioffset VSP data, reflectors are mapped more accurately than by using P-waves, even under the assumption of isotropy and in the presence of heterogeneity. Mapping of converted P-SV waves by a straight ray approach also produced better results than the corresponding isotropic P-wave mapping. Inclusion of elliptical anisotropy into Kirchhoff migration resulted in better P-wave images than using an isotopic migration code. The authors conclude that both P-wave VSP multioffset mapping and tomographic inversion methods need to account for anisotropy to be accurate in this area, while SV-waves may be handled using isotropic codes. The same is true for crosshold and surface seismic data.

  10. Incidence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in a cohort of Sydney homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Burcham, J L; Tindall, B; Marmor, M; Cooper, D A; Berry, G; Penny, R

    1989-06-01

    By means of prospective cohort data from the Sydney AIDS Project, we report on 55 homosexual or bisexual men who have become infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as measured by the development of serum HIV antibodies (seroconversion). We have compared the sexual practices, recreational drug abuse, history of sexually-transmissible diseases, and antecedent immunological findings of the men who seroconverted with those of 588 subjects who persistently remained seronegative in the same time-period. The cumulative incidence rate of HIV infection over the three years of observation was 8.5%. The cumulative incidence rate ranged from less than 1% for the six months before August 1, 1984, to a peak of 5% in the six months before August 1, 1985. Of those subjects for whom we had data for the period of seroconversion, all but two of the subjects who seroconverted admitted to a recognized high-risk sexual practice in the six months before the first visit at which they were found to be seropositive. Univariate analysis found that men who seroconverted were significantly more likely to have had a greater number of recent sexual partners (relative risk per partner, 1.02; P less than 0.001), to have engaged in receptive anal intercourse (incidence rate ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-7.6; P = 0.01) and to have used nitrite inhalant (incidence rate ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.9; P = 0.02) and amphetamine (incidence rate ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.2-10.5; P less than 0.001) drugs. The men who seroconverted were significantly (incidence rate ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-6.1; P = 0.014) more likely to have antecedent T-suppressor-cell counts of greater than 800 cells/microL. Factors that retained significance in multivariate analysis were the number of recent sexual partners, recent amphetamine abuse and a T-suppressor-cell count of greater than 800 cells/microL. PMID:2725377

  11. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the chemical models remains to be tested. CCs and FCs are inferred endpoints on a spectrum of pomd which complicates assessing origin of in-between transformations (partially macerated cuticles). FCs index highly acidic levels that existed locally in the roof rocks.

  12. Mechanistic insights into induction of vitellogenin gene expression by estrogens in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh; MacFarlane, Geoff R; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; O'Connor, Wayne A; Yu, Richard Man Kit

    2016-05-01

    Marine molluscs, such as oysters, respond to estrogenic compounds with the induction of the egg yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vtg), availing a biomarker for estrogenic pollution. Despite this application, the precise molecular mechanism through which estrogens exert their action to induce molluscan vitellogenesis is unknown. As a first step to address this question, we cloned a gene encoding Vtg from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (sgVtg). Using primers designed from a partial sgVtg cDNA sequence available in Genbank, a full-length sgVtg cDNA of 8498bp was obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of sgVtg was determined to be 7980bp, which is substantially longer than the orthologs of other oyster species. Its deduced protein sequence shares the highest homology at the N- and C-terminal regions with other molluscan Vtgs. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of sgVtg was obtained by genomic PCR and genome walking targeting the gene body and flanking regions, respectively. The genomic sequence spans 20kb and consists of 30 exons and 29 introns. Computer analysis identified three closely spaced half-estrogen responsive elements (EREs) in the promoter region and a 210-bp CpG island 62bp downstream of the transcription start site. Upregulation of sgVtg mRNA expression was observed in the ovaries following in vitro (explants) and in vivo (tank) exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2). Notably, treatment with an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist in vitro abolished the upregulation, suggesting a requirement for an estrogen-dependent receptor for transcriptional activation. DNA methylation of the 5' CpG island was analysed using bisulfite genomic sequencing of the in vivo exposed ovaries. The CpG island was found to be hypomethylated (with 0-3% methylcytosines) in both control and E2-exposed oysters. However, no significant differential methylation or any correlation between methylation and sgVtg expression levels was observed. Overall, the results support the possible involvement of an ERE-containing promoter and an estrogen-activated receptor in estrogen signalling in marine molluscs. PMID:26963518

  13. Sampling of Total Mercury in Sand on Sydney Beaches and Assessment of Risk of Exposure to Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, D.; Tang, C.; Edwards, G. C.; Gan, T.; Tran, S.; Geremia, S.; Campbell, J.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial waste, sewage outfall and storm water run-off are potential anthropogenic sources of mercury to Sydney beaches. Children playing on these beaches are possibly at risk of exposure to mercury in beach sand through the ingestion pathway. As part of an investigation into this risk samples were collected from various locations along 7 of Sydney's beaches where children typically would be exposed. Samples were dried and the sand fraction (i.e. >63 m and <2 mm) analysed for total mercury using a Direct Mercury Analyser (DMA-80) methodology. Risk of Exposure to mercury was assessed based on published estimates of daily ingestion of soil by children and Health Canada's guideline of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1 exposure threshold. For the beaches sampled concentrations of total mercury in beach sand ranged from 0.6 to 58 ppb. The maximum concentrations of total mercury in beach sand were observed on Beach 6, in the vicinity of five storm water runoff sources. Daily mercury intake values were determined for two commonly used published values for daily ingestion of soil by children of 0.2 g soil d-1 and 1.75 g soil d-1. Results to date show the maximum daily intake calculated using an average child weight of 13 kg to be 7.8 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1, well below the currently accepted daily intake threshold of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1.

  14. Differential proteomic responses of selectively bred and wild-type Sydney rock oyster populations exposed to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E L; O'Connor, W; Parker, L; Ross, P; Raftos, D A

    2015-03-01

    Previous work suggests that larvae from Sydney rock oysters that have been selectively bred for fast growth and disease resistance are more resilient to the impacts of ocean acidification than nonselected, wild-type oysters. In this study, we used proteomics to investigate the molecular differences between oyster populations in adult Sydney rock oysters and to identify whether these form the basis for observations seen in larvae. Adult oysters from a selective breeding line (B2) and nonselected wild types (WT) were exposed for 4 weeks to elevated pCO2 (856 μatm) before their proteomes were compared to those of oysters held under ambient conditions (375 μatm pCO2 ). Exposure to elevated pCO2 resulted in substantial changes in the proteomes of oysters from both the selectively bred and wild-type populations. When biological functions were assigned, these differential proteins fell into five broad, potentially interrelated categories of subcellular functions, in both oyster populations. These functional categories were energy production, cellular stress responses, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and cell signalling. In the wild-type population, proteins were predominantly upregulated. However, unexpectedly, these cellular systems were downregulated in the selectively bred oyster population, indicating cellular dysfunction. We argue that this reflects a trade-off, whereby an adaptive capacity for enhanced mitochondrial energy production in the selectively bred population may help to protect larvae from the effects of elevated CO2 , whilst being deleterious to adult oysters. PMID:25689603

  15. Age Variation in the Prevalence of "DSM-IV" Disorders in Cases of Suicide of Middle-Aged and Older Persons in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Wyder, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Data concerning 127 persons aged 35 years or above who died by suicide (as determined in consecutive cases by a Sydney coroner) were analyzed. Psychological autopsy (PA) interviews were conducted in 52 cases, and details were compared with the 75 cases where data were available only from coroner's files (CF). Most characteristics of the two groups…

  16. The impact of heat on mortality and morbidity in the Greater Metropolitan Sydney Region: a case crossover analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between unusually high temperature and daily mortality (19972007) and hospital admissions (19972010) in the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) to assist in the development of targeted health programs designed to minimise the public health impact of extreme heat. Methods Sydney GMR was categorized into five climate zones. Heat-events were defined as severe or extreme. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design with a conditional logistic regression model we adjusted for influenza epidemics, public holidays, and climate zone. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations between daily mortality and hospital admissions with heat-event days compared to non-heat event days for single and three day heat-events. Results All-cause mortality overall had similar magnitude associations with single day and three day extreme and severe events as did all cardiovascular mortality. Respiratory mortality was associated with single day and three day severe events (95thpercentile, lag0: OR?=?1.14; 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.24). Diabetes mortality had similar magnitude associations with single day and three day severe events (95thpercentile, lag0: OR?=?1.22; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.46) but was not associated with extreme events. Hospital admissions for heat related injuries, dehydration, and other fluid disorders were associated with single day and three day extreme and severe events. Contrary to our findings for mortality, we found inconsistent and sometimes inverse associations for extreme and severe events with cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease hospital admissions. Controlling for air pollutants did not influence the mortality associations but reduced the magnitude of the associations with hospital admissions particularly for ozone and respiratory disease. Conclusions Single and three day events of unusually high temperatures in Sydney are associated with similar magnitude increases in mortality and hospital admissions. The trend towards an inverse association between cardio-vascular admissions and heat-events and the strong positive association between cardio-vascular mortality and heat-events suggests these events may lead to a rapid deterioration in persons with existing cardio-vascular disease resulting in death. To reduce the adverse effects of high temperatures over multiple days, and less extreme but more frequent temperatures over single days, targeted public health messages are critical. PMID:24238064

  17. Renal biopsy pathology in a cohort of patients from southwest Sydney with clinically diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Jim LC; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The pathological manifestations in the kidneys in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are commonly known as lupus nephritis. We have studied the pathological changes in renal biopsies from 59 cases of clinically diagnosed SLE obtained over a 15-year period from a racially diverse population in the Sydney metropolitan area. Our aim was to see if there was any regional variation in the morphological changes. Methods Renal biopsy changes were assessed by routine light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. We used the modified 1974 World Health Organization classification of lupus nephritis to classify cases into six classes. Disease severity was assessed by age, sex, and across racial groups, including Caucasian, Asian, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian subcontinental, South American, and Pacific Islander. Results Our analysis showed that cases of lupus nephritis contributed 5.4% of our total renal biopsies examined over a 15-year period. The overall incidence of biopsy-proven cases was 0.49 per 100,000 per year. The ages of our patients ranged from 10 to 79 years, with most below 50 years of age. A female to male ratio was determined to be 4.4:1. There was no relationship to ethnicity, nor was there a relationship between any of these parameters and the class or severity of disease. Conclusion Renal biopsy with multimodal morphological and immunohistochemical analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of the level of disease in lupus nephritis. Based on this approach we have identified an incidence rate for southwest Sydney that is slightly higher but comparable to that found in a similar study from the United Kingdom. We also found that there was no relationship between sex, race, or age and severity of disease. PMID:23431084

  18. A Food Handler-Associated, Foodborne Norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012-Outbreak Following a Wedding Dinner, Austria, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Maritschnik, Sabine; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Simons, Erica; Hhne, Marina; Neumann, Heidelinde; Allerberger, Franz; Schmid, Daniela; Lederer, Ingeborg

    2013-09-12

    On October 12, 2012, the provincial public health directorate of Salzburg reported a suspected norovirus (NV) outbreak among guests of a wedding-reception. The investigation aimed to confirm the causative agent, to identify the mode of transmission and to implement appropriate preventive measures. A probable outbreak case was defined as a wedding guest with diarrhoea or vomiting with disease onset from 7 to 10 October 2012 and who consumed food at the wedding dinner prepared by a hotel in the province Salzburg on 6 October 2012. A confirmed outbreak case fulfilled the criteria of a probable outbreak case and had a laboratory-confirmed NV infection. We conducted a cohort-investigation among the wedding guests. The case definitions were fulfilled in 26 wedding guests (25%) including 2 confirmed cases. Females were 3.2 times more likely to develop disease (95% CI 1.4-7.2) as compared to males. A mushroom dish was found to be associated with disease risk among females (risk ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.3). Two of 2 tested case-patients and 6 of 14 kitchen workers tested were positive for NV GII.4 Sydney. One kitchen staff-member worked during the wedding dinner despite diarrhoea. No food safety training was documented for the employees and the kitchen staff's restroom was lacking operational facilities for hand hygiene. We report the first investigated outbreak due to GII.4 Sydney, which was likely due to a symptomatic kitchen worker. Gender-specific eating behaviour may have posed female guests at higher risk of NV infection. PMID:24026524

  19. Injecting drug use among gay and bisexual men in Sydney: prevalence and associations with sexual risk practices and HIV and hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; Mao, Limin; Bath, Nicky; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Injecting drug use is commonly reported among gay and bisexual men in Australia. We examined the prevalence and covariates of injecting drug use among men participating in the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey between 2004-06 and 2011. In 2004-06, data was collected about which drugs were injected, while in 2011, data was collected about hepatitis C (HCV) and esoteric sexual practices. In 2004-06, 5.6 % of men reported injecting drugs in the previous 6 months; 3.4 % reported methamphetamine injection and 0.4 % heroin injection. In 2011, men who injected drugs were less likely to be employed full-time, and more likely to be HCV-positive, HIV-positive, to have used party drugs for sex, and to have engaged in esoteric sexual practices. The strong associations between injecting drug use, sexual risk practices and blood-borne virus infection suggests the need for combined sexual health and harm reduction services for gay and bisexual men who inject drugs. PMID:23321949

  20. Strategies for the municipal waste management system to take advantage of carbon trading under competing policies: The role of energy from waste in Sydney

    SciTech Connect

    El Hanandeh, Ali El-Zein, Abbas

    2009-07-15

    Climate change is a driving force behind some recent environmental legislation around the world. Greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in many industrialised countries. A change in current practices of almost all greenhouse-emitting industrial sectors is unavoidable, if the set targets is to be achieved. Although, waste disposal contributes around 3% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia (mainly due to fugitive methane emissions from landfills), the carbon credit and trading scheme set to start in 2010 presents significant challenges and opportunities to municipal solid waste practitioners. Technological advances in waste management, if adopted properly, allow the municipal solid waste sector to act as carbon sink, hence earning tradable carbon credits. However, due to the complexity of the system and its inherent uncertainties, optimizing it for carbon credits may worsen its performance under other criteria. We use an integrated, stochastic multi-criteria decision-making tool that we developed earlier to analyse the carbon credit potential of Sydney municipal solid waste under eleven possible future strategies. We find that the changing legislative environment is likely to make current practices highly non-optimal and increase pressures for a change of waste management strategy.

  1. Strategies for the municipal waste management system to take advantage of carbon trading under competing policies: The role of energy from waste in Sydney.

    PubMed

    El Hanandeh, Ali; El-Zein, Abbas

    2009-07-01

    Climate change is a driving force behind some recent environmental legislation around the world. Greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in many industrialised countries. A change in current practices of almost all greenhouse-emitting industrial sectors is unavoidable, if the set targets is to be achieved. Although, waste disposal contributes around 3% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia (mainly due to fugitive methane emissions from landfills), the carbon credit and trading scheme set to start in 2010 presents significant challenges and opportunities to municipal solid waste practitioners. Technological advances in waste management, if adopted properly, allow the municipal solid waste sector to act as carbon sink, hence earning tradable carbon credits. However, due to the complexity of the system and its inherent uncertainties, optimizing it for carbon credits may worsen its performance under other criteria. We use an integrated, stochastic multi-criteria decision-making tool that we developed earlier to analyse the carbon credit potential of Sydney municipal solid waste under eleven possible future strategies. We find that the changing legislative environment is likely to make current practices highly non-optimal and increase pressures for a change of waste management strategy. PMID:19345082

  2. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy: a qualitative study of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of general practitioners in Central and South-Western Sydney

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women have an increased risk of influenza complications. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy is safe and effective, however coverage in Australia is less than 40%. Pregnant women who receive a recommendation for influenza vaccination from a health care provider are more likely to receive it, however the perspectives of Australian general practitioners has not previously been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of general practitioners practicing in South-Western Sydney, Australia towards influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was conducted, with semi-structured interviews completed with seventeen general practitioners in October 2012. A thematic analysis was undertaken by four researchers, and transcripts were analysed using N-Vivo software according to agreed codes. Results One-third of the general practitioners interviewed did not consider influenza during pregnancy to be a serious risk for the mother or the baby. The majority of the general practitioners were aware of the government recommendations for influenza vaccination during pregnancy, but few general practitioners were confident of their knowledge about the vaccine and most felt they needed more information. More than half the general practitioners had significant concerns about the safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Their practices in the provision of the vaccine were related to their perception of risk of influenza during pregnancy and their confidence about the safety of the vaccine. While two-thirds reported that they are recommending influenza vaccination to their pregnant patients, many were adopting principles of patient-informed choice in their approach and encouraged women to decide for themselves whether they would receive the vaccine. Conclusions General practitioners have varied knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about influenza vaccination during pregnancy, which influence their practices. Addressing these could have a significant impact on improving vaccine uptake during pregnancy. PMID:24884996

  3. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. Results A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice than Australian-born travelers. Conclusions This study highlights differences in health-seeking practices including the uptake of pre-travel health advice by region of residence and country of birth. There is a public health need to identify strategies targeting these travel groups. This includes the promotion of affordable and accessible travel clinics in low resource countries as traveler numbers increase and travel health promotion targeting migrant groups in high resource countries. General practitioners should play a central role. Determining the most appropriate strategies for increasing pre-travel health preparation, particularly for vaccine preventable diseases in travelers is the next stage in advancing travel medicine research. PMID:22550996

  4. Application of positive matrix factorization, multi-linear engine and back trajectory techniques to the quantification of coal-fired power station pollution in metropolitan Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Stelcer, Eduard; Atanacio, Armand J.

    2012-12-01

    Over 900 fine particle Teflon filters were collected within the Sydney Basin between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 and analyzed using simultaneous PIXE, PIGE, RBS and PESA techniques to determine 21 different elements between hydrogen and lead. These elements were used in positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multi-linear engine (ME) techniques together with HYSPLIT wind back trajectory techniques to quantitatively determine source fingerprints and their contributions from coal-fired power stations. The power stations were many kilometers outside the greater Sydney metropolitan area but still had a significant impact on the fine particle mass loadings measured at the sampling site within this metropolitan area. The PM2.5 eleven year average mass at the sampling site was 6.48 ?g m-3. The corresponding ammonium sulfate estimate was 1.65 ?g m-3 or 26% of the PM2.5 mass. By applying back trajectory data and (ME) analysis methods, two power related fingerprints, secondary sulfate (2ndrySPower) and aged industrial sulfur (IndSagedPower) were determined. These two power related fingerprints were responsible for between 14 and 18% of the total PM2.5 mass and 34-47% of the total sulfate measured at the sampling site. That is on average somewhere between a third and a half of all the sulfate measured in the greater Sydney region could be attributed to coal-fired power station emissions.

  5. Evidence of Carboniferous volcanic ash in Pictou Group (West-phalian D), Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.C.; Outerbridge, W.F. ); Hacquebard, P.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Until now, Carboniferous-altered volcanic ash in North America was known only from the Middle Pennsylvanian (upper Westphalian A to lower Westphalian D) of the Appalachian basin. Now, however, mineralogical analysis of thin claystones (8-24 mm thick) in mineable bituminous coal (Hub and Harbour seams) form the P-boreholes in the Donkin submarine areas of the Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, indicates the presence of trace amounts of minerals probably derived from a volcanic ash fall of late Westphalian D age. Water-clear to cloudy quartz splinters and euhedral zircon with sharp crystal faces and edges, and length-to-width ratios up to 6:1 - which are typical of Appalachian altered acidic volcanic ash deposits (tonsteins) - were with a dominantly detrital (fluvial ) mineral suite. Fifty to 90% water-laid silt- to sand-size detrital grains of quartz, tourmaline( ), zircon, white mica, and other minerals are found in the HF residum after the removal of the dominant components: clay minerals, pyrite, and coal particles (spores, secretinite, etc.). The fine size of the volcanic minerals and their low concentration indicate a very distant volcanic ash source, perhaps western Europe, where volcanic activity extended into the Stephanian.

  6. Sexual, reproductive and contraceptive risk factors for carcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Brock, K E; Berry, G; Brinton, L A; Kerr, C; MacLennan, R; Mock, P A; Shearman, R P

    1989-02-01

    Sexual, reproductive and contraceptive risk factors were investigated in a matched community-based case-control study of carcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix in Sydney. The risk was related strongly to the number of sexual partners: women who had had seven or more sexual partners in a lifetime had a six-fold increased risk compared with those with one or no partner. Early age at first sexual intercourse was also a risk factor, but this effect was reduced substantially after adjustment for the number of partners, with only a two-fold excess risk persisting for those with first intercourse before the age of 16 years as compared with those whose first sexual intercourse was at the age of 25 years or later. The long-term use of oral contraceptive agents was associated with an elevated risk (relative risk, 2.3 for more than six years of use); this effect was maintained for both oestrogen and progestogen doses. The risk increased with the number of induced abortions that had been undergone (relative risk, 2.2 for two or more abortions), but this effect was not statistically significant. A protective effect was found for women who had had a tubal ligation, for those who practised the rhythm method of birth control, and for women who breastfed. It is possible that these reduced risks may relate to unmeasured variables of life-style. PMID:2716580

  7. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  8. Multiculturalism and Language Shift: A Subjective Vitality Questionnaire Study of Sydney Italians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John; Ashcroft, Lyn

    1995-01-01

    Compares Subjective Vitality Questionnaire (SVQ) results of standard Italian and standard Greek in Australia to determine if the substantial difference in vitality between the languages is reflected in perceived vitality as measured by the SVQ. Results show that the perceived differences of Greek and Italian vitality are less than the real

  9. Ethnicity, health and medical care: towards a critical realist analysis of general practice in the Korean community in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Davies, Carmel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system. PMID:17060035

  10. Developments in undergraduate teaching of small-animal soft-tissue surgical skills at the University of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Deepa; McGreevy, Paul D; Zuber, Richard M; Klupiec, Corinna; Baguley, John; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses recent developments in soft-tissue surgery teaching at the University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science. An integrated teaching program was developed for Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) students with the aim of providing them with optimal learning opportunities to meet "Day One" small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies. Didactic lectures and tutorials were introduced earlier into the curriculum to prepare students for live-animal surgery practical. In addition to existing clinics, additional spay/neuter clinics were established in collaboration with animal welfare organizations to increase student exposure to live-animal surgery. A silicon-based, life-like canine ovariohysterectomy model was developed with the assistance of a model-making and special effects company. The model features elastic ovarian pedicles and suspensory ligaments, which can be stretched and broken like those of an actual dog. To monitor the volume and type of student surgical experience, an E-portfolio resource was established. This resource allows for the tracking of numbers of live, student-performed desexing surgeries and incorporates competency-based assessments and reflective tasks to be completed by students. Student feedback on the integrated surgical soft-tissue teaching program was assessed. Respondents were assessed in the fourth year of the degree and will have further opportunities to develop Day One small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies in the fifth year. Ninety-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they were motivated to participate in all aspects of the program, while 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they received an adequate opportunity to develop their skills and confidence in ovariohysterectomy or castration procedures through the fourth-year curriculum. PMID:22430078

  11. Development of a nurse-led primary healthcare service for injecting drug users in inner-city Sydney.

    PubMed

    Day, Carolyn A; Islam, M Mofizul; White, Ann; Reid, Sharon E; Hayes, Stephen; Haber, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Injecting drug users (IDUs) experience numerous health problems, but report barriers to utilising general practitioners (GPs). A nurse-led Harm Minimisation-based Primary Healthcare (HMPH) service for IDUs was established within a needle and syringe program in inner-city Sydney with Area Health Service medical support and clinical governance. This paper aimed to describe the HMPH service, review service utilisation and assess nurses' perceptions of their work with IDUs. A review of the most recent 200 clinic files was undertaken. Service utilisation, GP and other health service use and access were extracted and analysed using SPSS. A semi-structured qualitative interview with clinic nurses regarding their experience working with IDUs and local GPs was conducted and analysed. Since its inception in mid-2006, the service has been utilised by 417 clients. Of the most recent 200 files, blood-borne virus and sexually transmitted infection screening were the primary reason for presentation (64.5%). At least one follow-up visit was attended by 90% of clients. A total of 62% of clients reported consulting a GP in the last 12 months. The service provided 102 referrals. Nurses believed that IDUs tend to utilise GPs ineffectively and that self-care is a low priority, but that they can support IDUs to overcome some barriers to GPs and facilitate access. Targeted primary health care services led by nurses with focussed medical support and co-located with needle and syringe programs can fill an important gap in delivering and facilitating health care to IDUs. PMID:21616018

  12. The Sydney AIDS Project: development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a group of HIV seropositive homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B; Cooper, D A; Donovan, B; Barnes, T; Philpot, C R; Gold, J; Penny, R

    1988-02-01

    The Sydney AIDS Project is a prospective immunoepidemiological study of 996 homosexual/bisexual men enrolled between February 1984 and January 1985. By January 1987, 32 of 386 homosexual men who were seropositive at enrollment in the study had developed AIDS, yielding a crude progression rate of between 2.8% and 4.2% per annum. Of these subjects, 23 (72%) developed AIDS within 12 months of enrollment. In univariate analysis, the only lifestyle differences between seropositive subjects who progressed to AIDS and those that did not progress were less frequent oral sex activity and more use of marijuana in the three months prior to enrollment. In multivariate analysis, seropositive subjects who progressed to AIDS were more likely to have a lower percentage of CD4+ cells, a higher percentage of CD8+ cells and to have used marijuana in the three months prior to enrollment than the seropositive subjects who did not progress. No HIV seropositive subject who was asymptomatic and had normal T-cell subsets at enrollment had developed AIDS by January 1987. Persistent generalised lymphadenopathy was not associated with progression to AIDS. Although there are a number of lifestyle factors that may be associated with HIV infection, this study did not implicate most of these in the progression of HIV seropositive subjects to end-stage AIDS. We conclude that antecedent changes in T-cell subsets are associated with progression to AIDS and we emphasise the prognostic value of enumeration of T-cell subsets in HIV seropositive persons. PMID:3395303

  13. An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium 108/170 at a privately catered barbeque at a Sydney sports club.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Andrew; Ressler, Kelly-Anne; Botham, Susan; Irwin, Melissa J; Shadbolt, Craig; Vally, Hassan; Ferson, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness was identified among attendees at a large community barbeque at a Sydney sports club on 30 January 2009. A retrospective cohort study was initiated, and attendees were identified through hospital emergency department gastroenteritis presentations, snowball recruitment through known cases, responders to linguistically specific press, and those returning to the venue the next week. A symptom and food history was collected from attendees, and stool samples were provided for microbiological investigation. An environmental investigation and trace back of implicated foods was also undertaken. Attendance estimates at the barbeque ranged from 100 to 180, and the food was prepared by a family that was not registered as a food business. Seventy one of the 87 attendees identified met the case definition. Thirty attendees (42%) had laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium phage-type 108/170, all with the same multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis typing. Burden of illness was high with 76% of cases seeking medical attention and 18% admitted to hospital. Microbiological evidence confirmed that a number of food items were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium 108/170, with the raw egg mayonnaise used in a Russian salad being the most likely primary food vehicle (adjusted odds ratio=10.3 [95% confidence interval 1.79-59.5]). Further, having Russian salad on the plate even if it was not consumed increased the relative risk of illness, thus suggesting that other food items may have been contaminated when they came into contact with it on the plate. This Salmonella outbreak highlighted the risks associated with the improper handling of food in private residences, which are then sold at a large public event. PMID:21790276

  14. Barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with never testing among gay and bisexual men attending sexual health clinics in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P; Holt, Martin; Couldwell, Deborah L; Smith, Don E; Davies, Stephen C; McNulty, Anna; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Guy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men have increased over the past decade in Australia. HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) was introduced in Australia in 2011 as a strategy to increase HIV testing by making the testing process more convenient. We surveyed gay and bisexual men undergoing POCT to assess barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with not having previously tested for HIV (never testing). Methods During 2011 and 2012, gay and bisexual men who were undergoing POCT at four Sydney sexual health clinics self-completed questionnaires assessing testing history and psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and never testing. Results Of 1093 participants, 981 (89.9%) reported ever testing for HIV and 110 (10.1%) never testing. At least one barrier to testing was reported by 1046 men (95.7%), with only 47 men (4.3%) not reporting any barrier to testing. The most commonly reported barriers to testing were annoyance at having to return for results (30.2%), not having done anything risky (29.6%), stress in waiting for results (28.4%), being afraid of testing positive (27.5%) and having tested recently (23.2%). Never testing was independently associated with being non-gay-identified (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2), being aged less than 25 years (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.8), living in a suburb with few gay couples (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0), being afraid of testing HIV-positive (AOR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4), not knowing where to test (AOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2) and reporting one or no sexual partners in the last six months (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.2). Conclusions Barriers to HIV testing were commonly reported among the clinic-based gay and bisexual men in this study. Our findings suggest further health promotion and prevention strategies are needed to address the knowledge, attitudes and behavioural factors associated with never testing. PMID:26318960

  15. Assessment of sediment quality in Avicennia marina-dominated embayments of Sydney Estuary: the potential use of pneumatophores (aerial roots) as a bio-indicator of trace metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2014-02-15

    Currently, coastal intertidal environments are under stress from increased contaminant loads due to urbanization and other anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove habitats are abundant in tropical and sub-topical intertidal zones and frequently act as a metal bio-filter in estuarine systems. Mangrove reforestation is often considered as one of the management options to protect estuarine-marine habitats. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the bio-indicator potential of Avicennia marina by determining heavy metal concentrations in pneumatophore (aerial root) tissues and ambient sediments from Sydney Estuary (Australia). We collected mangrove sediments and pneumatophores in fifteen locations covering five major embayments of the estuary for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Metal concentrations in sediment were mostly above Australian interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQG)-Low and in few instances above ISQG-High values. Enrichment factors (EFs >6, especially of Cu, Pb and Zn) suggest "very severe" modification of sediment in Sydney Estuary in all but one embayment which was mainly due to rapid changes in land use in connection with urbanization. High bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were observed for Cu and Ni in comparison with other metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb and Zn). A strong, positive relationship between metals in sediments and pneumatophores suggests potential use of these tissues as a bio-indicator of estuarine contamination and that metals are entering the biotic environment. The study further highlights a positive role of mangroves in sequestering metals from sediments and the water column and thus protecting estuarine environments from pollution. PMID:24345861

  16. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates identified in a Sydney population and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stark, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J

    2013-03-01

    Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites present in humans. There is still much uncertainty about the pathogenic potential of this parasite, and it was suggested that its pathogenicity could be subtype-related. This report aimed to study 98 Blastocystis isolates found in human stool specimens to identify the subtypes present and carry out phylogenetic analysis on these isolates. This study also aimed to show the relationship between subtype and symptoms. Five-hundred and thirteen stool samples were submitted to five different diagnostic techniques for the detection of Blastocystis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples were then sequenced and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. Ninety-eight samples were positive by any of the diagnostic methods for Blastocystis and 96 were positive by PCR. There were seven different subtypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8) identified by PCR and sequencing. This is the first large-scale study to examine the occurrence of Blastocystis in Australia. This study reports the high incidence of subtype 3 (44%) in this population and discusses the emerging idea of subtype-dependent pathogenicity. PMID:22996007

  17. Areca nut chewing in an expatriate population in Sydney: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, S; Coleman, H G; Cox, S C

    2012-09-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) consumption occurs in a variety of forms, either on its own or with the addition of a number of products. This habit is prevalent in the Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asia. Recent immigration statistics indicate that 30% of new arrivals in Australia are from these geographical regions and are known to perpetuate this custom long after migration. The objective of this paper is to highlight the variety of oral presentations that may occur as a result of areca nut consumption in these particular demographic subgroups. Dental practitioners must be familiar with the wide spectrum of oral lesions that may present in this setting. More significantly, they must be aware that some of these lesions possess the potential for malignant transformation and hence require more specific management. Best practice mandates that dental practitioners in a multicultural society must: (1) be capable of recognizing the expatriate populations in which this custom is widely practised; (2) incorporate this particular line of questioning into the routine risk factor analysis that is undertaken for every patient from these particular sub-populations; and (3) institute appropriate referral and follow-up of these lesions if required. PMID:22924364

  18. Estrogen mediated effects in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, following field exposures to sewage effluent containing estrogenic compounds and activity.

    PubMed

    Andrew-Priestley, M N; O'Connor, W A; Dunstan, R H; Van Zwieten, L; Tyler, T; Kumar, A; MacFarlane, G R

    2012-09-15

    The Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, has been demonstrated as a useful biomonitor of estrogenic compounds following laboratory exposures, yet its utility in the assessment of estrogenic exposure and effects under field conditions requires investigation. To achieve this aim, S. glomerata were deployed in Newcastle, Australia in the effluent receiving marine waters of Burwood Beach WWTP (Burwood Beach "near", <50 m from outfall and Burwood Beach "far", 100-150 m from outfall) and reference locations (Redhead, Fingal Island 1 and Fingal Island 2) at depths of 4, 8 and 12 m for six weeks. Effluent receiving waters of Burwood Beach WWTP were found to be a suitable impact location, demonstrated via measurement of estrogenic compounds and activity throughout the deployment. Estrogenic compounds were detected (average of combined solids and liquid fractions) at average concentrations of: 1.42 ng/L for estrone, 0.69 ng/L for 17? estradiol, 3.83 ng/L for estriol (E3), 0.56 ng/L for 17?-ethynylestradiol, 64.2 ng/L for bisphenol A, 7.51 ng/L for 4-nonylphenol and 5.93 ng/L for 4-tert-octylphenol. Total estrogenic activity was estimated at 4.48 ng/L EEQ via the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES()) assay (average of combined solid and liquid fractions). Female vitellogenin gene expression was highest at Burwood Beach locations, yet no significant differences were detected among locations for either sex. Vitellogenin protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) in S. glomerata at Burwood Beach Near compared to reference locations for the 4 and 12 m depths. Increased proportions of females were found at Burwood Beach Near, at 4m depth (p<0.05). Both Burwood Beach locations had higher proportions of mature female gonadal development stages compared to reference locations (p<0.05). Oocyte area was highest at both Burwood Beach locations, but no significant differences were detected among locations. Findings provided further evidence that female S. glomerata may be a suitable candidate species for assessment of effects of estrogenic compounds in Australian waters. PMID:22673404

  19. Outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant after a wedding reception at a resort/activity centre, Finland, August 2012.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Polkowska A; Rnnqvist M; Lepistö O; Roivainen M; Maunula L; Huusko S; Toikkanen S; Rimhanen-Finne R

    2014-09-01

    In August 2012, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among 88 persons attending a wedding reception at a resort/activity centre in Yljrvi, Finland. Of 39 interviewed guests, 23 met the case definition. Two persons were hospitalized. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to characterize the outbreak and to recommend control measures. Investigation confirmed the presence of a new strain of norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant in stool specimens obtained from two wedding guests and on several environmental surfaces in the centre. In the questionnaire study, none of the foods or beverages served during the reception were significantly associated with the illness. Additional cases of gastroenteritis that occurred at the centre before and after the wedding reception supported the hypothesis of environmental transmission of norovirus. After thorough cleansing and disinfection and 1 week's quarantine, no new cases with symptoms typical for norovirus infection were identified at the centre.

  20. Outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant after a wedding reception at a resort/activity centre, Finland, August 2012.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, A; Rnnqvist, M; Lepist, O; Roivainen, M; Maunula, L; Huusko, S; Toikkanen, S; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2014-09-01

    In August 2012, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among 88 persons attending a wedding reception at a resort/activity centre in Yljrvi, Finland. Of 39 interviewed guests, 23 met the case definition. Two persons were hospitalized. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to characterize the outbreak and to recommend control measures. Investigation confirmed the presence of a new strain of norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant in stool specimens obtained from two wedding guests and on several environmental surfaces in the centre. In the questionnaire study, none of the foods or beverages served during the reception were significantly associated with the illness. Additional cases of gastroenteritis that occurred at the centre before and after the wedding reception supported the hypothesis of environmental transmission of norovirus. After thorough cleansing and disinfection and 1 week's quarantine, no new cases with symptoms typical for norovirus infection were identified at the centre. PMID:24229743

  1. Agglutinated foraminifera from the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia: Their use as indicators of sea-level changes in Carboniferous coal-bearing strata

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, W.G.; Scott, D.B.; Medioli, F.M.; Gibling, M.R. . Centre for Marine Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Agglutinated foraminifera and arcellaceans (the camoebians) were examined from Carboniferous (Late Westphalian-Stephanian) cyclothems in the Sydney Basin of Nova Scotia. Their presence confirms that the laterally extensive coal seams, limestones, mudstones and carbonaceous shales were deposited in a paralic setting. Four distinctive assemblages are documented from the coal-bearing strata, and these may be used as accurate paleo sea-level indicators on the basis of the modern distribution of similar assemblages. Mixed assemblages dominated by Ammobaculites characterize siltstones overlying the coal seams, an association typical of mineralic substrates within modern estuarine environments. Assemblages dominated by small, finely agglutinated specimens of Ammotium and Ammobaculites occur in organic rich strata between coal seam splits. Similar assemblages are found in modern salt marshes and upper estuarine settings. Trochammina dominated assemblages occur in mudstones underlying the coal seams. Such assemblages are typical of higher elevations in modern brackish and saline marshes. Monotypic assemblages of the arcellacean Difflugia are also found in the seat earths below coal seams. Similar associations occur today in mineralic substrates below modern freshwater floating marshes. The presence of a Trochammina assemblage has aided recognition of a maximum flooding (transgression) surface below the base of an incised paleovalley, interpreted as a type 1 sequence boundary, in the Bonar cyclothem of the Sydney Basin. The valley incision is attributed to glacioeustatic sea-level lowering. The upper 10m of the 25m thick valley fill contains assemblages of Difflugia, which are succeeded by Trochammina assemblages within the seat earth beneath the coal at the top of the cyclothem.

  2. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Daisy; Leelarthaepin, Boonseng; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Faurot, Keturah R; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Ringel, Amit; Davis, John M; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of replacing dietary saturated fat with omega 6 linoleic acid, for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death. Design Evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study, a single blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial conducted in 1966-73; and an updated meta-analysis including these previously missing data. Setting Ambulatory, coronary care clinic in Sydney, Australia. Participants 458 men aged 30-59 years with a recent coronary event. Interventions Replacement of dietary saturated fats (from animal fats, common margarines, and shortenings) with omega 6 linoleic acid (from safflower oil and safflower oil polyunsaturated margarine). Controls received no specific dietary instruction or study foods. All non-dietary aspects were designed to be equivalent in both groups. Outcome measures All cause mortality (primary outcome), cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease (secondary outcomes). We used an intention to treat, survival analysis approach to compare mortality outcomes by group. Results The intervention group (n=221) had higher rates of death than controls (n=237) (all cause 17.6% v 11.8%, hazard ratio 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.64), P=0.05; cardiovascular disease 17.2% v 11.0%, 1.70 (1.03 to 2.80), P=0.04; coronary heart disease 16.3% v 10.1%, 1.74 (1.04 to 2.92), P=0.04). Inclusion of these recovered data in an updated meta-analysis of linoleic acid intervention trials showed non-significant trends toward increased risks of death from coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 1.33 (0.99 to 1.79); P=0.06) and cardiovascular disease (1.27 (0.98 to 1.65); P=0.07). Conclusions Advice to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats is a key component of worldwide dietary guidelines for coronary heart disease risk reduction. However, clinical benefits of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega 6 linoleic acid, have not been established. In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats increased the rates of death from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. An updated meta-analysis of linoleic acid intervention trials showed no evidence of cardiovascular benefit. These findings could have important implications for worldwide dietary advice to substitute omega 6 linoleic acid, or polyunsaturated fats in general, for saturated fats. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT01621087. PMID:23386268

  3. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the National Party, and the Australian Labor Party. The ALP came to power in a sweeping victory on March 5, 1983, bringing an end to nearly 8 years of rule by the Liberal/National coalition. Australia has a sophisticated, diversified, and affluent economy (1982 gross domestic product, US$151 billion). The economy is heavily dependent on foreign trade. Since World War II Australia plays an increasingly active role in international affairs. On most international issues, the US and Australia are in broad agreement and cooperate closely. PMID:12178091

  4. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  5. Distribution of acquired AmpC ?-lactamase genes in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tagg, Kaitlin A; Ginn, Andrew N; Jiang, Xiuhong; Ellem, Justin; Partridge, Sally R; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2015-09-01

    Investigation of plasmid-borne AmpC ?-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. revealed blaCMY-2-like genes predominantly in E. coli and blaDHA genes equally distributed between both species. This distribution remained stable over time, but blaACT/MIR-like genes, initially common in Klebsiella spp., were not identified in more recent isolates. PMID:26099646

  6. "It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-01-01

    Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight

  7. Small-scale spatial structuring of interstitial invertebrates on three embayed beaches, Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Belinda C.; Goodwin, Ian D.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-10-01

    An understanding of ecological processes hinges upon an understanding of the spatial structuring of their key biotic components. Interstitial invertebrates are a ubiquitous and ecologically important component of sandy beach ecosystems. As many sandy beach taxa have limited dispersal, it may be expected that their populations exhibit a high degree of spatial structuring, yet the spatial scales across which they display baseline variability remain largely unknown. To assess (1) whether interstitial invertebrates display patchiness on embayed sandy beaches, (2) whether the size of patches they form is consistent across three geographically proximal beaches, (3) the key environmental correlates of this variation and (4) its taxonomic dependence, samples were collected at regular (0.5 m) intervals along 15 m long geomorphically similar stretches of three proximal intermediate beaches and analyses of spatial autocorrelation were conducted. On each of the three beaches, interstitial invertebrate communities formed patches of 2-4.5 m in diameter. Spatial structuring of invertebrate communities was driven by harpacticoid copepods and gastrotrichs, and corresponded to spatial structuring of sediments. Sediments, however, explained only 33% of spatial variation in faunal communities, indicating the importance of other abiotic and/or biotic factors. Our study highlights that even on seemingly homogeneous sandy beaches, faunal communities may display considerable small-scale spatial structuring. Examination of spatial structure may lead to a greater understanding of the ecological processes in this system.

  8. "It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-01-01

    Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…

  9. Neighbourhood safety and area deprivation modify the associations between parkland and psychological distress in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate how perceived neighbourhood safety and area deprivation influenced the relationship between parklands and mental health. Methods Information about psychological distress, perceptions of safety, demographic and socio-economic background at the individual level was extracted from New South Wales Population Health Survey. The proportion of a postcode that was parkland was used as a proxy measure for access to parklands and was calculated for each individual. Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression analyses were performed to account for correlation between participants within postcodes, and with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and socio-economic status at the area level. Results In areas where the residents reported perceiving their neighbourhood to be “safe” and controlling for area levels of socio-economic deprivation, there were no statistically significant associations between the proportion of parkland and high or very high psychological distress. In the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods which were perceived as unsafe by residents, those with greater proportions of parkland, over 20%, there was greater psychological distress, this association was statistically significant (20-40% parkland: OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.45-3.55; >40% parkland: OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.53-4.19). Conclusion Our study indicates that perceptions of neighbourhood safety and area deprivation were statistically significant effect modifiers of the association between parkland and psychological distress. PMID:23635303

  10. Repeated Dientamoeba fragilis infections: a case report of two families from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; Barratt, Joel; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah

    2009-09-14

    We report cases of two unrelated families who both presented with recurrent Dientamoeba fragilis infections. Subsequent antimicrobial therapy resulted in the clearance of D. fragilis and total resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms in both families. This report highlights the potentially recurrent nature of D. fragilis infections and the need for laboratories to routinely test for this organism. PMID:24470882

  11. Repeated Dientamoeba fragilis infections: a case report of two families from Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Damien; Barratt, Joel; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    We report cases of two unrelated families who both presented with recurrent Dientamoeba fragilis infections. Subsequent antimicrobial therapy resulted in the clearance of D. fragilis and total resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms in both families. This report highlights the potentially recurrent nature of D. fragilis infections and the need for laboratories to routinely test for this organism. PMID:24470882

  12. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early

  13. The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns (SMILE) study: cluster randomised trial of humour therapy in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lee-Fay; Brodaty, Henry; Goodenough, Belinda; Spitzer, Peter; Bell, Jean-Paul; Fleming, Richard; Casey, Anne-Nicole; Liu, Zhixin; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether humour therapy reduces depression (primary outcome), agitation and behavioural disturbances and improves social engagement and quality-of-life in nursing home residents. Design The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns study was a single-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of humour therapy. Setting 35 Sydney nursing homes. Participants All eligible residents within geographically defined areas within each nursing home were invited to participate. Intervention Professional ElderClowns provided 912?weekly humour therapy sessions, augmented by resident engagement by trained staff LaughterBosses. Controls received usual care. Measurements Depression scores on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, agitation scores on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, behavioural disturbance scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, social engagement scores on the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and self-rated and proxy-rated quality-of-life scores on a health-related quality-of-life tool for dementia, the DEMQOL. All outcomes were measured at the participant level by researchers blind to group assignment. Randomisation Sites were stratified by size and level of care then assigned to group using a random number generator. Results Seventeen nursing homes (189 residents) received the intervention and 18 homes (209 residents) received usual care. Groups did not differ significantly over time on the primary outcome of depression, or on behavioural disturbances other than agitation, social engagement and quality of life. The secondary outcome of agitation was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with controls over 26?weeks (time by group interaction adjusted for covariates: p=0.011). The mean difference in change from baseline to 26?weeks in Blom-transformed agitation scores after adjustment for covariates was 0.17 (95% CI 0.004 to 0.34, p=0.045). Conclusions Humour therapy did not significantly reduce depression but significantly reduced agitation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry -ACTRN12611000462987. PMID:23315520

  14. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

  15. FTIR and py-GC-MS spectra of true-fern and seed-fern sphenopterids (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, Pennsylvanian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Sphenopterid specimens from the Late Pennsylvanian of Sydney Coalfield, Canada, are investigated by FTIR and py-GC-MS techniques as part of an on-going research project into the biochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Pennsylvanian-age pteridophylls. Included in the investigation are samples of the true-fern species Oligocarpia brongniartii and Zeilleria delicatula that are preserved as naturally macerated cuticles (NMC), and the seed-fern Eusphenopteris neuropteroides that is also preserved as a compression/impression. FTIR spectra of NMC seed-fern E. neuropteroides, and fern sphenopterid O. brongniartii are very similar, except that the latter does not have aromatic bands in the 700-900 cm-1 out-of-plane region, py-GC-MS show more aromatic compounds for the seed fern than for the two true-fern sphenopterids. Another difference between seed-fern and true-fern sphenopterids is a lower ratio of CH2 to CH3 in chemically treated specimens (CTC) for the seed fern. These observations suggest slightly higher aromaticity for the seed ferns, perhaps related to some chemotaxonomic differences. Comparison of FTIR and py-GC-MS characteristics of sphenopterids and other plant groups shows that these two techniques have potential to identifying chemotaxonomic signals from Carboniferous pteridophylls in general, although more data are needed to confirm this. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Deaf Culture's Impact on Educational Programs for the Deaf in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, John

    This paper discusses recent trends in provision of educational programs and services reflecting the Deaf community's recognition in Australia as a linguistic and cultural minority, focusing on the Bilingual/Bicultural program of the Thomas Pattison School in Sydney (Australia). The history of Deaf culture, language, and education in Australia and

  17. Refugee Action Support: An Interventionist Pedagogy for Supporting Refugee Students' Learning in Greater Western Sydney Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of community, non-government organisations and universities in assisting secondary schools meet the needs of refugee students. On arrival in Australia, many African refugee communities experience high levels of stress particularly in adjusting to their new environment. The parents and students unfamiliarity with the…

  18. The Westphalian D fossil lepidodendrid forest at Table Head, Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia: Sedimentology, paleoecology and floral response to changing edaphic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calder, J.H.; Gibling, M.R.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; MacNeil, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Strata of Westphalian D age on the western coast of the Sydney Basin expose a fossil forest of approximately 30 lepidodendrid trees within one of several clastic splits of the Harbour Seam. A mutidisciplinary approach was employed to interpret the origins of the coal bed, the depositional history of the site and the response of the fossil forest to changing edaphic conditions. The megaspore and miospore records indicate that the mire vegetation was dominated by arboreous lycopsids, especially Paralycopodites, with subdominant tree ferns. Petrographic, palynological and geochemical evidence suggest that the Harbour coal bed at Table Head originated as a rheotrophic (cf. planar) mire (eutric histosol). The mire forest is interpreted to have been engulfed by prograding distributary-channel sediments; sparse protist assemblages are suggestive of a freshwater delta-plain lake environment occasionally in contact with brackish waters. Lepidodendrids persisted as site colonizers of clastic substrates even after burial of the rheotrophic peatland and influenced the morphology of deposited sediment, but apparently were unable to colonize distributary channels. Equivocal taxonomic data (compression fossils) show the fossil forest to have been composed of both monocarpic (Lepidodendron) and polycarpic (Diaphorodendron, Paralycopodites, ?Sigillaria) lycopsids, genera recorded in the palynology of the uppermost ply of the underlying coal bed. Comparatively rare within the clastic beds of the fossil forest, however, is the stem compression of Paralycopodites, whose dispersed megapores and miospores dominate the underlying coal bed. Tree diameter data recorded equivalent to breast height indicate a forest of mixed age. These data would appear to suggest that some lepidodendrids employing a polycarpic reproductive strategy were better able to cross the ecological barrier imposed between peat and clastic substrates. Foliar compressions indicate that an understory or stand of Psaronius type tree ferns co-existed with the lepidodendrids on clastic substrates, which developed as incipient gleysol soils. The entombment of the forest can be ascribed to its distributary coastal setting, local subsidence and a seasonal climate that fostered wildfire and increased sedimentation.

  19. Risk Factors for Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Variation with Age and Sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. Methods Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70–90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. Results All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7–49.5%) for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. Discussion Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits. PMID:23799051

  20. The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocation in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney I: Model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant

    2013-08-01

    In this paper an integrated model of the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water within the political divisions in the South Creek catchment of the ‘peri-urban’ region of Western Sydney is presented. This model enables an assessment of the hydrological and economic merits of different water allocation-substitution strategies, both over the whole catchment and in each political region and jurisdiction within it, to be undertaken. Not only are the differences in the water allocated to each region and use revealed, but also the net present values associated with each use within each region. In addition, it is possible to determine measures of equity in water distribution using this approach. It was found that over a period from 2008 to 2031 the South Creek catchment in total would on average use approximately 50,600 ML of potable water a year, the vast majority of this is used in the two urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown. Agricultural water use was also greatest in these two regions. Over this period the allocation system was estimated to have a small net present value of approximately A301 million and the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated to be 1.06. The urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown and the rural region of Hawkesbury were estimated to have returned a net positive benefit of A76 million, A246 million and A39 million (respectively), while water to Liverpool and Camden was delivered at a loss of A7 million and A52 million over the period assessed. It was found that across the catchment a fair degree of both physical and economic equity occurred between regions, with the exception of Liverpool, which was over endowed with water and paid a high cost for it.

  1. Validity of two common asthma-specific quality of life questionnaires: Juniper mini asthma quality of life questionnaire and Sydney asthma quality of life questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct validity, discriminative ability) of the Juniper Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini AQLQ-J) and the Sydney Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ-S). Methods One hundred fourty-six adults (1845?years) with asthma requiring regular inhaled corticosteroids were recruited to a trial of written emotional disclosure. Correlational analyses were performed to understand the relationship of the two measures with each other, with symptoms, lung function, asthma control, asthma bother and generic quality of life. Median quality of life scores were compared according to gender, health care usage and levels of asthma severity. Results AQLQ-J and AQLQ-S total scores correlated strongly with each other (rho?=??0.80) and moderately with the EuroQol Current Health Status Scale (AQLQ-J: rho?=?0.35; AQLQ-S: rho?=??0.40). Domain score correlations between AQLQ-J and AQLQ-S were mostly moderate (0.50?

  2. Making the Grade? Globalisation and the Training Market in Australia. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Buchanan, John; Bretherton, Tanya; van Barneveld, Kristin; Pickersgill, Richard

    This two-volume document reports on a study of globalization and Australia's training market. Volume 1 begins by examining debate on globalization and industry training in Australia. Discussed next is the study methodology, which involved field studies of the metals and engineering industry in South West Sydney and the Hunter and the information

  3. Making Visible the First Women in Astronomy in Australia: The Measurers and Computers Employed for the Astrographic Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.

    In Australia a significant number of women were employed to measure and compute the position of stars for the Astrographic Catalogue at Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth Observatories. New archival research has provided evidence that the first women employed in astronomy in Australia were engaged due to this project.

  4. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  5. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and

  6. Invasive amebiasis in men who have sex with men, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; van Hal, Sebastian J; Matthews, Gail; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah

    2008-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a pathogenic ameba that has recently been recognized as an emerging pathogen in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia-Pacific countries where it is not endemic, i.e., Japan, Taiwan, and Republic of Korea. We report locally acquired invasive amebiasis in Sydney, Australia, exclusively in MSM. PMID:18598643

  7. Joy, Exercise, Enjoyment, Getting out: A Qualitative Study of Older People's Experience of Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Rissel, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 5075 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants' confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment) and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising. PMID:23864869

  8. Working Knowledge: Productive Learning at Work. Proceedings [of the] International Conference (Sydney, Australia, December 10-13, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains 65 presentations and 3 colloquiums from a conference that dealt with knowledge at work and knowledge that works and with how education can be successfully integrated into work and work into education. The papers are "Reading the Contexts of Complex Incidents of Adult Education Practice" (Apte); "Models of Work

  9. Progress and Poverty; Library Association of Australia Proceedings of the Biennial Conference (16th, Sydney, August 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jean P., Ed.

    The complete program for this four-day conference is included in this proceedings. The papers are grouped into the following major sections: Official Opening, Greetings from American Library Association, Presidential Address, Plenary Papers, General Papers, Archives Section Papers, Public Libraries Section Papers, Children's Libraries Section

  10. Requests for euthanasia made to a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia in the year 2000.

    PubMed

    Virik, Kiran; Glare, Paul

    2002-05-01

    A request for euthanasia (RFE) in the terminally ill raises concerns that physical and/or mental suffering remain unaddressed and thus mandates a critical appraisal of the physical and psychosocial aspects of the individual concerned. An alert datasheet (AD) is completed at the weekly Palliative Care Service (PCS) meeting as a measure of self-audit and deals with issues considered to be of importance in ensuring high-quality patient care, one of which is a RFE. The ADs for the year 2000 were examined, and where a RFE was made, the contributing factors as documented on the forms together with demographic data, the case synopsis and patient-rated main three problems/issues were appraised. Among 490 patients referred to the service, there were 6 RFE (1.6%) recorded. These were made by 1 female (age 44) and 5 male (age range 58-78 years) patients. Four of these patients had a cancer diagnosis (all had metastatic disease). Median survival from first contact with the PCS was 13 days (range 4-29). The contributing factors identified were: uncontrolled symptoms (2/6 - severe constipation in both), depression (1/6), issues of burden/dependency (6/6), lack of autonomy/control (4/6), sense of hopelessness (3/6) and social isolation (4/6). The patient-rated main three problems were: (i) physical symptoms (5/6), specifically pain (2/6), shortness of breath (2/6), fatigue (1/6) and nausea (1/6), and (ii) psychosocial issues (4/6). A RFE was seen to be a multifactorial entity (issues of burden/dependency being universal) and merits a focused appraisal in order to adequately address potentially unrecognised issues that contribute to suffering. The short median survival from the time of referral to the service suggests that (i) RFEs are made late in the trajectory of the illness and (ii) these patients are being referred late in the course of their illness - thus limiting the window in which these issues can be addressed. PMID:12029430

  11. Creating a Place to "Be": Unpacking the Facilitation Role in Three Supported Playgroups in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Supported playgroups are a service model used widely in Australia with the dual focus of providing stimulating early childhood environments for children and supportive environments for parents. This article describes research findings from a recent doctoral study that explored three supported playgroups in western Sydney. In particular it focuses

  12. The Association between Language Maintenance and Family Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Howie, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relevance of emotional and familial factors to language maintenance in immigrant families. Information on the family relations of 40 children from Chinese-speaking immigrant families in Sydney, Australia. Analysis revealed that children likely to use their parents' mother tongue were those who perceived their family to be more

  13. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 1: The CSIRO Division of Radiophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; George, Martin; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s Australia was a world leader in the specialised field of low frequency radio astronomy, with two geographically-distinct areas of activity. One was in the Sydney region and the other in the island of Tasmania to the south of the Australian mainland. Research in the Sydney region began in 1949 through the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics, and initially was carried out at the Hornsby Valley field station before later transferring to the Fleurs field station. In this paper we summarise the low frequency radio telescopes and research programs associated with the historic Hornsby Valley and Fleurs sites.

  14. Isolation and characterisation of an H3N8 equine influenza virus in Australia, 2007.

    PubMed

    Watson, J; Halpin, K; Selleck, P; Axell, A; Bruce, K; Hansson, E; Hammond, J; Daniels, P; Jeggo, M

    2011-07-01

    Before 2007, equine influenza had never been diagnosed in Australia. On 22 August 2007, infection was confirmed in horses at Eastern Creek Animal Quarantine Station near Sydney. The virus subsequently isolated (A/equine/Sydney/2888-8/2007) was confirmed by sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene as an H3 virus of the variant American Florida lineage that is now referred to as Clade 1. The HA sequence of the virus was identical to that of a virus isolated from a contemporaneous outbreak in Japan and showed high homology to viruses circulating in North America. PMID:21711282

  15. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  16. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,

  17. The Use of Sessional Teachers in Universities: Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues and realities presented by the casualisation of higher education teaching staff. It uses a case study from the University of New South Wales [UNSW] in Sydney Australia. The research presents and analyses perspectives from two key stakeholders in a university [students and academic management] on the use of sessional…

  18. The sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap - unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children's physical activity and social skills

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Westernised world, numerous children are overweight and have problems with bullying and mental health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of two simple interventions aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the design of a 3-year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), in which schools are the clusters. The study consists of a 13-week intervention and 1 week each of pre-and post-testing. We are recruiting 12 schools (6 control; 6 intervention), with 18 randomly chosen participants aged 5 to 7 years in each school. The two intervention strategies are: (1) Child-based intervention: Unstructured materials with no obvious play value introduced to the playground; and (2) Adult-based intervention: Risk reframing sessions held with parents and teachers with the aim of exploring the benefits of allowing children to engage in activities with uncertain outcomes. The primary outcome of the study, physical activity as measured by accelerometer counts, is assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Additional assessments include social skills and interactions, self-concept, after school time use and anthropometric data. Qualitative data (i.e., transcriptions of audio recordings from the risk reframing sessions and of interviews with selected teacher and parent volunteers) are analysed to understand their perceptions of risk in play. The control schools have recess as usual. In addition to outcome evaluation, regular process evaluation sessions are held to monitor fidelity to the treatment. Discussion These simple interventions, which could be adopted in every primary school, have the potential of initiating a self-sustaining cycle of prevention for childhood obesity, bullying and mental ill health. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration Number ACTRN12611000089932. PMID:21884603

  19. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  20. The Future of Interpreting & Translation: Keeping in Touch with a Changing World. Proceedings of the Conference (University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, New South Wales, Australia, April 1, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, George, Ed.; Ginori, Luciano, Comp.

    Papers from a conference on translating and interpreting include: "Babel and the Brain" (Philip Grundy); "Simultaneous Interpreting: Its Role in International Conferences" (Yvonne Hu); "The Past, Present and Future of Legal Interpreting/Translating in NSW" (Ludmilla Robinson); "What's In a Name?" (Terry Chesher); "Interpreting and Advocacy" (Colin

  1. "Relating in a Global Community." Proceedings of the International Conference on Counseling in the 21st Century (7th, Sydney, Australia, December 29-31, 1998.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The papers presented at this conference consider the many roles counselors play in people's lives throughout their lifespan. The age of technology has aided the practice of counseling in becoming international in scope, although there are different functional frameworks that exist in various political, economic, social, and value systems in world

  2. Emergency department visits, ambulance calls, and mortality associated with an exceptional heat wave in Sydney, Australia, 2011: a time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED) and ambulance surveillance allowed rapid detection of an increase in the number of heat-related ED visits and ambulance calls during this period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the excess heat-related and all-cause ED visits and ambulance calls, and excess all-cause mortality, associated with the heat wave. Methods ED and ambulance data were obtained from surveillance and administrative databases, while mortality data were obtained from the state death registry. The observed counts were compared with the average counts from the same period from 2006/07 through 2009/10, and a Poisson regression model was constructed to calculate the number of excess ED visits, ambulance and deaths after adjusting for calendar and lag effects. Results During the heat wave there were 104 and 236 ED visits for heat effects and dehydration respectively, and 116 ambulance calls for heat exposure. From the regression model, all-cause ED visits increased by 2% (95% CI 1.01-1.03), all-cause ambulance calls increased by 14% (95% CI 1.11-1.16), and all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22). Those aged 75 years and older had the highest excess rates of all outcomes. Conclusions The 2011 heat wave resulted in an increase in the number of ED visits and ambulance calls, especially in older persons, as well as an increase in all-cause mortality. Rapid surveillance systems provide markers of heat wave impacts that have fatal outcomes. PMID:22273155

  3. Converging Technologies. Selected Papers from the EdTech '90 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Sydney, Australia, July 4-6, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; And Others

    This collection contains 30 selected papers and abstracts of six additional papers from the 1990 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology. Titles and authors of the papers are as follows: (1) "Interactive Media into the Millenium" (Clark); (2) "Open Learning Centre Network Project and the Preparatory and Remedial Education

  4. The use of vintage surficial sediment data and sedimentary cores to determine past and future trends in estuarine metal contamination (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Chang, C-H; Lee, J-H; Churchill, L J

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the present investigation were to determine past trends in sediment contamination and possibly predict future trends. Multiple vintages of surficial sediment metal data, from a quasi-decadal 'Status and Trends' programme, were used to provide large-scale spatial information on current status and temporal change. This information was augmented by sediment cores, specifically located to verify surface sediment data and to determine trends at major points of stormwater discharge. The data obtained indicate that surficial sediment metal concentrations have declined, since about the early 1990s, in extensive parts of the upper and central estuaries and have increased slightly in the lower estuary, due mainly to a down-estuary shift in industry and urbanisation. Declining surficial sediment metal concentrations is due to a movement of industry out of the catchment, especially from foreshore areas and the introduction of regulation, which prevent pollutants being discharged directly to the estuary. The major present-day source of metals is stormwater, with minor inputs from the main estuary channel into embayments and runoff from previously contaminated mainland sites. Modelled relaxation rates are optimistic as high metal concentrations in stormwater will slow predicted rates. Stormwater remediation should be the main managerial focus for this estuary. Multiple vintages of surficial sediment metal data covering the past 30 years, supplemented by sedimentary core data, have allowed past and future contamination trends to be determined. This type of science-based information provides an important tool for strategic management of this iconic waterway. PMID:23570910

  5. Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

    Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.

  6. Potential for childhood lead poisoning in the inner cities of Australia due to exposure to lead in soil dust.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Taylor, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    This article presents evidence demonstrating that the historical use of leaded gasoline and lead (Pb) in exterior paints in Australia has contaminated urban soils in the older inner suburbs of large cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While significant attention has been focused on Pb poisoning in mining and smelting towns in Australia, relatively little research has focused on exposure to Pb originating from inner-city soil dust and its potential for childhood Pb exposures. Due to a lack of systematic blood lead (PbB) screening and geochemical soil Pb mapping in the inner cities of Australia, the risks from environmental Pb exposure remain unconstrained within urban population centres. PMID:20880621

  7. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia's largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, 2001, by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The left-hand image is from the instrument's 26-degree forward-viewing camera, and the right-hand image is from the 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The vast extent of smoke from numerous fires is visible, particularly in the more oblique view. Sydney is located just above image center.

    Dubbed the 'black Christmas' fires, the blazes destroyed more than 150 homes and blackened over 5000 square kilometers (about 1.24 million acres) of farmland and wilderness between December 23, 2001 and January 3, 2002. Many of the fires are believed to have been caused by arsonists, with only one fire linked to natural causes. The fires were aggravated by gusty winds and hot dry weather conditions. Approximately 20,000 people have worked to contain the blazes. No people have lost their lives or been seriously injured. Nevertheless, the fires are considered to be the most prolonged and destructive of any in Australia since the Ash Wednesday conflagration of 1983 that claimed 72 lives.

    The images represent an area 322 kilometers x 374 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 10829.

  8. Medicine in colonial Australia, 1788-1900.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Milton J

    2014-07-01

    For the first five decades of European settlement in Australia, medical care for convicts and free settlers was provided by the Colonial Medical Service. After about 1850, as population and wealth grew markedly, there was significant professional development based on private practice. Except in Victoria, medical societies and journals did not become solidly established until late in the 19th century. The advent of local British Medical Association branches was an important factor in this consolidation. In the first few years of the colony, mortality was very high, but the common childhood infections were absent until the 1830s. From the 1880s, there was a sustained decline in mortality from communicable diseases, and therefore in aggregate mortality, while maternal mortality remained high. Australian practitioners quickly took up advances in practice from overseas, such as antisepsis and diphtheria antitoxin. They shared in the international growth in the status of medicine, which was conferred by the achievements of bacteriology in particular. From 1813, students were apprenticed in Sydney and Hobart and then travelled to Britain to obtain corporate qualifications. Medical schools were ultimately opened in the new universities in Melbourne (in 1862), Sydney (1883) and Adelaide (1885). The first female student was admitted to medicine in Sydney in 1885. Medical politics were intense. The outlawing of practice by unorthodox practitioners proved to be an unattainable goal. In the latter half of the 19th century, doctors saw chemists as unfair competitors for patients. The main medicopolitical struggle was with the mutual-aid friendly societies, which funded basic medical care for a significant proportion of the population until well into the 20th century. The organised profession set out to overcome the power of the lay-controlled societies in imposing an unacceptable contract system on doctors, even if, historically, the guaranteed income was a sine qua non of practice in poorer areas. PMID:25047777

  9. Water Ecosystem Services in Northern AustraliaHow Much Are They Worth and Who Should Pay for Their Provision?

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Parkes, Rowena; Straton, Anna; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    There is ongoing pressure to develop the largely unaltered Daly River catchment in northern Australia for agriculture. However, a choice experiment among people in the region and in Australias largest city, Sydney, shows that people are prepared to pay substantial amounts to maintain the quality of its ecosystem services. The total stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a Daly River conservation programme was about $300, of which people would be willing to pay over half ($161) if the programme retained waterholes for Aboriginal people in good condition. The WTP for high quality recreational fishing and biodiversity values was $120 and $91 respectively. Using the average cost of a recreational fishing license in Australia ($35) as a basis for grounding the stated preferences in empirical values, as well as the cost of park entry fees and the amount of support society provides to agriculture in Australia, the total amount that the 110,000 people in the region are likely to be willing to pay for the retention of the values in the Daly River catchment is about $6 million, while the 4.5 million people in Sydney would be willing to pay about $81 million. A significant finding in this research is that, while fishing, biodiversity and agricultural values all have equivalents in the market economy, the value for which people were willing to pay most, the cultural value, has no equivalent at all and is thus receives almost no investment. PMID:23717611

  10. Effects of backpacking holidays in Australia on alcohol, tobacco and drug use of UK residents

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen E; Dillon, Paul; Copeland, Jan; Gates, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background Whilst alcohol and drug use among young people is known to escalate during short holidays and working breaks in international nightlife resorts, little empirical data are available on the impact of longer backpacking holidays on substance use. Here we examine changes in alcohol, tobacco and drug use when UK residents go backpacking in Australia. Methods Matched information on alcohol and drug use in Australia and the UK was collected through a cross sectional cohort study of 1008 UK nationals aged 1835 years, holidaying in Sydney or Cairns, Australia, during 2005. Results The use of alcohol and other drugs by UK backpackers visiting Australia was common with use of illicit drugs being substantially higher than in peers of the same age in their home country. Individuals showed a significant increase in frequency of alcohol consumption in Australia compared to their behaviour in the UK with the proportion drinking five or more times per week rising from 20.7% (UK) to 40.3% (Australia). Relatively few individuals were recruited into drug use in Australia (3.0%, cannabis; 2.7% ecstasy; 0.7%, methamphetamine). However, over half of the sample (55.0%) used at least one illicit drug when backpacking. Risk factors for illicit drug use while backpacking were being regular club goers, being male, Sydney based, travelling without a partner or spouse, having been in Australia more than four weeks, Australia being the only destination on their vacation and drinking or smoking five or more days a week. Conclusion As countries actively seek to attract more international backpacker tourists, interventions must be developed that target this population's risk behaviours. Developing messages on drunkenness and other drug use specifically for backpackers could help minimise their health risks directly (e.g. adverse drug reactions) and indirectly (e.g. accidents and violence) as well as negative impacts on the host country. PMID:17199891

  11. Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895) (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) is native to Australia, not New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Mesibov, Robert; Car, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895) is partly redescribed and illustrated. Its native range is shown to be in the cool-climate uplands of New South Wales, Australia. H. luxuriosa was originally labelled as collected by L.M. DAlbertis at Sorong in New Guinea. DAlbertis collected on Sorong Island in 1872 and spent the following year in Sydney, New South Wales, before returning to Europe with his New Guinea specimens. It is possible that DAlbertis himself collected H. luxuriosa in 1873, and that the mislabelling occurred later. PMID:24146549

  12. The 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia: lessons learned for international trade in horses.

    PubMed

    Watson, J; Daniels, P; Kirkland, P; Carroll, A; Jeggo, M

    2011-04-01

    In August 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of equine influenza. The disease occurred first in a quarantine station for imported horses near Sydney and subsequently escaped into the general horse population. After an extensive campaign the disease was eradicated and Australia is again recognised as free of this disease. Equine influenza was then, and is now, recognised to be the major disease risk associated with live horse imports into Australia and measures designed to mitigate this risk formed the basis of the quarantine protocols then in place. Subsequent investigations into the cause of the outbreak identified failures in compliance with these quarantine requirements as a contributing factor. It is also likely that the immunity of horses vaccinated as part of the import protocol was less than optimal, and that this had a significant role to play in the escape of the disease from quarantine. PMID:21809755

  13. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rod

    The cultural diversity of Australia and the status of multicultural education in Australian schools are examined. The first part of the paper discusses Australia as one of the most culturally diverse nations in the world. The author points out that Australia's delay in establishing a concept of multicultural education results from the fact that

  14. Perceptions of Language Teaching & Learning among Sydney Secondary Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Dawne

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the AFTMLA (Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations) developed its Professional Standards for Accomplished Teaching of Languages and Cultures. These were published in a special edition of "Babel" in February 2006. Among the recommendations contained in the document, there is a section headed Program Standards that…

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus and female prostitutes, Sydney 1985.

    PubMed

    Philpot, C R; Harcourt, C; Edwards, J; Grealis, A

    1988-06-01

    One hundred and thirty two female prostitutes and 55 non-prostitutes who were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were surveyed by questionnaire at this centre. The two groups were well matched for age and were very similar in other except for numbers of their sexual partners. Questions were asked about drug taking, sexual practices, general health, and episodes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). None of the women in the survey was found to be seropositive, but both groups were found to be seriously at risk of HIV infection through using intravenous (IV) drugs, having unprotected sexual intercourse with men who used IV drugs, having unprotected sexual intercourse with bisexual men, or exposure to several STDs. PMID:3410467

  16. Five for Sydney--A Journey through Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    What is science? Depending on who is asked, it may mean the pursuit of knowledge, explanations of the everyday world, a difficult subject at school, or a field populated by larger than life characters such as Einstein, Feynman, or Hawking. For the author, science has been and remains an unexpected journey, an adventure and an ever-changing career.…

  17. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Sydney

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  18. Supporting Refugee Students in School Education in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania; Vickers, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Rarely do refugee students entering Australian schools possess the multiple forms of social, linguistic and cultural capital that are taken for granted in mainstream classrooms. While refugees of high-school age are assisted initially through Intensive English Centres (IECs), the transition from IECs to mainstream classrooms presents substantial…

  19. A SETI Course at University of Western Sydney Macarthur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    1999-01-01

    Describes a course based on the scientific approach to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Explores the biological and technological aspects of the search and the social implications of possible contact. (Author/CCM)

  20. Five for Sydney--A Journey through Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    What is science? Depending on who is asked, it may mean the pursuit of knowledge, explanations of the everyday world, a difficult subject at school, or a field populated by larger than life characters such as Einstein, Feynman, or Hawking. For the author, science has been and remains an unexpected journey, an adventure and an ever-changing career.

  1. Supporting Refugee Students in School Education in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania; Vickers, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Rarely do refugee students entering Australian schools possess the multiple forms of social, linguistic and cultural capital that are taken for granted in mainstream classrooms. While refugees of high-school age are assisted initially through Intensive English Centres (IECs), the transition from IECs to mainstream classrooms presents substantial

  2. Research and Development in Higher Education. Volume 5. Papers Presented at the Annual Conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (8th, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, May 7-10, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Ian R., Ed.

    Issues and solutions in teaching and learning in higher education are addressed in 28 papers and 6 workshop reports from a 1982 conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. Papers are grouped under the major categories of staff development, course evaluation, teaching and learning, and microcomputers in

  3. VET [Vocational Education and Training] Research: Influencing Policy & Practice. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) (1st, Sydney, Australia, February 16-17, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John, Ed.; Barrett, Mary, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 46 papers on the influence of vocational education and training (VET) research on policy and practice. These papers are grouped into these categories: impact of research; equity in participation; partnerships and stakeholders; practice and practitioners; research and policy; learning, work, and organizations; and VET,

  4. Progress and Promise in Teacher Education. Conference Papers of the South Pacific Association for Teacher Education, Inc. and the International Council on Education for Teaching (18th, Sydney, Australia, July 18-23, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council on Education for Teaching, Washington, DC.

    This volume consists of papers presented at a joint conference. Among the topics addressed were: preservice and inservice teacher education, multicultural education, reflective teaching, instructional improvement, curriculum models, educational change, beginning teacher induction, collaboration, teacher and student teacher supervision, educational

  5. Tantalus, restraint theory, and the low-sacrifice diet: the art of reverse abstraction: 10th International Congress on Obesity; September 4, 2006; Sydney,Australia - Symposium: obesity management: adding art to the science, invited presentation.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, George W

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data - scientific findings - and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  6. Practical Approaches to Resolving Behaviour Problems. Selected Papers from the National Conference on Practical Approaches to Resolving Behaviour Problems (2nd, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, July 1990). Programs Implementation and System Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Susanna, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on practical approaches to resolving behavior problems in the Australian school system. The papers are divided into four general categories: perspectives on behavior problems, focusing on families, schools and system initiatives, and programs in special settings. The papers include: (1) "Beyond Punishment," by

  7. Comparative Perspectives on Futures in Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Comparative and International Education Society (10th, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, November 24-26, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesch, James R., Ed.

    The titles and authors of the 12 conference papers presented in this document are: (1) "China's Immediate Future: Renewed Cultural Borrowing" (R.F. Price); (2) "The Feminization of the Teaching Profession in Singapore" (Christine Inglis); (3) "Towards Equity and Efficiency in the Education System of Mauritius" (Helen Topor); (4) "PNG Education

  8. Characterisation of the major dust storm that traversed over eastern Australia in September 2009; a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Munday, Chris I.; Brocks, Jochen; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Allison, Gwen E.; Hope, Janet; Norman, Marc; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Tapper, Nigel J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2014-12-01

    In September 2009, a major dust storm passed over the southeast coast of Australia and covered the large city of Sydney that is located on the eastern coast of Australia. It was referred to as the 'Red Dawn' event. Along its course across the state of New South Wales, the dust plume passed over Canberra, the capital of Australia located some 300 km from Sydney. In this study we identified the sources of the dust and tracked the progression of the dust storm using satellite imagery. We also examined the meteorological conditions that led to the formation of the dust plume. We also investigated the microbial and lipid composition, grain-size distribution, pollen content and geochemical composition of several samples of the dust that fell in Canberra (called 'Canberra dust'), with particular attention paid to the ratio of some rare earth elements as well as strontium and neodymium isotopes. This was done to identify a geochemical and palynological 'fingerprint' of this dust to determine the source of the material. Collectively, the meteorological and fingerprinting analyses identified the principal location of dust entrainment as between the large playa Lakes Gairdner and Torrens in arid South Australia, some 1600 km away from Canberra. We also determined through Sr isotope analyses and other elements measured in the dust that fell in Canberra and the township of Eden, located south of Sydney, that the dust changed composition slightly over a few hours, being the consequence of local dust entrainment along the path of the dust plume across South Australia and New South Wales. In addition, we present a scenario which explains dust transport away from the direction of the major dust plume. Those investigations carried out on the Canberra dust are compared with a previously documented event when dust was also sampled in Canberra in 2002. The origin and composition of the 2002 dust plume was clearly different from that which occurred in 2009, as demonstrated by the different chemical (organic and inorganic) composition, grain-size characteristics and palynological fingerprints, as well as microbial composition.

  9. Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations given them by the

  10. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  11. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  12. Sustained outbreak of measles in New South Wales, 2012: risks for measles elimination in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Kirsty; Clark, Penelope; Nguyen, Oanh; Rosewell, Alexander; Conaty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective On 7 April 2012, a recently returned traveller from Thailand to Australia was confirmed to have measles. An outbreak of measles subsequently occurred in the state of New South Wales, prompting a sustained and coordinated response by public health authorities. The last confirmed case presented on 29 November 2012. This report describes the outbreak and its characteristics. Methods Cases were investigated following Australian protocols, including case interviews and assessment of contacts for post-exposure prophylaxis. Results Of the 168 cases identified, most occurred in south-western and western Sydney (92.9%, n=156). Notable features of this outbreak were the disproportionately high number of cases in the 1019-year-old age group (29.2%, n=49), the overrepresentation among people of Pacific Islander descent (21.4%, n=36) and acquisition in health-care facilities (21.4%, n=36). There were no reported cases of encephalitis and no deaths. Discussion: This was the largest outbreak of measles in Australia since 1997. Its occurrence highlights the need to maintain vigilant surveillance systems for early detection and containment of measles cases and to maintain high population immunity to measles through routine childhood immunization. Vaccination campaigns targeting susceptible groups may also be necessary to sustain Australias measles elimination status. PMID:25635228

  13. Minibrachium, a new subgenus of Rhamphobrachium (Annelida: Onuphidae) from Australia with the description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Hannelore; Budaeva, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a new subgenus of miniature, progenetic Rhamphobrachium species from eastern Australia. Minibrachium, n. subg. is characterised by such paedomorphic features as lack of peristomial cirri and branchiae, possession of only two pairs of modified parapodia with spiny recurved hooks and very early onset of subacicular hooks. Three new species are described, of which at least R. (Minibrachium) nutrix n. sp., the type species (from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef), is a fully grown adult, brooding several 16- to 20-chaetiger juveniles in the parental tubes. Rhamphobrachium (M.) talboti n. sp. (from off Sydney) and R. (M.) fractum n. sp. (from Bass Strait), although twice as large as the type species, have only partially developed frontal lips, indicating either incomplete growth or presenting an additional paedomorphic character. We discuss the position of the new subgenus in the Rhamphobrachium complex and present a key to the subgenera of Rhamphobrachium and species of R. (Minibrachium). PMID:26624081

  14. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  15. Disease control during the colonial period in Australia.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J

    2011-07-01

    The first permanent European settlers of Australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). As the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland Australia. During the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. The arrival of William Tyson Kendall and coordinated action with Graham Mitchell led to the establishment of a private veterinary college following the passage of veterinary surgeons legislation in Victoria. From this time, veterinarians came to be appointed to positions formerly occupied by lay inspectors and the veterinary profession was able to take up the role of planning and executing government-led disease control programs. From a colony relying on wool for export to the UK, technical advancements in meat freezing and pasture improvement widened the range and increased the quantity of exported products. Before the advent of veterinary advances, sheep scab was eradicated, a vaccine was developed for anthrax and glanders infection of horses was prevented entry to Australia. Graduates from the Melbourne Veterinary College spread across Australia and in this period a conservative quarantine policy was developed following inaction to control an outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and the escape of rabbits to form a plague across the continent. Coordinated control of CBPP had to await the next century and advancement of technology increased our understanding of bacteriology and immunity of infectious diseases. Veterinary services were provided to the militia sent by the colonies to the Boer Wars in South Africa 1987-1901 and the veterinarians from Victoria were led by an Australian trained veterinarian. PMID:21696369

  16. The Oweniidae (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with the description of two new species of Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844.

    PubMed

    Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Study of the Oweniidae specimens (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) stored at the Australian Museum, Sydney and newly collected in August 2013 revealed the presence of three species, namely Galathowenia quelis Capa et al., 2012 and two new species belonging to the genus Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. Owenia dichotoma n. sp. is characterised by a very short branchial crown of about 1/3 of thoracic length which bears short, dichotomously-branched tentacles provided with the major division close to the base of the crown. Owenia picta n. sp. is characterised by a long branchial crown of about 4/5 of thoracic length provided with no major divisions, ventral pigmentation on thorax and the presence of deep ventro-lateral groove on the first thoracic chaetiger. A key of Owenia species hitherto described or reported in South East Asia and Australasia regions is provided based on characters of the branchial crown. PMID:26624080

  17. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  19. Space Radar Image of Canberra, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne radar image. Images like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the image. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the image is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.

  20. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Bjrdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-07-01

    Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16-44years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples from Cairns indicates that those wood types were more susceptible to biodegradation. Microscopic analyses revealed that most decay patterns observed in samples analysed from Sydney were consistent with aerobic fungal decay. Only a minor portion of the microbial decay was due to erosion bacteria active in anaerobic/near anaerobic environments. The findings of this study strongly suggest that models that adopt current accepted default factors for the decay of wood in landfills greatly overestimate methane emissions. PMID:25863766

  1. Toxinology in Australia's colonial era: a chronology and perspective of human envenomation in 19th century Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2006-12-01

    The medical management of those envenomed by snakes, spiders and poisonous fish in Australia featured extensively in the writings 19th century doctors, expeditioners and anthropologists. Against the background of this introduced medical doctrine there already existed an extensive tradition of Aboriginal medical lore; techniques of heat treatment, suction, incision and the application of plant-derived pharmacological substances featured extensively in the management of envenomed victims. The application of a hair-string or grass-string ligature, suctioning of the bite-site and incision were practised in a variety of combinations. Such evolved independently of and pre-dated such practices, which were promoted extensively by immigrant European doctors in the late 19th century. Pacific scientific toxinology began in the 17th century with Don Diego de Prado y Tovar's 1606 account of ciguatera. By the end of the 19th century more than 30 papers and books had defined the natural history of Australian elapid poisoning. The medical management of snakebite in Australia was the focus of great controversy from 1860 to 1900. Dogmatic claims of the supposed antidote efficacy of intravenous ammonia by Professor G.B. Halford, and that of strychnine by Dr. Augustus Mueller, claimed mainstream medical attention. This era of potential iatrogenic disaster and dogma was brought to a conclusion by the objective experiments of Joseph Lauterer and Thomas Lane Bancroft in 1890 in Brisbane; and by those of C.J. Martin (from 1893) and Frank Tidswell (from 1898), both of Sydney. The modern era of Australian toxinology developed as a direct consequence of Calmette's discovery, in Paris in 1894, of immune serum, which was protective against snakebite. We review the key contributors and discoveries of toxinology in colonial Australia. PMID:16996551

  2. The historical development of occupational health in Australia: Part I 1788-1970.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A

    2004-12-01

    In 1788 the British Empire established a penal colony in Sydney Cove. By virtue of their unique demographic, the earliest occupations consisted predominately of convict or prison guard. Initial health hazards included disease, traumatic injury and punishment. Free settlement gradually developed throughout the early to mid 1800s, thus offering new forms of employment with their associated risks. The discovery of commercial gold deposits in 1851, led to a large increase in mining as the predominately dangerous occupation of the late 19th century. Early mining hazards included windlass accidents and flooding, and this was later enhanced by toxic chemicals such as arsenic and mercury. Industrial development occurred throughout the 1900s in Australia. This period was accompanied by increasing interest in worker's health, which later resulted in some pioneering epidemiological research. Overall, history has shown that significant lessons can be learned from the development of occupational health in Australia, many of which may help guide policy formation for the new millennium. PMID:15624355

  3. Identification and characterisation of an ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 -var) in Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Cheryl; Hick, Paul; Gabor, Melinda; Spiers, Zoe; Fell, Shayne A; Gu, Xingnian; Read, Andrew; Go, Jeffrey; Dove, Michael; O'Connor, Wayne; Kirkland, Peter D; Frances, Jane

    2013-07-22

    Between November 2010 and January 2011, triploid Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) cultivated in the Georges River, New South Wales, experienced >95% mortality. Mortalities also occurred in wild diploid C. gigas in the Georges River and shortly thereafter in the adjacent Parramatta River estuary upstream from Sydney Harbour. Neighbouring Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) did not experience mortalities in either estuary. Surviving oysters were collected to investigate the cause of mortalities. Histologically all oysters displayed significant pathology, and molecular testing revealed a high prevalence of ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1). Quantitative PCR indicated that many C. gigas were carrying a high viral load at the time of sampling, while the load in S. glomerata was significantly lower (p < 0.001). Subsequent in situ hybridisation experiments confirmed the presence of a herpesvirus in C. gigas but not S. glomerata tissues, suggesting that S. glomerata is not susceptible to infection with OsHV-1. Nave sentinel triploid C. gigas placed in the Georges River estuary in January 2011 quickly became infected and experienced nearly 100% mortality within 2 wk of exposure, indicating the persistence of the virus in the environment. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences derived from the C2/C6 region of the virus revealed that the Australian strain of OsHV-1 belongs to the microvariant (-var) cluster, which has been associated with severe mortalities in C. gigas in other countries since 2008. Environmental data revealed that the Woolooware Bay outbreaks occurred during a time of considerable environmental disturbance, with increased water temperatures, heavy rainfall, a toxic phytoplankton bloom and the presence of a pathogenic Vibrio sp. all potentially contributing to oyster stress. This is the first confirmed report of OsHV-1 -var related C. gigas mortalities in Australia. PMID:23872855

  4. The Possibility of Cosmopolitan Learning: Reflecting on Future Directions for Diversity Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Carol; Sriprakash, Arathi

    2012-01-01

    This paper is situated in the re-visioning ethos that has been part of the genealogy of multicultural education. In the context of teacher education, the authors ask: where to now? In this paper, they reflect on their design and delivery of a new undergraduate unit offered by the School of Education, University of Western Sydney. The unit

  5. A Salmonella Typhimurium 197 outbreak linked to the consumption of lambs' liver in Sydney, NSW

    PubMed Central

    HESS, I. M. R.; NEVILLE, L. M.; McCARTHY, R.; SHADBOLT, C. T.; McANULTY, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We identified an increase in the number of cases of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 197 in New South Wales in February 2005. Cases were predominantly of Lebanese descent. To identify risk factors for illness, we conducted an unmatched case-control study including 12 cases and 21 controls. Eight of 12 cases (67%) and no controls reported eating lambs' liver (OR incalculable, P<0·05), and seven of nine cases (78%) and one of 21 controls (5%) reported eating fresh fish (OR 70·0, P<0·05). Among participants who did not eat liver, there was a strong association between eating fish and illness (OR 60·0, P<0·05). The fish was from divergent sources. Five cases had bought the liver from two different butcher's shops, which obtained the lambs' liver from a single abattoir. Consumption of liver is a risk for salmonellosis. Traditional dishes may place some ethnic groups at increased risk of foodborne disease. PMID:17565766

  6. Evaluation of the MindMatters Buddy Support Scheme in Southwest Sydney: Strategies, Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Raquiba J.; Bedford, Karen; Williams, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessing the strategies, achievements and challenges of implementing MindMatters and the views of partner schools towards the buddy support scheme. Design: The MindMatters buddy support scheme (2007-2008) was designed to increase the capacity of secondary schools to adopt a whole-school approach to improving health and well-being of

  7. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,

  8. "Corsages on Their Parents' Jackets": Employment and Aspiration among Arabic-Speaking Youth in Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George; Idriss, Sherene

    2012-01-01

    Many commentators have observed that late modernity has profoundly reshaped the nature of employment such that workers have become more reflexive, mobile, individualistic and entrepreneurial, free to re-invent themselves as they choose in a world of endless possibilities. Theorists of reflexive modernity suggest that the family unit and class have

  9. Student Engagement at Two Single-Sex Colleges: Hampden-Sydney and Sweet Briar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Edith L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1960s the higher educational system in the United States has steadily lost its single-sex colleges; and as of 2008 only 51 women's and four men's institutions remain (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2008). Many of the previous single-sex schools have admitted members of the opposite sex, giving in to the national trend of…

  10. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontn, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing. PMID:23856366

  11. Newspaper coverage of women's sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy.

    PubMed

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-06-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly underreported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French, and Italian daily newspapers by: (a) number of articles, (b) size, (c) page placement, (d) accompanyingphotographs, and (e) photograph size. For each sport covered, the athletes' nationality and the gender were recorded. Compared to the 1996 Atlanta Games, there was an increase of 326 female athletes (+4 %), and women competed in 25 sports and 132 events (44 %) of the total 300 events. Although only 29.3 % of the articles and 38 % of photos were on women 's sports, the newspaper coverage was similar to the distribution of participating athletes and events. No significant gender differences were found with respect to article size, page placement, accompanying photographs, or photograph size. The most covered sport was track and field, independent of national achievement. Other sports received different coverage in relation to national expectations, achievement, and participation. In conclusion, there was a trend to overcome gender inequities in media coverage during the Olympic Games, which may be due to the International Olympic Committee's actions to promote increased participation of women in sport activities and to publicize their achievements. Moreover, during the Olympic Games, a nationalistic fervor might affect the equality of gender coverage. PMID:16128488

  12. Equity and Local Participation in VET: Some Preliminary Findings in Sydney Postcodes. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John

    More attention should be given to the local dimension of equity research. A question that must be asked is to what extent there is an unequal distribution of opportunities to participate in vocational education and training (VET) that is mirrored by area of residence in both urban and rural localities. Questions must also be asked about the extent…

  13. Indicators of Staff Efficacy in Seven Special Schools in the Sydney Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Staff in Special Schools are seldom the focus of research, yet work with a student group some might consider demanding and stressful. Staff who work in Catholic special Schools are under-represented in the academic literature. The motivation and efficacy of Special School staff were studies in 7 Catholic Special Schools. These staff were observed

  14. Use of surface waves for geotechnical engineering applications in Western Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokeshi, K.; Harutoonian, P.; Leo, C. J.; Liyanapathirana, S.

    2013-06-01

    Current in situ methods used to geotechnically characterize the ground are predominantly based on invasive mechanical techniques (e.g. CPT, SPT, DMT). These techniques are localized to the tested area thus making it quite time consuming and costly to extensively cover large areas. Hence, a study has been initiated to investigate the use of the non-invasive Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Multichannel Simulation with One Receiver (MSOR) techniques to provide both an evaluation of compacted ground and a general geotechnical site characterization. The MASW technique relies on the measurement of active ambient vibrations generated by sledgehammer hits to the ground. Generated vibrations are gathered by interconnected electromagnetic geophones set up in the vertical direction and in a linear array at the ground surface with a constant spacing. The MSOR technique relies on one sensor, one single geophone used as the trigger, and multiple impacts are delivered on a steel plate at several distances in a linear array. The main attributes of these non-invasive techniques are the cost effectiveness and time efficiency when compared to current in situ mechanical invasive methods. They were applied to infer the stiffness of the ground layers by inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves to derive the shear wave velocity (Vs) profile. The results produced by the MASW and the MSOR techniques were verified against independent mechanical Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This paper identifies that the MASW and the MSOR techniques could be potentially useful and powerful tools in the evaluation of the ground compaction and general geotechnical site characterization.

  15. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  16. Abortion techniques in Australia: a history.

    PubMed

    Bird, J

    1981-04-01

    This is an historical survey of the abortion practices in Australia in the early 20th century. The evidence presented in the article is gathered from reports and documents, articles in medical journals, and information obtained at interviews. The estimated figures for induced abortion are 1/8 live births in 1904, 1/5 live birth in 1937, and 1/4 live births in 1970. Drugs inducing abortion were easily available by the 1890s; they usually were euphemistically advertised to correct irregularities, that is, to bring on a late period, thus enabling vendors to escape prosecution by law. Many of the prescriptions were simple purgatives, such as oil of savin, croton oil, aloe, or they caused contractions of the blood vessels or of the uterus, as did ergot of rye. The contents of the abortion inducing drugs were rarely stated and often misrepresented. In many cases abortion was a secondary effect of the woman poisoning her body with large quantities of drugs; women were also instructed to take hot mustard baths, to jump off tables, and to conduct other physical violence against themselves. Many women tried mechnical methods when chemical methods failed; they included insertion into the uterus of knitting needles, crochet hooks, laminaria and sponge tents. Women who could find the money went to an abortionist; in the 1890s there were an estimated 100-300 abortionists in the city of Sydney. The methods employed went from the use of laminaria tents, to insertion of a catheter, or forcing of fluids into the uterus. Septic infection, peritonitis, blood poisoning, and also uterine perforation were common complications noted in women being admitted to hospitals following abortion. Retention of the placenta was another common complication. After 1904 more restrictive laws reduced the availability of abortifacient drugs and also of contraceptives such as condoms and pessaries; the cost of an illegal abortion skyrocketed to 25 pounds. The result was that more women attempted to procure an abortion by themselves, and that morbidity and mortality rates increased. As recently as 1960 women were procuring abortions by the same means as in the 1890s with the same results and complications; the only advantage being the fact that they could be properly treated once they reached the hospital after attempting the abortion. There are still many restrictions placed on the availability of abortion in Australia; some abortion services, such as those in South Wales, interpret the law very freely. A survey conducted by the Preterm Foundation in 1976 found that 7.6% of its clients had attempted abortion before presenting at the clinic. PMID:12263459

  17. Regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall across Australia - implications for intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships are commonly required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently, IFD information is based on the "stationary climate assumption" that weather at any point in time will vary randomly and that the underlying climate statistics (including both averages and extremes) will remain constant irrespective of the period of record. However, the validity of this assumption has been questioned over the last 15 years, particularly in Australia, following an improved understanding of the significant impact of climate variability and change occurring on interannual to multidecadal timescales. This paper provides evidence of regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall time series (between 1913-2010) using 96 daily rainfall stations and 66 sub-daily rainfall stations across Australia. Furthermore, the effect of these regime shifts on the resulting IFD estimates are explored for three long-term (1913-2010) sub-daily rainfall records (Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne) utilizing insights into multidecadal climate variability. It is demonstrated that IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall depending on the length and time period spanned by the rainfall data used to develop the IFD information. It is recommended that regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall be explicitly considered and appropriately treated in the ongoing revisions of the Engineers Australia guide to estimating and utilizing IFD information, Australian Rainfall and Runoff (ARR), and that clear guidance needs to be provided on how to deal with the issue of regime shifts in extreme events (irrespective of whether this is due to natural or anthropogenic climate change). The findings of our study also have important implications for other regions of the world that exhibit considerable hydroclimatic variability and where IFD information is based on relatively short data sets.

  18. Massive Cooper basin liquids project in Australia meets design and startup targets

    SciTech Connect

    White-Stevens, D.T.; Elliot, D.G.

    1986-01-20

    The Cooper basin has the most significant onshore petroleum reserves so far discovered in Australia. The Cooper basin liquids project, worth $1.45 billion (Australian), is now onstream. It is designed to recover LPG, condensate, and crude oil. This massive project was implemented within the development plan timetable and within budget. Early shipment of crude-condensate gained an early cash flow. The project was carried out by a consortium of 11 companies, known collectively as the Cooper Basin Producers, with Santos Ltd. as operator. Oil and gas are gathered from fields around Moomba, in the central Australian desert. At Moomba, the oil is stabilized and the gas sweetened, dehydrated, and run through an expander plant. Sales gas is transported by separate pipeline to major domestic markets in Sydney and Adelaide. Stabilized crude and natural gas liquids (NGL) are mixed and transported by a common line to Port Bonython on the southern Australian coast. At Port Bonython, the mixture is fractionated into LPG, propane, butane, condensate, and crude.

  19. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  20. Sharing beliefs: what sexuality means to Muslim Iranian women living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Merghati Khoei, Effat; Whelan, Anna; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    In Iran, women's sexual self-understandings are strongly determined by religious teaching. This study explores the meanings generated through the lived experience of sexuality of women residing in Australia that may challenge certain received Islamic notions of sexuality. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 51 Iranian women in Sydney alongside 10 semi-structured interviews with Shi'ite clergy in Iran. Findings suggest that the concept of sexual obedience within marriage is regarded as symbolic of an idealised Muslim femininity. Sexual obedience demonstrates women's high level of religious commitment but is also an indicator of modesty and self-respect. While some participants felt that it was a woman's duty to satisfy her husband on any sexual occasion, they did not utilize notions of subordination in their sexual lives. For other informants, however, concepts of subordination were more salient and tied to conservative religious leaders' interpretations of Quranic concepts and Iranian women's understandings of these same interpretations. Religion is an important factor influencing Iranian women's sexual self-understandings, being relevant both to sexual education and public health. Recognition of this issue will facilitate understanding of the cultural foundations of sexuality among Muslims and assist health providers in suggesting more culturally compatible forms of healthcare. PMID:18432423

  1. Seasonal and spatial variation in the distribution of mangrove macroalgae in the Clyde River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Felicity; Pulkownik, Alex

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there was significant spatial and temporal variation in macroalgae epiphytic on pneumatophores of the Grey Mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., in the Clyde River, located 280 km south of Sydney, Australia. Three estuarine sites in the Clyde River were surveyed seasonally on four occasions over a two-year period, and algal distribution and abundance assessed in respect to temporal, inter-site, intertidal (from front to back of mangrove stand) and vertical (from bottom to top of pneumatophores) variation. Sediment and water characteristics, including nutrient levels, were also assessed in order to examine all variables of potential influence on algal distribution and abundance. The results indicated that intertidal position within sites, and vertical height along the length of the pneumatophore, were the greatest influence on algal frequency and biomass. Individual species dominated in different intertidal and vertical zones. These observations, together with the identification of three species of macroalgae that fulfil the criteria for bioindicators/biomonitors of environmental impacts are discussed.

  2. The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer Platypus at Australia's OPAL reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( ?=2-20 ) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

  3. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  4. Socio-cultural reflections on heat in Australia with implications for health and climate change adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Bambrick, Hilary; Edwards, Ferne; Kjellström, Tord

    2012-01-01

    Background Australia has a hot climate with maximum summer temperatures in its major cities frequently exceeding 35°C. Although ‘heat waves’ are an annual occurrence, the associated heat-related deaths among vulnerable groups, such as older people, suggest that Australians could be better prepared to deal with extreme heat. Objective To understand ways in which a vulnerable sub-population adapt their personal behaviour to cope with heat within the context of Australians’ relationship with heat. Design We draw upon scientific, historical and literary sources and on a set of repeat interviews in the suburbs of Western Sydney with eight older participants and two focus group discussions. We discuss ways in which this group of older people modifies their behaviour to adapt to heat, and reflect on manifestations of Australians’ ambivalence towards heat. Results Participants reported a number of methods for coping with extreme heat, including a number of methods of personal cooling, changing patterns of daily activity and altering dietary habits. The use of air-conditioning was near universal, but with recognition that increasing energy costs may become more prohibitive over time. Conclusions While a number of methods are employed by older people to stay cool, these may become limited in the future. Australians’ attitudes may contribute to the ill-health and mortality associated with excessive heat. PMID:23078748

  5. Iron oxide minerals in dust of the Red Dawn event in eastern Australia, September 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Cattle, Stephen R.; Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Yauk, Kimberly; Flagg, Cody B.; Berqu, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Morman, Suzette; Breit, George N.

    2014-12-01

    Iron oxide minerals typically compose only a few weight percent of bulk atmospheric dust but are important for potential roles in forcing climate, affecting cloud properties, influencing rates of snow and ice melt, and fertilizing marine phytoplankton. Dust samples collected from locations across eastern Australia (Lake Cowal, Orange, Hornsby, and Sydney) following the spectacular "Red Dawn" dust storm on 23 September 2009 enabled study of the dust iron oxide assemblage using a combination of magnetic measurements, Mssbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Red Dawn was the worst dust storm to have hit the city of Sydney in more than 60 years, and it also deposited dust into the Tasman Sea and onto snow cover in New Zealand. Magnetization measurements from 20 to 400 K reveal that hematite, goethite, and trace amounts of magnetite are present in all samples. Magnetite concentrations (as much as 0.29 wt%) were much higher in eastern, urban sites than in western, agricultural sites in central New South Wales (0.01 wt%), strongly suggesting addition of magnetite from local urban sources. Variable temperature Mssbauer spectroscopy (300 and 4.2 K) indicates that goethite and hematite compose approximately 25-45% of the Fe-bearing phases in samples from the inland sites of Orange and Lake Cowal. Hematite was observed at both temperatures but goethite only at 4.2 K, thereby revealing the presence of nanogoethite (less than about 20 nm). Similarly, hematite particulate matter is very small (some of it d < 100 nm) on the basis of magnetic results and Mssbauer spectra. The degree to which ferric oxide in these samples might absorb solar radiation is estimated by comparing reflectance values with a magnetic parameter (hard isothermal remanent magnetization, HIRM) for ferric oxide abundance. Average visible reflectance and HIRM are correlated as a group (r2 = 0.24), indicating that Red Dawn ferric oxides have capacity to absorb solar radiation. Much of this ferric oxide occurs as nanohematite and nanogoethite particles on surfaces of other particulate matter, thereby providing high surface area to enhance absorption of solar radiation. Leaching of the sample from Orange in simulated human-lung fluid revealed low bioaccessibility for most metals.

  6. CareTrack Kidspart 3. Adverse events in children's healthcare in Australia: study protocol for a retrospective medical record review

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Peter D; Hallahan, Andrew R; Muething, Stephen E; Lachman, Peter; Hooper, Tamara D; Wiles, Louise K; Jaffe, Adam; White, Les; Wheaton, Gavin R; Runciman, William B; Dalton, Sarah; Williams, Helena M; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A high-quality health system should deliver care that is free from harm. Few large-scale studies of adverse events have been undertaken in children's healthcare internationally, and none in Australia. The aim of this study is to measure the frequency and types of adverse events encountered in Australian paediatric care in a range of healthcare settings. Methods and analysis A form of retrospective medical record review, the Institute of Healthcare Improvement's Global Trigger Tool, will be modified to collect data. Records of children aged <16?years managed during 2012 and 2013 will be reviewed. We aim to review 60008000 records from a sample of healthcare practices (hospitals, general practices and specialists). Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from the Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, and the Women's and Children's Hospital Network in South Australia. An application is under review with the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and undertake national and international oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers. PMID:25854978

  7. Diagnosing coastal ocean CO2 interannual variability from a 40 year hydrographic time series station off the east coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Ben I.

    2010-12-01

    Advancing our understanding of the ocean's role in modulating atmospheric carbon dioxide interannual variability is important but limited by the lack of temporal ocean CO2 observations throughout most of the world's oceans. In particular, the role of the coastal ocean for interannual variability of CO2 is unknown, but expected to be large given the dynamics of land to ocean CO2 exchanges. Two coastal hydrographic time series stations at Port Hacking off Sydney, Australia, have collected and measured hydrographic properties (temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) since 1942. Here I examine the potential to use empirical relationships derived from nearby discrete CO2 measurements to diagnose CO2 interannual variability at the Port Hacking time series station. I test the approach by predicting interannual variability of CO2 at the Bermuda Time Series Station (BATS) in the North Atlantic between 1988 and 2008 and show the method captures 78% of the observed interannual variability found at BATS. I further use oxygen as a tracer to diagnose the length scales of variability in the southwest Pacific to provide insight into the applicability of the method. After applying the approach at Port Hacking, significant CO2 interannual variability was found (up to 30 ppm) that was largely driven by local regional variability in nutrients (nitrate) and temperature with little link to larger modes of variability (SAM or ENSO). Oceanic CO2 was diagnosed to be almost always lower than atmospheric CO2 levels (?pCO2 10-55 ?atm), indicating a quasi-permanent coastal ocean CO2 sink during winter off Sydney. Direct pCO2 measurements taken along the NSW coastline in April and August 2008 confirm the empirical predictions and a wider CO2 sink along Australia's east coast. If extrapolating the Port Hacking CO2 results to the New South Wales coastline, the annual coastal CO2 sink would be about -0.05 Tg C/yr. Both the empirical predictions and direct measurements of CO2 presented here along the Australian east coast support recent reviews suggesting continental shelves act as a significant CO2 sink, at least during autumn and winter.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in Australia: trends in socioeconomic inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors using educational attainment to indicate socioeconomic status. DESIGN--Behavioural data, physical measurements, blood pressure, and lipid determination collected in three, successive multicentre cross sectional community surveys conducted in 1980, 1983, and 1989. SETTING--The six state capital cities of Australia; Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and Hobart. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 19,315 randomly selected respondents stratified by age (25-44, 45-64) and sex. RESULTS--During the 1980s, average blood pressure declined for each level of educational attainment. Dietary messages to reduce the intake of saturated fat had little effect on the lipid profile of any population group. Height and educational attainment were positively associated. Women increased in weight from between 2 to 4 kg depending on age and educational attainment while older men experienced increases of around 2.5 kg regardless of educational attainment. Advice to avoid salt was adopted across the spectrum of educational attainment but with no suggestion that the socioeconomic gradient, which favoured the more highly educated, was diminishing. Men of all education levels responded positively to the anti-smoking initiatives of the 1980s but the relative disadvantage of those of lower education was maintained. Among women, the decline in smoking was less among those in the low education group. The prevalence of moderate to heavy drinkers was higher in men of lower educational attainment but declined significantly over the period. Walking for recreation or exercise became more popular, especially among older men of low education, while the prevalence of aerobic exercise and vigorous exercise remained largely unchanged. Overall, the clear socioeconomic gradient between leisure time physical activity and education attainment remained. CONCLUSIONS--The lower socioeconomic group has improved its risk factor profile but its relative disadvantage compared with the higher socioeconomic group persists. Health promotion activities in Australia seem to have been effective in reaching the lower socioeconomic groups but the challenge to reduce inequalities remains. The steady increase in educational attainment in Australia may have been an important factor in the general improvement in the nation's risk factor profile and in the decrease in mortality from coronary heart disease. PMID:7650459

  9. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Cope with a Literacy Intervention Program in a Remote Indigenous Community? The Community Action Support Program in the Northern Territory, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the

  10. Zonal and seasonal variation in the distribution and abundance of mangrove macroalgae in the Parramatta River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Felicity; Pulkownik, Alex; Burchett, Margaret

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the spatial and temporal variation of macroalgae epiphytic on pneumatophores of the Grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., in the Parramatta River, the major estuarine system flowing into Sydney Harbour. No previous studies have examined algal distribution in three spatial dimensions (along the mid-saline length of a river, from front to back of mangrove stand, and from bottom to top of pneumatophores), simultaneously with their temporal variation within mangrove stands. Three sites in the Parramatta River, Australia, were surveyed seasonally on four occasions over a two-year period, and algal distribution and biomass assessed with respect to temporal, site, intertidal and vertical variation. Sediment and water characteristics, including nutrient levels, were also assessed in order to examine all variables that may be influencing algal distribution and abundance. The results indicated that intertidal position within sites (front, middle and back zones of the intertidal mangrove stands) was the factor of greatest influence on algal frequency and biomass, with individual species dominating in different zones. This observation together with the identification of four species of macroalgae that fulfill the criteria for bioindicators of environmental impacts are discussed.

  11. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health. PMID:26077856

  12. Statistical Testing of Dynamically Downscaled Rainfall Data for the East Coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parana Manage, Nadeeka; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George

    2015-04-01

    This study performs a validation of statistical properties of downscaled climate data, concentrating on the rainfall which is required for hydrology predictions used in reservoir simulations. The data sets used in this study have been produced by the NARCliM (NSW/ACT Regional Climate Modelling) project which provides a dynamically downscaled climate dataset for South-East Australia at 10km resolution. NARCliM has used three configurations of the Weather Research Forecasting Regional Climate Model and four different GCMs (MIROC-medres 3.2, ECHAM5, CCCMA 3.1 and CSIRO mk3.0) from CMIP3 to perform twelve ensembles of simulations for current and future climates. Additionally to the GCM-driven simulations, three control run simulations driven by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the entire period of 1950-2009 has also been performed by the project. The validation has been performed in the Upper Hunter region of Australia which is a semi-arid to arid region 200 kilometres North-West of Sydney. The analysis used the time series of downscaled rainfall data and ground based measurements for selected Bureau of Meteorology rainfall stations within the study area. The initial testing of the gridded rainfall was focused on the autoregressive characteristics of time series because the reservoir performance depends on long-term average runoffs. A correlation analysis was performed for fortnightly, monthly and annual averaged time resolutions showing a good statistical match between reanalysis and ground truth. The spatial variation of the statistics of gridded rainfall series were calculated and plotted at the catchment scale. The spatial correlation analysis shows a poor agreement between NARCliM data and ground truth at each time resolution. However, the spatial variability plots show a strong link between the statistics and orography at the catchment scale.

  13. Schooling Responses to Youth Crime: Building Emotional Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study into schooling responses to youth crime in south-western Sydney, Australia. The project was a partnership between the New South Wales Department of Education and Training and the University of Western Sydney's School of Education. Specifically, the paper analyses interviews with school leaders who were interested in

  14. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake for cadmium. This suggests the need for further investigation of this issue to minimize any possible health risk. PMID:26098897

  15. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake for cadmium. This suggests the need for further investigation of this issue to minimize any possible health risk. PMID:26098897

  16. Travel risk behaviours and uptake of pre-travel health preventions by university students in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased risk of importing infectious disease as many undertake multiple visits to regions with higher infectious disease endemicity. Little is known about the health behaviours of domestic or international university students, particularly students from low resource countries who travel to high-resource countries for education. This study aimed to assess travel-associated health risks and preventative behaviours in a sample of both domestic and international university students in Australia. Methods In 2010, a 28 item self-administered online survey was distributed to students enrolled at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Multiple methods of distributing links to the online survey were utilised. The survey examined the international travel history, travel intentions, infection control behaviours and self-reported vaccination history. Results A total of 1663 respondents completed the online survey, 22.1% were international students and 83.9% were enrolled at an undergraduate level. Half had travelled internationally in the previous 12 months, with 69% of those travelling only once during that time with no difference in travel from Australia between domestic and international students (p = 0.8). Uptake of pre-travel health advice was low overall with 68% of respondents reporting they had not sought any advice from a health professional prior to their last international trip. Domestic students were more likely to report uptake of a range of preventative travel health measures compared to international students, including diarrhoeal medication, insect repellent, food avoidance and condoms (P < 0.0001). Overall, students reported low risk perception of travel threats and a low corresponding concern for these threats. Conclusions Our study highlights the need to educate students about the risk associated with travel and improve preventative health-seeking and uptake of precautionary health measures in this highly mobile young adult population. Although immunisation is not an entry requirement to study at Universities in Australia, large tertiary institutions provide an opportunity to engage with young adults on the importance of travel health and provision of vaccines required for travel, including missed childhood vaccines. PMID:22339735

  17. Is risk associated with drinking water in Australia of significant concern to justify mandatory regulation?

    PubMed

    McKay, J; Moeller, A

    2001-10-01

    Presently in Australia there are no mandatory drinking water standards. Here we argue that the risk associated with drinking water in Australia is of a dimension discernible to warrant mandatory regulations. The catchments that supply the major metropolitan areas of Sydney and Adelaide, and the groundwater for the city of Perth have been seriously compromised by the encroachment of development and activities. Melbourne in the past has generally relied on a closed catchment reservoir system; however, population growth in the near future will sequester the full online operation of additional reservoirs, which have multiple land use catchments. In addition to the current landscape circumstances, the management of a water system in itself proposes significant issues of risk. Two critical assumptions that are unique to a mass medium substance like water and dramatically alter the appraisal of risk are: (1) very large numbers of people are potentially exposed, and (2) small changes in contaminant levels may have adverse population outcomes. It is also known that water reticulation systems frequently suffer from contamination problems caused solely by the distribution system, and optimal management of these facilities would best be served by statutory protected transparency and dedicated water quality programs. In 1979, an Australian parliamentary committee stated that an "uncontaminated water supply is" a "basic requirement for the obtainment of good health"; however, recent surveys of Australian water systems show many are not meeting basic water quality criteria, and many communities are not receiving regular monitoring or testing as required by government authorized Australian drinking water guidelines. Exacerbating this situation is the lack of reporting and statutory endorsed standardized procedures to ensure information is properly and promptly recorded and that data are centralized for maximum benefit. The evaluation of risk associated with drinking water in Australia is often hampered by inadequate or incomplete data. Lastly, regional and rural water supplies face a vast array of contemporary problems and experiences that include widespread usage of pesticides and agricultural chemicals. In recent years, the Darling River has experienced the worst algal bloom known to man, and this river system not only supplies a number of regional and rural towns with water, but eventually connects with the River Murray, which supplies the State of South Australia with approximately 50% of its water requirements. PMID:11494066

  18. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter ... Australia location: Australia and New Zealand thumbnail: ...

  19. Feasibility of a GP delivered skin cancer prevention intervention in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite years of public education, sun-related behaviours are difficult to change and a recent survey showed low levels of sun protection. In this study we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an opportunistic skin cancer prevention intervention in general practice. Methods We used a controlled pre-and-post intervention design. Participants (n = 100) were recruited sequentially from patients attending two general practices in Sydney, Australia, from November to December 2010. Participants in the intervention practice (n = 50) received general practitioner delivered sun protection advice after completing a skin cancer risk assessment tool, and a sun protection pamphlet, in addition to routine care, at a single attendance. The skin cancer risk assessment tool provided three levels of risk. The general practitioner (GP) reinforced the level of risk and discussed sun protection. Participants in the control practice (n = 50) received routine care. We measured feasibility by patients’ and GPs’ participation in the intervention and time taken, and acceptability by intervention participants and GPs ratings of the intervention. We measured reported sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between the two groups at 1 and 13 months. Results The intervention was found to be feasible within existing primary care team arrangements. Participation at baseline was 81% (108/134), and repeated participation was 88% (88/100) at 1 month and 70% (70/100) at 13 months. Participants and practitioners found the intervention acceptable. At 1 month, sun-related knowledge had increased in both patient groups, with a greater increase in the intervention group (adjusted mean difference 0.48, p = 0.034). There were no differences between groups in sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour at 13 months. Conclusions A brief opportunistic skin cancer prevention intervention in general practice is feasible and acceptable. Further research in this setting with a more intensive intervention would be justified. PMID:25070692

  20. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants. PMID:25632724

  1. What Role Can Community Contact Play in Heritage Language Literacy Development? Japanese-English Bilingual Children in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2012-01-01

    When linguistic minority parents wish to develop and maintain their children's literacy in heritage languages (HLs), what can they do to help? How and to what extent do the individual contexts of language use and background affect the development and maintenance of HL literacy, compared with the sociocultural context of community? What are the

  2. Levels and Functions of HIV/AIDS Stigma within the Iranian Community Living in the Sydney Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia; Niknami, Shamsaddin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related stigma among the Iranian population and the factors that contribute to the formation of stigma within the study population. Design: A quantitative research design was used in this research whereby participants completed

  3. Children's Reasons for Joining Sport Clubs and Staying in Them: A Case Study of a Sydney Soccer Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Curry, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Research on youth sport within the sport coaching and physical education literature has tended to overlook the nature of experience and the meanings that sport holds in the lives of children and young people. This paper makes a contribution toward redressing this imbalance by reporting on a close-focus case study on children's reasons for joining

  4. Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse between HIV-positive men and regular male partners in a Sydney cohort.

    PubMed

    Begley, K; Chan, D J; Jeganathan, S; Batterham, M; Smith, D E

    2009-10-01

    Blood plasma HIV-RNA load (BPVL) is the strongest predictor of HIV-1 transmission during sex. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is the highest risk activity for transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Awareness of BPVL may influence rates of UAI. We assessed whether optimism towards antiretroviral therapy (ART) and/or biomedical factors influenced sexual activities with regular partners. Questionnaires were administered to 109 HIV-positive MSM participating in a cross-sectional study of BPVL and seminal viral load. The survey assessed HIV transmission beliefs and sexual practices with regular male partners in the past three months. Sixty-nine of 109 (63.3%) had been in a regular relationship and 42 reported having had anal sex. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation (URAI - e) was associated with awareness that their most recent BPVL was detectable (>50 RNA copies/mL) and not taking ART. Receptive UAI with ejaculation (URAI + e) was associated with not taking ART, having a sexually transmissible infection and having an HIV-positive partner; the latter was also associated with insertive UAI with ejaculation (UIAI + e). Treatment optimism was not associated with UAI. In this cohort, sexual practices were based more upon knowledge of biomedical factors rather than attitudes regarding transmission risks. PMID:19815916

  5. Developing Social Inclusion through After-School Homework Tutoring: A Study of African Refugee Students in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    Schools represent the primary setting where refugee children learn about Australian life and culture. They serve as a broad context for acculturation not only for academic development and language acquisition but for cultural learning too. This paper focuses on the after-school homework tutoring programme that uses University of Western Sydney…

  6. Children's Reasons for Joining Sport Clubs and Staying in Them: A Case Study of a Sydney Soccer Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Curry, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Research on youth sport within the sport coaching and physical education literature has tended to overlook the nature of experience and the meanings that sport holds in the lives of children and young people. This paper makes a contribution toward redressing this imbalance by reporting on a close-focus case study on children's reasons for joining…

  7. The Effects of the Sociocultural Context on Heritage Language Literacy: Japanese-English Bilingual Children in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2011-01-01

    What factors support linguistic minority children in developing and maintaining literacy in their heritage languages (HLs)? Very few quantitative studies have explored the role of sociocultural factors, especially in the development and maintenance of HL literacy. This paper addresses this gap by examining how the sociocultural context affects

  8. Extra-Curricular Undergraduate Research Training: Notes on the Pedagogical Practices behind the Sydney Undergraduate Journal of Musicology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Christopher; Nelson, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a clear body of evidence supporting the idea that undergraduate students benefit from participation in original research projects, many units of study--particularly in the creative arts and humanities--have been slow to embrace curriculum renewal along these lines. In this paper, we detail a pragmatic approach to meeting this

  9. Integron Gene Cassettes and Degradation of Compounds Associated with Industrial Waste: The Case of the Sydney Tar Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Jeremy E.; Sharp, Christine; Dlutek, Marlena; Curtis, Bruce; Joss, Michael; Boucher, Yan; Doolittle, W. Ford

    2009-01-01

    Integrons are genetic platforms that accelerate lateral gene transfer (LGT) among bacteria. They were first detected on plasmids bearing single and multiple drug resistance determinants in human pathogens, and it is abundantly clear that integrons have played a major role in the evolution of this public health menace. Similar genetic elements can be found in nonpathogenic environmental bacteria and in metagenomic environmental DNA samples, and it is reasonable to suppose that integrons have facilitated microbial adaptation through LGT in niches outside infectious disease wards. Here we show that a heavily impacted estuary, exposed for almost a century to products of coal and steel industries, has developed a rich and unique cassette metagenome, containing genes likely to aid in the catabolism of compounds associated with industrial waste found there. In addition, we report that the most abundant cassette recovered in this study is one that encodes a putative LysR protein. This autoregulatory transcriptional regulator is known to activate transcription of linked target genes or unlinked regulons encoding diverse functions including chlorocatechol and dichlorophenol catabolism. Finally, only class 1 integrase genes were amplified in this study despite using different primer sets, and it may be that the cassettes present in the Tar Ponds will prove to be associated with class 1 integrase genes. Nevertheless, our cassette library provides a snapshot of a complex evolutionary process involving integron-meditated LGT likely to be important in natural bioremediation. PMID:19390587

  10. What Role Can Community Contact Play in Heritage Language Literacy Development? Japanese-English Bilingual Children in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2012-01-01

    When linguistic minority parents wish to develop and maintain their children's literacy in heritage languages (HLs), what can they do to help? How and to what extent do the individual contexts of language use and background affect the development and maintenance of HL literacy, compared with the sociocultural context of community? What are the…

  11. Levels and Functions of HIV/AIDS Stigma within the Iranian Community Living in the Sydney Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia; Niknami, Shamsaddin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related stigma among the Iranian population and the factors that contribute to the formation of stigma within the study population. Design: A quantitative research design was used in this research whereby participants completed…

  12. A Random Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of papers presented at the 25th International Geological Congress held August 16-25, 1976, Sydney, Australia. Topics include precambrian geology, tectonics, biostratigraphy, geochemistry, quaternary geology, engineering geology, planetology, geological education, and stress environments. (SL)

  13. POPs monitoring in Australia and New Zealand using plastic resin pellets, and International Pellet Watch as a tool for education and raising public awareness on plastic debris and POPs.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Taylor, Heidi; Ito, Maki; Hosoda, Junki; Allinson, Mayumi; Connell, Sharnie; Greaves, Laura; McGrath, John

    2015-12-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (i.e. PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs) were analyzed along Australia and New Zealand North Island coastlines. PCB concentrations were high in urban areas (107-294ng/g-pellet), with Sydney Harbour the most polluted. Hepta-chlorinated PCB was abundant, with ~30% in urban areas suggesting legacy pollution. DDT concentrations showed similar pattern except in rural agricultural sites, Taupo Bay and Ahipara, New Zealand (23 and 47ng/g-pellet). p,p'-DDE predominance at these 2 sites suggested historical input; they also had high HCH concentrations (17 and 29ng/g-pellet). The role of International Pellet Watch (IPW) in science communication was studied through feedbacks from IPW volunteers, case studies and examples. IPW data were categorized into understandable terms and tailored reports based on volunteers' backgrounds complemented with pollution maps. The effectiveness of IPW science communication has led to its use in awareness and education activities focusing on both POPs and plastic debris issues. PMID:26586511

  14. Persistence of related bla-IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical and environmental specimens within a burns unit in Australia - a six-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To describe the clinical epidemiology, environmental surveillance and infection control interventions undertaken in a six-year persistence of bla-IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae within a separately confined hospital burns unit in a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Methods MBL positive clinical and environmental isolates were collected from the Burns Unit, from the first detection of isolates in September 2006 to August 2012. Unit-acquired clinical isolates were included, and patient outcomes analyzed amongst those who acquired clinically significant infections. Environmental isolates were analyzed with regard to relationship to clinical isolates, bacterial species, and persistence despite cleaning efforts. Results Thirty clinical isolates detected from 23 patients were identified. Clinically significant infection developed in 7 (30%) patients – 2 bacteremias, 2 central venous catheter tip infections without bacteremia, and 3 wound infections. All patients survived at 30 days. Seventy-one environmental isolates were confirmed to be MBL-positive, with 85% sourced from shower facilities or equipment. MBL organisms persisted at these sites despite both usual hospital cleaning, and following targeted environmental disinfection interventions. Conclusions Clear association exists between environmental Burns Unit contamination by MBLs and subsequent patient colonization. Clinical infection occurred in a small proportion of patients colonized by MBLs, and with generally favorable outcomes. Its persistence in the Burns Unit environment, despite concerted infection control measures, pose concern for ongoing clinical transmission. PMID:24345195

  15. Structural evolution of the early Permian Nambucca Block (New England Orogen, eastern Australia) and implications for oroclinal bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo

    2014-07-01

    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable ear-shaped curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for its formation are unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the deposition of the rift-related Sydney, Gunnedah, and Bowen basins, which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is another early Permian rift basin, but it is situated in the core of the oroclinal structure. Here we present new stratigraphic, structural, and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its tectonic history and relationships to the formation of the oroclines. We recognized four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics (S1-4), with the second phase (S2) dated at 275-265 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of muscovite. This age overlaps with independent constraints on the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the earlier two phases of deformation in the Nambucca Block (F1 and F2) were associated with orocline formation. We propose that oroclinal bending involved three major stages. The first stage (<300 Ma) was associated with variations in rates of trench rollback and formation of rift basins in a hot extensional back-arc setting. This was followed by a second stage of oroclinal bending, possibly linked to dextral wrench faulting, which involved ~ N-S contraction (F1). Subsequent deformation at 275-265 Ma involved formation of nappe-style structures (F2). This phase of contractional deformation may have resulted from an increased plate coupling that was possibly linked to flat-slab subduction.

  16. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (P< 0.001) compared with non-GF products; however, there were no significant differences in the mean HSR for breads or ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (P≥ 0.42 for both). Relative to non-GF foods, GF products had consistently lower average protein content across all the three core food groups, in particular for pasta and breads (52 and 32% less, P< 0.001 for both). A substantial proportion of foods in discretionary categories carried GF labels (e.g., 87% of processed meats), and the average HSR of GF discretionary foods were not systematically superior to those of non-GF products. The consumption of GF products is unlikely to confer health benefits, unless there is clear evidence of gluten intolerance. PMID:26119206

  17. Minority stress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults in Australia: associations with psychological distress, suicidality, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; de Wit, John; Reynolds, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other same-sex attracted young people have been shown to be at a higher risk of mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, suicidality, and substance abuse, compared to their heterosexual peers. Homophobic prejudice and stigma are often thought to underlie these disparities. In this study, the relationship between such experiences of social derogation and mental health and substance use in same-sex attracted young people was examined using Meyer's minority stress theory. An online survey recruited 254 young women and 318 young men who identified as same-sex attracted, were aged 18-25 years, and lived in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that internalized homophobia, perceived stigma, and experienced homophobic physical abuse were associated with higher levels of psychological distress and self-reported suicidal thoughts in the previous month. Furthermore, perceived stigma and homophobic physical abuse were associated with reporting a lifetime suicide attempt. The association between minority stress and substance use was inconsistent. While, as expected, higher levels of perceived stigma were associated with club drug dependence, there was an inverse association between internalized homophobia and club drug use, and between perceived stigma and hazardous alcohol use. The findings of this study provide support for the minority stress theory proposition that chronic social stress due to sexual orientation is associated with poorer mental health. The high rates of mental health and substance use problems in the current study suggest that same-sex attracted young people should continue to be a priority population for mental health and substance use intervention and prevention. PMID:24573397

  18. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had been unrealisticably high. Until 1983 Southeast Asia presented a fairly united front on population policy matters. The momentous break occurred when the Malaysian Prime Minister announced to his current 15 million people a target of 70 million for Malaysia's population and followed this up with pronatalist policies in support of this goal. The key point in the context of this paper, is to emphasize that perceptions of national self-interest have led to the adoption of widely divergent policies in neighboring Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore is offering strong financial incentives for its socioeconomically disadvantaged groups to have fewer children. Malaysia's incentives to have more people will have most impact on the disadvantaged groups. There is little difference between Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam on fertility goals, and their perceptions of the problem appear similar. Malaysian population and ethnic policies have had a number of direct effects on Australia. It was ethnic politics that determined Malaysia's hard line attitude toward Vietnamese refugees. Australia's acceptance of large numbers of Vietnamese refugees probably resulted as much from the strong pressure applied by ASEAN nations to do so as from humanitarian grounds. Another aspect of Malaysian ethnic politics which has had direct repercussions on Australia is the discrimination against non-Malay students for places in Malaysian universities. PMID:12267174

  19. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  20. Impact of the New South Wales fires during October 2013 on regional air quality in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Géraldine; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Turquety, Solène; Cope, Martin; Griffith, David

    2016-04-01

    Smoke plumes from fires contain atmospheric pollutants that can be transported to populated areas and effect regional air quality. In this paper, the characteristics and impact of the fire plumes from a major fire event that occurred in October 2013 (17-26) in the New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, near the populated areas of Sydney and Wollongong, are studied. Measurements from the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer located at the University of Wollongong allowed a calculation of specific emission factors (EFs) in terms of grams per kilogram of dry fuel burned: 1640 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 107 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 7.8 g kg-1 of methane; and 0.16 g kg-1 of nitrous oxide. These EFs have then been used to calculate daily fire emissions for the NSW fire event using the APIFLAME emissions' model, leading to an increase of 54% of CO emitted compared to calculations with EFs from Akagi et al. (2011), widely used in the literature. Simulations have been conducted for this event using the regional chemistry-transport model (CTM) CHIMERE, allowing the first evaluation of its regional impact. Fire emissions are assumed well mixed into the boundary layer. The model simulations have been evaluated compared to measurements at the NSW air quality stations. The mean correlation coefficients (R) are 0.44 for PM10, 0.60 for PM2.5 and 0.79 for CO, with a negative bias for CO (-14%) and a positive bias for PM2.5 (64%). The model shows higher performance for lower boundary layer heights and wind speeds. According to the observations, 7 days show concentrations exceeding the air quality Australian national standards for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. In the simulations, 5 days are correctly simulated for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. For PM10, the model predicts 1 additional day of exceedance (one false detection). During this fire episode, inner Sydney is affected during 5 days by PM exceedances, that are mainly attributed to organic carbon in the model simulations. To evaluate the influence of the diurnal variability and the injection heights of fire emissions, two additional simulations were performed: one with all fire emissions injected below 1 km (CHIM_1 km), since satellite observations suggest low injection for this fire case, and one with a diurnal profile (CHIM_diu) adjusted to best match surface observations closest to the fires. CHIM_1 km displays less bias and root mean square error, and CHIM_diu presents a good agreement for hourly statistics for stations where peaks of PM are well captured, but enhances the differences when a peak is overestimated by the model. This sensitivity analysis highlights significant uncertainties related to these two key fire parameters (which add up to uncertainties on emissions), resulting in variations on concentrations of PM and CO.

  1. The Acid Test: pH Tolerance of the Eggs and Larvae of the Invasive Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) in Southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cane toads are colonizing southeastern Australia via a narrow coastal strip sandwiched between unsuitable areas (Pacific Ocean to the east, mountains to the west). Many of the available spawning sites exhibit abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity, and pH) more extreme than those encountered elsewhere in the toad's native or already invaded range. Will that challenge impede toad expansion? To answer that question, we measured pH in 35 ponds in northeastern New South Wales and 8 ponds in the Sydney region, in both areas where toads occur (and breed) and adjacent areas where toads are likely to invade, and conducted laboratory experiments to quantify effects of pH on the survival and development of toad eggs and larvae. Our field surveys revealed wide variation in pH (3.9-9.8) among natural water bodies. In the laboratory, the hatching success of eggs was increased at low pH (down to pH 4), whereas the survival, growth, and developmental rates of tadpoles were enhanced by higher pH levels. We found that pH influenced metamorph size and shape (relative head width, relative leg length) but not locomotor performance. The broad tolerance range of these early life-history stages suggests that pH conditions in ponds will not significantly slow the toad's expansion southward. Indeed, toads may benefit from transiently low pH conditions, and habitat where pH in wetlands is consistently low (such as coastal heath) may enhance rather than reduce toad reproductive success. A broad physiological tolerance during embryonic and larval life has contributed significantly to the cane toad's success as a widespread colonizer. PMID:26052640

  2. Comparison of health outcomes between hospitalised and non-hospitalised persons with minor injuries sustained in a road traffic crash in Australia: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Harris, Ian A; Nicholas, Michael; Maher, Christopher G; Casey, Petrina; Blyth, Fiona; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in health outcomes among persons with mild or moderate injuries who were hospitalised compared with those not hospitalised following a road traffic crash. Setting Sydney Metropolitan, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Persons aged ≥18 years involved in a motor vehicle crash were surveyed at baseline (n=364), and at 12 (n=284) and 24 months (n=252). A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on a range of socioeconomic, and preinjury and postinjury psychological and heath characteristics of all participants. Primary outcome measure Participants who reported admission to hospital for 24 h or more (but less than 7 days) after the crash were classified as being hospitalised; those admitted for less than 24 h were classified as non-hospitalised. Results Around 1 in 5 participants (19.0%) were hospitalised for ≥24 h after the crash. After adjusting for age and sex, hospitalised participants compared with those not hospitalised had approximately 2.6 units (p=0.01) lower Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) scores (poorer physical well-being) and approximately 4.9 units lower European Quality of Life visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) scores (p=0.05), 12 months later. After further adjusting for education level, whiplash, fracture and injury severity score, participants who were hospitalised had approximately 3.3 units lower SF-12 PCS (p=0.04), 12 months later. The association with EQ-VAS did not persist after multivariable adjustment. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in health outcomes at 24-month follow-up. Conclusions These findings indicate that long-term health status is unlikely to be influenced by hospitalisation status after sustaining a mild/moderate injury in a vehicle-related crash. PMID:26408286

  3. Southeastern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in ... MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, ...

  4. Twenty two cases of canine neural angiostronglyosis in eastern Australia (2002-2005) and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cases of canine neural angiostrongylosis (NA) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluations in the peer-reviewed literature were tabulated. All cases were from Australia. A retrospective cohort of 59 dogs was contrasted with a series of 22 new cases where NA was diagnosed by the presence of both eosinophilic pleocytosis and anti-Angiostrongylus cantonensis immunloglobulins (IgG) in CSF, determined by ELISA or Western blot. Both cohorts were drawn from south east Queensland and Sydney. The retrospective cohort comprised mostly pups presented for hind limb weakness with hyperaesthesia, a mixture of upper motor neurone (UMN) and lower motor neurone (LMN) signs in the hind limbs and urinary incontinence. Signs were attributed to larval migration through peripheral nerves, nerve roots, spinal cord and brain associated with an ascending eosinophilic meningo-encephomyelitis. The contemporary cohort consisted of a mixture of pups, young adult and mature dogs, with a wider range of signs including (i) paraparesis/proprioceptive ataxia (ii) lumbar and tail base hyperaesthesia, (iii) multi-focal central nervous system dysfunction, or (iv) focal disease with neck pain, cranial neuropathy and altered mentation. Cases were seen throughout the year, most between April and July (inclusive). There was a preponderance of large breeds. Often littermates, or multiple animals from the same kennel, were affected simultaneously or sequentially. A presumptive diagnosis was based on consistent signs, proximity to rats, ingestion/chewing of slugs or snails and eosinophilic pleocytosis. NA was diagnosed by demonstrating anti-A. cantonensis IgG in CSF. Detecting anti-A. cantonensis IgG in serum was unhelpful because many normal dogs (20/21 lb dogs; 8/22 of a hospital population) had such antibodies, often at substantial titres. Most NA cases in the contemporary series (19/22) and many pups (16/38) in the retrospective cohort were managed successfully using high doses of prednisolone and opioids. Treatment often included antibiotics administered in case protozoan encephalomyelitis or translocated bacterial meningitis was present. Supportive measures included bladder care and physiotherapy. Several dogs were left with permanent neural deficits. Dogs are an important sentinel species for NA. Human cases and numerous cases in tawny frogmouths were reported from the same regions as affected dogs over the study period. PMID:22480148

  5. Last Cab to Darwin : Written by Reg Cribb and Jeremy Sims, directed by Jeremy Sims, 2015, Last Cab Productions (Sydney, 123 minutes, rated M).

    PubMed

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2015-12-01

    Last Cab to Darwin is a film about physician-assisted suicide-specifically, a cab driver (Rex) diagnosed with metastatic cancer and his journey seeking the "machine" that will help him end his life. Along the way, Rex, who has never had a family, creates one, and the result is a reshaping of his values about life, death, and dying. PMID:26659865

  6. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH2/CH3 ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  8. Story Telling: Australian Indigenous Women's Means of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Acklin, F.; Newman, J.; Arbon, V.; Trindal, A.; Bermingham, M.; Thompson, B.

    Story-telling, an oral tradition of the indigenous peoples of Australia, was recorded on video as a vehicle for conveying health promotion messages in several urban Aboriginal (Koori) communities in Sydney, Australia. The video was made by a group of Koori women Elders and two female Aboriginal academics. The Elders integrated their personal

  9. Preservice Teachers' Learning among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Anne; Costley, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a collaborative venture between Autism Spectrum Australia and the University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Social Club network was formed for children and adolescents to provide structured opportunities for positive peer interactions in safe, stimulating and nonjudgmental environments. The Social Clubs

  10. No walls here--a remarkable vision.

    PubMed

    James, Georgina

    2011-05-01

    Georgina James of Arup Australia reports on the design of a new cancer centre in Sydney, Australia, which brings together cutting edge treatment and translational research facilities, a highly sustainable design, and the flexibility to adapt to cater for new "research directions and technologies" in the future. PMID:21936243

  11. An outbreak of cholera in Australia due to food served in flight on an international aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, R. G. A.

    1974-01-01

    An outbreak of cholera occurred in November 1972 among passengers on an aircraft that had flown from London to Sydney. The infection was confined to economy-class passengers and the available evidence indicates that it was due to a dish of hors d'uvres served on the aircraft between Bahrain and Singapore. Although one person died, the infection was generally mild, and almost half of those infected were symptomless. There was a significant difference between the immunization status of persons with clinical illness and the immunization status of other passengers. Current cholera immunization appeared to play a significant role in preventing symptoms of the disease, but it did not prevent a person becoming a carrier of the organism. PMID:4526408

  12. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Records from road transport of horses from Perth to Sydney over a two year period were analysed to explore the incidence of transport related issues and identify risk factors. Transportation resulted in health problems in 2.8% of the transported horses, and in fatalities in 0.24%. Journey duration and season were risk factors for the development of transport related health problems, while breed, sex and age did not predict disease or injury risk. Overall, this study provides statistics to inform policy development for the equine transport industry and enhance management of the transported horse. Abstract Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013–2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues (p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems (i.e., gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress. PMID:26690482

  13. Provenance and structural constraints of the early Permian Nambucca Block (eastern Australia), and implications for the origin of the New England oroclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Wormald, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable omega-shaped orogenic curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for the formation of the orogenic curvatures (oroclines) are still unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the development of rift-related sedimentary basins (Sydney, Gunnedah and Bowen basins), which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is part of another early Permian rift basin that is situated farther east, in the core of the oroclinal structure. We present new stratigraphic, structural and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its provenance, tectonic history and its role in the formation of the oroclines. Four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics are recognised in the Nambucca Block. 40Ar/39Ar age of metamorphic micas from the second deformational phase provides a minimum depositional age constraint at 275-265 Ma. This age overlaps with the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the first two phases of deformation resulted from the same mechanism that formed the oroclines. Detrital zircon geochronology (U/Pb ICP-MS ages) of six samples from the Nambucca Block constrains the maximum depositional age of the sequence to 280 Ma. The sedimentary succession, though extremely polymictic, is unimodal in its sources, and is therefore interpreted to consist mainly of recycled detritus from a Devonian-Carboniferous accretionary complex. We propose a model for oroclinal bending involving three stages. The first stage, starting at about 293 Ma and including the deposition of the sequence of Nambucca (i.e. overlaps with the 280-265 Ma time constraint), was associated with formation of rift basins in an extensional backarc setting. This was followed by N-S contraction, which gave rise to second-order oroclinal structures. The third and final stage involved contractional deformation that gave rise to recumbent folds and penetrative sub-horizontal structural fabrics at 275-265 Ma and further tightened the oroclinal structure.

  14. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  15. School Libraries in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    Yearbook Australia 2003 reports that in August 2001 there were 9596 schools in Australia (2003:305). It can be claimed with confidence that each of these has a library and that a member or members of the school staff have specific responsibility for its operation. That this is so is primarily an achievement of the Library Association of Australia

  16. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of <0.5 ppb for CH4. These surveys were undertaken during dry daytime hours and all measurements were moisture corrected. We compare the concentration of methane in the near surface atmosphere adjacent to open-cut coal mines, unconventional gas developments (coal seam gas; CSG), and leaks detected in cities and country towns. In areas of dryland crops the median methane concentration was 1.78 ppm, while in the irrigation districts located on vertisol soils the concentration was as low as 1.76 ppm, which may indicate that these soils are a sink for methane. In the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, open-cut coal mining district we mapped a continuous 50 km interval where the concentration of methane exceeded 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 2.02 ppm. Peak readings were beyond the range of the reliable measurement (in excess of 3.00 ppm). This extended plume is an amalgamation of plumes from 17 major pits 1 to 10 km in length. Adjacent to CSG developments in the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland, only small anomalies were detected near the well-heads. Throughout the vast majority of the gas fields the concentration of methane was below 1.80 ppm. The largest source of fugitive methane associated with CSG was off-gassing methane from the co-produced water holding ponds. At one location the down wind plume had a cross section of approximately 1 km where the concentration of methane was above 1.80 ppm. The median concentration within this section was 1.82 ppm, with a peak reading of 2.11 ppm. The ambient air methane concentration was always higher in urban environments compared to the surrounding countryside. Along one major road in Sydney we mapped an interval that extended for 6 km where the concentration was greater than 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 1.90 ppm, with a peak reading of 1.97 ppm. This high reading in an urban setting is most likely due to leaks from the domestic gas distribution system. Methane leaks were detected in all country towns. Our measurements show that at the point of resource extraction the methane emission footprint of CSG is smaller than that of open-cut coal mining. However, leaking gas from urban centers must be added to the fugitive emissions of CSG to calculate the total fugitive emission footprint of CSG, which may therefore not be as low as claimed in the national greenhouse gas accounts. Our results highlight the need for additional continuous monitoring of methane emissions from all sectors, and for the full life-cycle of energy resources to be considered.

  17. Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the fresh surface water chemistry of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Markich, S J; Brown, P L

    1998-07-01

    Fresh surface waters from the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, the major river supplying water to the Sydney region in south-eastern Australia, were sampled monthly during 1991 and analysed for major ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and HCO3), nutrients (NO3 and PO4), organic carbon and trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Mn). The chemical composition of the river during 1991 was consistent with other studies of the river from 1977 to 1996. The major ion composition in the river is predominantly influenced by sea-salt aerosols in rainwater (headwaters) and connate sea-salt in groundwater (mid-lower reaches), with a cationic dominance order of Na > Mg > Ca > K (equivalents) and an anionic order of Cl > HCO3 > SO4. This is typical of the headwaters of other permanent coastal rivers (freshwater) in south-eastern Australia with a similar catchment lithology. These results differ markedly from the most common natural major ion assemblages established for world rivers (i.e. Ca > Mg > Na > K and HCO3 > SO4 > Cl), which tend to be predominantly influenced by chemical weathering of rocks and minerals. The mean concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon and trace metals in the freshwater reaches of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River increased by factors of 2.5-4.4, 14-18, 2.2 and 1.6-11, respectively, with increasing distance from the headwaters. Increases in major ion concentrations are attributed mainly to the increasing influence of saline groundwater inflows from regions of Wianamatta shale. Conversely, concentrations of nutrients, organic carbon and trace metals (except Fe and Al) increased as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs, particularly point discharges from sewage treatment plants (i.e. showing distinct, but variable, concentration peaks), as well as diffuse urban and/or agricultural runoff during storm events. The temporal variability of the mean concentrations of all measured parameters in this study was related to variability in water discharge. The mean concentrations of the major ions decreased by a factor of 1.5-3.0 with increasing water discharge, whereas the concentrations of nutrients, organic carbon and trace metals increased by a factor of 2.0-3.0, 1.6 and 1.3-2.0, respectively. This study provides the first survey of trace metal concentrations in the freshwater reaches of a permanent coastal river in Australia using 'clean' sampling and handling techniques. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni measured in the headwaters of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River were amongst the lowest reported in the literature for riverine (freshwater) systems, and will form a benchmark for assessing the effects of increasing urbanisation in the catchment. PMID:9703695

  18. Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Stephanie D.; Rogers, Karen B.; McCormick, John; Low, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to empirically verify findings from qualitative studies that showed selective consumers could be distinguished from underachievers with regard to academic self-perception and thinking style preference. Participants, gifted males from an independent secondary boys' school in Sydney, Australia, were categorized as achieving,

  19. GATS and the New Developmentalism: Governing Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces a relatively recent development, the inclusion of education as a tradable service under the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS). The author focuses on two Trade in Education Services forums--one in Washington, DC (USA), and one in Sydney (Australia)--to investigate the…

  20. Hegemony, Big Money and Academic Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article considers whether a threat is posed to academic independence in corporate universities by the United States Studies Centre (USSC) at the University of Sydney. The USSC rapidly worked its way into Australia's oldest university, building a unique governance structure in which a private business lobby vets senior academics and controls…

  1. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.

  2. Comparison of Technology Use between Biology and Physics Teachers in a 1:1 Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach the authors compared the associated practices of senior physics teachers (n = 7) and students (n = 53) in a 1:1 laptop environment with those of senior biology teachers (n = 10) and students (n = 125) also in a 1:1 laptop environment, in seven high schools in Sydney, NSW, Australia. They found that the physics

  3. Cogeneration--a cost cutting opportunity?

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    In an article based on a paper presented at the Institute of Hospital Engineering Australia's (IHEA) 2008 National Conference, Glen Hadfield, manager, assets & sustainability systems, Sydney West Area Health Service, discusses the benefits of cogeneration, highlighting the experiences and conclusions gained via a number of recent projects at hospitals in New South Wales. PMID:19711665

  4. Rumour Has It: The Impact of Maternal Talk on Primary School Choice for Children Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Rozanna

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the pivotal role of rumour in shaping primary school choice decisions for parents of children diagnosed with autism. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 22 mothers conducted in Sydney, Australia, this study points to the varied functions of grapevine knowledge about schools gleaned in diverse contexts, including early…

  5. Comparison of Technology Use between Biology and Physics Teachers in a 1:1 Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach the authors compared the associated practices of senior physics teachers (n = 7) and students (n = 53) in a 1:1 laptop environment with those of senior biology teachers (n = 10) and students (n = 125) also in a 1:1 laptop environment, in seven high schools in Sydney, NSW, Australia. They found that the physics…

  6. Rates of Cyber Victimization and Bullying among Male Australian Primary and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Tass; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of electronic forms of bullying (cyberbullying) was investigated among 1,530 primary and secondary school aged male students (Years 6 to 12; 9-18 years, chronologically) in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Findings revealed that victimization via the Internet was the most common form of cyberbullying with 11.5 percent of

  7. Language Socialization of the Child through Caretaker-Child Personal Narratives : A Comparison of Thai and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Yangklang, Peerapat

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports preliminary findings on the elicitation strategies used by Thai and English caretakers when eliciting past event narratives from pre-schoolers. Ten Thai and ten English-speaking caretaker-child dyads were recruited from Bangkok, Thailand and from Sydney, Australia. Caretakers were asked to elicit past event narratives

  8. Disruptive Events: Elite Education and the Discursive Production of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the discursive production of violence in the context of educational markets. Drawing on a larger study of sexually violent incidents that occurred in an elite private boys' school in Sydney, Australia, in 2000, the paper examines disciplinary traditions and communicative practices surrounding these events. Insights from Michel

  9. All in the Same Boat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, David

    2006-01-01

    Last December's riots in Sydney's south raised once again the ongoing controversy over Australia's version of multiculturalism. The author of this article argues that 1970s multiculturalism, whatever its strengths then, needs to be revisited and revised to allow for a stronger affirmation of our common humanity. (Contains 9 endnotes.)

  10. Beyond Lip Service: A Council Approach to Planning for Behaviour Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Grahame; Smith, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The Council of the City of Sydney--like many other councils around Australia--has embarked on a whole-of-council approach to establishing sustainable behaviours amongst its residents. In developing its "Residential Environmental Action Plan"--designed to motivate and bring about real change in resident choices and behaviours--the City sought to

  11. The Transition from Single-Sex to Coeducational High Schools: Effects on Multiple Dimensions of Self-Concept and on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-concept measures and state certificate program achievement grades were used to determine the effects on 7th through 11th graders in Sydney (Australia) of converting two single-sex high schools to coeducational institutions. Pre- to post-transition data were collected from 1982 to 1985. Coeducational organizations benefit self-concept, while…

  12. Professional Development of Teacher Educators: A Cross Border Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Kevin; Harbon, Lesley; Nguyen, Nam; Trinh, Lap

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a collaborative project between the Faculty of Education and Social Work at the University of Sydney, Australia, and the School of Education at Can Tho University, Vietnam. The project aimed to develop a model for the professional development of teacher educators in the context of educational innovations in

  13. Campus Sustainability: Climate Change, Transport and Paper Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Alison; Giurco, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to detail the design of a campus climate change strategy, transport strategy and paper reduction strategy at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Design/methodology/approach: The approach to strategy development used desktop research and staff/student consultation to inform the development of objectives,…

  14. The Powers of Literacy: A Genre Approach to Teaching Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Bill, Ed.; Kalantzis, Mary, Ed.

    Documenting an educational experiment that began in Sydney, Australia, this book presents essays by theorists and practitioners in the genre literacy movement that describe this approach to literacy instruction in a clear, practical, and accessible way. The book notes that the genre approach to literacy teaching emphasizes content, structure, and

  15. Exploring and Supporting Home Language Maintenance in Informal Playgroups: Working with Pacific Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Liam; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on three years of fieldwork within informal supported play-groups in inner Sydney. In Australia, some 40% of children reach school age without attending formal preschools. Aboriginal and immigrant groups are greatly overrepresented in this statistic. For these children, informal playgroups, funded from a range of government and…

  16. Disruptive Events: Elite Education and the Discursive Production of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the discursive production of violence in the context of educational markets. Drawing on a larger study of sexually violent incidents that occurred in an elite private boys' school in Sydney, Australia, in 2000, the paper examines disciplinary traditions and communicative practices surrounding these events. Insights from Michel…

  17. School Leadership and Decision-Making: A Critique of Leadership Style ad Decision-Making Processes in Three Comprehensive High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Steve; And Others

    This paper draws on the findings of a major research project funded by the New South Wales Department of School Education (Australia) which sought to examine the school-community interface and communication in comprehensive high schools. Data were drawn initially from nine schools in western Sydney, with three of these schools being the subject of

  18. Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student

  19. Supporting Student Learning: The Use of Computer-Based Formative Assessment Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a variety of computer-based assessment opportunities, both formative and summative, that are available to a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses online access to weekly quizzes, a mock exam, and special self-assessment modules that are beneficial to student learning.

  20. A British Graphic Designer Teaching and Learning in South-East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinnie, Louise

    This paper is the work of an international student studying within the School of Art Education at the University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia), who has undertaken doctoral research on the teaching and learning experiences of international Asian graphic design students within the setting of an overseas university. It identifies the nature

  1. Boys and "Second Chance" Education: Same Jeans, Different Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Mark G.

    This paper examines the perceptions and interactions of disadvantaged young people returning to mainstream education through Street Kids Access Tertiary Education (SKATE), a university bridging program in Sydney, Australia. Although both males and females in the study shared common backgrounds of disadvantage, "second-chance" educational success

  2. International, High-Ability Adventures: An Interview with Miraca Gross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Miraca Gross, Professor of Gifted Education, and Director of the Gifted Education Research, Resource, and Information Centre (GERRIC), at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Dr. Gross is a leading international authority on the education of gifted and talented children, particularly

  3. An Introduction to the Third International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Colin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the highlights of the Third International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy, which was held at the Manly Pacific Hotel in Sydney, Australia from April 21-24, 2006. This symposium built on those held in Ottawa and Vancouver in 1999 and 2001 respectively and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and

  4. Relationships between Self-Processes and Group Processes with Friends and Acquaintances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanham, Jose; McCormick, John

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study explored relationships between key self-processes, specifically, independent vs. interdependent self-construal and self-efficacy, with students' attitudes toward group work with friends and acquaintances. The sample comprised 188 students from two Independent high schools in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Data were

  5. Androgogy and Aboriginal Australian Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Kathleen; Dawson, Angela; King, Patricia; Bursill, Leslie

    This paper discusses the work of Yooroang Garang: the Centre for Indigenous Health Studies at the University of Sydney (Australia), focusing on professional education of Aboriginal health workers (AHWs). Aboriginal Education Centres in tertiary institutions are challenged to ensure that those institutions impart knowledge that is relevant and…

  6. The Role of Rehabilitation Medicine in a Developmental Disability Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines the principles of the rehabilitation process; describes the role of rehabilitation medicine with reference to services in the Saint George district of southern Sydney (Australia); and discusses the problem of the transition of patients to adult services. (Author/JDD)

  7. Drugs and Personality: Personality Correlates and Predictors of Non-Opiate Drug Use. Research Issues 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of abstracts from current research and theoretical studies explores various aspects of the relationship between non-opiate drug use and personality. The literature covers a period from 1968 through 1975 and focuses on tests that were conducted on adolescents and college students from the United States, Canada and Sydney, Australia.…

  8. Relationships between Self-Processes and Group Processes with Friends and Acquaintances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanham, Jose; McCormick, John

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study explored relationships between key self-processes, specifically, independent vs. interdependent self-construal and self-efficacy, with students' attitudes toward group work with friends and acquaintances. The sample comprised 188 students from two Independent high schools in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Data were…

  9. Information Disclosure on MySpace--the What, the Why and the Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Souza, Zaineb; Dick, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the first academic study of the use of a major social networking website, MySpace, by children. The study examined the degree of, and reasons for, information disclosure by children in high schools in Sydney, Australia. Social networking sites such as MySpace are a huge Internet phenomenon, some with hundreds of

  10. National Curriculum Inching Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Whether in the business center of Sydney and its suburbs to the east, in the mining and agricultural communities of the remote Kimberley region in the northwest, or elsewhere, most of Australia's 3.3 million K-12 students share the customary features of schooling--from physical structures to academic schedules. The content also has a common

  11. "It Has Always Been My Dream": Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Motivations for Choosing to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Jackie; Hughes, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the motivations of a cohort of pre-service teacher education students, undertaking a five-year, full-time combined undergraduate and initial teacher education degree program at the University of Sydney, Australia. Participants completed an extensive questionnaire which sought to gather data on the

  12. A Sense of Wonder: Pedagogies to Engage Students Who Live in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munns, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the "Fair Go Project", research into student engagement among primary school students living in poor communities in South-Western Sydney, Australia. Taking as a starting point recent work into classroom pedagogies ("Productive Pedagogies") and drawing on Bernstein's concept of classrooms as message systems, the research has…

  13. Building Stone and Its Use in Rock Weathering Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, Deirdre

    1979-01-01

    Building stone provides opportunities for geological study of weathering of different rocks in a particular environment and similar rocks in different environment. The principle studied can be applied on a large scale from the observation of small-scale weathering. Examples of weathering are drawn mainly from the Sydney region of Australia. (RE)

  14. Teacher Education: The Challenge of the Seventies. International Perspectives on Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council on Education for Teaching, Washington, DC.

    This annual report contains five speeches presented at the International Council on Education for Teaching Conference in Sydney, Australia in August, 1970. Titles and authors of the speeches are 1) "New Developments in Education for the Seventies" by Seth Spaulding, 2) "The Uses and Abuses of Diversity in Teacher Education" by Harry S. Broudy, 3)

  15. Rumour Has It: The Impact of Maternal Talk on Primary School Choice for Children Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Rozanna

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the pivotal role of rumour in shaping primary school choice decisions for parents of children diagnosed with autism. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 22 mothers conducted in Sydney, Australia, this study points to the varied functions of grapevine knowledge about schools gleaned in diverse contexts, including early

  16. Drugs and Personality: Personality Correlates and Predictors of Non-Opiate Drug Use. Research Issues 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of abstracts from current research and theoretical studies explores various aspects of the relationship between non-opiate drug use and personality. The literature covers a period from 1968 through 1975 and focuses on tests that were conducted on adolescents and college students from the United States, Canada and Sydney, Australia.

  17. Imagination "First": Unleash the Power of Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Manoj Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The creativity program, "imagination 'first': unleash the power of possibility," implemented in public primary and secondary schools in Northern Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, deals with the power of imagination in unleashing creativity among gifted students and teachers. Following an in-depth literature review on creativity for

  18. The High-Skilled VET Practitioner: Interim Findings from the Evaluation of the Long-Term Impacts of the Framing the Future Projects in 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John; Wood, Sarah; Young, Susan

    Research was conducted in 2000-01 on the long-term impacts of the 200 projects funded by Australia's Framing the Future in 1999 and of the 250 conducted in 2000. Two main research methodologies (case study investigations and a survey) were used for the study. Case study investigations were conducted with the Deaf Education Network in Sydney; South…

  19. Benchmarking Learning and Teaching: Developing a Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson-Smart, Cheryl; Winning, Tracey; Gerzina, Tania; King, Shalinie; Hyde, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for benchmarking teaching and learning in response to an institutional need to validate a new program in Dentistry at the University of Sydney, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: After a collaborative partner, University of Adelaide, was identified, the areas of teaching and learning to be benchmarked, PBL

  20. See No Evil, Hear No Evil, Interact No Evil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    This paper presents findings of an exploratory study undertaken at Marist Sisters' College in Woolwich, Sydney (Australia) to examine student use of multimedia software packages. Students (n=70) in years 7-12 were randomly selected to complete an evaluation of a popular multimedia package, "Encarta," on the following factors: ease of use,

  1. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.…

  2. International Perspectives on Literacy Learning with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane; Rowsell, Jennifer; Simpson, Alyson; Scott, Ruth McQuirter; Walsh, Maureen; Ciampa, Katia; Saudelli, Mary Gene

    2015-01-01

    This article profiles the use of the iPad in classroom literacy activities in three instructional environments: Toronto, Canada; San Diego, United States; and Sydney, Australia. The two-year, qualitative study included observational fieldwork filming students' interactions with tablets in the midst of literacy events. Students in each context used

  3. Draft Genome of Australian Environmental Strain WM 09.24 of the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Scedosporium aurantiacum.

    PubMed

    Prez-Bercoff, sa; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Ramsperger, Marc; Kaur, Jashanpreet; Patel, Hardip R; Harun, Azian; Duan, Shu Yao; Elbourne, Liam; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Paulsen, Ian T; Nevalainen, Helena; Meyer, Wieland; Huttley, Gavin A

    2015-01-01

    We report here the first genome assembly and annotation of the human-pathogenic fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum, with a predicted 10,525 genes, and 11,661 transcripts. The strain WM 09.24 was isolated from the environment at Circular Quay, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. PMID:25676755

  4. Draft Genome of Australian Environmental Strain WM 09.24 of the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Scedosporium aurantiacum

    PubMed Central

    Prez-Bercoff, ?sa; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Ramsperger, Marc; Kaur, Jashanpreet; Patel, Hardip R.; Harun, Azian; Duan, Shu Yao; Elbourne, Liam; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nevalainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    We report here the first genome assembly and annotation of the human-pathogenic fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum, with a predicted 10,525 genes, and 11,661 transcripts. The strain WM 09.24 was isolated from the environment at Circular Quay, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. PMID:25676755

  5. Teaching Physics Novices at University: A Case for Stronger Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Christine; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 a new type of tutorial, called Map Meeting, was successfully trialled with novice first year physics students at the University of Sydney, Australia. Subsequently, in first semester 2007 a large-scale experiment was carried out with 262 students who were allocated either to the strongly scaffolding Map Meetings or to the less scaffolding

  6. The Learning of Popular Music: A Pedagogical Model for Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Neal

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of an integrated curriculum on the learning of popular music, the Sting Curriculum was designed for senior secondary students of mixed ability. This nine-week program was presented to a sample of students aged between 16 and 18 years in urban Sydney (Australia). This article draws on some of the results from this

  7. "We Had To Hide We're Muslim": Ambient Fear, Islamic Schools and the Geographies of Race and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been virulent urban politics surrounding the provision of government-funded Islamic K-12 schooling in suburban south-western Sydney, Australia. In this paper, drawing on examples of local government opposition to Islamic schools, we argue that race and religion constitute contestations of urban space around the…

  8. Alcohol-Induced Disruption of Endocrine Signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article contains the proceedings of a symposium at the 2006 ISBRA Meeting in Sydney Australia, organized and co-chaired by Martin J. Ronis and Thomas M. Badger. The presentations were (1) Effects of long term ethanol consumption on liver injury and repair, by Jack R. Wands; (2) Alcohol-induced...

  9. Subject Retrieval in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Contains nine papers read at the National Cataloguing Conference for 1981 of the section entitled, "Subject Retrieval in the 1980s." Topics include cost of subject access, research problems, options for automated subject access, and authority control. (Library Association of Australia, The Science Center, 35 Clarence St., Sydney, NSW 2000) (RBF)

  10. Staff and Student Views of the Usefulness of Information Technology Materials within an Integrated Curriculum: Are These Educational Resources Effective in Promoting Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue; Lewis, Alison; Sims, Rod

    This paper reports on a study on the perceived effectiveness of educational resources within the context of a single course in a first-year biology program at the University of Sydney (Australia). The overall study examined the dynamic state of perceptions towards these resources by the major stakeholders involved with the course (students,…

  11. Online Self-Assessment Materials: Do These Make a Difference to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of Web-based online self-assessment in a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses a more student-centered focus to aid lifelong learning; collaborative learning; suitable and timely feedback; the use of Bloom's taxonomy; and student evaluations of self-assessment modules. (LRW)

  12. Enhancing the Transition to University by Facilitating Social and Study Networks: Results of a One-Day Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Dalziel, James; Grant, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a one-day workshop developed at the University of Sydney (Australia) to facilitate social and study-related peer networks. Qualitative and quantitative analyses found that the workshops enhanced study, self-motivation, and general enjoyment of university life and were helpful in easing the transition of undergraduate students.…

  13. Supporting Student Learning: The Use of Computer-Based Formative Assessment Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a variety of computer-based assessment opportunities, both formative and summative, that are available to a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses online access to weekly quizzes, a mock exam, and special self-assessment modules that are beneficial to student learning.…

  14. GATS and the New Developmentalism: Governing Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces a relatively recent development, the inclusion of education as a tradable service under the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS). The author focuses on two Trade in Education Services forums--one in Washington, DC (USA), and one in Sydney (Australia)--to investigate the

  15. "A Scientific Library of Some Value": An Early History of the Australian Museum Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Museum, Sydney, is Australia's oldest museum, internationally recognised for its longstanding scientific contributions. Less well-known is the Museum's fine collection of monographs and journals relating to natural history and anthropology, which has been used to support the work of Museum staff and external enquirers since the late

  16. Does School-Wide Positive Behaviour System Improve Learning in Primary Schools? Some Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Mooney, Mary; Barker, Katrina; Dobia, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Background: A school-wide program known as Positive Behaviour for Learning (PBL) that systematically reinforces positive behaviours in schools based on the USA model of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) but also emphasizes learning processes and outcomes was implemented in the Western Sydney Region (WSR) of Australia. Aim: The…

  17. Exploring Adolescent Motivations for Pursuing Maths-Related Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Helen M. G.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents from grade 9 in Sydney Australia (N = 60) were interviewed regarding why they would or would not consider pursuing maths-related careers. Open-ended interview data explored the comprehensiveness of explanations within the Expectancy-Value framework. The Expectancy-Value model is the major motivational framework for explaining students'

  18. Campus Sustainability: Climate Change, Transport and Paper Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Alison; Giurco, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to detail the design of a campus climate change strategy, transport strategy and paper reduction strategy at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Design/methodology/approach: The approach to strategy development used desktop research and staff/student consultation to inform the development of objectives,

  19. Spatial Cognition and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the influence of teaching styles and curriculum on development of geographic concepts in children. Implications of this influence for geography curriculum development are examined. Available from: Sydney Teachers College, P.O. Box 63, Camperdown, N.S.W. 2050, Australia. (Author/DB)

  20. Do free-ranging Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) play a role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the possible role of Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment, a serological survey of a free-ranging population resident within Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia was undertaken using the modified agglutination tes...

  1. Brief Report: The Factor Structure of Mood States in an Early Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Christopher J.; Cunningham, Everarda G.; Moore, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of negative mood states among young adolescents. Students (N=216) aged 11-15 years from a secondary school in Melbourne, Australia, completed the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) [Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1996). "Depression anxiety stress scales." Sydney: The Psychology

  2. "We Had To Hide We're Muslim": Ambient Fear, Islamic Schools and the Geographies of Race and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been virulent urban politics surrounding the provision of government-funded Islamic K-12 schooling in suburban south-western Sydney, Australia. In this paper, drawing on examples of local government opposition to Islamic schools, we argue that race and religion constitute contestations of urban space around the

  3. Heritage Language Maintenance and Japanese Identity Formation: What Role Can Schooling and Ethnic Community Contact Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of schooling and ethnic community contact in ethnolinguistic and cultural identity construction and heritage language maintenance through the surveys and narratives of three groups of Japanese-English bilingual youths and their parents in Sydney, Australia, as a part of a larger longitudinal study from childhood. The

  4. Teaching through Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durie, Jane; Taylor, Affrica

    A study identified issues involved in teaching through difference. The research took place during the teaching of the subject "Cross Cultural Communication" at the University of Western Sydney, Australia. Students were predominantly women of mixed ethnic backgrounds who were mainly "mature-age" students undertaking university education for the…

  5. "Nobody Dodges Remington": The Free Library Movement and the Achievement of Public Library Legislation in New South Wales, 1935-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Carmel

    2007-01-01

    Traces the role of Geoffrey Cochrane Remington, Sydney solicitor and businessman, in free public library development in Australia. Describes how the Munn Pitt Report on Australian libraries and Remington's acquaintance with John Wallace Metcalfe of the Public Library of New South Wales led to the birth of the Free Library Movement in 1935, and

  6. Juggling the Balls--Study, Work, Family and Play: Student Perspectives on Flexible and Blended Heutagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Jean; Elliott, Roslyn

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on research with the student cohort in one of the early childhood teacher education programmes at the University of Western Sydney, Australia. It explores students' perceptions of a flexible and blended pedagogy, or "heutagogy" which combines online work with face-to-face lectures and tutorials. Research into teaching and

  7. "Nobody Dodges Remington": The Free Library Movement and the Achievement of Public Library Legislation in New South Wales, 1935-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Carmel

    2007-01-01

    Traces the role of Geoffrey Cochrane Remington, Sydney solicitor and businessman, in free public library development in Australia. Describes how the Munn Pitt Report on Australian libraries and Remington's acquaintance with John Wallace Metcalfe of the Public Library of New South Wales led to the birth of the Free Library Movement in 1935, and…

  8. Brief Report: The Factor Structure of Mood States in an Early Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Christopher J.; Cunningham, Everarda G.; Moore, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of negative mood states among young adolescents. Students (N=216) aged 11-15 years from a secondary school in Melbourne, Australia, completed the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) [Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1996). "Depression anxiety stress scales." Sydney: The Psychology…

  9. Meeting Drug Information Needs of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    Drugs are an important life concern of adolescents, yet statistics show alarming and disturbing increases internationally in drug abuse. This paper reports on research that examines how adolescents cognitively process information about drugs. Four 17-year-old girls at a Catholic college in Sydney, Australia participated in a two-phase experiment…

  10. Benchmarking Learning and Teaching: Developing a Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson-Smart, Cheryl; Winning, Tracey; Gerzina, Tania; King, Shalinie; Hyde, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for benchmarking teaching and learning in response to an institutional need to validate a new program in Dentistry at the University of Sydney, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: After a collaborative partner, University of Adelaide, was identified, the areas of teaching and learning to be benchmarked, PBL…

  11. Rates of Cyber Victimization and Bullying among Male Australian Primary and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Tass; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of electronic forms of bullying (cyberbullying) was investigated among 1,530 primary and secondary school aged male students (Years 6 to 12; 9-18 years, chronologically) in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Findings revealed that victimization via the Internet was the most common form of cyberbullying with 11.5 percent of…

  12. Boys, Blogs and Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickworth, Margo

    2010-01-01

    In an action research project, young male students from Sydney, Australia and Richmond, USA contributed to a collaborative writing blog. Both groups of students shared the same text with their class teachers, while using the medium of collaborative blogging, a process which was facilitated and managed by the teacher-librarian. Data was gathered

  13. Salpeter, Edwin Ernest (1924-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear astrophysicist, born in Austria, emigrated to Australia and was educated in Sydney, and at Birmingham University. Became professor at Cornell University. Worked with HANS BETHE on atomic physics, and in 1951 explained the `triple alpha' reaction, also called the Salpeter process, which in red giant stars makes carbon-12 from three helium nuclei. This led him to investigate stellar evoluti...

  14. Information Activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeyoshi

    The last few years have seen an explosive growth in database and computer networking activities in Australia. At present there are six major information networks in Australia, which carry more than 400 locally produced databases and many others from overseas. AUSINET databases are exemplified. MIDAS (Multi-mode International Data Aquisition System) provides lower cost access to overseas databases than before. The paper also gives brief outline of various bodies which relate to information and library policy in Australia and regional cooperative activities.

  15. Analysis of long-term water quality for effective river health monitoring in peri-urban landscapes--a case study of the Hawkesbury-Nepean river system in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B L; Ollerton, R L

    2013-06-01

    The Hawkesbury-Nepean River (HNR) system in South-Eastern Australia is the main source of water supply for the Sydney Metropolitan area and is one of the more complex river systems due to the influence of urbanisation and other activities in the peri-urban landscape through which it flows. The long-term monitoring of river water quality is likely to suffer from data gaps due to funding cuts, changes in priority and related reasons. Nevertheless, we need to assess river health based on the available information. In this study, we demonstrated how the Factor Analysis (FA), Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) and Trend Analysis (TA) can be applied to evaluate long-term historic data sets. Six water quality parameters, viz., temperature, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, oxides of nitrogen, suspended solids and reactive silicates, measured at weekly intervals between 1985 and 2008 at 12 monitoring stations located along the 300 km length of the HNR system were evaluated to understand the human and natural influences on the river system in a peri-urban landscape. The application of FA extracted three latent factors which explained more than 70 % of the total variance of the data and related to the 'bio-geographical', 'natural' and 'nutrient pollutant' dimensions of the HNR system. The bio-geographical and nutrient pollution factors more likely related to the direct influence of changes and activities of peri-urban natures and accounted for approximately 50 % of variability in water quality. The application of HACA indicated two major clusters representing clean and polluted zones of the river. On the spatial scale, one cluster was represented by the upper and lower sections of the river (clean zone) and accounted for approximately 158 km of the river. The other cluster was represented by the middle section (polluted zone) with a length of approximately 98 km. Trend Analysis indicated how the point sources influence river water quality on spatio-temporal scales, taking into account the various effects of nutrient and other pollutant loads from sewerage effluents, agriculture and other point and non-point sources along the river and major tributaries of the HNR. Over the past 26 years, water temperature has significantly increased while suspended solids have significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The analysis of water quality data through FA, HACA and TA helped to characterise the key sections and cluster the key water quality variables of the HNR system. The insights gained from this study have the potential to improve the effectiveness of river health-monitoring programs in terms of cost, time and effort, particularly in a peri-urban context. PMID:23054266

  16. Joining forces: collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  17. Joining forces: Collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management

    PubMed Central

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  18. Natural disasters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leivesley, S

    1984-06-01

    The history of natural hazards in Australia and their physical, economic and social consequences are discussed in this paper. The lack of any national programme for hazard mitigation is identified, alongside an overview of Australia as a country where major disasters are accepted as a part of everyday life. PMID:20958562

  19. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  20. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include

  1. Pure Mathematics in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, W. R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reports a survey concerned with the future of mathematics in Australia which identified the number of "experts" in particular areas of mathematics who are working in Australia. Findings show increased research work in the past five years but conclusions indicate that many mathematical areas continue to be neglected. (JT)

  2. School Psychology in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the status of school psychology in Australia. Information is presented on the education system, the role of the school psychologist, historical development, special problems, contributions, and future trends in Australian school psychology. (Author)

  3. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  4. Astronaut Andy Thomas holds facsimile Olympic torch like one to fly on STS-101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Andy Thomas holds a facsimile of the Olympic torch that is being carried on Space Shuttle Atlantis during mission STS- 101. Thomas is from Australia, which is the site of the 2000 Olympics. He coordinated the effort to have the torch added to the manifest so that it would truly circle the Earth in the spirit of the worldwide sporting event. The Sydney Olympic Torch Relay will arrive in Australia on June 8. The games begin Sept. 1.

  5. Country profile: travelling to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Marc M T; Leggat, Peter A

    2003-05-01

    Australia has a well-developed tourism industry and health care system. Despite the precautions recommended in this paper, Australia has been virtually free of local outbreaks of life threatening tropical diseases in recent decades. This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travellers to Australia, especially the special precautions for those travelling to more rural and remote areas in outback Australia. Travellers to Australia should be advised that, in general, Australia is a relatively safe country in which to travel, and it has high standards of health and hygiene. PMID:17291900

  6. The Geology of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David

    2004-12-01

    The Geology of Australia provides a vivid and informative account of the evolution of the Australian continent over the past 4400 million years. Starting with the Precambrian rocks which hold clues to the origins of life and the development of an oxygenated atmosphere, it then covers the warms seas, volcanism and multiple orogenies of the Palaeozoic, which built the eastern third of the Australian continent. This illuminating history then details the breakup of Gondwana and the development of the continental shelves and coastlines. Separate chapters cover the origin of the Great Barrier Reef, the basalts in Eastern Australia and the geology of the Solar System. From Uluru to the Great Dividing Range, from sapphires to the stars, The Geology of Australia is a comprehensive exploration of the timeless forces that have shaped this continent and that continue to do so.

  7. Cyclone Chris Hits Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This false-color image shows Cyclone Chris shortly after it hit Australia's northwestern coast on February 6, 2002. This scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. (Please note that this scene has not been reprojected.) Cyclone Chris is one of the most powerful storms ever to hit Australia. Initially, the storm contained wind gusts of up to 200 km per hour (125 mph), but shortly after making landfall it weakened to a Category 4 storm. Meteorologists expect the cyclone to weaken quickly as it moves further inland.

  8. Multilingualism in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of languages in Australia looks at the multicultural makeup of the society, the role of English, dynamics of language contact situations (community language change, intergenerational language shift, other factors in maintenance and shift), societal and individual multilingualism, and support for multilingualism (language policies,

  9. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young

  10. Recent developments: Australia

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear industry in the United States and Australia are summarized. The following topics are discussed: Australian Labor Party to review uranium issues; Supreme Court issues decision on producers lawsuit, proposed settlement, California voters approve Rancho Seco operation; and agreement reached in Pacific GAs and Electric Company`s Diablo Canyon rate case.

  11. Classification in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  12. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    PubMed

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory. PMID:20941881

  13. Downscaling approach to develop future sub-daily IDF relations for Canberra Airport Region, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herath, H. M. S. M.; Sarukkalige, P. R.; Nguyen, V. T. V.

    2015-06-01

    Downscaling of climate projections is the most adopted method to assess the impacts of climate change at regional and local scale. In the last decade, downscaling techniques which provide reasonable improvement to resolution of General Circulation Models' (GCMs) output are developed in notable manner. Most of these techniques are limited to spatial downscaling of GCMs' output and still there is a high demand to develop temporal downscaling approaches. As the main objective of this study, combined approach of spatial and temporal downscaling is developed to improve the resolution of rainfall predicted by GCMs. Canberra airport region is subjected to this study and the applicability of proposed downscaling approach is evaluated for Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and Darwin regions. Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) is used to spatial downscaling and numerical model based on scaling invariant concept is used to temporal downscaling of rainfalls. National Centre of Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data is used in SDSM model calibration and validation. Regression based bias correction function is used to improve the accuracy of downscaled annual maximum rainfalls using HadCM3-A2. By analysing the non-central moments of observed rainfalls, single time regime (from 30 min to 24 h) is identified which exist scaling behaviour and it is used to estimate the sub daily extreme rainfall depths from daily downscaled rainfalls. Finally, as the major output of this study, Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) relations are developed for the future periods of 2020s, 2050s and 2080s in the context of climate change.

  14. Bridging the chronic care gap: HealthOne Mt Druitt, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McNab, Justin; Gillespie, James A.

    2015-01-01

    HealthOne was part of a state-wide initiative to invest in new community-based facilities for collocating services. The HealthOne Mount Druitt is a virtual hub and spoke organisation established in 2006 in a socially disadvantaged part of Western Sydney based out of a new community health hub. The model is based on ‘virtual’ care planning and aims to improve coordination of care for older people with complex health needs, reduce unnecessary hospitalisations and ensure appropriate referral to community and specialist health services. General practitioner liaison nurses (GPLNs) work closely with clients as well as general practitioners (GPs) and other health care providers. Primary health care providers reported improved communication and coordination of services, and there have been lower levels of utilisation of the emergency department (ED) for patients following enrolment in the programme. HealthOne provides an example of how a virtual organisation together with highly skilled care coordinators can overcome some of the barriers to providing integrated care created by fragmented funding streams and care delivery systems. PMID:26417210

  15. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013-2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues ( p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems ( i.e. , gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress. PMID:26690482

  16. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities. PMID:24087911

  17. VENTILATORY CAPACITY CHANGES ON EXPOSURE TO COTTON DUST AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO BYSSINOSIS IN AUSTRALIA

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, Bryan; Milne, James

    1965-01-01

    The same plan of investigation as was used in a previous study of jute workers (Gandevia and Milne, 1965) has been applied to a survey of 50 workers in the blowroom and carding and spinning area of a Sydney cotton mill. Significant decreases in ventilatory capacity were recorded on Friday, Monday, and the following Thursday, with, on the average, complete `overnight' recovery, as indicated by similar morning values. Slightly, but not significantly, greater differences were observed in seven subjects with mild byssinotic symptoms and in five subjects with an observed productive cough on request. No effect of sex, shift, or history of cough and sputum was demonstrable. By contrast with the jute workers, no influence of smoking habit was apparent. The larger decreases in ventilatory capacity were observed in those with the higher F.E.V.10:F.V.C. ratios, whereas the reverse trend was noted in the jute workers. The occurrence of significant large decreases in those employed in the industry for less than a month, in conjunction with other evidence, suggests that a factor of `self-selection' may be operative among cotton employees in this country and may be related to the apparently low prevalence of clinically important byssinosis. Attention is drawn to two different patterns of change of ventilatory capacity over a week in subjects exposed to dusts sometimes associated with symptoms of byssinosis; the relationship of these changes and of chronic bronchitis to the development of clinical byssinosis is discussed. PMID:5836570

  18. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  19. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.

  20. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and d) run the assembled configuration in a cloud computing environment, or download the assembled configuration and packaged data to run on any other system of the user's choice. MARVL is now being applied in a number of case studies around Australia ranging in scale from locally confined estuaries to the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand. In time we expect the range of models offered will include biogeochemical models.