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Sample records for sydney sydney australia

  1. Sydney

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... metropolitan area. This city is host to the 2000 Olympic Games, which opened Friday, September 15. Sydney Harbour is the rugged-shaped ... central city area. Olympic Park, the main venue for the Games, is on a southern arm of the harbor, about 20 kilometers from the coast. ...

  2. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  3. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  4. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  5. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. PMID:26414085

  6. Toxicity of surficial sediments from Sydney Harbour and vicinity, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCready, S; Spyrakis, G; Greely, C R; Birch, G F; Long, E R

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological responses of three species to 103 surficial saltwater sediment samples from Sydney Harbour, and coastal lakes and estuaries on the south-east coast of New South Wales, Australia, were tested in a battery of four to six laboratory toxicity tests. This is the first large-scale toxicological study of sediments in Australia, the objective of which is to assess the protective and predictive abilities of North American biological effects-based sediment quality guidelines, recently adopted in Australia. Amphipods were exposed to whole sediments in survival and reburial tests, sea urchin fertilisation and larval development tests were conducted on porewaters, and bacterial bio-luminescence (Microtox) tests were conducted on organic solvent extracts and porewaters. Local indigenous species were used for the amphipod and sea urchin tests (Corophium sp. and Heliocidaris tuberculata, respectively). A wide range of responses, from <25 to 100% of negative controls were observed in all tests. Mean control-adjusted responses ranged from 46 to 96% for all tests. The percentages of highly toxic samples ranged from 11 to 83% in the various tests. The order of test sensitivity was: amphipod survival < Microtox test of porewaters < amphipod reburial < sea urchin larval development < sea urchin fertilisation < Microtox test of solvent extracts. Concordance between toxicity tests in classifying samples as highly toxic or not, ranged from 47 to 79%, indicating some similarities between test results, but not complete equivalence. Combined toxicity test results showed that the incidence of highly toxic responses occurring in the majority of tests (75-100% of tests) was low (5% of samples), but a large percentage of samples had highly toxic results in at least one test (76% of samples). Toxicity was more pervasive in the Sydney region than in coastal lakes and estuaries south of Sydney. The current study demonstrated the utility of indigenous invertebrate species and the

  7. SEROLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS FINDINGS IN THE WATER SUPPLY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    From July to September, 1998, high levels of Cryptospordium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected in Sydney, Australia drinking water. To evaluate whether Sydney residents had an elevated risk of infection, serological responses to two Cryptospordium antigen groups (15/17 - an...

  8. Notes from an Unknown Presenter at the Third International Conference of English Teachers in Sydney, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Flossie

    1981-01-01

    Offers an English teacher's observations about an international conference held in Sydney, Australia, with particular emphasis on George Orwell's "1984" and his views on language, multiculturalism, and humanism and on George Steiner's "Language and Silence." (RL)

  9. MISR Looks at Sydney and the Southeastern Australia Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image from MISR's nadir-looking camera was acquired on July 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 3009) and shows a 200-kilometer section of the eastern Australian coast, centered around the Sydney metropolitan area. This city is host to the 2000 Olympics Games, which open Friday, September 15. Sydney Harbour is the rugged-shaped inlet toward the northern side of the grey-colored central city area. Olympic Park, the main venue for the Games, is on a southern arm of the harbor, about 20 kilometers from the coast.

    The areas to the north, west, and south of Sydney are characterized by rugged terrain and extensive forests. Just north of the city the Ku-ring-gai Chase and Brisbane Waters National Parks surround the Hawkesbury River estuary. Further north and separated from the ocean by narrow dunes are a series of lakes, the two largest in this image being Lake Macquarie (at the top) and Tuggerah Lake.

    West of the metropolitan area, some 65 kilometers inland, are the Blue Mountains. The primary transport corridor for road and rail across the mountains is clearly visible, and just north of it is the steep-sided Grose River valley. In the southern part of the mountains is a series of long valleys filled by Lake Burragorang, a major source of Sydney's water supply.

    South of Sydney's central area are Botany Bay, Bate Bay and Port Hacking, and the Royal National Park. Further south, the forested coastline gives way to the city of Wollongong, the adjacent steel-making complex at Port Kembla, and Lake Illawarra.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Everyday astronomy @ Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parello, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    Catering to a broad range of audiences, including many non-English speaking visitors, Sydney Observatory offers everything from school programmes to public sessions, day care activities to night observing, personal interactions to web-based outreach. With a history of nearly 150 years of watching the heavens, Sydney Observatory is now engaged in sharing the wonder with everybody in traditional and innovative ways. Along with time-honoured tours of the sky through two main telescopes, as well as a small planetarium, Sydney Observatory also boasts a 3D theatre, and offers programmes 363 days a year - rain or shine, day and night. Additionally, our website neversleeps, with a blog, YouTube videos, and night sky watching podcasts. And for good measure, a sprinkling of special events such as the incomparable Festival of the Stars, for which most of northern Sydney turns out their lights. Sydney Observatory is the oldest working observatory in Australia, and we're thrilled to be looking forward to our 150th Anniversary next year in anticipation of the International Year of Astronomy immediately thereafter.

  11. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  12. A Report on the Peace Education Commission Program, International Peace Research Association Conference 2010, Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Swee-Hin

    2010-01-01

    From July 6th to 10th, 2010, International Peace Research Association (IPRA) held its biennial conference at the University of Sydney in Australia. Hosted by the University's Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies and coordinated by Jake Lynch and a team of dedicated staff and volunteers, the conference featured seven plenary panels and many papers…

  13. Identification of lead sources in residential environments: Sydney Australia.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, M A S; Zahran, S; Pingitore, N; Clague, J; Devlin, G; Taylor, M P

    2014-01-01

    Interior and exterior dust, soil and paint were analysed at five brick urban Sydney homes over 15 months to evaluate temporal variations and discriminate sources of lead (Pb) exposure. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates (μg/m(2)/28 days), interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations (mg/kg) and interior petri-dish Pb loading rates (μg/m(2)/28 days), were correlated positively with soil Pb concentrations. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates and interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations peaked in the summer. Lead isotope and Pb speciation (XAS) were analysed in soil and vacuum dust samples from three of the five houses that had elevated Pb concentrations. Results show that the source of interior dust lead was primarily from soil in two of the three houses and from soil and Pb paint in the third home. IEUBK child blood Pb modelling predicts that children's blood Pb levels could exceed 5 μg/dL in two of the five houses. PMID:24071634

  14. High-Resolution View of Fires and Smoke near Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke obscures much of the landscape near Sydney, Australia, in the true-color image above (top). However, the areas with active fires are revealed by the false-color image (bottom), which was made using shortwave infrared data that are sensitive to heat and provide the ability to 'see' through smoke. In the bottom scene, the black areas show fresh burn scars, while greens show landscape untouched by fire. Apparently, the fire burned up to the edge of a road (the thin black line snaking from the lefthand side of the image and disappearing off the bottom) and was unable to jump across. The thick dark line along the bottom of the scene is a river. Both images were made using data acquired on December 28, 2001, by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), flying aboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. For more images of the recent fires in Australia, read Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia, Fires Continue to Rage Near Sydney, Australia, and Severe Bush Fires Near Sydney, Australia. For more information about the effects of fire on the environment, read the Biomass Burning fact sheet. Images by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by Lawrence Ong, EO-1 Science Team

  15. Breastfeeding: how could it be enhanced? The perceptions of Vietnamese women in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C; Yam, B M

    2000-01-01

    In Australia, the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding is on the decline. The low incidence of breastfeeding includes the immigrant Vietnamese. The purpose of this study was to examine Vietnamese women's perceptions of factors that might influence their choice of infant feeding and how breastfeeding could be promoted and maintained by nurses, midwives, other health professionals, and the health care system as a whole. A convenience sample of 124 postnatal Vietnamese women from community agencies in western and southwestern suburbs of Sydney was interviewed. Content analysis showed that factors that affect their choice of infant feeding method were language difficulties in communicating with health professionals concerning breastfeeding, lack of social support and follow-up care, and attitudes of health professionals toward breastfeeding. To promote and maintain breastfeeding within the Vietnamese community in Sydney, Australia, appropriate health care planning and implementation based on their social, cultural, and language backgrounds and practices need to be considered. PMID:10907337

  16. Historic change in catchment land use and metal loading to Sydney estuary, Australia (1788-2010).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-09-01

    Sydney estuary has a long history of environmental degradation and is one of the most modified water ways in Australia due to a highly urbanised catchment (~77 %) and a high population (4.6 million). The objectives of the present study were to map historical land use change from European settlement (1788) to 2010 to determine catchment evolutionary pathways and to estimate catchment loading (total suspended solids, Cu, Pb and Zn) to the estuary over this period. Land use distribution in Sydney catchment, determined for seven time horizons over this period, indicated that a substantial increase in residential land use through subdivision of large estates and an increase in road area resulted in a marked increase in metal loading to Sydney estuary between 1892 and 1936. The decline in industrial activity from a maximum in 1978 (3.9 %) to 1.8 % in 2010 and the introduction of unleaded fuel during this time was accompanied by reduction in metal loading to the estuary. Land use time horizon maps enabled the creation of novel, ternary diagrams to represent temporal evolution in catchment land use. The 15 sub-catchments of Sydney estuary were combined into three major catchment categories, i.e., urban, dense urban and commercial. Present-day annual discharge of stormwater from the Sydney catchment was calculated to be 466,000 ML and annual loadings of total suspended sediment (TSS), Cu, Pb and Zn in tonnes were 49,239, 27, 37 and 57, respectively. Stormwater has superseded industry as the main source of anthropogenic metals to this estuary in recent times. PMID:26311263

  17. Metal-contaminated resuspended sediment particles are a minor metal-uptake route for the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) - A mesocosm study, Sydney Harbour estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Birch, G F; Simpson, S L

    2016-03-15

    Resuspension of surficial sediments is considered a key process influencing bioaccumulation of metals in filter-feeders in the contaminated Sydney Harbour estuary (Australia). However, previous investigations were unable to establish a significant relationship between metals in sediments or suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster tissue concentrations. This study used a 60-d laboratory mesocosm experiment to expose Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, to a natural range of SPM concentrations with different SPM-metal concentrations. Dissolved metal concentrations were low and the availability of algae provided as food was constant for all treatments. Tissue metal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn increased significantly, however, no relationship was determined between tissue metal concentrations in the oyster and either SPM or SPM-metal concentrations. The results indicated that exposure to resuspended contaminated sediment particles contributed little to the observed metal uptake. Dissolved or algae food sources appear to be more important for metal accumulation in these oysters. PMID:26849915

  18. Descriptive epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Sibbritt, David; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Rawlinson, William; Andresen, David; Van Hal, Sebastian; Merif, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of information about the prevalence of gastrointestinal illnesses in Australia. Current disease surveillance systems capture only a few pathogens. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who visited tertiary public hospitals in Sydney was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Patients with diarrhoea or loose stools with an enteric pathogen detected were identified. Demographic, clinical and potential risk factor data were collected from their medical records. Measures of association, descriptive and inferential statistics were analysed. Results In total, 1722 patients were included in this study. Campylobacter (22.0%) and Clostridium difficile (19.2%) were the most frequently detected pathogens. Stratified analysis showed that rotavirus (22.4%), norovirus (20.7%) and adenovirus (18.1%) mainly affected children under 5 years; older children (5–12 years) were frequently infected with Campylobacter spp. (29.8%) and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. (24.4%); infections with C. difficile increased with age.Campylobacter and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. showed increased incidence in summer months (December to February), while rotavirus infections peaked in the cooler months (June to November). Discussion This study revealed that gastrointestinal illness remains a major public health issue in Sydney. Improvement of current disease surveillance and prevention and control measures are required. This study emphasizes the importance of laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections and the need for better clinical data collection to improve management of disease risk factors in the community. PMID:26798556

  19. Azithromycin-Resistant Syphilis-Causing Strains in Sydney, Australia: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jeoffreys, Neisha; Tagg, Kaitlin; Guy, Rebecca J.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Donovan, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin has shown high efficacy in randomized trials when used for treating infectious syphilis in Africa. However, its use in clinical practice has been limited by the development of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance has not previously been reported from Australasia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for azithromycin-resistant syphilis-causing strains in Sydney, Australia. We evaluated 409 samples that were PCR positive for Treponema pallidum DNA collected between 2004 and 2011 for the presence of the A2058G mutation, which confers resistance to macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin. Overall, 84% of samples harbored the mutation. The prevalence of the mutation increased during the study period (P trend, 0.003). We also collected clinical and demographic data on 220 patients from whom these samples had been collected to determine factors associated with the A2058G mutation; 97% were from men who have sex with men. Reporting sex in countries other than Australia was associated with less macrolide resistance (adjusted odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.66; P = 0.005), with other study factors showing no association (age, HIV status, recent macrolide use, stage of syphilis, or history of prior syphilis). Azithromycin cannot be recommended as an alternative treatment for syphilis in Sydney. PMID:24850356

  20. Historical trends of PBDEs and HBCDs in sediment cores from Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Drage, D; Mueller, J F; Birch, G; Eaglesham, G; Hearn, L K; Harrad, S

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents the first historical data on the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) in estuarine sediment from Australia. Sediment cores and surficial sediment samples were collected from four locations within Sydney estuary, Australia. Large increases in concentrations were observed for all compounds between 1980 and 2014, especially for BDE-209 (representative usage of Deca-BDE commercial mixture), which was found in surficial sediment at an average concentration of 42 ng/g dry wt (21-65 ng/g dry wt). PBDE congeners representative of both the Penta- and Octa-BDE commercial mixtures (∑6PBDEs) were also found in their highest concentrations in surficial sediments (average: 1.3 ng/g dry wt; range: 0.65-2.5 ng/g dry wt). PBDE concentrations in surficial sediments were relatively high when compared with those presented in the available literature. This suggests that their input into the Sydney estuary has not decreased since their bans almost a decade earlier. After a sharp increase in the 1990s, HBCD concentrations peaked at an average of 3.5 ng/g dry wt (1.8-5.3 ng/g dry wt) in surficial samples. With global legislation on HBCDs allowing its usage for the next 10 years, it is expected that its input into the estuary is likely to continue. PMID:25617997

  1. Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 42 x 32 km (25.1 x 19.2 miles) Location: 33.7 deg. South lat., 151.4 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 12, 2001

  2. Air pollution and daily mortality in Sydney, Australia, 1989 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, G; Corbett, S; Wlodarczyk, J; Lewis, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of outdoor air pollutants in Sydney, Australia, on daily mortality. METHODS: Time-series analysis was performed on counts of daily mortality and major outdoor air pollutants (particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide) in Sydney (1989 to 1993) with adjustment for seasonal and cyclical factors. Poisson regression was calculated with allowance for overdispersion and autocorrelation. The effects of lagging exposure by 0 to 2 days were assessed with single- and multiple-pollutant models. RESULTS: An increase in daily mean particulate concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile was associated with an increase of 2.63% (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 4.41) in all-cause mortality and 2.68% (0.25 to 5.16) in cardiovascular mortality. An increase in daily maximum 1-hour ozone concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile was associated with an increase of 2.04% (0.37 to 3.73) in all-cause mortality and 2.52% (-0.25 to 5.38) in cardiovascular mortality. An increase in the daily mean nitrogen dioxide concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile was associated with an increase of 7.71% (-0.34 to 16.40) in respiratory mortality. Multiple-pollutant models suggest that the effects of particulates and ozone on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and of nitrogen dioxide on respiratory mortality, are independent of the effects of the other pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: Current levels of air pollution in Sydney are associated with daily mortality. PMID:9585741

  3. Impact of urban sprawl on overweight, obesity, and physical activity in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Garden, Frances L; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and inadequate physical activity are major risk factors for many diseases. The built environment plays an important role in influencing participation in physical activity. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl in Sydney, Australia is associated with overweight/obesity and levels of physical activity. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design to relate urban sprawl (based on population density) measured at an area level to overweight/obesity and levels of physical activity measured at an individual level whilst controlling for individual and area level covariates in metropolitan Sydney. Individual level data were obtained from the 2002 and 2003 New South Wales Population Health Survey. We had information on 7,290 respondents. The mean population density was 2,168 persons per square kilometer (standard deviation=1,741, range=218-7,045). After controlling for individual and area level covariates, for an inter-quartile increase in sprawl, the odds of being overweight was 1.26 (95% CI=1.10-1.44), the odds of being obese was 1.47 (95% CI=1.24-1.75), the odds of inadequate physical activity was 1.38 (95% CI=1.21-1.57), and the odds of not spending any time walking during the past week was 1.58 (95% CI=1.28-1.93). Living in more sprawling suburbs increases the risk of overweight/obesity and inadequate physical activity despite the relatively low levels of urban sprawl in metropolitan Sydney. Modifications to the urban environment to increase physical activity may be worthwhile. PMID:19052877

  4. 5 for Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    ASE has a long history of sending students to the International Science School (ISS), having been doing so since 1968. The ISS is a free science education programme run biennially by the Science Foundation for Physics at the University of Sydney. ASE's role is to select the students and organise funding to enable the students and escorts to…

  5. Five for Sydney 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Professor Harry Messel International Science School is organised by the Science Foundation for Physics within the University of Sydney. In 1968, the Foundation extended the participation to the UK and Japan and each country sends five scholars to the Science Schools, which are held every second year. Nowadays, scholars from Singapore,…

  6. Shooting gallery operation in the context of establishing a medically supervised injecting center: Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Jo; Dolan, Kate

    2007-03-01

    Shooting galleries (SGs) are illicit off-street spaces close to drug markets used for drug injection. Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are low threshold health services where injecting drug users (IDUs) can inject pre-obtained drugs under supervision. This study describes SG use in Kings Cross, Sydney before and after the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), Australia's first SIF. Operational and environmental characteristics of SGs, reasons for SG use, and willingness to use MSIC were also examined. An exploratory survey of SG users (n = 31), interviews with SG users (n = 17), and drug workers (n = 8), and counts of used needles routinely collected from SGs (6 months before and after MSIC) and visits to the MSIC (6 months after MSIC) were triangulated. We found five SGs operated during the study period. Key operational characteristics were 24-h operation, AUS $10 entry fee, 30-min time limit, and dual use for sex work. Key reasons for SG use were to avoid police, a preference not to inject in public, and assistance from SG operators in case of overdose. SG users reported high levels of willingness to use the MSIC. The number of used needles collected from SGs decreased by 69% (41,819 vs. 12,935) in the 6 months after MSIC opened, while MSIC visits increased incrementally. We conclude that injections were transferred from SGs to the MSIC, but SGs continued to accommodate injections and harm reduction outreach should be maintained. PMID:17273925

  7. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations. PMID:23852467

  8. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations. PMID:25937494

  9. DEVELOPMENTS AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH (8TH), HELD IN SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA ON OCTOBER 17-22, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a critical analysis of formal and informal developments of potential interest to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at the Eighth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Sydney, Australia, on October 17-22, 1976. The conference subject ma...

  10. A profile of gaming machine players in clubs in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen

    2002-01-01

    New South Wales, Australia, is one of the major markets in the world for machine gaming, with its 1,441 registered clubs holding the dominant share of the state's machines. This study examined machine gambling behavior amongst a random sample of 3,000 club members from six of the largest clubs in Sydney, the capital city of New South Wales. The findings identify their machine gambling preferences and participation levels, isolate significant sociodemographic and other differences between gaming machine and non-gaming machine players, measure the prevalence of probable pathological gambling associated with machine gambling, and identify certain characteristics which differ significantly between probable pathological and non-pathological machine gamblers amongst the respondents. PMID:12096448

  11. Effectiveness of remediation of metal-contaminated mangrove sediments (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, Gavin; Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2015-04-01

    Industrial activities and urbanization have had a major consequence for estuarine ecosystem health and water quality globally. Likewise, Sydney estuary has been significantly impacted by widespread, poor industrial practices in the past, and remediation of legacy contaminants have been undertaken in limited parts of this waterway. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of remediation of a former Pb-contaminated industrial site in Homebush Bay on Sydney estuary (Australia) through sampling of inter-tidal sediments and mangrove (Avicennia marina) tissue (fine nutritive roots, pneumatophores, and leaves). Results indicate that since remediation 6 years previously, Pb and other metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) in surficial sediment have increased to concentrations that approach pre-remediation levels and that they were considerably higher than pre-settlement levels (3-30 times), as well as at the reference site. Most metals were compartmentalized in fine nutritive roots with bio-concentration factors greater than unity, while tissues of pneumatophores and leaves contained low metal concentrations. Lead concentrations in fine nutritive root, pneumatophore, and leaf tissue of mangroves from the remediated site were similar to trees in un-remediated sites of the estuary and were substantially higher than plants at the reference site. The situation for Zn in fine nutritive root tissue was similar. The source of the metals was either surface/subsurface water from the catchment or more likely remobilized contaminated sediment from un-remediated parts of Homebush Bay. Results of this study demonstrate the problems facing management in attempting to reduce contamination in small parts of a large impacted area to concentrations below local base level. PMID:25404497

  12. Contamination and screening level toxicity of sediments from remediated and unremediated wetlands near Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Rawson, Christopher A; Kookana, Rai S; Peng, Ping-An; Warne, Michael S J; Tremblay, Louis A; Laginestra, Edwina; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P

    2009-10-01

    The present study assessed contamination and toxicity of sediments from seven remediated and remnant wetland sites within Sydney Olympic Park, Australia, and four unremediated sites adjacent to its boundary using chemical analysis and a luminescent bacterial biosensor assay (Escherichia coli). Concentrations of metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and As) and persistent organic chemicals (DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) in sediments and their pore-water samples were determined. Zinc concentrations were the highest of the metals in the sediments (84-618 mg/kg), and at eight sites, metal concentrations in sediments exceeded the Australian ecological trigger values for Pb, Zn, and Ni. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the sediments exceeded the trigger values at all 11 sites for DDTs, at 6 sites for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 5 sites for polychlorinated biphenyls. Sediment samples from the four unremediated sites outside the Sydney Olympic Park had dioxin concentrations greater than 200 pg (toxic equivalency per gram). The same four sites were identified as contaminated in pore-water toxicity tests with the luminescent biosensor, generally consistent with the bioavailable fractions of the contaminants (pore-water and Tenax extraction data), as well as dioxin levels, in the sediments. Preliminary toxicity identification and evaluation tests of the pore water from the four sites outside the park demonstrated that organic contaminants were the main cause of toxicity to E. coli, with no evidence that metals contributed to the toxicity of the pore water. PMID:19589001

  13. Vertical Hydrochemical Zonation in a Coastal Section of the Botany Sands Aquifer, Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavitt, N.; Acworth, R. I.; Jankowski, J.

    1997-02-01

    Near Sydney, Australia, unconsolidated aeolian and alluvial sediments of Quaternary age form the Botany Sands aquifer and lie unconformably on Triassic-age sandstone (Narrabeen Group). Botany Bay is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean about 10 km south of the city centre. Reclamation of the northern foreshore of Botany Bay commenced in 1979. One impact of this reclamation was to move the saline interface in the aquifer southward. In 1993, a multi-level piezometer and a cored borehole were installed at a location coincident with the foreshore position, prior to reclamation. Analysis of data from this site indicates that distinctive hydrochemical zonation now exists within the aquifer. Southward-flowing groundwater has removed the saline water from the upper 24 m of the sand column. Below this depth, peat beds occur that appear to form the base of active aquifer flushing. Groundwater from beneath the peat beds has the chemical characteristics of partially flushed sea water. At a depth interval of 14-21 m, a contaminant plume has been identified; its probable source is a non-putrescible landfill, about 2.5 km up the groundwater gradient.

  14. Epidemiology and Geographical Distribution of Enteric Protozoan Infections in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Caprarelli, Graziella; Merif, Juan; Andresen, David; Hal, Sebastian Van; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%), Giardia intestinalis (27%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%). The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1%) are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural areas is needed. Significance for public health This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted

  15. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  16. A Sydney proteome story.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Gooley, Andrew A; Wilkins, Marc R; Packer, Nicolle H

    2014-07-31

    This is the story of the experience of a multidisciplinary group at Macquarie University in Sydney as we participated in, and impacted upon, major currents that washed through protein science as the field of Proteomics emerged. The large scale analysis of proteins became possible. This is not a history of the field. Instead we have tried to encapsulate the stimulating personal ride we had transiting from conventional academe, to a Major National Research Facility, to the formation of Proteomics company Proteome Systems Ltd. There were lots of blind alleys, wrong directions, but we also got some things right and our efforts, along with those of many other groups around the world, did change the face of protein science. While the transformation is by no means yet complete, protein science is very different from the field in the 1990s. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez. PMID:24735915

  17. Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in the 1990s in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Ferson, M. J.; Young, L. C.; Stokes, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Surveillance of hepatitis A in residents of Eastern Sydney Health Area identified substantial epidemics in homosexual males in 1991-2 with a peak rate of 520 per 100,000 recorded in males aged 25-29 years, and again in 1995-6, with a peak rate of 405 per 100,000 per year in males aged 30-34 years. During 1994-5 an epidemic was detected among disadvantaged youth associated with injecting drug use; peak rates of 200 per 100,000 per year were reported in males aged 25-29 years and of 64 per 100,000 per year among females aged 20-24 years. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in these inner suburbs of Sydney is characterized by very few childhood cases and recurrent epidemics among homosexual men. Identified risk groups need to be targeted with appropriate messages regarding the importance of hygiene and vaccination in preventing hepatitis A. However, poor access to health services among disadvantaged youth and a constant influx of young homosexual males into these inner suburbs present major challenges to hepatitis A control. PMID:10030713

  18. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics. PMID:24835081

  19. Spatial analysis of heat-related mortality among the elderly between 1993 and 2004 in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vaneckova, Pavla; Beggs, Paul J; Jacobson, Carol R

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the geographical patterns of heat-related mortality among the population aged 65 and over within the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia between 1993 and 2004, and evaluated the role of some physical and socio-demographic risk factors associated with it. The effect of temperature on all-cause mortality during unusually hot days was investigated using spatial analytic techniques, such as cluster analysis and spatial regression analysis. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were used to investigate the role of daily average temperature, ozone (O(3)) and particulate matter of diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)) at the regions that showed a significant increase in mortality on unusually hot days. Spatial variation in mortality on unusually hot days was observed among the population 65 and over. Elderly people living within 5-20 km south-west and west of the Sydney Central Business District (CBD) were found to be more vulnerable. However, analysis using GLMs showed temperature to be a significant modifier of daily mortality in the region to the south-west of the CBD only. O(3) and PM(10) were found to be non-significant factors in the regions where air pollutants were studied. Socio-economic status and the proportion of vegetation or developed land in each Statistical Local Area (SLA) were also not a significant factor explaining the increased mortality. A combination of social and environmental factors may be at play. Our results suggest an effect of temperature on mortality of the elderly population in Sydney Statistical Division at the SLA level. More spatially-based research would be beneficial once climate datasets with improved spatial coverage become available. PMID:19880232

  20. The evolving market structures of gambling: case studies modelling the socioeconomic assignment of gaming machines in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Baker, Robert G V

    2002-01-01

    The expansion of gambling industries worldwide is intertwined with the growing government dependence on gambling revenue for fiscal assignments. In Australia, electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have dominated recent gambling industry growth. As EGMs have proliferated, growing recognition has emerged that EGM distribution closely reflects levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. More machines are located in less advantaged regions. This paper analyses time-series socioeconomic distributions of EGMs in Melbourne, Australia, an immature EGM market, and then compares the findings with the mature market in Sydney. Similar findings in both cities suggest that market assignment of EGMs transcends differences in historical and legislative environments. This indicates that similar underlying structures are evident in both markets. Modelling the spatial structures of gambling markets provides an opportunity to identify regions most at risk of gambling related problems. Subsequently, policies can be formulated which ensure fiscal revenue from gambling can be better targeted towards regions likely to be most afflicted by excessive gambling-related problems. PMID:12375384

  1. Shooting Gallery Operation in the Context of Establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Center: Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Shooting galleries (SGs) are illicit off-street spaces close to drug markets used for drug injection. Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are low threshold health services where injecting drug users (IDUs) can inject pre-obtained drugs under supervision. This study describes SG use in Kings Cross, Sydney before and after the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), Australia’s first SIF. Operational and environmental characteristics of SGs, reasons for SG use, and willingness to use MSIC were also examined. An exploratory survey of SG users (n = 31), interviews with SG users (n = 17), and drug workers (n = 8), and counts of used needles routinely collected from SGs (6 months before and after MSIC) and visits to the MSIC (6 months after MSIC) were triangulated. We found five SGs operated during the study period. Key operational characteristics were 24-h operation, AUS$10 entry fee, 30-min time limit, and dual use for sex work. Key reasons for SG use were to avoid police, a preference not to inject in public, and assistance from SG operators in case of overdose. SG users reported high levels of willingness to use the MSIC. The number of used needles collected from SGs decreased by 69% (41,819 vs. 12,935) in the 6 months after MSIC opened, while MSIC visits increased incrementally. We conclude that injections were transferred from SGs to the MSIC, but SGs continued to accommodate injections and harm reduction outreach should be maintained. PMID:17273925

  2. The Declaration of Sydney on human death.

    PubMed

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; García, M de la C; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-12-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of "irreversible coma" established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  3. The Declaration of Sydney on human death

    PubMed Central

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; de la C García, M; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-01-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of “irreversible coma” established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  4. Teachers' and Parents' Roles in the Sexuality Education of Primary School Children: A Comparison of Experiences in Leeds, UK and in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joy; Milton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    There is little international research focusing on parents' and teachers' roles in sexuality education during children's primary school years. This paper focuses on teachers' and parents' key experiences as sexuality educators of primary-school-age children in both Leeds, UK and in Sydney, Australia. Based on research findings from both the United…

  5. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney, Australia, 8 14 July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-07-01

    At GR17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GR18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GR conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GR18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb overviews

  6. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, O. A.; Jones, B. G.; Fergusson, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Sydney Basin is a foreland basin forming the southern part of the Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basin system in Eastern Australia. Tectonically the Sydney Basin is regarded as a retro-arc foreland basin that developed through Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic. Constructing a tectonstratigraphic framework for the basin is difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and poor age control, along with its complex tectonic history. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin is presented based on literature synthesis combined with new data analysis. The chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework will provide an up-to-date and easy to follow detailed basin history which can be utilize in the exploration for conventional and unconventional resources in the Sydney Basin.

  7. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant. PMID:21879398

  8. Enantioselective analysis and fate of polycyclic musks in a water recycling plant in Sydney (Australia).

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Khan, S J

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic polycyclic musks (PCMs) Galaxolide (HHCB), Tonalide (AHTN), Phantolide (AHDI), Traseolide (ATII) and Cashmeran (DPMI) are chiral chemicals that are commonly used in washing product industries as racemic mixtures. The major source of PCMs in municipal wastewater is from personal care and household products. Recent studies have shown that PCMs may enhance the relative toxicity of other environmental chemicals by inhibiting cellular xenobiotic defence systems. High sensitivity enantioselective analysis of these compounds enables improved characterisation of the environmental persistence and fate of PCMs, distinguishing between individual enantiomers so that a more complete understanding of environmental risks tributed by individual enantiomers may be obtained. Concentrations of PCMs through the various treatment stages of an advanced water recycling plant in Sydney were investigated to assess the removal of these chemicals. Average concentrations of HHCB, AHTN, AHDI, ATII and DPMI in influent were: 2,545, 301, 2, 5 and 33 ng L(-1), respectively. In the final effluent, AHDI, ATII and DPMI were not detected, while HHCB and AHTN were still measured at concentrations of 21 and 2 ng L(-1). No significant enantioselective transformation was detected during biological or advanced treatment processes. PMID:24845313

  9. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context. PMID:26344369

  10. The spatial domain of wildfire risk and response in the Wildland Urban Interface in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    In order to quantify the risks from fire at the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of 999 fires in the Sydney region we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting more than 2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances further than 10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the region. We examined whether the management responses to wildfires are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of wildfires with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than wildfires as a whole, but further away than wildfires that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.

  11. The spatial domain of wildfire risk and response in the wildland urban interface in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In order to quantify the risks from fire at the wildland urban interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of the 999 fires in the Sydney region we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire's weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting >2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances >10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the region. We examined whether the management responses to wildfires are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of wildfires with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than wildfires as a whole, but further away than wildfires that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). Overall, 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.

  12. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  13. Emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, a food additive and pesticides) in waters of Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Drage, D S; Thompson, K; Eaglesham, G; Mueller, J F

    2015-08-15

    The current investigation of marine water from 30 sites adjacent to stormwater outlets across the entire Sydney estuary is the first such research in Australia. The number of analytes detected were: 8/59 pharmaceutical compounds (codeine, paracetamol, tramadol, venlafaxine, propranolol, fluoxetine, iopromide and carbamazepine), 7/38 of the pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,4-dichloroaniline, carbaryl, diuron, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop and simazine) and 0/3 of the personal care products (PCPs) analysed. An artificial sweetener (acesulfame) was detected, however none of the nine antibiotics analysed were identified. Sewage water is not discharged to this estuary, except infrequently as overflow during high-precipitation events. The presence of acesulfame (a recognised marker of domestic wastewater) and pharmaceuticals in water from all parts of the estuary after a dry period, suggests sewage water is leaking into the stormwater system in this catchment. The pesticides are applied to the environment and were discharged via stormwater to the estuary. PMID:26130525

  14. Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

  15. Social and environmental factors drive variation in plant and bird communities across urban greenspace in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Ashlea J; Luck, Gary W

    2016-03-15

    We examined whether environmental or social factors alone, or a combination of social-ecological factors were more effective at explaining patterns in plant and bird assemblages across urban greenspaces. Thirty publicly accessible, passive recreation greenspaces provided by municipal councils (i.e. city parks) were surveyed in a highly urbanised city - Sydney, Australia. Plant communities were influenced most by topography and park management approach, and to a lesser extent by land-use history. Greenspaces with greater topographic variation and that were co-managed with local citizen groups hosted higher plant species richness and abundance. Bird species richness within greenspaces increased with increasing distance from the central business district and decreasing distance from freshwater. Bird abundance was best explained by a combination of social-ecological factors, with abundance increasing with increasing site (greenspace) age, increasing percent concrete groundcover of a site and increasing proximity to the central business district. We identified a group of 'rare city parks', dissimilar in ecological composition that hosted more complex and species rich plant communities compared to 'common city parks'. We suggest this difference is likely because rare city parks received management and maintenance input from local citizen groups, whereas common city parks were managed and maintained exclusively by local councils. How different social factors, such as management approach and ongoing maintenance, are linked to the ecology of urban greenspaces are key areas for future investigation to help create sustainable urban landscapes that provide maximum benefits to urban residents. PMID:26773425

  16. Evaluating the transport, health and economic impacts of new urban cycling infrastructure in Sydney, Australia – protocol paper

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are repeated calls to build better cycling paths in Australian cities if the proportion of people cycling is to increase. Yet the full range of transport, health, environmental and economic impacts of new cycling infrastructure and the extent to which observed changes are sustained is not well understood. The City of Sydney is currently building a new bicycle network, which includes a new bicycle path separated from road traffic in the south Sydney area. This protocol paper describes a comprehensive method to evaluate this new cycling infrastructure. Method A cohort of residents within two kilometres of the new bicycle path will be surveyed at baseline before a new section of bicycle path is built, and again 12 and 24 months later to assess changes in travel behaviour, sense of community, quality of life and health behaviours. Residents in a comparable area of Sydney that will not get a new separated bike path will act as a comparison group. At baseline a sub-set of residents who volunteer will also take a small GPS device with them for one week to assess travel behaviour. Discussion This research should contribute to the advancement in evaluation and appraisal methods for cycling projects. PMID:24131667

  17. Assessment of biotic response to heavy metal contamination in Avicennia marina mangrove ecosystems in Sydney Estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Birch, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    Mangrove forests act as a natural filter of land-derived wastewaters along industrialized tropical and sub-tropical coastlines and assist in maintaining a healthy living condition for marine ecosystems. Currently, these intertidal communities are under serious threat from heavy metal contamination induced by human activity associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. Studies on the biotic responses of these plants to heavy metal contamination are of great significance in estuary management and maintaining coastal ecosystem health. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the biotic response in Avicennia marina ecosystems to heavy metal contamination through the determination of metal concentrations in leaves, fine nutritive roots and underlying sediments collected in fifteen locations across Sydney Estuary (Australia). Metal concentrations (especially Cu, Pb and Zn) in the underlying sediments of A. marina were enriched to a level (based on Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines) at which adverse biological effects to flora could occasionally occur. Metals accumulated in fine nutritive roots greater than underlying sediments, however, only minor translocation of these metals to A. marina leaves was observed (mean translocation factors, TFs, for all elements <0.13, except for Mn). Translocation factors of essential elements (i.e., common plant micro-nutrients, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn) were greater than non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb), suggesting that A. marina mangroves of this estuary selectively excluded non-essential elements, while regulating essential elements and limiting toxicity to plants. This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination. PMID:25011126

  18. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC) Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart) of a cohort of residents (n = 909) in the intervention area (n = 520) (Fairfield and Liverpool) and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389) (Bankstown). Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p < 0.05) in the intervention area, with significantly higher rates of cycling in the intervention area (32.9%) compared with the comparison area (9.7%) amongst those aware of the project. There was a significant increase in use of bicycle paths in the intervention area (28.3% versus 16.2%, p < 0.05). These findings were confirmed by the bike count data. Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels. PMID:20181019

  19. Concentration of ptaquiloside, a major carcinogen in bracken fern (Pteridium spp.), from eastern Australia and from a cultivated worldwide collection held in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Seawright, A A; Ng, J C; Hertle, A T; Thomson, J A; Bostock, P D

    1994-01-01

    Two surveys of bracken fern for the concentration of the carcinogen ptaquiloside (PT) have been carried out, one of bracken fern from the eastern side of Australia and the other from a worldwide collection of bracken clones held in Sydney Australia. Bracken from eastern Australia contained concentrations of ptaquiloside ranging from 0 to 12,945 micrograms PT/g. From 91 samples 15% contained greater than 5,000 micrograms PT/g and 57% of samples contained more than 1,000 micrograms PT/g bracken on the dry weight basis. Ptaquiloside concentrations were highest in Pteridium revolutum and from P. esculentum from areas where bovine enzootic haematuria was known to occur. Bracken from the cultivated bracken clone collection from world-wide sources tended to have lower concentrations of ptaquiloside ranging from 0 to 9,776 micrograms PT/g. From 77 samples, 8% contained more than 5,000 micrograms PT/g and 35% contained more than 1,000 micrograms PT/g bracken. Samples from both the eastern Australia survey and the Australian representatives in the worldwide collection showed significantly higher concentrations of PT in the P. esculentum collected from the more southern states. In samples from the worldwide collection there were no statistical differences in the concentrations of PT in bracken between taxa. PMID:7704447

  20. Use of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value for strategic management of estuarine environments: Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, Gavin F; Hutson, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Sediment mantling the floor of Sydney estuary contains a wide range of chemicals at highly elevated concentrations over extensive areas. Appropriate sediment management decisions are urgently required to prevent further degradation of sediment quality and to minimize resulting adverse ecological effects. The objective of the present work was to provide a systematic, estuary-wide assessment of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value throughout the harbor to guide sediment management decisions. Sediment risk is the likelihood of sediment chemistry causing adverse biological effects to bottom-dwelling animals and was conducted using national sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for single contaminants and the mean SQG quotient approach to assess chemical mixtures. Sediment risk was negligible at the mouth of the estuary, but increased strongly landwards. The ecological/conservation value assessment was conducted to identify sites that warrant different levels of protection and was conducted using the value of ecological communities and priority waterway use. Consideration of these two parameters combined enabled the estuary to be prioritized for management attention. The prioritization and identification of appropriate management strategies were determined through the use of management matrices also based on sediment risk and ecological/conservation value. A computer package is being developed to provide managers with information on sediment risk, ecological/conservation value, the urgency and the type of management intervention required for any location in Sydney estuary, in real-time. This approach to estuarine management is unique and will greatly improve effective management of Sydney estuary, and other harbors in urgent need of management action and protection. PMID:19705195

  1. Use of Sediment Risk and Ecological/Conservation Value for Strategic Management of Estuarine Environments: Sydney Estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gavin F.; Hutson, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Sediment mantling the floor of Sydney estuary contains a wide range of chemicals at highly elevated concentrations over extensive areas. Appropriate sediment management decisions are urgently required to prevent further degradation of sediment quality and to minimize resulting adverse ecological effects. The objective of the present work was to provide a systematic, estuary-wide assessment of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value throughout the harbor to guide sediment management decisions. Sediment risk is the likelihood of sediment chemistry causing adverse biological effects to bottom-dwelling animals and was conducted using national sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for single contaminants and the mean SQG quotient approach to assess chemical mixtures. Sediment risk was negligible at the mouth of the estuary, but increased strongly landwards. The ecological/conservation value assessment was conducted to identify sites that warrant different levels of protection and was conducted using the value of ecological communities and priority waterway use. Consideration of these two parameters combined enabled the estuary to be prioritized for management attention. The prioritization and identification of appropriate management strategies were determined through the use of management matrices also based on sediment risk and ecological/conservation value. A computer package is being developed to provide managers with information on sediment risk, ecological/conservation value, the urgency and the type of management intervention required for any location in Sydney estuary, in real-time. This approach to estuarine management is unique and will greatly improve effective management of Sydney estuary, and other harbors in urgent need of management action and protection.

  2. Water-saving impacts of Smart Meter technology: An empirical 5 year, whole-of-community study in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirsten; Doolan, Corinna; van den Honert, Robin; Shi, Rose

    2014-09-01

    In 2009-2010 Sydney Water, the primary water utility in Sydney, conducted a comprehensive Smart Metering trial in residential homes in the suburb of Westleigh, in Sydney's north. The trial involved 1923 participants residing in 630 households. A whole-of-community method of engagement was applied to capture the views of residents from 12 to 70+ years of age. The trial examined the effects of the technology on the water consumption of an intervention group compared with that of a matched control group. After removing properties that had been sold since the beginning of the trial, properties in the study group were matched with a control group property on the basis of the household size, property size and the presence (or otherwise) of a swimming pool. The effects of the technology on consumption were measured and analyzed for the period July 2009 to June 2010, coupled with qualitative information that was collected throughout the duration of the study. A key finding was that households with the in-home display (IHD) installed, reduced their consumption by an average of over 6.8% over the study period when compared to the control group. Since completion of the study the community has not had any further interventions. The trial created an opportunity to examine the longer-term effects of the technology (June 2008 to September 2013). Consumption data collected over the 3 year posttrial period revealed that the participant group consumed 6.4% per month less water when compared to the pretrial period, whilst the matched control group consumed 1.3% per month more water when compared to the pretrial period. The reduced consumption of the participant group was maintained over time, demonstrating the long-term value of this technology.

  3. Interpretation at Wetland Sites in the Sydney Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadhokar, Yojana; McLoughlin, Lynette C.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretive and educational facilities at five wetland sites near Sydney (Australia) were studied to determine their goals, range of facilities and activities, and themes related to wetlands and their conservation covered in informal visitor programs and formal education programs for school groups. Program objectives and activities were generally…

  4. Genotype heterogeneity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within geospatial hotspots suggests foci of imported infection in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Jelfs, Peter; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Marais, Ben J; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2016-06-01

    In recent years the State of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, has maintained a low tuberculosis incidence rate with little evidence of local transmission. Nearly 90% of notified tuberculosis cases occurred in people born in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We analyzed geographic, epidemiological and genotypic data of all culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases to identify the bacterial and demographic determinants of tuberculosis hotspot areas in NSW. Standard 24-loci mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-24) typing was performed on all isolates recovered between 2009 and 2013. In total 1692/1841 (91.9%) cases with confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection had complete MIRU-24 and demographic data and were included in the study. Despite some year-to-year variability, spatio-temporal analysis identified four tuberculosis hotspots. The incidence rate and the relative risk of tuberculosis in these hotspots were 2- to 10-fold and 4- to 8-fold higher than the state average, respectively. MIRU-24 profiles of M. tuberculosis isolates associated with these hotspots revealed high levels of heterogeneity. This suggests that these spatio-temporal hotspots, within this low incidence setting, can represent areas of predominantly imported infection rather than clusters of cases due to local transmission. These findings provide important epidemiological insight and demonstrate the value of combining tuberculosis genotyping and spatiotemporal data to guide better-targeted public health interventions. PMID:26187743

  5. Overdose beliefs and management practices among ethnic Vietnamese heroin users in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Ho, Hien T

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic Vietnamese injecting drug users (IDUs) in Australia draw on a range of beliefs and etiologic models, sometimes simultaneously, in order to make sense of health and illness. These include understandings of illness as the result of internal imbalances and Western concepts of disease causation including germ/pollution theory. Methods Observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews were conducted between 2001 and 2006 in neighbourhoods characterised by high proportions of Asian background IDUs and street-based drug markets. Eligibility criteria for the study were: 1) ethnic Vietnamese cultural background; 2) aged 16 years and over and; 3) injected drugs in the last 6 months. Results Participants commonly attempted to treat heroin overdose by withdrawing blood (rút máu) from the body. Central to this practice are cultural beliefs about the role and function of blood in the body and its relationship to illness and health. Participants' beliefs in blood were strongly influenced by understandings of blood expressed in traditional Chinese and Vietnamese medicine. Many participants perceived Western drugs, particularly heroin, as "hot" and "strong". In overdose situations, it was commonly believed that an excessive amount of drugs (particularly heroin) entered the bloodstream and traveled to the heart, making the heart work too hard. Withdrawing blood was understood to reduce the amount of drugs in the body which in turn reduced the effects of drugs on the blood and the heart. Conclusion The explanatory model of overdose employed by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs privileges traditional beliefs about the circulatory, rather than the respiratory, system. This paper explores participants' beliefs about blood, the effects of drugs on blood and the causes of heroin overdose in order to document the explanatory model of overdose used by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs. Implications for overdose prevention, treatment and management are identified and discussed. PMID:19397811

  6. Body mass, cardiovascular risk and metabolic characteristics of young persons presenting for mental healthcare in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; GeHue, Jeanne; Whitwell, Bradley G; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young people presenting for mental healthcare. Design Cross-sectional assessments of body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Setting Two primary-care based sites in Sydney, Australia for young people in the early stages of mental disorders. Participants A clinical sample of young people (12–30 years) with mental health problems. Outcome measures Daily smoking rates, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate. Results Of 1005 young people who had their BMI determined (62% female; 19.0±3.5 years), three quarters (739/1005) also had BP recordings and one-third (298/1005) had blood sampling. Clinically, 775 were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories (anxious-depression: n=541; mania-fatigue, n=104; developmental-psychotic n=130). The profile of BMI categories approximated that of the comparable segments of the Australian population. Older age, lower levels of social functioning and higher systolic BP were all associated with high BMI. In a subset (n=129), current use of any psychotropic medication was associated (p<0.05) with increased BMI. Almost one-third of cases were current daily smokers (compared to population rate of 11%). Males had a higher proportion of raised glucose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to females (9.3% and 34.1% vs 2.1% and 5.9%, respectively). Overall, there was no relationship between BMI and fasting glucose but significant relationships with triglycerides and HDL were noted. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between diagnostic subgroup and metabolic profiles. Conclusions Daily smoking rates are increased among young people presenting for mental healthcare. However, these young people do not demonstrate adverse cardiometabolic profiles. The high levels of smoking, and association of BMI with adverse social circumstances, suggest that risk factors for chronic

  7. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney. PMID:25492514

  8. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

  9. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osso, F; Dominey-Howes, D; Moore, C; Summerhayes, S; Withycombe, G

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney. PMID:25492514

  10. Illuminating incidents in antipodean astronomy: John Tebbutt and the Sydney Observatory directorship of 1862.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, W.

    During much of the second half of the nineteenth century John Tebbutt of Windsor Observatory was Australia's foremost astronomer, despite having chosen to remain an amateur when offered the directorship of Sydney Observatory in 1862. In this paper, the circumstances relating to this offer are investigated, and Tebbutt's subsequent relations with Sydney Observatory are critically examined.

  11. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation Strategies: Summary of the E. & F. White Conference held in Sydney, Australia, December 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jon F.; Ekers, Ron D.; Bunton, John D.

    2000-12-01

    The E. & F. White Conference held in Sydney in December 1999 brought together expertise on a range of interference mitigation techniques from CSIRO, Australian and international industry and universities. Key goals were to enhance the understanding of techniques and their inter-relationship, to increase awareness of advanced technologies such as software radios and photonics, and to foster a cooperative approach to the development of interference mitigation techniques. The foremost application in mind was the square kilometre array (SKA) and the need to find ways to develop a hierarchical scheme for removing unwanted signals from astronomical data. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at the conference and summarises some of the key ideas and results that were presented.

  12. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  13. Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M; Norris, Jacqueline M; White, Joanna D; Dhand, Nanveet K; Hamilton, Samuel A; Malik, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further occasions, 2 and 4 weeks after the first posting. Completed questionnaires were received from 884 households. No pets were kept by 387 (43.8%) respondents. Dogs and cats were owned by 295 (33.4%) and 198 (22.5%) of households, respectively, with 7.8% of households having both cat(s) and dog(s). Fish and birds were the next most popular pets. Of the 198 cat-owning households, 54.0% kept only cat(s), while 46.5% kept cats with other pets. The distribution of cat ownership across Sydney was non-uniform. Each cat-owning household kept 1.3 cats on average, with the majority keeping one (75.8% households) or two (18.7%). For the 260 cats, the mean age was 7.1 years, the median 6 years, with a range of 3 months to 22 years. There were significantly more female (143; 55%) than male cats (117; 45%). Only seven cats (2.7%) were sexually entire, and these were all < or =6 years. Crossbred cats outnumbered pedigree cats by a ratio of 3.3:1. The Burmese was the most common breed, followed by the Persian. The median age of pedigree cats (5.5 years) was significantly lower than for domestic crossbred cats (7.0 years). Most cats were housed both indoors and outdoors (72.6%), with 19.7% being restricted to indoors and/or 'pet park enclosures'. Pedigree cats were significantly more likely than crossbreds to be housed indoors. Most owners fed their cats a combination of commercial dry and canned food (38.1%), although fresh meat was popular also and either fed alone (1.6%) or in combination with dry food (14.4%), tinned food (1.6%) or canned and dry food (25.8%). A diet

  14. Unpacking Time: Minutes from Reggio Emilia, Australia and America. Conference Proceedings (5th, Sydney, Australia, July 8-9, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    This conference proceedings compiles papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2000, the fifth in a series examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on time and play in preschool education. Paper topics related to the history of…

  15. Field Evaluation of Melolure, a Formate Analogue of Cuelure, and Reassessment of Fruit Fly Species Trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Campbell, Angus J; Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure or methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol is a very effective lure, but cuelure is less effective likely due to low volatility. A new formate analogue of cuelure, melolure, has increased volatility, resulting in improved efficacy with the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett. We tested the efficacy of melolure with fruit fly species in Sydney as part of the National Exotic Fruit Fly Monitoring programme. This monitoring programme has 71 trap sites across Sydney, with each trap site comprising separate Lynfield traps containing either cuelure, methyl eugenol, or capilure lure. In 2008, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure plugs was added to seven sites. In 2009 and 2010, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure wicks was added to 11 trap sites and traps were monitored fortnightly for 2 yr. Capture rates for melolure traps were similar to cuelure traps for Dacus absonifacies (May) and Dacus aequalis (Coquillet), but melolure traps consistently caught fewer Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) than cuelure traps. However, trap sites with both a cuelure and melolure traps had increased capture rates for D. absonifacies and D. aequalis, and a marginally significant increase for B. tryoni. Melolure plugs were less effective than melolure wicks, but this effect may be related to lure concentration. The broader Bactrocera group species were attracted more to cuelure than melolure while the Dacus group species were attracted more to melolure than cuelure. There is no benefit in switching from cuelure to melolure to monitor B. tryoni, the most important fruit fly pest in Australia. PMID:26470243

  16. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. PMID:23973180

  17. Fluid flow histories in Permo-Triass sediments of the Sydney Basin, SE Australia; isotope and fluid inclusion constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.J.; Bai, G.P.

    1996-12-31

    A petrographic, isotopic and fluid inclusion investigation of Permo-Triassic sandstones in the Sydney Basin has enabled reconstruction of the history of fluid flow. Diagenetic cements in Triassic sandstones comprise, in order, grain coating clays and carbonates, pore filling carbonates, kaolin, quartz, late interstitial carbonate and illite. Diagenesis in the Permian sandstones began with pore filling siderite prior to saddle ankerite, followed by quartz and then illite and late carbonates. Fluid rock interaction during burial resulted in increases in pore water 8180 from depositional values of -17{per_thousand} to about -12{per_thousand} to -7{per_thousand} at the time of quartz overgrowth crystallization and to between -7{per_thousand} to -1{per_thousand} at the time of illite crystallisation. Interpretation of fluid inclusion data and maturity measurements indicates that heat flow increased during the Triassic and Jurassic, reaching a maximum of about 2.1 HFU in the Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous uplift, cooling and erosion was initiated at the same time as, and probably related to, the initiation of Tasman Sea rifting. The rocks had previously been more deeply buried by 1500-2100m. The uplift resulted in cessation of illite diagenesis timed at 90Ma and meteoric water invasion of the sandstones in turn causing partial resetting of {delta}D compositions of the diagenetic clays to less D-depleted values.

  18. Fluid flow histories in Permo-Triass sediments of the Sydney Basin, SE Australia; isotope and fluid inclusion constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.J. ); Bai, G.P. )

    1996-01-01

    A petrographic, isotopic and fluid inclusion investigation of Permo-Triassic sandstones in the Sydney Basin has enabled reconstruction of the history of fluid flow. Diagenetic cements in Triassic sandstones comprise, in order, grain coating clays and carbonates, pore filling carbonates, kaolin, quartz, late interstitial carbonate and illite. Diagenesis in the Permian sandstones began with pore filling siderite prior to saddle ankerite, followed by quartz and then illite and late carbonates. Fluid rock interaction during burial resulted in increases in pore water 8180 from depositional values of -17[per thousand] to about -12[per thousand] to -7[per thousand] at the time of quartz overgrowth crystallization and to between -7[per thousand] to -1[per thousand] at the time of illite crystallisation. Interpretation of fluid inclusion data and maturity measurements indicates that heat flow increased during the Triassic and Jurassic, reaching a maximum of about 2.1 HFU in the Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous uplift, cooling and erosion was initiated at the same time as, and probably related to, the initiation of Tasman Sea rifting. The rocks had previously been more deeply buried by 1500-2100m. The uplift resulted in cessation of illite diagenesis timed at 90Ma and meteoric water invasion of the sandstones in turn causing partial resetting of [delta]D compositions of the diagenetic clays to less D-depleted values.

  19. The mismatch of bioaccumulated trace metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in field and transplanted oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to ambient surficial sediments and suspended particulate matter in a highly urbanised estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Birch, Gavin F

    2016-04-01

    A significant correlation between sedimentary metals, particularly the 'bio-available' fraction, and bioaccumulated metal concentrations in the native Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) tissues has been successfully demonstrated previously for Cu and Zn in a number of estuaries in New South Wales, Australia. However, this relationship has been difficult to establish in a highly modified estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia) where metal contamination is of greatest concern and where a significant relationship would be most useful for environmental monitoring. The use of the Sydney rock oyster as a biomonitoring tool for metal contamination was assessed in the present study by investigating relationships between metals attached to sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) to bioaccumulated concentrations in oyster tissues. Surficial sediments (both total and fine-fraction), SPM and wild oysters were collected over 3 years from three embayments (Chowder Bay, Mosman Bay and Iron Cove) with each embayment representing a different physiographic region of Sydney estuary. In addition, a transplant experiment of farmed oysters was conducted in the same embayments for 3 months. No relationship was observed between sediments or SPM metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) to tissue of wild oysters; however, significant relationship was observed against transplanted oysters. The mismatch between wild and farmed, transplanted oysters is perplexing and indicates that wild oysters are unsuitable to be used as a biomonitoring tool due to the involvement of unknown complex factors while transplanted oysters hold strong potential. PMID:27003401

  20. Ethnomedicine and dominant medicine in multicultural Australia: a critical realist reflection on the case of Korean-Australian immigrants in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; Ballis, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Background Viewed through the micro focus of an interpretive lens, medical anthropology remains mystified because interpretivist explanations seriously downplay the given context in which individual health seeking-behaviours occur. This paper draws upon both the interpretivist and political economy perspectives to reflect on the ethno medical practices within the Korean-Australian community in Sydney. Methods We draw on research data collected between 1995 and 1997 for an earlier study of the use of biomedical and traditional medicine by Korean-Australians in Sydney. A total of 120 interviews were conducted with a range of participants, including biomedical doctors, traditional health professionals, Korean community leaders and Korean migrants representing a range of socio-economic backgrounds and migration patterns. Results and Discussion First, the paper highlights the extent to which the social location of migrants in a host society alters or restructures their initial cultural practices they bring with them. Second, taking hanbang medicine in the Korean-Australian community as an illustrative case, the paper explores the transformation of the dominant biomedicine in Australia as a result of the influx of ethnomedicine in the era of global capitalism and global movement. Conclusion In seeking to explain the popularity and supply of alternative health care, it is important to go beyond the culture of each kind of health care itself and to take into consideration the changes occurring at societal, national and global levels as well as consequential individual response to the changes. New social conditions influence the choice of health care methods, including herbal/alternative medicine, health foods and what are often called New Age therapies. PMID:17201916

  1. Development of an estuarine assessment scheme for the management of a highly urbanised catchment/estuary system, Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Gunns, T J; Chapman, D; Harrison, D

    2016-05-01

    As coastal populations increase, considerable pressures are exerted on estuarine environments. Recently, there has been a trend towards the development and use of estuarine assessment schemes as a decision support tool in the management of these environments. These schemes offer a method by which complex environmental data is converted into a readily understandable and communicable format for informed decision making and effective distribution of limited management resources. Reliability and effectiveness of these schemes are often limited due to a complex assessment framework, poor data management and use of ineffective environmental indicators. The current scheme aims to improve reliability in the reporting of estuarine condition by including a concise assessment framework, employing high-value indicators and, in a unique approach, employing fuzzy logic in indicator evaluation. Using Sydney estuary as a case study, each of the 15 sub-catchment/sub-estuary systems were assessed using the current scheme. Results identified that poor sediment quality was a significant issue in Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Iron Cove and Hen and Chicken Bay while poor water quality was of particular concern in Duck River, Homebush Bay and the Parramatta River. Overall results of the assessment scheme were used to prioritise the management of each sub-catchment/sub-estuary assessed with Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Homebush Bay, Iron Cove and Duck River considered to be in need of a high priority management response. A report card format, using letter grades, was employed to convey the results of the assessment in a readily understood manner to estuarine managers and members of the public. Letter grades also provide benchmarking and performance monitoring ability, allowing estuarine managers to set improvement targets and assesses the effectiveness of management strategies. The current assessment scheme provides an effective, integrated and consistent assessment of estuarine health and

  2. A human thermal climatology of subtropical Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, J. C.; de Dear, R. J.

    2003-09-01

    Using a physiologically relevant thermal comfort index (OUT_SET*), an analysis of the week-by-week human thermal climate of Sydney was carried out for three levels of metabolic activity. The OUT_SET* index is an outdoor version of the widely used indoor comfort index called the standard effective temperature (SET*) incorporating air and mean radiant temperatures, relative humidity, air velocity, clothing insulation and activity level. The outdoor comfort zone for Sydney in terms of OUT_SET* was found from earlier subjective field studies to be in the range 23.8-28.5°C. The analysis indicated that the mid-summer period (weeks 43 through to 12 in the Southern Hemisphere) was most suitable for sedentary outdoor activities (e.g. watching spectator sport), whereas the mid-winter period was more suitable for light activities such as walking. Sydney's winter was found to be a very suitable season for tourism in many respects because of (a) low rainfall months, like August, and (b) the ability to undertake light activities while remaining within the outdoor comfort zone. For high metabolic activities during the day, for example the mass participation Sydney City-to-Surf fun run, it was found that the threshold limit value for increased risk of heat stress (as defined by ISO 7243, 1989) is exceeded up to 50% of the time during the summer (weeks 50 through to 9 at 3 p.m.) at the 90th percentile probability level. The methods and results of this study should be relevant to end-users such as architects, engineers, outdoor-event planners and the tourism industry in general.

  3. Explaining ecological clusters of maternal depression in South Western Sydney

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to: 1) explain the observed clustering of postnatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney; and 2) identify group-level mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the social determinants of maternal depression. Methods Critical realism provided the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was four local government areas in South Western Sydney, Australia. Child and Family practitioners and mothers in naturally occurring mothers groups were interviewed. Results Using an open coding approach to maximise emergence of patterns and relationships we have identified seven theoretical concepts that might explain the observed spatial clustering of maternal depression. The theoretical concepts identified were: Community-level social networks; Social Capital and Social Cohesion; "Depressed community"; Access to services at the group level; Ethnic segregation and diversity; Supportive social policy; and Big business. Conclusions We postulate that these regional structural, economic, social and cultural mechanisms partially explain the pattern of maternal depression observed in families and communities within South Western Sydney. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situation. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their families within this adverse regional and global-economic context. PMID:24460690

  4. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami - an application of the revised Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) Model in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Dall'Osso, Fillippo; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.

    2010-05-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009a, b) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience. Last, we propose the wider application of the PTVA-3 Model as a tool for building vulnerability assessment. Dall'Osso, D., Gonella, M., Gabbianelli, G., Withycombe, G. and Dominey-Howes, D. (2009a). A revised (PTVA) model for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1557-1565. Dall'Osso, D

  5. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM. PMID:17360882

  6. Parasites of QX-resistant and wild-type Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) in Moreton Bay, SE Queensland, Australia: diversity and host response.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C; Chan, Janlin; Hénault, Olivier; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    Wild caught (WC) and QX resistant (QXR) Sydney rock oysters were introduced at North Stradbroke Island and Pimpama River, SE Queensland, Australia, and sampled monthly during 1 year. Three groups of parasites/diseases were identified by observation of histological sections: (1) Marteilia sydneyi (Queensland unknown (QX) disease) and Steinhausia sp. (Microsporidia) characterized by a high prevalence and deleterious impact on the host; (2) disseminated neoplasia and the trematode Proctoeces sp. characterized by low prevalence but deleterious effects on the host; (3) parasites or symbionts with no detectable effect on the host: trematodes, ciliates, turbellarians and metacestodes. Mortality rates were similar between both oyster lines but higher at Pimpama River (reaching around 90%) than Stradbroke Island, mostly because of QX disease and, to a lesser extent, to the unfavourable environmental conditions of the summer 2010-2011. Lower prevalences of QX disease at Stradbroke Island probably related to the relative lack of intermediate hosts of the parasite and to lower freshwater input. Surprisingly, no difference in prevalence of QX disease was observed between the two oyster lines. PMID:23274078

  7. How can investment in the landscape or the interface reduce the risk of house loss from wildfires? A comparative study between Sydney, Australia and California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Trent; Bradstock, Ross; Collins, Luke; Fotheringham, Cj; Keeley, Jon; Labiosa, Bill; Price, Owen; Syphard, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Wildfire can result in significant losses to people and property. Management agencies undertake a range of actions in the landscape and at the interface to reduce this risk. Data relating to the success of individual treatments varies, with some approaches well understood and others less so. Research has rarely attempted to consider the interactive effects of treatments in order to determine optimal management strategies that reduce the risk of loss. Bayesian Networks provide a statistical framework for undertaking such an analysis. Here we apply Bayesian Networks to examine the trade-offs in investment in preventative actions (e.g., fuel treatment, community education, development controls) and suppressive actions (e.g., initial attack, landscape suppression, property protection) in two fire prone regions -Sydney, Australia and California, USA. Investment in management actions at the interface resulted in the greatest reduction in the risk of house loss for both of the study regions. Landscape treatments had a limited ability to change the risk of house loss.

  8. The scientific legacy of Sydney Chapman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2011-08-01

    Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was arguably one of the greatest scientists of the twentieth century. His comprehensive work on the kinetic theory of gases and solar-terrestrial physics, as well as on the mechanisms behind the formation of Earth's ozone layer, has inspired a wide swath of research spanning several generations [Van Allen, 1970]. Chapman, a member of the Royal Society, in London, and president of the International Geophysical Year (IGY), also was a recipient of AGU's William Bowie Medal. Young AGU members today may recognize Chapman from the topical conferences that carry his name. Although his biography has so far not been published, he gave three talks on his life: two at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., in 1965 and 1966, and one at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, in 1967 (see Figure 1). All three are transcribed and included in a book, Sydney Chapman, Eighty: From His Friends [Akasofu et al., 1968]. These talks, combined with other sources, shed light on this insightful and discerning scientist.

  9. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 4: Kerr, Shain, Higgins and the Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; George, Martin; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Between 1949 and 1952 the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics was a world leader in low frequency radio astronomy, through research conducted mainly by Alex Shain and Charlie Higgins at their Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney. In this paper we discuss the personnel, radio telescopes and research programs (mainly conducted at 9.15 and 18.3 MHz) associated with the Hornsby Valley site.

  10. Skin neoplasms of dogs in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, T L; Howlett, C R; Middleton, D J; Griffiths, D A; Duff, B C

    1987-06-01

    In a survey of dogs in Sydney, mastocytomas (16.1%) and histiocytomas (14.0%) were the most common in a total of 1,000 skin neoplasms. The basal cell and appendage group provided 25.5% of the neoplasms. The prevalence of the various neoplasms, the age of affected dogs, the proportion in the sexes, the common sites of occurrence and prevalence in the different breeds were broadly similar to findings in surveys in other countries, except that in the Syndeny dogs there was a greater prevalence of histiocytomas and haemangiopericytomas, a more common occurrence of histiocytomas in mature dogs, an occurrence of histiocytomas in similar numbers on the head, trunk and limbs, and a remarkably common development of squamous cell carcinomas in Dalmatians. PMID:3115242

  11. A comparison of the sports safety policies and practices of community sports clubs during training and competition in northern Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, A; Forero, R; Finch, C; Hill, T

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the safety policies and practices reported to be adopted during training and competition by community sports clubs in northern Sydney, Australia. Methods: This cross sectional study involved face to face interviews, using an 81 item extensively validated questionnaire, with representatives of 163 community netball, rugby league, rugby union, and soccer clubs (response rate 85%). The study was undertaken during the winter sports season of 2000. Two separate 14 item scales were developed to analyse the level of safety policy adoption and safety practice implementation during training and competition. The statistical analysis comprised descriptive and inferential analysis stratified by sport. Results: The reliability of the scales was good: Cronbach's α = 0.70 (competition scale) to 0.81 (training scale). Significant differences were found between the safety scores for training and competition for all clubs (mean difference 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.0 to 12.5) and for each of the four sports: netball (mean difference 14.9; 95% CI 12.6 to 17.2); rugby league (mean difference 10.3; 95% CI 7.1 to 13.6); rugby union (mean difference 9.4; 95% CI 7.1 to 11.7); and soccer (mean difference 8.4; 95% CI 6.5 to 10.3). Conclusions: The differences in the mean competition and training safety scores were significant for all sports. This indicates that safety policies were less often adopted and practices less often implemented during training than during competition. As injuries do occur at training, and sports participants often spend considerably more time training than competing, sporting bodies should consider whether the safety policies and practices adopted and implemented at training are adequate. PMID:14751948

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road-deposited sediments, water sediments, and soils in Sydney, Australia: Comparisons of concentration distribution, sources and potential toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Chung; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Slee, Danny; Stevenson, Gavin; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered as priority environmental pollutants were analysed in surface natural soils (NS), road-deposited sediments (RDS), and water sediments (WS) at Kogarah in Sydney, Australia. Comparisons were made of their concentration distributions, likely sources and potential toxicities. The concentrations (mg/kg) in NS, RDS, and WS ranged from 0.40 to 7.49 (mean 2.80), 1.65 to 4.00 (mean 2.91), and 0.49 to 5.19 (mean 1.76), respectively. PAHs were dominated by relatively high molecular weight compounds with more than three fused benzene rings, indicating that high temperature combustion processes were their predominant sources. The proportions of high molecular weight PAHs with five or six fused benzene rings were higher in NS than in RDS, whereas the low molecular weight PAHs were higher in RDS. Concentrations of all PAHs compounds were observed to be the lowest in WS. The concentrations of most of the high molecular weight PAHs significantly correlated with each other in RDS and WS. All PAHs (except naphthalene) were significantly correlated in NS suggesting a common PAH source. Ratios for individual diagnostic PAHs demonstrated that the primary source of PAHs in WS and NS was of pyrogenic origin (combustion of petroleum (vehicle exhaust), grass, and wood) while in RDS it was petrogenic (i.e. unburned or leaked fuel and oil, road asphalt, and tyre particles) as well as pyrogenic. The potential toxicities of PAHs calculated using a toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ) were all low but higher for NS compared to WS and RDS. PMID:24732030

  13. Tackling the Issues of Landscape Characterisation for Natural Resource Management in Urban and Peri-urban Western Sydney, Australia: Application of the Hydro-Geologic Landscapes Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. L.; Harvey, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dryland salinity is a natural resource management issue and a planning hazard in urban/peri-urban Western Sydney, where there is enormous development pressure. The level of detail available on local geological, hydrogeologic and soils maps commonly does not provide sufficient detail for sub-catchment scale urban development planning and natural resource management (NRM) decision-making. The dominant lithologies for the area are relatively thick (up to 300m), flat-lying, Triassic fluvial and shallow marine siliciclastic sediments of the Sydney Basin. Localised areas of Cainozoic gravels cover the palaeo-landscapes developed on older rocks, and modern fluvial processes along the Hawkesbury River and tributaries continue to modify the landscape. Salt is concentrated in this landscape through aeolian accession and deposition from oceanic aerosols, but almost never as fossil (connate) salts. The redistribution of salts by the process of aeolian accession typically takes place when the salts are coupled with windblown dust known as parna. For south-eastern NSW, this dust originates from areas which are more arid, such as the western regions of the NSW and Victorian states. Aerosols from the ocean can be responsible for the deposition of salts up to a few hundred kilometres from their source. This process is responsible for a significant contribution of salt in the Sydney area. Field observations have shown that salt outbreaks are more dominant on some Sydney Basin units, specifically the Wianamatta Group sediments, some Cainozoic units, and along many active drainage systems. The Wianamatta Group sediments comprise three sub-groups; the Bringelly Shale, Minchinbury Sandstone and Ashfield Shale. The Cainozoic sediments comprise at least three units; the Saint Mary's Formation, Rickaby's Creek Gravels and Londonderry Clay. In Western Sydney these successions form an east-west oriented, tear-drop-shaped sub-basin, the Cumberland Basin, that narrows and thins to the east. In

  14. "A Reservoir of Learning": The Beginnings of Continuing Education at the University of Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl

    2009-01-01

    Adult education has often been on the margin of university offerings in Australia and elsewhere, sometimes regarded as "non-core" business or at least as a financial drain on the institution. At the University of Sydney, however, adult education has managed to survive in one form or other for over 140 years, currently through the Centre for…

  15. Creating Effective Holocaust Education Programmes for Government Schools with Large Muslim Populations in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and…

  16. Tracing Discourses of Social Action: Inner-City Sydney Neighbourhood Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, John

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on my doctoral research around community organizations in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. The neighbourhood centres (NCs) provide a case study of sites where discourses of feminism, multiculturalism and urban environmentalism have been activated within a social justice framework. The research participants were activists…

  17. The Impact of Land Cover Change on a Simulated Storm Event in the Sydney Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, A. F.; Pitman, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was run at a 1-km grid spacing over the Sydney basin in Australia to assess the impact of land cover change on a simulated storm event. The simulated storm used NCEP NCAR reanalysis data, first with natural (i.e., pre-European settlement in 1788) land cover and then with satellite-derived land cover representing Sydney's current land use pattern. An intense convective storm develops in the model in close proximity to Sydney's dense urban central business district under current land cover. The storm is absent under natural land cover conditions. A detailed investigation of why the change in land cover generates a storm was performed using factorial analysis, which revealed the storm to be sensitive to the presence of agricultural land in the southwest of the domain. This area interacts with the sea breeze and affects the horizontal divergence and moisture convergence—the triggering mechanisms of the storm. The existence of the storm over the dense urban area of Sydney is therefore coincidental. The results herein support efforts to develop parameterization of urban surfaces in high-resolution simulations of Sydney's meteorological environment but also highlight the need to improve the parameterization of other types of land cover change at the periphery of the urban area, given that these types dominate the explanation of the results.

  18. Extreme Droughts In Sydney And Melbourne Since The 1850s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Selim

    2014-05-01

    Sydney and Melbourne are the two highly populated and very well known Australian cities. Population is over 4 million for each. These cities are subject to extreme droughts which affect regional water resources and cause substantial agricultural and economic losses. This study presents a drought analysis of Sydney and Melbourne for the period of 1850s to date by using Effective Drought Index (EDI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). EDI is a function of precipitation needed for return to normal conditions, the amount of precipitation necessary for recovery from the accumulated deficit since the beginning of a drought. SPI is the most popular and widely used drought index for the last decades. According to the results of EDI analysis; 8 different extreme drought events identified in Sydney, and 5 events in Melbourne since 1850s. The characterization of these extreme drought events were investigated in terms of magnitude, duration, intensity and interarrival time between previous drought event. EDI results were compared with the results of SPI and the similarities and differences were then discussed in more detail. The most severe drought event was identified for the period of July 1979 to February 1981 (lasted 19 months) for Sydney, while the most severe drought took longer in Melbourne for the period of March 2006 to February 2010 (47 months). This study focuses on the benefits of the use of EDI and SPI methods in order to monitor droughts beside presenting the extreme drought case study of Sydney and Melbourne.

  19. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  20. Future Training Issues in Australia's Industries. A Collection of the Papers Presented at the NCVER 1998 Conference: Industry Training Outlook '98 (Sydney, Australia, October 12-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This book contains 31 papers from a conference on future training issues in Australia's industries. The following papers are included: "Training Development in Australia" (Chris Ellison); "Meeting National and Employer Training Requirements" (Mark Paterson); "Meeting Employee Training Requirements" (Bill Mansfield); "Training Challenges in…

  1. Difference and Diversity at the University of Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Criss Jones

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood education does not exist in isolation from the broader world. The political, social and economic reality that shapes Australian life has a powerful influence on the ways in which curriculum, pedagogy and policy are constructed. At the University of Western Sydney, in accordance with the university's goals and commitments to equity…

  2. Engaging the Refugee Community of Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the community engagement program, "Refugee Action Support" (RAS) at the University of Western Sydney. RAS is a partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation, The NSW Department of Education and Training and the university. The Refugee Action Support program prepares pre-service teachers to teach…

  3. Doctoral Supervision at Sydney University, Hindrance or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, E. Z.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Some of the reasons for the unduly long time required to finish PhDs at the University of Sydney are examined, and two problem areas are noted: the imposition of excessive standards for ulterior motives, and inadequate supervision. Based on questionnaires, five specific reforms are suggested. (JSR)

  4. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services. PMID:23821904

  5. Circumcision and risk of sexually transmissible infections in a community-based cohort of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, DJ; Jin, F; Prestage, GP; Donovan, B; Imrie, JCG; Kippax, SC; Cunningham, PH; Kaldor, JM; Mindel, A; Cunningham, AL; Grulich, AE

    2009-01-01

    Background Circumcision status was examined as an independent risk factor for STIs in the HIM cohort of homosexual men in Sydney. Methods From 2001–2004, 1,427 initially HIV-negative men were enrolled and followed to mid-2007. All participants were offered annual STI testing. Past history of STIs was collected at baseline and information on sexual risk behaviors, every 6 months. At annual face-to-face visits, participants reported STI diagnoses made in the previous year. Results Circumcision was not associated with prevalent or incident HSV-1, HSV-2, or self-reported genital warts. There was also no independent association of circumcision with incident urethral gonorrhea or chlamydia. Being circumcised was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.84), but not prevalent (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.35–1.44) syphilis. The association was somewhat stronger among men who reported predominantly insertive unprotected anal intercourse (HR 0.10, 95% CI 0.01–0.82). Conclusions These are the first prospective data in homosexual men to assess circumcision status as a risk factor for STIs. Circumcised men were at reduced risk of incident syphilis but no other prevalent or incident STIs. Circumcision is unlikely to have a substantial public health impact in reducing acquisition of most STIs in homosexual men. PMID:19911990

  6. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jessica Veliscek; Hughes, Catherine E; Hoffmann, Emmy L

    2011-10-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater out falls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae,which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal out fall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STP's as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline out falls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively. PMID:22180886

  7. Unpacking Interpretation: De-Constructions from Australia, America and Reggio Emilia. Selected Conference Papers from the Unpacking Conference (6th, Sydney, Australia, July 16-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    This conference proceedings compiles a representative sample of the papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2001, one in a series of conferences examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on the interpretation of experiences and…

  8. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (<0.05 μg g(-1)), except during year 2 remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental

  9. Travel Mode and Physical Activity at Sydney University

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Mulley, Corinne; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    How staff and students travel to university can impact their physical activity level. An online survey of physical activity and travel behaviour was conducted in early November 2012 to inform planning of physical activity and active travel promotion programs at the University of Sydney, Australia as part of the “Sit Less, Move More” sub-committee of the Healthy University Initiative, and as baseline data for evaluation. There were 3,737 useable responses, 60% of which were from students. Four out of five respondents travelled to the University on the day of interest (Tuesday, November 30, 2012). The most frequently used travel modes were train (32%), car as driver (22%), bus (17%), walking (17%) and cycling (6%). Staff were twice as likely to drive as students, and also slightly more likely to use active transport, defined as walking and cycling (26% versus 22%). Overall, 41% of respondents were sufficiently active (defined by meeting physical activity recommendations of 150 min per week). Participants were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations if they travelled actively to the University. With a high proportion of respondents using active travel modes or public transport already, increasing the physical activity levels and increasing the use of sustainable travel modes would mean a mode shift from public transport to walking and cycling for students is needed and a mode shift from driving to public transport or active travel for University staff. Strategies to achieve this are discussed. PMID:23939390

  10. Intensive sex partying amongst gay men in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael; Prestage, Garrett

    2009-08-01

    Intensive sex partying is a framework developed to analyse specific frequent behaviours amongst a small minority of gay men in Sydney, Australia. The behaviours included a higher frequency of dance party attendance, more frequent sex, more anal sex, multiple sex partners, more unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners and more frequent drug taking. These occur at a contextual intersection between a sub-group of sexually adventurous gay men and 'party boys'. The men appear to be involved in both high-risk, adventurous sex practices and a specific form of partying distinguishable from dance partying and 'clubbing'. Sex partying occurs on multiple sites (domestic spaces; within dance parties; sex parties; sex-on-premises venues) and appears to be geared to the maximisation of sexual pleasure. Intensive sex partying describes this coincidence of factors and locates them in relation to the multiple pleasures offered by sex partying. It emphasises the importance of 'intensity' in order to understand better the relations between sex, drug use, pleasure, care and risk in some gay men's lives. PMID:19499392

  11. Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin deep 3D structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB), one of the largest extensional rift sedimentary basins on the east coast of Australia, lack an understanding of the 3D upper crustal structure. Understanding of the subsurface structure is essential for many areas of resource exploration, development and management, as well as scientific research. Geological models provide a way to visualise and investigate the subsurface structure. The integrated regional scale gravity modelling approach, which uses boreholes and seismic data constraints, provides an understanding of the upper crustal structure and allows the development of a 3D geological model which can be used as the architectural framework for many different applications. This work presents a 3D geological model of the SGBB developed for application in high resolution thermal models. It is the culmination of geological surfaces derived from the interpolation of previous regional scale 2D gravity models and numerous borehole records. The model outlines the basement structure of the SGBB and provides information on depth to basement, depth to basal volcanics and thickness of overlying sediments. Through understanding the uncertainties, limitations, confidence and reliability of this model, the 3D geological model can provide the ideal framework for future research.

  12. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydney Harbour Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Balaraju, Varunan; Carney, Richard; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio are a genus of marine bacteria that have substantial environmental and human health importance, and there is evidence that their impact may be increasing as a consequence of changing environmental conditions. We investigated the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community within the Sydney Harbour estuary, one of the most densely populated coastal areas in Australia, and a region currently experiencing rapidly changing environmental conditions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches we observed significant spatial and seasonal variation in the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community. Total Vibrio spp. abundance, derived from qPCR analysis, was higher during the late summer than winter and within locations with mid-range salinity (5–26 ppt). In addition we targeted three clinically important pathogens: Vibrio cholerae, V. Vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus. While toxigenic strains of V. cholerae were not detected in any samples, non-toxigenic strains were detected in 71% of samples, spanning a salinity range of 0–37 ppt and were observed during both late summer and winter. In contrast, pathogenic V. vulnificus was only detected in 14% of samples, with its occurrence restricted to the late summer and a salinity range of 5–26 ppt. V. parahaemolyticus was not observed at any site or time point. A Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach revealed clear shifts in Vibrio community composition across sites and between seasons, with several Vibrio operational taxonomic units (OTUs) displaying marked spatial patterns and seasonal trends. Shifts in the composition of the Vibrio community between seasons were primarily driven by changes in temperature, salinity and NO2, while a range of factors including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) explained the observed spatial variation. Our evidence for the presence of a spatiotemporally dynamic Vibrio community

  13. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydney Harbour Estuary.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Balaraju, Varunan; Carney, Richard; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio are a genus of marine bacteria that have substantial environmental and human health importance, and there is evidence that their impact may be increasing as a consequence of changing environmental conditions. We investigated the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community within the Sydney Harbour estuary, one of the most densely populated coastal areas in Australia, and a region currently experiencing rapidly changing environmental conditions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches we observed significant spatial and seasonal variation in the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community. Total Vibrio spp. abundance, derived from qPCR analysis, was higher during the late summer than winter and within locations with mid-range salinity (5-26 ppt). In addition we targeted three clinically important pathogens: Vibrio cholerae, V. Vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus. While toxigenic strains of V. cholerae were not detected in any samples, non-toxigenic strains were detected in 71% of samples, spanning a salinity range of 0-37 ppt and were observed during both late summer and winter. In contrast, pathogenic V. vulnificus was only detected in 14% of samples, with its occurrence restricted to the late summer and a salinity range of 5-26 ppt. V. parahaemolyticus was not observed at any site or time point. A Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach revealed clear shifts in Vibrio community composition across sites and between seasons, with several Vibrio operational taxonomic units (OTUs) displaying marked spatial patterns and seasonal trends. Shifts in the composition of the Vibrio community between seasons were primarily driven by changes in temperature, salinity and NO2, while a range of factors including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) explained the observed spatial variation. Our evidence for the presence of a spatiotemporally dynamic Vibrio community within

  14. What They Want: Inclusion of Blood and Marrow Transplanation Survivor Preference in the Development of Models of Care for Long-Term Health in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Gemma; Gilroy, Nicole; Brown, Louisa; Hogg, Megan; Brice, Lisa; Kabir, Masura; Greenwood, Matt; Larsen, Stephen R; Moore, John; Hertzberg, Mark; Kwan, John; Huang, Gillian; Tan, Jeff; Ward, Christopher; Kerridge, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Four hundred forty-one adult allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors participated in a cross-sectional survey to assess long-term follow-up (LTFU) model of care preference. Survey instruments included the Sydney Post BMT Survey, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-BMT, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, the Chronic GVHD Activity Assessment-Patient Self Report (Form B), the Lee Chronic GVHD Symptom Scale and the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. We found most BMT survivors (74%) would prefer LTFU with their transplantation physicians alone or in combination with transplantation center-linked services (satellite clinics or telemedicine) Over one-quarter indicated a preference for receiving comprehensive post-transplantation care in a "satellite" clinic staffed by their BMT team situated closer to their place of residence, with higher income, higher educational level, and sexual morbidity being significant social factors influencing this preference. Regular exercise was reported less often in those who preferred telemedicine, which may reflect reduced mobility. The factor most strongly associated with a preference for transplantation center follow-up was the severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Full- and part-time work were negatively associated with transplantation center follow-up, possibly implying decreased dependency on the center and some return to normalcy. This study is the first to explore the preferences of BMT survivors for long-term post-transplantation care. These data provides the basis for LTFU model of care development and health service reform consistent with the preferences of BMT survivors. PMID:26746819

  15. Summarising climate and air quality (ozone) data on self-organising maps: a Sydney case study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ningbo; Betts, Alan; Riley, Matt

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the classification and visualisation utility of the self-organising map (SOM) method in the context of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using gridded NCEP/NCAR geopotential height reanalysis for east Australia, together with multi-site meteorological and air quality data for Sydney from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Air Quality Monitoring Network. A twice-daily synoptic classification has been derived for east Australia for the period of 1958-2012. The classification has not only reproduced the typical synoptic patterns previously identified in the literature but also provided an opportunity to visualise the subtle, non-linear change in the eastward-migrating synoptic systems influencing NSW (including Sydney). The summarisation of long-term, multi-site air quality/meteorological data from the Sydney basin on the SOM plane has identified a set of typical air pollution/meteorological spatial patterns in the region. Importantly, the examination of these patterns in relation to synoptic weather types has provided important visual insights into how local and synoptic meteorological conditions interact with each other and affect the variability of air quality in tandem. The study illustrates that while synoptic circulation types are influential, the within-type variability in mesoscale flows plays a critical role in determining local ozone levels in Sydney. These results indicate that the SOM can be a useful tool for assessing the impact of weather and climatic conditions on air quality in the regional airshed. This study further promotes the use of the SOM method in environmental research. PMID:26787272

  16. Were jobs more important than health in Sydney?

    PubMed Central

    Robb, N

    1995-01-01

    Unusually high cancer rates in Sydney, NS, have finally prompted an epidemiologic study that will look at the interplay of occupational and environmental exposure, smoking and genetic predisposition. The study is part of a $3.6 million healthy communities project, and it may determine the effect of coke-oven emissions on steelworkers and residents. Images p920-a p921-a p921-b p922-a PMID:7697582

  17. Mission impossible: William Scott and the first Sydney Observatory directorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    1998-06-01

    The Reverend William Scott (1825-1917) was the founding Director of the Sydney Observatory, and succeeded in acquiring state-of-the art astronomical instruments, establishing a network of country meteorological stations, and conducting a range of astronomical observations. He also worked to promote popular interest in astronomy, and immersed himself in the scientific culture of New South Wales. This paper examines Scott's achievements in astronomy and meteorology, the reasons for his premature resignation in 1862, and the search for his successor.

  18. The Sydney System for classification of gastritis 20 years ago.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Price, Ashley B

    2011-01-01

    The roots of research into gastritis go back into the early decades of the 20th century. Modern aspects of its classification and knowledge of its biological course and consequences were relatively well known even at the time that Helicobcter pylori was discovered by Robin Warren and Barry Marshall in 1982. This discovery, however, significantly changed the field, establishing that the commonest form of gastritis is simply an infectious disease, a finding that raised enormous interest in the subject amongst gastroenterologists, microbiologists, pathologists and basic researchers. However, many of these "new" players in the field often had a limited knowledge of the morphological aspects of gastric inflammations and chronic gastritis. As a consequence in the late 1980's a Working Party was set up to review the biology and natural course of chronic gastritis, to propose a new classification for gastritis, and to provide simple guidelines for reporting the pathology of gastritis in endoscopic biopsies in an attempt to bring uniformity to the subject and facilitate comparative studies in what was to be an era of high research activity. These guidelines, The Sydney System: A New Classification of Gastritis was presented to the World Congress of Gastroenterology in Sydney in 1990, and was later published as six papers in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Now, twenty years on, this review looks back on the birth of Sydney System and why it is still important and successful. PMID:21199511

  19. Legacy contaminant bioaccumulation in rock crabs in Sydney Harbour during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin; Weaver, Peter

    2013-12-15

    Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, metals and lipids in hepatopancreas of rock crabs (Cancer irroratus) were measured in Sydney Harbour (SH) for one year prior to remediation and three years of remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP), Nova Scotia. Low level concentrations of PCBs and metals were measured, although PAHs were mostly undetected. Metal concentrations showed little spatio-temporal variability, although highest concentrations of As, Cd and Cu were measured at reference stations furthest from the STP remediation site. Mercury concentrations were at least an order of magnitude lower than Canadian guidelines. Moderately elevated PCB concentrations were detected in crabs near Muggah Creek, but these were generally not higher than those measured during baseline. Despite remediation activities, current contaminant burdens measured in crabs were much lower than previously reported in other studies of crabs and lobster in industrial harbours in eastern Canada, due in part to natural recovery of SH sediments. PMID:24119312

  20. PCR Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in Stool Samples from Sydney, Australia▿

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in stool samples from a patient population in Sydney, Australia. Stool samples were tested by microscopy and PCR. Five patients were found with E. histolytica infections, while E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were observed in 63 (70.8%) and 55 (61.8%) patients, respectively, by PCR. This is the first study in Australia using molecular techniques to determine the presence of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii. PMID:17229864

  1. Numeracy and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (24th, Sydney, Australia, June 30-July 4, 2001). Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobis, Janette, Ed.; Perry, Bob, Ed.; Mitchelmore, Michael, Ed.

    This document represents volumes 1 and 2 of the proceedings of the 24th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA) held at the University of Sydney, June 30-July 4, 2001. In volume 1, papers include: (1) "Connecting Mathematics Education Research to Practice" (Judith Sowder); (2) "Understanding, Assessing,…

  2. Sharing Todays Resources--Meeting Tomorrows Needs. Papers, Workshop Reports and Associated Material Presented at the Seminar on Resources Coordination and Librarians' Groups: An Information Exchange Day (Sydney, Australia, July 26, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne, Ed.

    This booklet brings together papers, reports, and associated material from the seminar on school library resource coordination and librarians' groups in New South Wales held at Summer Hill Public School in Sydney. The collection includes a general introduction to the scope and goals of the seminar; a list of seminar speakers; papers on cooperative…

  3. Watching the Games: public health surveillance for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, L; Thackway, S; Churches, T; Hills, M

    2003-01-01

    Design: Planning for the system took almost three years. Its major components included increased surveillance of communicable diseases; presentations to sentinel emergency departments; medical encounters at Olympic venues; cruise ship surveillance; environmental and food safety inspections; surveillance for bioterrorism; and global epidemic intelligence. A daily report integrated data from all sources. Setting: Sydney, Australia. Surveillance spanned the period 28 August to 4 October 2000. Participants: Residents of Sydney, athletes and officials, Australian and international visitors. Main results: No outbreaks of communicable diseases were detected. There were around 5% more presentations to Sydney emergency departments than in comparable periods in other years. Several incidents detected through surveillance, including injuries caused by broken glass, and a cluster of presentations related to the use of the drug ecstasy, prompted further action. Conclusions: Key elements in the success of public health surveillance for the Games included its careful planning, its comprehensive coverage of public health issues, and its timely reporting and communication processes. Future systems need to be flexible enough to detect the unexpected. PMID:12540684

  4. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay. PMID:24840280

  5. Sydney Observatory and astronomy teaching in the 90s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomb, N.

    1996-05-01

    Computers and the Internet have created a revolution in the way astronomy can be communicated to the public. At Sydney Observatory we make full use of these recent developments. In our lecture room a variety of sophisticated computer programs can show, with the help of a projection TV system, the appearance and motion of the sky at any place, date or time. The latest HST images obtained from the Internet can be shown, as can images taken through our own Meade 16 inch telescope. This recently installed computer-controlled telescope with its accurate pointing is an ideal instrument for a light-polluted site such as ours.

  6. The Emancipation Years: Sport in the Female Colleges at the University of Sydney 1892-1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jessica; Georgakis, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the development of sport in the two female residential colleges (Women's and Sancta Sophia) at the University of Sydney. While the University of Sydney male residential colleges established an intercollegiate sporting competition in 1907 (Rawson Cup), it was not until 1958 that the female residential colleges established an…

  7. Towards management of mosquitoes at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia. I. Seasonal activity and relative abundance of adults of Aedes vigilax, Culex sitiens, and other salt-marsh species, 1993-94 through 1997-98.

    PubMed

    Webb, C E; Russell, R C

    1999-06-01

    The mosquitoes associated with 2 saline wetlands at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia, were investigated over 5 consecutive seasons. Twenty-one species were collected in adult traps at the 2 sites but the saline wetlands supported larvae of only 4 species: Aedes alternans, Aedes camptorhynchus, Aedes vigilax, and Culex sitiens. Of these, Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens were the most common, and their peak abundances generally occurred during February and April, respectively. Both wetlands were influenced by tides and rainfall-runoff, and a lack of regular tidal exchange in the mangroves and inadequate drainage of the saltmarsh provided potential habitat. Populations of Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens at the Newington site were greater than those at the Bicentennial Park site, because of more extensive habitat at the former, but were diminished by irregular ground-based applications of temephos during the middle 3 years of the study. Populations at the Bicentennial Park site, not subjected to the larvicide, were typically smaller but more consistently related to influences of tide and rainfall through the 5 seasons. During the final season, populations of both species in both wetlands were enhanced by exceptional tide penetration and rainfall. Helicopter applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larvicide were employed at both sites and effectively suppressed populations of both pest species. For future management, provision of full tidal exchange and water recirculation to reduce the area of water impounded within the mangroves and retained in depressions on the marshes should significantly suppress the pest populations and relieve reliance on control agents. PMID:10412120

  8. Helicobacter pylori gastritis updated Sydney classification applied in our material.

    PubMed

    Manxhuka-Kerliu, S; Telaku, S; Devolli-Disha, E; Ahmetaj, H; Sahatciu-Meka, V; Kerliu, A; Loxha, S; Shahini, L; Gashi, G; Podrimaj, A

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). BACKGROUND. Hp inhabits the stomach of more than 50% of humans and is the most frequent cause of chronic gastritis worldwide. The purpose of this research has been to present the importance of combining topographical, morphological and etiological information of diagnostic evaluation on grading gastritis in our material according to the Updated Sydney Classification, as well as to represent the frequency and the evaluation of Hp gastritis after eradication in order to prevent the development of gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 154 cases of gastric mucosa (endoscopic biopsies) which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin were invwstigated. Tissue sections (5microm thick) were cut and stained with H&E, May Grunwald Giemsa and Silver stain. The biopsy cases were analysed in an attempt to assess the major histopathological features of gastritis. The histopathological major variables were graded on a scale of 3 (mild, moderate and severe). RESULTS. There were 36 (23.37%) cases positive for Hp (22.2%, 72.2%, 5.5%). Atrophy was positive in 23 (14.93%) cases with the scale (47.8%; 47.8%; 4.34%). Dysplasia was positive in 13 (8.44%) cases with the scale (84.6%; 7.6%; 7.6%). Intestinal metaplasia was positive in 25 (16.2%) with the scale (76%; 20%, 4%). There were 6 (3.8%) cases of MZL, which were treated appropriately. CONCLUSIONS. Our data indicate the importannce of early eradication of Helicobacter pylori in order to prevent the eventual development of gastric cancer. These findings should influence the treatment of gastric cancers. Key words: Updated Sydney System of Classification, Hp gastritis, morphology. PMID:19736530

  9. What Do We Expect of Education? Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education (24th, Sydney, Australia, May 15-20, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philps, R., Ed.; Shannon, A. G., Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on educational promise, performance, and expectations. Papers included in this volume are: (1) "Education in Australia: We Get What We Deserve" (S. Ball); (2) "The Size and Scale: What is Expected" (J. G. Owen); (3) "The Search for Educational Quality and Equality: A U. S. View" (A. Harry…

  10. Field evaluation of melolure, a formate analogue of cuelure and reassessment of fruit fly species trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly surveillance programmes rely on the use of chemical lures to monitor and control Tephritid fruit flies incursions. Significant economic advantages could be achieved by increasing the effectiveness of these chemical lures. In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure (CL...

  11. Research in Geographical Education--Volume 2. Papers Presented to the National Meeting of the Australian Geographical Research Association (2nd, Sydney, Australia, December 4-6, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John, Ed.; And Others

    This publication contains 14 papers, most of which were written by instructors of higher education in Australia and Great Britain. Following an introduction, the first five papers are "The Development of Children's Map Ability" (Simon Catling), "Published Guidance to Pupils on Atlas Mapwork Skills" (Herbert Sandford), "Tactual Mapping and the Bold…

  12. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG18) and 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney, Australia, July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-06-01

    At GRG17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GRG18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GRG conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GRG18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb

  13. The Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis/mackerrasae Complex in Molluscs from the Sydney Region

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Lee, Rogan; Shea, Michael; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Malik, Richard; Jones, Malcolm; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500) of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%)], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%)], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% ± 0.8% (CI 95%). Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney. PMID:26000568

  14. Comparative labor market performance of visaed and non-visaed migrants: Pacific islanders in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of Samoans who have migrated to Australia have done so without visas, compared to only 20% of Tongans who have arrived without visas. 22% of the Samoan community in Sydney is unemployed, compared to only 5% of Tongans in the city. Findings are reported from a study conducted to determine whether the effective absence of visa screening for Samoan non-visaed immigrants can explain their poorer labor market performance relative to their Tongan peers. Findings are based upon the analysis of 1994 survey data for 523 Tongan and 329 Samoan migrant household heads in Sydney. Univariate analysis suggests a positive association between unemployment and the unrestricted entry of Samoan non-visaed migrants from New Zealand. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment was also estimated with controls for human capital and demographic variables. While human capital endowments are important, existing visa restrictions have no significant effect upon either group's employability. Policy implications are discussed, highlighting the complementarities between host country immigration policies and foreign aid programs. PMID:12294153

  15. Dreamtime astronomy: development of a new indigenous program at Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Geoffrey; Stephenson, Toner; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    The Australian National Curriculum promotes Indigenous culture in school education programs. To foster a broader appreciation of cultural astronomy, to utilise the unique astronomical heritage of the site, and to develop an educational program within the framework of the National Curriculum, Sydney Observatory launched Dreamtime Astronomy - a program incorporating Australian Indigenous culture, astronomy, and Sydney's astronomical history and heritage. This paper reviews the development and implementation of this program and discusses modifications following an evaluation that was conducted by schools.

  16. Family formation patterns among migrant women in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, F; Siedlecky, S

    1996-01-01

    A demographic survey among a probability sample of 980 married migrant women was carried out in Sydney in 1988. The sample included 507 Lebanese, 250 Turkish and 223 Vietnamese women. The study revealed differences in family formation patterns within and between the three groups and between them and the general population. Family size had declined among all three groups compared with their family of origin, and it was clear that the younger women would not achieve the same family sizes as the older women. Migrant women tended to marry earlier than the general population and to start their families earlier. While they showed a strong preference for their children to marry within their own ethnic and religious group, nearly one-third said it was up to the choice of the individual. Overall, the future family size of younger migrant women is expected to converge towards the Australian norm. Migrant families are in a state of transition between two cultures which needs to be recognised by health and family planning service providers. PMID:8690746

  17. Improved intersection design and monitoring in the Sydney Coalfield

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, G.R.; Payne, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    The introduction of roof bolts to Phalen Colliery in the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia (annual output of 2Mt) has been successfully implemented in maingate and tailgate entries over the last four years. Monitoring of the roof bolted areas continues to be an integral part of the quality control program as the results are utilized to maintain safety and to aid in long-term design strategies. Although all gateroads in the Phalen Colliery have converted to roof bolts as their primary means of support, the majority of intersections which intersect the main slopes remain supported by large steel structures. Several intersections within the Phalen Colliery were monitored as they were created by the mining process. A comparison is made between intersections supported with only traditional 6.4 to 6.7 m steel structure and intersections supported by 2.44 m fully resin encapsulated roof bolts in conjunction with 7.6 m fully cement grouted cable bolts. Detailed monitoring was conducted using CANMET`s intrinsically safe sonic probe extensometers data logger which has the ability to read up to sixteen probes simultaneously at programmed intervals. The density of the data from the data logger has allowed a better understanding of the deformation of cable bolted intersections than was possible with manual monitoring. Test results have helped mine operators to design safer cable bolted intersections.

  18. Problems of Adolescents in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; Harper, Juliet F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the problems of 514 male and female adolescents of 14 and 15 years of age using an open-ended questionnaire. Boys reported more problems concerned with educational adjustments, girls more problems concerned with family adjustment. (Author/SDH)

  19. The Albion Street Centre database, Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gold, J

    1998-01-01

    The Albion Street Centre was established in 1985 as an HIV testing and early management center. More than 22,000 people have been screened for HIV and other blood-borne infections at the Centre, and approximately 3,600 people with HIV/AIDS have been managed there. Approximately 1,600 patients with various stages of HIV disease are currently managed at the Centre by a staff of 60 health care professionals and about 1,000 volunteers. The Albion Street Centre's computer database began recording selected demographic, epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics when the first patient presented in 1985. Since then, the complexity and utilization of the database has increased in parallel with improvement in the understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection. Over 100 peer-reviewed publications and presentations have been produced from the database and 45 clinical trials have used the database to identify potential subjects. All data are de-identified and are protected by multiple password codes. Approximately 700 variables are collected from each HIV-positive patient at the initial visit to the Centre and up to 200 variables are added at each subsequent routine clinic visit. The variables collected include the following: standard epidemiologic characteristics; transmission and behavioral parameters, clinical signs and symptoms; laboratory test results; treatments; nutritional history; body composition parameters; psychological assessment results; and management history, including neuropsychological testing. The overall number and characteristics of patients recorded in the database are reported monthly, and are used to plan services, for prevention and educational programs, and as an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to encourage HIV-positive people to attend clinics for early management. When these patients have been identified they are invited to participate in the study. Individual patient records are identified and accessed if they meet certain criteria for flagging. For example, patients who have lost more than 5% of their maximal weight are flagged and referred to the dietician for assessment. Further uses for the database are to identify cohorts of patients who are seroconverters and to follow their natural history-the Centre has over 250 patients for whom a documented HIV-positive test has been obtained within 12 months of a documented HIV-negative test; to investigate clinical observations that have been associated with particular drug therapy, e.g., investigation of the reported association between the use of valacyclovir and the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS)-like complex showed patients with terminal-stage AIDS demonstrated this syndrome independently of their therapy and probably as a consequence of multiorgan failure; and to document the relationship between nutritional intervention and survival, for which use of the database enabled an historical cohort that matched the cases under investigation to be selected. In conclusion, the database is a dynamic and integral part of the assessment, management, and research program of the Albion Street Centre, where it is used by all professional staff. PMID:9586650

  20. Evaluation of the first strategic plan for Aboriginal health in south western Sydney, 1993-98.

    PubMed

    Carriage, C; Harris, E; Kristensen, E

    2000-01-01

    The 1993-98 Aboriginal Health Strategic Plan for South Western Sydney represented the first partnership of its kind between an Area Health Service, local Aboriginal Health Workers and the local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in Australia. During 1998, an evaluation of the plan was undertaken as part of the preparation for the second Aboriginal Health Plan. Of the 45 strategies in the first plan, 38% had been fully implemented, 42% had been partly implemented, and 20% were not implemented at all. This paper discusses the importance of data collection and monitoring systems, the integration of Aboriginal health into mainstream services, the further development of Aboriginal health infrastructure, and continued leadership by senior managers. PMID:11186054

  1. B.M.A. Annual Meeting, Sydney, 10–16 August: Report of Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    1968-01-01

    The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the British Medical Association was held in Sydney from 10 to 16 August jointly with the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Australian Medical Association. Both meetings were associated with the Third Australian Medical Congress. It was the second Annual Meeting of the Association to be held in Australia, the previous one having been in Melbourne in 1935. Four plenary sessions were held on successive mornings, while meetings of various sections were held in the afternoons. An account of the first part of the Meeting is given below. The remainder will be reported next week. Imagesp485-ap486-ap487-ap487-bp489-ap491-a

  2. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG18) and 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney, Australia, July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-06-01

    At GRG17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GRG18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GRG conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GRG18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb

  3. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  4. The Impact of Climate Change on Ozone-Related Mortality in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Physick, William; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    Coupled global, regional and chemical transport models are now being used with relative-risk functions to determine the impact of climate change on human health. Studies have been carried out for global and regional scales, and in our paper we examine the impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality at the local scale across an urban metropolis (Sydney, Australia). Using three coupled models, with a grid spacing of 3 km for the chemical transport model (CTM), and a mortality relative risk function of 1.0006 per 1 ppb increase in daily maximum 1-hour ozone concentration, we evaluated the change in ozone concentrations and mortality between decades 1996–2005 and 2051–2060. The global model was run with the A2 emissions scenario. As there is currently uncertainty regarding a threshold concentration below which ozone does not impact on mortality, we calculated mortality estimates for the three daily maximum 1-hr ozone concentration thresholds of 0, 25 and 40 ppb. The mortality increase for 2051–2060 ranges from 2.3% for a 0 ppb threshold to 27.3% for a 40 ppb threshold, although the numerical increases differ little. Our modeling approach is able to identify the variation in ozone-related mortality changes at a suburban scale, estimating that climate change could lead to an additional 55 to 65 deaths across Sydney in the decade 2051–2060. Interestingly, the largest increases do not correspond spatially to the largest ozone increases or the densest population centres. The distribution pattern of changes does not seem to vary with threshold value, while the magnitude only varies slightly. PMID:24419047

  5. The impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Physick, William; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    Coupled global, regional and chemical transport models are now being used with relative-risk functions to determine the impact of climate change on human health. Studies have been carried out for global and regional scales, and in our paper we examine the impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality at the local scale across an urban metropolis (Sydney, Australia). Using three coupled models, with a grid spacing of 3 km for the chemical transport model (CTM), and a mortality relative risk function of 1.0006 per 1 ppb increase in daily maximum 1-hour ozone concentration, we evaluated the change in ozone concentrations and mortality between decades 1996-2005 and 2051-2060. The global model was run with the A2 emissions scenario. As there is currently uncertainty regarding a threshold concentration below which ozone does not impact on mortality, we calculated mortality estimates for the three daily maximum 1-hr ozone concentration thresholds of 0, 25 and 40 ppb. The mortality increase for 2051-2060 ranges from 2.3% for a 0 ppb threshold to 27.3% for a 40 ppb threshold, although the numerical increases differ little. Our modeling approach is able to identify the variation in ozone-related mortality changes at a suburban scale, estimating that climate change could lead to an additional 55 to 65 deaths across Sydney in the decade 2051-2060. Interestingly, the largest increases do not correspond spatially to the largest ozone increases or the densest population centres. The distribution pattern of changes does not seem to vary with threshold value, while the magnitude only varies slightly. PMID:24419047

  6. Measurement of the acoustic characteristics of the concert hall at the Sydney Opera House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, John; Cabrera, Densil

    2003-04-01

    The Sydney Opera House Trust is considering making changes to its Concert Hall. Prior to any alteration, the Acoustics group at the University of Sydney has sought to document the hall. The main measurements were made for 48 receiver locations and 6 source locations, using omnidirectional measurement microphones, B-format (Soundfield) microphones and dummy head microphones in every receiver position. The measurements included impulse responses, anechoic music recordings, and recordings of a calibrated sound power source. Results documented by previous practitioners and researchers are described and comparison is made with the recent results.

  7. Embedding an Indigenous Graduate Attribute into University of Western Sydney's Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anning, Berice

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on embedding an Indigenous graduate attribute into courses at the University of Western Sydney (UWS), providing the background to the development and implementation of a holistic and individual Indigenous graduate attribute. It details the approach taken by the Badanami Centre for Indigenous Education in advising the UWS staff on…

  8. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  9. Time-keeping in the antipodes: a critical comparison of the Sydney and Littelton time balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinns, Roger

    2009-07-01

    Maudslay, Sons & Field built the time ball apparatus for Sydney, New South Wales (NSW) in 1855, and to hoist the ball they used a rack and pinion that was developed from the mechanism found at Edinburgh and Deal. Sydney's time ball became operational in 1858, following completion of Sydney Observatory (which included a time ball tower). Henry Russell, the NSW Government Astronomer, modified this apparatus to a limited extent during the 1870s, but most principal features were retained. The apparatus for Lyttelton, New Zealand, was ordered in 1873 and shipped from London in 1874 by Siemens Brothers. lt, too, had to await completion of the necessary tower, and became operational in 1876. Both Antipodean time balls were still working in 2009. In this paper it is demonstrated that the apparatus at Lyttelton is a replica of the 1855 design used in Sydney, despite the long interval between their dates of supply. The only surviving note in Maudslays' records about an 1873 time ball indicates provision for the Cape of Good Hope and an association with Siemens. A time ball was installed at Alfred Docks in Cape Town during 1873, but available evidence indicates that it was unlikely to have been built by Maudslays. lt is suggested that Maudslays' 1873 apparatus was instead sold to Siemens Brothers who installed it at Lyttelton. No Siemens records showing the supply of time balls to other locations at this time have been found.

  10. University of Western Sydney Students at Risk: Profile and Opportunities for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid; Skaines, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have acknowledged a shift from elite to mass participation in Australian higher education over the last decade. As the diversity of the student intake rises there is a growing interest in the factors predicting their success or failure. This article identifies a set of variables predicting University of Western Sydney (UWS) student…

  11. "It Had No Voice to It": Sydney Pollack's Film Translation of Isak Dinesen's "Out of Africa."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Brenda; Descutner, David

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the rhetorical implications of Sydney Pollack's translation of Isak Dinesen's autobiographical texts. Argues that Pollack's film uses strategies of transference, redefinition, antithesis, and displacement to renarrate Dinesen's writings, resulting in a depoliticized romantic adventure. Finds that these strategies misrepresent Dinesen,…

  12. A Structuration Theory Analysis of the Refugee Action Support Program in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Gidden's structuration theory to analyse the Refugee Action Support program in Greater Western Sydney. The study shows that many refugee students in Australian high schools experience difficulty with academic transition in mainstream classrooms due to their previous experiences in war-torn countries. As a result of the trauma…

  13. It's Time--To Reveal the Whitlam Institute within the University of Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curach, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The Whitlam Institute within the University of Western Sydney is a centre for public dialogue and progress, with the Whitlam Prime Ministerial Collection inspiring its programs. The collection, both physical and virtual, was established in 2002, drawing upon primary source material made available or donated by the Hon E G Whitlam AC QC, and…

  14. Meeting Diverse Expectations: Department of Tutorial Classes, Sydney University, 1919 to 1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The University of Sydney has offered some form of organised adult education since the late 19th century. In 1914, that provision was formalised through the establishment of a Department of Tutorial Classes, the appointment of a Director, and a partnership with the Workers' Educational Association (WEA). Right from that time, however, there was…

  15. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary; Lobstein, Tim; Rigby, Neville; Baur, Louise A; Brownell, Kelly D; Gill, Tim; Seidell, Jaap; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2008-09-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on feedback received from a global consultation (November 2006 to April 2007) on the Principles. The Principles state that actions to reduce marketing to children should: (i) support the rights of children; (ii) afford substantial protection to children; (iii) be statutory in nature; (iv) take a wide definition of commercial promotions; (v) guarantee commercial-free childhood settings; (vi) include cross-border media; and (vii) be evaluated, monitored and enforced. The draft principles were widely disseminated and 220 responses were received from professional and scientific associations, consumer bodies, industry bodies, health professionals and others. There was virtually universal agreement on the need to have a set of principles to guide action in this contentious area of marketing to children. Apart from industry opposition to the third principle calling for a statutory approach and several comments about the implementation challenges, there was strong support for each of the Sydney Principles. Feedback on two specific issues of contention related to the age range to which restrictions should apply (most nominating age 16 or 18 years) and the types of products to be included (31% nominating all products, 24% all food and beverages, and 45% energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages). The Sydney Principles, which took a children's rights-based approach, should be used to benchmark action to reduce marketing to children. The age definition for a child and the types of products which should have marketing restrictions may better suit a risk-based approach at this stage. The Sydney Principles should guide the formation of an International Code on Food and Beverage

  16. Monitoring effects of remediation on natural sediment recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; Macaskill, Devin; Rushton, Theresa; Thalheimer, Andrew; Weaver, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Chemical contaminants were assessed in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia during pre-remediation (baseline) and 3 years of remediation of a former coking and steel facility after nearly a century of operation and historical pollution into the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and inorganic parameters measured in sediments and total suspended solids in seawater indicate that the overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported due to natural sediment recovery, despite remediation activities. Measured sediment deposition rates in bottom-moored traps during baseline were low (0.4-0.8 cm year(-1)), but during dredging operations required for construction of new port facilities in the inner Sydney Harbour, sedimentation rates were equivalent to 26-128 cm year(-1). Measurements of sediment chemical contaminants confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, or in some cases, lower than originally predicted despite remediation activities at the STP site. Overall, most measured contaminants in sediments showed little temporal variability (4 years), except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations during the onset of remediation monitoring compared to baseline. This slight increase represents only a short-term interruption in the overall natural recovery of sediments in Sydney Harbour, which were enhanced due to the positive impacts of large-scale dredging of less contaminated outer harbor sediments which were discharged into a confined disposal area located in the inner harbor. PMID:23512488

  17. Sudden temperature changes in the Sydney Basin: climatology and case studies during the Olympic months of September and October

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Bruce W.; Leslie, Lance M.

    2000-03-01

    The accurate prediction of sudden large changes in the maximum temperature from one day to the next remains one of the major challenges for operational forecasters. It is probably the meteorological parameter most commonly verified and used as a measure of the skill of a meteorological service and one that is immediately evident to the general public. Marked temperature changes over a short period of time have widespread social, economic, health and safety effects on the community. The first part of this paper describes a 40-year climatology for Sydney, Australia, of sudden temperature rises and falls, defined as maximum temperature changes of 5°C or more from one day to the next, for the months of September and October. The nature of the forecasting challenge during the period of the Olympic and Paralympic Games to be held in Sydney in the year 2000 will be described as a special application. The international importance of the accurate prediction of all types of significant weather phenomena during this period has been recognized by the World Meteorological Organisation's Commission for Atmospheric Science. The first World Weather Research Program forecast demonstration project is to be established in the Sydney Office of the Bureau of Meteorology over this period in order to test the ability of existing systems to predict such phenomena. The second part of this study investigates two case studies from the Olympic months in which there were both abrupt temperature rises and falls over a 4-day interval. Currently available high resolution numerical weather prediction systems are found to have significant skill several days ahead in predicting a large amount of the detail of these events, provided they are run at an appropriate resolution. The limitations of these systems are also discussed, with areas requiring further development being identified if the desired levels of accuracy of predictions are to be reliably delivered. Differences between the predictability

  18. Reproductive neuropeptides that stimulate spawning in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    In, Vu Van; Ntalamagka, Nikoleta; O'Connor, Wayne; Wang, Tianfang; Powell, Daniel; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction. Approximately 28 neuropeptide genes were identified, primarily within the visceral ganglia transcriptome, that encode precursor proteins containing numerous neuropeptides; some were confirmed through mass spectral peptidomics analysis of the visceral ganglia. Of those, 28 bioactive neuropeptides were synthesized, and then tested for their capacity to induce gonad development and spawning in S. glomerata. Egg laying hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, APGWamide, buccalin, CCAP and LFRFamide were neuropeptides found to trigger spawning in ripe animals. Additional testing of APGWa and buccalin demonstrated their capacity to advance conditioning and gonadal maturation. In summary, our analysis of S. glomerata has identified neuropeptides that can influence the reproductive cycle of this species, specifically by accelerating gonadal maturation and triggering spawning. Other molluscan neuropeptides identified in this study will enable further research into understanding the neuroendocrinology of oysters, which may benefit their cultivation. PMID:27328253

  19. Meeting report from the 7th International Melanoma Congress, Sydney, November, 2010.

    PubMed

    Hersey, P; Smalley, K S M; Weeraratna, A; Bosenberg, M; Zhang, X D; Haass, N K; Paton, E; Mann, G; Scolyer, R A; Tüting, T

    2011-02-01

    The 2010 7th International Melanoma Congress sponsored by the Society for Melanoma Research and held in Sydney, Australia, was held together with the International Melanoma and Skin Cancer Centers group and the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group. As a consequence, there were over 900 registrants that included a wide range of clinicians (surgeons, medical oncologists, dermatologists) specialising in the management of melanoma as well as scientists and students carrying out laboratory-based research in melanoma. There was a general consensus that this grouping of clinicians, pathologists and scientists was mutually advantageous and plans are afoot to continue this grouping in future meetings. The meeting was dominated by the advances being made in treatment of melanoma with selective BRAF inhibitors but interest in epithelial mesenchymal transition and phenotypic changes in melanoma was apparent in many of the talks. The authors have attempted to capture many of the new developments in melanoma research but apologize to those speakers and poster presenters who had equally important findings not captured in these summaries. PMID:21232023

  20. Fire effects on reservoir water quality: lessons from the 2013 Sydney wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Chafer, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Unseasonally, early and severe forest fires burnt ca 10,000 ha of dry sclerophyl eucalypt forest in Oct. 2013 near Sydney (NSW, Australia). The fire affected parts of the Nepean catchment, which contributes to the greater Sydney water supply system. The spatial extent and severe nature of the burn raised concerns about the risk of water contamination from post-fire erosion. An investigation was launched with the aim to determine (i) the total loads of ash and loose charred topsoil that are particular susceptible to erosion, (ii) their chemical composition regarding constituents relevant to water quality, and (iii) the potential impacts of post-fire erosion events transferring some of this material into the reservoir. Sampling was carried out at a ridge in the Nepean catchment with a relatively homogeneous vegetation species composition, fuel load and soil characteristics, but with a range of burn severities, resulting from wind-driven differences in fire behaviour. This allowed sampling of three replicate sites each, with 30 sampling points each, for extreme, moderate-severe, and low burn severities, including also soil and litter sampling at a long-unburned control site. Burn severity was determined using the differenced normalised burn ratio (dNBR) obtained from satellite images immediately before (1 day) and after (1 week) the fire, validated by on site determination of fuel consumption completeness. Between the fire and the sampling campaign, rainfall was very limited so that there had been no significant redistribution of ash and loose charred topsoil by water erosion. The ash and loose charred topsoil were consistently wettable and the underlying uncharred soil highly water repellent at all sites and sampling points irrespective of burn severity. The total loads of ash and loose charred topsoil increased substantially with burn severity and changed in composition from comprising mainly charred litter and charcoal at low severity sites to charred litter

  1. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal. PMID:26305815

  2. Prevailing Sydney like Norovirus GII.4 VLPs induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuqi; Wan, Xin; Ling, Tong; Wu, Jie; Wang, Zejun; Meng, Shengli; Shen, Shuo

    2015-12-01

    The newly emerged Norovirus (NoV) Sydney 2012 strain has been sweeping all over the world, causing acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in adults and children. Due to a lack of cell culture system, virus like particles (VLPs) has been assembled and used as vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical studies. Expression of the major capsid protein of NoVs using recombinant baculovirus expression system in Sf9 cells leads to formation of VLPs that are morphologically and antigenically similar to true virions. In this study, VLPs were successfully produced using the VP1 of Sydney-2012-like strain and its immunogenicity was evaluated by different routes and its capability in inducing mucosal immune responses in the presence and absence of adjuvants in BALB/c mice. Administration of NoV VLPs in the presence of Al(OH)3 or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL-A) led to high titers of VLP-specific IgG antibodies. Administration of VLPs orally in the presence of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) didn't enhance mucosal immune response as less fecal IgA positive mice were observed when compared with those given VLPs only. Our study represents the first immunogenicity study of VLPs derived from current pandemic Sydney 2012 strain and which might have implications in the development of NoVs vaccine in china. PMID:26375574

  3. Effects and Clinical Significance of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus, United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Wikswo, Mary; Barclay, Leslie; Brandt, Eric; Storm, William; Salehi, Ellen; DeSalvo, Traci; Davis, Tim; Saupe, Amy; Dobbins, Ginette; Booth, Hillary A.; Biggs, Christianne; Garman, Katie; Woron, Amy M.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Vinjé, Jan; Hall, Aron J.

    2013-01-01

    During 2012, global detection of a new norovirus (NoV) strain, GII.4 Sydney, raised concerns about its potential effect in the United States. We analyzed data from NoV outbreaks in 5 states and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in 1 state during the 2012–13 season and compared the data with those of previous seasons. During August 2012–April 2013, a total of 637 NoV outbreaks were reported compared with 536 and 432 in 2011–2012 and 2010–2011 during the same period. The proportion of outbreaks attributed to GII.4 Sydney increased from 8% in September 2012 to 82% in March 2013. The increase in emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness during the 2012–13 season was similar to that of previous seasons. GII.4 Sydney has become the predominant US NoV outbreak strain during the 2012–13 season, but its emergence did not cause outbreak activity to substantially increase from that of previous seasons. PMID:23886013

  4. "I'm Not a Dole-Bludger!" Attitudes of Yr 9 Sydney High School Students towards Work, Unemployment and the Dole. A Report of the Mount Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barltrop, Jenny

    A study investigated the view that the decline in the work ethic would be stronger in the Mount Druitt area west of Sydney, Australia, where unemployment is prominent in the community and the "dole-bludger" stereotype is correspondingly rife. (A "dole-bludger" cheats the system and is considered a parasite on the community.) The study described…

  5. The Educational Experience of Sydney High School Students. Report No. 1: A Comparative Study of Migrant Students of Non-English-Speaking Origin and Students Whose Parents Were Born in an English-Speaking Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean I.; Meade, Phil

    An overview of the preliminary findings of a large-scale longitudinal (1974-77) survey of the educational needs and social problems of immigrant students in Sydney, Australia, is presented in this report. Four findings are treated as most significant: (1) Differences among immigrants of different non-English-speaking background are so great that…

  6. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-02-01

    This study analyzes data on all female sex workers who attended the Sydney Sexual Health Center for a first visit for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening during June 1, 1991, and May 31, 1993. International sex workers were identified as women who do not speak English at home and were born outside Australia. Diseases were confirmed clinically, by specimen or culture or by antibody or serological tests. Results apply to 91 local and 123 international prostitutes. 47% of international prostitutes and 34% of local prostitutes were aged 21-25 years. Most international sex workers spoke Thai or a Chinese dialect. 10% of local prostitutes were born in Asia. 90% of international prostitutes were born in Thailand, Malaysia, or China. Local prostitutes were better educated. 7% of the local prostitutes and none of the international sex workers had a history of injectable drug use. Local prostitutes tended to use condoms for birth control, and international prostitutes tended to use oral contraceptives. One international prostitute tested HIV positive. 1 in 7 international prostitutes had gonorrhea and the same proportion had chlamydia. Viral STDs (chronic hepatitis B, HIV infection, and genital warts) were more prevalent, but uncommon among international prostitutes. More international prostitutes had multiple STDs. 79 international sex workers and only 9 local sex workers had an STD. 47% of international sex workers and only 10% of local sex workers had worked overseas as a prostitute in the preceding 12 months. Over half of local sex workers and only 8% of international sex workers consistently used condoms. Failure to use condoms was associated with being an international sex worker. Inconsistent use of condoms among local prostitutes was related to increased age. PMID:8655167

  7. Exposure to ultrafine particles and PM 2.5 in four Sydney transport modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knibbs, Luke D.; de Dear, Richard J.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of ultrafine (<0.1 μm) particles (UFPs) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm) were measured whilst commuting along a similar route by train, bus, ferry and automobile in Sydney, Australia. One trip on each transport mode was undertaken during both morning and evening peak hours throughout a working week, for a total of 40 trips. Analyses comprised one-way ANOVA to compare overall (i.e. all trips combined) geometric mean concentrations of both particle fractions measured across transport modes, and assessment of both the correlation between wind speed and individual trip means of UFPs and PM 2.5, and the correlation between the two particle fractions. Overall geometric mean concentrations of UFPs and PM 2.5 ranged from 2.8 (train) to 8.4 (bus) × 10 4 particles cm -3 and 22.6 (automobile) to 29.6 (bus) μg m -3, respectively, and a statistically significant difference ( p < 0.001) between modes was found for both particle fractions. Individual trip geometric mean concentrations were between 9.7 × 10 3 (train) and 2.2 × 10 5 (bus) particles cm -3 and 9.5 (train) to 78.7 (train) μg m -3. Estimated commuter exposures were variable, and the highest return trip mean PM 2.5 exposure occurred in the ferry mode, whilst the highest UFP exposure occurred during bus trips. The correlation between fractions was generally poor, and in keeping with the duality of particle mass and number emissions in vehicle-dominated urban areas. Wind speed was negatively correlated with, and a generally poor determinant of, UFP and PM 2.5 concentrations, suggesting a more significant role for other factors in determining commuter exposure.

  8. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  9. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    PubMed

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  10. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Smoothey, Amy F.; Gray, Charles A.; Kennelly, Steve J.; Masens, Oliver J.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Robinson, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  11. Childhood immunization 1979. Disturbing statistics for metropolitan Sydney.

    PubMed

    Menser, M A; Collins, E; Wu, S W; Hudson, J

    1980-08-01

    Twenty-seven per cent of children (24 out of 90) born consecutively in an inner-city hospital had not completed their primary courses of immunization at the end of the first year of life. Many of the parents of these children had no knowledge of how many doses of vaccine their children required. When 578 schoolchildren aged 12 years were studied, only 40% of these were found to be immune to all three poliovirus serotypes and 12% were not immune to diphtheria. The proportion of children who were not immune to diphtheria varied greatly, and was 24% in one school. The reasons for these low levels of immunity are discussed, and several recommendations are made. It is suggested that a standard immunization record card or book be adopted throughout Australia, and that this card be issued to the newborn child. It is also suggested that consideration be given to the introduction of laws which require that evidence of immunization (or certification of exemption from immunization) be presented at the time of school entry. In the meantime, mopping-up programmes should be conducted in schools where herd immunity is low and a poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin) booster should be recommended for all children at the age of 12 years. PMID:7421679

  12. Estimates of costs by DRG in Sydney teaching hospitals: an application of the Yale cost model.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised. PMID:10117339

  13. Improving the public house in Britain, 1920-40: Sir Sydney Nevile and "social work".

    PubMed

    Mutch, Alistair

    2010-01-01

    The "improved public house" movement in the inter-war years was a central part of the shift towards retailing by the brewing industry. An important part of the reform movement was the alliance between certain brewers, notably Whitbread, and "social workers", particularly those associated with the University Settlement movement in London. Using the papers of Sydney Nevile, the importance of a particular social milieu is outlined, calling into question attempts to align the movement to improve public houses with transatlantic Progressivism. Rather, this alliance drew upon longstanding English traditions of public service and religious affiliation amongst a fraction of the gentry. PMID:20658777

  14. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program: A community-based translational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in Australia with prevalence increasing in parallel with increasing obesity. Prevention is an essential component of strategies to reduce the diabetes burden. There is strong and consistent evidence from randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in at risk people. The current challenge is to translate this evidence into routine community settings, determine feasible and effective ways of delivering the intervention and providing on-going support to sustain successful behavioural changes. Methods/Design The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP) is a translational study which will be conducted in 1,550 participants aged 50-65 years (including 100 indigenous people aged 18 years and older) at high risk of future development of diabetes. Participants will be identified through a screening and recruitment program delivered through primary care and will be offered a community-based lifestyle modification intervention. The intervention comprises an initial individual session and three group sessions based on behaviour change principles and focuses on five goals: 5% weight loss, 210 min/week physical activity (aerobic and strength training exercise), limit dietary fat and saturated fat to less than 30% and 10% of energy intake respectively, and at least 15 g/1000 kcal dietary fibre. This is followed by 3-monthly contact with participants to review progress and offer ongoing lifestyle advice for 12 months. The effectiveness and costs of the program on diabetes-related risk factors will be evaluated. Main outcomes include changes in weight, physical activity, and dietary changes (fat, saturated fat and fibre intake). Secondary outcomes include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, lipids, quality of life, psychological well being

  15. Supporting African Refugees in Greater Western Sydney: A Critical Ethnography of After-School Homework Tutoring Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Refugee Action Support Partnership Project between the University of Western Sydney, The Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the NSW-Department of Education and Training (DET). The critical ethnographic method is used to evaluate the after-school homework tutoring centres as a vehicle of literacy development…

  16. The Impact of a Pathway College on Reputation and Brand Awareness for Its Affiliated University in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ann; Zhao, Jingsong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect that a prospective pathway college affiliated to a large comprehensive university in Sydney may have on the university's reputation. In particular, the association of reputation with preference for a pathway college, brand awareness and the opinion of college brand are examined.…

  17. Forensic assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the former Sydney Tar Ponds and surrounding environment using fingerprint techniques.

    PubMed

    MacAskill, N Devin; Walker, Tony R; Oakes, Ken; Walsh, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed spatially and temporally within and adjacent to a former coking and steel manufacturing facility in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. Concentrations of PAHs were measured in surface soils, marine and estuary sediments prior to and during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs) site which was contaminated by nearly a century of coking and steel production. Previous studies identified PAHs in surficial marine sediments within Sydney Harbour, which were considered to be derived from STP discharges. Numerous PAH fingerprint techniques (diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis, quantitative and qualitative analysis) were applied to soil and sediment samples from the STPs and surrounding area to identify common source apportionment of PAHs. Results indicate coal combustion (from historical residential, commercial and industrial uses) and coal handling (from historic on-site stockpiling and current coal transfer and shipment facilities) are likely the principal source of PAHs found in urban soils and marine sediments, consistent with current and historical activities near these sites. However, PAH fingerprints associated with STP sediments correlated poorly with those of urban soils and marine sediments, but were similar to coal tar, historically consistent with by-products produced by the former coking operations. This study suggests PAH contamination of Sydney Harbour sediments and urban soils is largely unrelated to historic coking operations or recent remediation of the STPs site, but rather a legacy of extensive use of coal for a variety of activities. PMID:26845364

  18. Implementing a Program in Sustainability for Engineers at University of Technology, Sydney: A Story of Intersecting Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Paul; Johnston, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into an undergraduate engineering program at the University of Technology, Sydney has been a challenging project. The authors of this paper have been participant observers of the integration process. In this paper, they have attempted an analysis of that process, focussing on the dynamics of the network of people and…

  19. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Corinne; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Lesi, Grazia; Bensoussan, Alan; Cardini, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna) to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296) and Bologna (n=1,106) to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women's choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness. PMID:24459531

  20. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in a Sydney Olympic gold medallist.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; Faggian, D; Scaroni, C; Plebani, M

    2002-04-01

    An Italian athlete who won a gold medal at the Sydney Olympic Games was studied. She was accused of doping after the finding of high levels of plasma growth hormone (GH) before the Games. She was studied firstly under stressed and then under unstressed conditions. In the first study, GH was measured every 20 minutes for one hour; it was above the normal range in all blood samples, whereas insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was normal. In the second study, GH progressively returned to accepted normal levels; IGF-I was again normal. It was concluded that the normal range for GH in athletes must be reconsidered for doping purposes, because athletes are subject to stress and thus to wide variations in GH levels. PMID:11916901

  1. Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters

    PubMed Central

    Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:24795701

  2. Differential proteomic response of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to prolonged environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Melwani, A R; Thompson, E L; Raftos, D A

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to prolonged environmental stress can have impacts on the cellular homeostasis of aquatic organisms. The current study employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to test whether exposure to impaired water quality conditions in the Sydney Harbour estuary has significantly altered the proteomes of the resident Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). Adult S. glomerata were sampled from four bays in the estuary. Each bay consisted of a "high-impact" site adjacent to point sources of chemical contamination (e.g., storm drains/canals or legacy hotspots) and a "low-impact" site located ∼5km away from point sources. A mixture of environmental stressors differed significantly between high- and low-impact sites. Specifically, PAHs, PCBs, tributyltin, Pb, and Zn were significantly elevated in oyster tissues from high-impact sites, together with depleted dissolved oxygen and low pH in the water column. A 2-DE proteomics analysis subsequently identified 238 protein spots across 24 2-DE gels, of which 27-50 spots differed significantly in relative intensity between high- and low-impact sites per bay. Twenty-five percent of the differential spots were identified in more than one bay. The identities of 80 protein spots were determined by mass spectrometry. HSP 70, PPIB, and radixin were the three most highly expressed differential proteins. Despite the largely unique proteomes evident in each bay, functional annotations revealed that half of the differentially expressed proteins fell into just two subcellular functional categories-energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. These findings provide a framework to further investigate adaptation of cellular mechanisms to prolonged stress in S. glomerata. PMID:26844780

  3. Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available. Methods As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors. Results The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, P<0.001) for walking and an adjusted odds ratio of 6.15 (95% confidence interval 2.68-14.08, P<0.001) for cycling. Conclusions People who walked or cycled to work or study in inner Sydney reported higher levels of enjoyment from their commute compared with those who drove. This suggests enjoyment may be another benefit of active travel. So what? Focusing on 'enjoyment' associated with walking or cycling to work may be a positive motivator to encourage active travel. PMID

  4. Late HIV diagnosis of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in Sydney: the role of culture and community.

    PubMed

    Körner, H

    2007-02-01

    In Australia more than 85% of newly diagnosed HIV infections in 1999-2003 were homosexually acquired. In contrast, among people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, there is a much higher proportion of heterosexual exposure and many of the heterosexually acquired infections are diagnosed 'late', with people sometimes presenting with symptoms of AIDS. This paper reports on circumstances of late HIV diagnosis, meaning of an HIV-positive diagnosis and perceptions of risk among HIV-positive people from a variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds in Sydney. The focus was on commonalities across cultures and ethnicities. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with clients of the Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C Service and a sexual health clinic. Regular HIV tests were the exception in this group. Testing was usually motivated by a serious health crisis. Participants interpreted their diagnosis in the context of their knowledge and experiences with HIV/AIDS in their country of birth and the perceptions of HIV/AIDS in their ethnic communities in Australia. Many were not aware of the relationship between HIV and AIDS. Risk was perceived in terms of 'risk group' membership not in terms of practices and behaviours. Late diagnosis cannot be explained solely by association with country of birth, race or ethnicity. Rather, it is located within complex sets of social and cultural relations: the values attributed to HIV/AIDS and those infected and the social and cultural relations of ethnic communities in Australia and the dominant culture. These are enacted in healthcare seeking behaviour, perceptions of people with HIV and perceptions of being 'at risk'. PMID:17364395

  5. Assessment of health, well-being and social connections: a survey of women living in Western Sydney.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Rhonda; Horsfall, Jan; Moore, Margo; Lane, Di; Kroon, Veronica; Langdon, Rachel

    2007-02-01

    Strengthening the physical and social environment has been shown to support health and strengthen community action for health. In an attempt to improve the social factors that influence the health of individuals and the community, community interventions increasingly include strategies to build networks and social capital and develop resilience. This study was undertaken to identify the most appropriate strategies to strengthen friendships and the social support networks for women aged 18-39 years living in Villawood, an area of high disadvantage in South Western Sydney, Australia. Although the majority reported positively on their health, one-third reported feeling isolated, experienced low energy levels and felt unhappy and anxious over the past month. Women who described themselves as unemployed felt more isolated than women in home duties. Women who were employed or engaged in home duties had more contact with neighbours, and had more in common with their neighbours. Those who reported more contact with their neighbours perceived their mental health level as being higher. These results indicate that community development initiatives should include consultation with the community and consider the needs of socially isolated groups and those with the poorest health status. PMID:17244240

  6. Elucidating the life cycle of Marteilia sydneyi, the aetiological agent of QX disease in the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Nolan, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Marteilia sydneyi (Phylum Paramyxea, Class Marteiliidea, Order Marteiliida) (the causative agent of QX disease) is recognised as the most severe parasite to infect Saccostrea glomerata, the Sydney rock oyster, on the east coast of Australia. Despite its potential impact on industry (>95% mortality), research towards lessening these effects has been hindered by the lack of an experimental laboratory model of infection as a consequence of our incomplete understanding of the life cycle of this parasite. Here, we explored the presence of this parasite in hosts other than a bivalve mollusc from two study sites on the Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, Australia. We employed PCR-based in situ hybridisation and sequence analysis of a portion of the first internal transcribed spacer of rDNA in an attempt to detect M. sydneyi DNA in 21 species of polychaete worm. Marteilia DNA was detected in 6% of 1247 samples examined by PCR; the analysis of all amplicons defined one distinct sequence type for first internal transcribed spacer, representing M. sydneyi. Of the polychaete operational taxonomic units test-positive in PCR, we examined 116 samples via in situ hybridisation DNA probe staining and identified M. sydneyi DNA in the epithelium of the intestine of two specimens of Nephtys australiensis. Two differing morphological forms were identified: a 'primordial' cell that contained a well-defined nucleus but had little differentiation in the cytoplasm, and a 'plasmodial' cell that showed an apparent syncytial structure. This finding represents the first known record of the identification of M. sydneyi being parasitic in an organism other than an oyster, and only the third record of any species of Marteilia identified from non-molluscan hosts. Future work aims at determining if N. australiensis and S. glomerata are the only hosts in the life cycle of this paramyxean, and the development of experimental models to aid the production of QX disease-resistant oysters. PMID:25765622

  7. Next generation sequence analysis of the transcriptome of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to a range of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Hook, Sharon E; Johnston, Emma L; Nair, Sham; Roach, Anthony C; Moncuquet, Philippe; Twine, Natalie A; Raftos, David A

    2014-12-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) were exposed to environmental stressors at contaminated field sites or in a controlled laboratory setting. RNA seq transcriptome data were generated for the gill and digestive gland using Roche's 454 pyrosequencing technology. 28,685 contigs were de novo assembled which encoded 11,671 different protein products. The data will act as a reference for future studies in ecology, immunology and environmental toxicology. PMID:25151890

  8. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Damascena; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; de Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  9. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa da; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  10. Histopathologic and histochemical biomarker responses of Baltic clam, Macoma balthica, to contaminated Sydney Harbour sediment, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Kok-Leng; Teh, Swee Joo; Doe, Ken; Lee, Ken; Jackman, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Sediments in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia, are highly contaminated by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. Histopathologic and histochemical evaluations were made on the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica, exposed to 11 Sydney Harbour sediment samples. Histologic lesions in digestive gland (tubular dilation or atrophy, macrophage aggregates, tubular cell necrosis, and tissue inflammation) and gonads (macrophage aggregates, supporting cell, germ cell, and ovarian cell necroses) were frequently detected in clams exposed to the most contaminated sediments from the harbor. Clams exposed to these contaminated sediments also had the highest acid phosphatase activity. The average scores of tubular dilation or atrophy, ovarian cell necrosis, and the sums of mean digestive gland lesions correlated significantly with sediment PCBs, and the activities of acid phosphatase correlated significantly with sediment heavy metals, PAHs, and PCBs. Among the lesions, digestive gland tubular dilation or atrophy, tubular cell, germ cell, and ovarian cell necroses, and the activity of acid phosphatase are the best sublethal effect indicators in Macoma exposed to Sydney Harbour sediments. Key words: biomarkers, chronic biologic effects, clams, histology, histochemistry, Macoma balthica, marine sediment, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:12611654

  11. Quantitative proteomics of heavy metal stress responses in Sydney rock oysters.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sridevi; Thompson, Emma; Raftos, David; Birch, Gavin; Haynes, Paul A

    2012-03-01

    Currently, there are few predictive biomarkers in key biomonitoring species, such as oysters, that can detect heavy metal pollution in coastal waterways. Several attributes make oysters superior to other organisms for positive biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. In particular, they are filter feeders with a high capacity for bioaccumulation. In this study, we used two proteomics approaches, namely label-free shotgun proteomics based on SDS-PAGE gel separation and gas phase fractionation, to investigate the heavy metal stress responses of Sydney rock oysters. Protein samples were prepared from haemolymph of oysters exposed to 100 μg/L of PbCl(2), CuCl(2), or ZnCl(2) for 4 days in closed aquaria. Peptides were identified using a Bivalvia protein sequence database, due to the unavailability of a complete oyster genome sequence. Statistical analysis revealed 56 potential biomarker proteins, as well as several protein biosynthetic pathways to be greatly impacted by metal stress. These have the potential to be incorporated into bioassays for prevention and monitoring of heavy metal pollution in Australian oyster beds. The study confirms that proteomic analysis of biomonitoring species is a promising approach for assessing the effects of environmental pollution, and our experiments have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying oyster stress responses. PMID:22539440

  12. Evaluation of AirXpanders for Breast Reconstruction: Early Experience from Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Two-staged prosthetic breast reconstruction has become a popular option involving a series of saline injections to expanders to create a pocket large enough for a permanent implant. This, however, requires frequent visits to the surgeon and numerous needle pricks with potential infection risk. A new form of tissue expander, the AirXpanders, has recently been trialed in Perth and the United States. It uses a remote-controlled release of compressed CO2 where needle punctures are avoided. Methodology: Prospective data were collected on the first 10 patients to have the AirXpanders implant inserted for breast reconstruction at Western Sydney. The implants were inserted subpectorally as the saline expanders, and patients were instructed how to use the remote 4 weeks postoperation. Results: Ten patients (4 immediate and 6 delayed) aged between 30 and 65 (mean, 48.3 years) underwent 14 AirXpanders insertions. One patient passed away due to metastatic malignancy. With the remaining patients, the average period of active expansion was 15.8 days (r, 6–21). The average size of final implant used was 451 g (r, 195–685). The only complications were 2 seromas. Conclusion: Our early results are consistent with the Perth trial. The new AirXpanders is safe to use and able to achieve satisfactory tissue expansion faster than saline expander. It also has the advantage of patient self-controlled without the need for multiple medical reviews and needle punctures. PMID:26495208

  13. Beyond hydrography: daily ichthyoplankton variability and short term oceanographic events on the Sydney continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, Tim; Gibbs, Mark T.; Rissik, David; Suthers, Iain M.

    1997-10-01

    Surface ichthyoplankton concentrations along a shore-normal transect across the Sydney continental shelf and upper slope changed between three replicate nights in January and April of 1994. Over 70 families of fish were recorded, which, during January, included: Myctophidae (49% of individuals), Carangidae (14%), Gonostomatidae (11%) and Pomacentridae (8%); and during April included: Gonorhynchidae (43%), Myctophidae (10%), Berycidae (11%) and Serranidae (6%). Multidimensional scaling analysis identified inshore and offshore communities, which nightly moved between the nearshore and mid-shelf stations. During January no distinct near-surface water masses could be identified from the temperature-salinity data, although the shelf waters were under the influence of forcing by the local wind stress and the East Australian Current. Good agreement between the cross-shore transport in the near-surface layer and the temporal variability of the icthyoplankton was nevertheless found. The sampling during April was performed during a period of relatively steady oceanographic conditions, and two water masses were identified from the hydrographic data. Temporal ichthyoplankton variability at any station was correspondingly less during the April period and stable inshore and offshore communities were identified, that shifted with characteristic water masses. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the large variance often associated with ichthyoplankton distribution within a similar water mass may be interpreted by the dynamics in cross-shelf flows, which has implications for the selection of control sites used when studying environmental impacts of coastal outfalls.

  14. Differential and spatial aspects of suicide mortality in New South Wales and Sydney, 1980 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Burnley, I H

    1994-09-01

    Occupational and marital status dimensions of suicide mortality in New South Wales were examined for the periods 1980 to 1985 and 1986 to 1989-90 respectively, and marital status and birthplace group mortality profiles were examined in relation to grouped occupations, with a view to identifying the relative influence of these differentiating factors on suicide mortality. Spatial analysis was undertaken for different ages, in major regions of New South Wales and statistical local areas in Sydney for the period 1985 to 1991, and associations with socioeconomic characteristics of geographic areas were investigated. Despite residential revitalisation in inner city areas, higher mortality in several inner city localities has persisted over time while levels have risen in some outer areas. Never-married and divorced men in manual work were most at risk of committing suicide and never-married and divorced women had elevated suicide levels. Male suicide levels were elevated among farmers and related workers, and youth and adult male suicide levels were elevated in inland regions of the state. Possible explanations for the variations are discussed. PMID:7841260

  15. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW, January-June 2011.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Sarah J; Sheppeard, Vicky K; Paterson, Jen M; Ralph, Anna P

    2012-09-01

    We undertook a study of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica enterica subtypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, presenting in residents of the Western Sydney Local Health District for the period January-June 2011. Twelve cases of S. Typhi and eight of S. Paratyphi A were notified. Patients were predominantly young adults (median age 26 years, 70% female) who had been visiting friends and relatives in India, Samoa, Bangladesh or Sri Lanka. No cases were associated with travel for less than 3 weeks; 17 (85%) required hospitalisation. None received pre-travel vaccination; reasons cited for this included pregnancy, expense, being too busy, or considering the disease too mild to warrant vaccination. Three S. Typhi isolates acquired at large social gatherings in Samoa had the same phage [corrected] type and susceptibility profiles; these results were communicated to Samoan public health personnel. There are opportunities to strengthen enteric fever prevention, including pre-travel health advice and S. Typhi vaccination for people visiting endemic areas for 3 or more weeks, especially those in the vulnerable 'visiting friends and relative' category. PMID:23043747

  16. Dose-dependent effects of metals on gene expression in the sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daisy A; Nair, Sham V; Thompson, Emma L; Raftos, David A

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, we tested the effects of common environmental contaminants (the metals zinc and lead) on gene expression in Sydney rock oysters (Saccrostrea glomerata). Oysters were exposed to a range of metal concentrations under controlled laboratory conditions. The expression of 14 putative stress response genes was then measured using quantitative, real-time (q) PCR. The expression of all 14 genes was significantly affected (p < 0.05 vs. nonexposed controls) by at least one of the metals, and by at least one dose of metal. For 5 of the 14 target genes (actin, calmodulin, superoxide dismutase, topoisomerase I, and tubulin) the alteration of expression relative to controls was highest at intermediate (rather than high) doses of metals. Such responses may reflect adaptive (acclimation) reactions in gene expression at low to intermediate doses of contaminants, followed by a decline in expression resulting from exposure at higher doses. The data are discussed in terms of the intracellular pathways affected by metal contamination, and the relevance of such gene expression data to environmental biomonitoring. PMID:24615909

  17. Changing Water Depths in the Eastern Part of Sydney Harbour due to Human Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    Sydney Harbour has been significantly modified by human impacts from the start of the European settlement in 1788. Land clearing has accelerated soil erosion, resulting in increased sedimentation. Dredging has deepened many areas to accommodate ever-larger ships. In this paper a GIS method is used to map bathymetric changes in the eastern part of the harbour from 1903 to more recently. Dredged areas are apparent in the entrance and in wharfage areas, while sedimentation is most marked around the deepest section, which is well inside the harbour itself. In this latter region sediment has built up considerably, to over 3 m in some locations, and ship-induced motions appear to have had an impact. Despite these changes the overall depth of the eastern part of the harbour has changed little. This work is of interest to maritime archaeologists because it brings out the types of processes by which sediments can accumulate and be removed thus altering a harbour's seabed and potentially burying, exposing or erasing archaeological sites and artefacts.

  18. Visual acuity testability and comparability in Australian preschool children: The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Leone, J F; Gole, G A; Mitchell, P; Kifley, A; Pai, A S-I; Rose, K A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To establish standardised protocols for vision screening, testability and comparability of three different vision tests were examined in a population-based, cross-sectional sample of preschool children (Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study). Methods Measurement of presenting monocular distance visual acuity (VA) using the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) HOTV protocol, was attempted by all (1774) children aged≥24 months. In addition, in children aged≥60 months (576), VA was also tested using the logMAR retro-illuminated HOTV or Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) linear charts (CSV 1000). Children able to have both eyes tested monocularly were considered. Results Testability significantly increased with age for all VA tests. The ATS HOTV with an overall testability of 80% (females: 82%, males: 78%) was the most testable of the VA tests (P<0.0001). In children aged <3 years testability was low (≤47%) rising to≥80% in children aged≥3. In children≥60 months, testability was higher for the HOTV (94%) than the ETDRS (59%) chart. In those that did two VA tests, mean difference of the ATS HOTV compared with the HOTV(CSV) was −0.1, and compared with ETDRS was −0.12 (P<0.0001). Conclusions Children aged <3 years had poor VA testability, whereas those 3 years and above were highly testable using the ATS HOTV. The HOTV (CSV) retro-illuminated test was appropriate for children aged >5 years, and may be possible in younger children with early educational exposure. When comparing VA measures using these tests, the higher VA attained using the ATS HOTV, needs to be taken into account. PMID:22498798

  19. The Sydney West Knowledge Portal: Evaluating the Growth of a Knowledge Portal to Support Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Sydney West Translational Cancer Research Centre is an organization funded to build capacity for translational research in cancer. Translational research is essential for ensuring the integration of best available evidence into practice and for improving patient outcomes. However, there is a low level of awareness regarding what it is and how to conduct it optimally. One solution to addressing this gap is the design and deployment of web-based knowledge portals to disseminate new knowledge and engage with and connect dispersed networks of researchers. A knowledge portal is an web-based platform for increasing knowledge dissemination and management in a specialized area. Objective To measure the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal for increasing individual awareness of translational research and to build organizational capacity for the delivery of translational research projects in cancer. Methods An adaptive methodology was used to capture the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal in cancer. This involved stakeholder consultations to inform initial design of the portal. Once the portal was live, site analytics were reviewed to evaluate member usage of the portal and to measure growth in membership. Results Knowledge portal membership grew consistently for the first 18 months after deployment, before leveling out. Analysis of site metrics revealed members were most likely to visit portal pages with community-generated content, particularly pages with a focus on translational research. This was closely followed by pages that disseminated educational material about translational research. Conclusions Preliminary data from this study suggest that knowledge portals may be beneficial tools for translating new evidence and fostering an environment of communication and collaboration. PMID:27357641

  20. Non-methane exhaust composition in the sydney harbour tunnel: A focus on benzene and 1,3-butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Bronwyn L.; Nelson, Peter F.

    The concentrations of individual hydrocarbon species in the Sydney Harbour Tunnel were measured and used to estimate the average composition of emissions from moving motor vehicles in the Sydney urban area. The mean composition of non-methane hydrocarbons in the tunnel air on a weight basis was relatively constant. The mean concentrations for benzene and 1,3-butadiene were 45 and 13 ppbv, respectively, which in turn represented ˜ 5.2% w/w and ˜ 1.0% w/w of the total non-methane C 2C 10 hydrocarbons in the tunnel air. The unit risk factor and the maximum incremental reactivity factor for 1 1,3-butadiene are approximately 30 times higher and 25 times higher, respectively, than the corresponding values for benzene. The concentration (μg m -3) of benzene, however, is only about 5 times that of 1,3-butadiene. On this basis, the relative contribution to the risk associated with exposure to fresh motor vehicle emissions in Sydney would be about 6 times higher for 1,3-butadiene than for benzene. Similarly, the contribution made by 1,3-butadiene to the total hydrocarbon reactivity of the tunnel air will be about 5 times that of benzene. Samples of three different grades of petrol (leaded, unleaded and premium unleaded) from three different brands of fuel were also analysed on two separate occasions. Compositions of leaded and standard unleaded petrol averaged across the three different brands are quite similar. The average aromatic content (% w/w) of the 3 different commercial brands were ˜ 35 and 30% for leaded and unleaded petrol, respectively. However, premium unleaded petrol has a much higher aromatic content of ˜ 47% w/w. Comparison of the petrol and tunnel compositions demonstrated that benzene is enriched relative to other aromatics in exhaust compared to its proportion in the petrol.

  1. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  2. Mechanistic insights into induction of vitellogenin gene expression by estrogens in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh; MacFarlane, Geoff R; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; O'Connor, Wayne A; Yu, Richard Man Kit

    2016-05-01

    Marine molluscs, such as oysters, respond to estrogenic compounds with the induction of the egg yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vtg), availing a biomarker for estrogenic pollution. Despite this application, the precise molecular mechanism through which estrogens exert their action to induce molluscan vitellogenesis is unknown. As a first step to address this question, we cloned a gene encoding Vtg from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (sgVtg). Using primers designed from a partial sgVtg cDNA sequence available in Genbank, a full-length sgVtg cDNA of 8498bp was obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of sgVtg was determined to be 7980bp, which is substantially longer than the orthologs of other oyster species. Its deduced protein sequence shares the highest homology at the N- and C-terminal regions with other molluscan Vtgs. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of sgVtg was obtained by genomic PCR and genome walking targeting the gene body and flanking regions, respectively. The genomic sequence spans 20kb and consists of 30 exons and 29 introns. Computer analysis identified three closely spaced half-estrogen responsive elements (EREs) in the promoter region and a 210-bp CpG island 62bp downstream of the transcription start site. Upregulation of sgVtg mRNA expression was observed in the ovaries following in vitro (explants) and in vivo (tank) exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2). Notably, treatment with an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist in vitro abolished the upregulation, suggesting a requirement for an estrogen-dependent receptor for transcriptional activation. DNA methylation of the 5' CpG island was analysed using bisulfite genomic sequencing of the in vivo exposed ovaries. The CpG island was found to be hypomethylated (with 0-3% methylcytosines) in both control and E2-exposed oysters. However, no significant differential methylation or any correlation between methylation and sgVtg expression levels was observed. Overall, the

  3. Seismic anisotropy in the upper 500 m of the Southern Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Urosevic, M.; Juhlin, C.

    1999-12-01

    An analysis of seismic anisotropy at a BHP mining site in the Southern Sydney Basin by combined use of crosshole and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data is presented. The upper 250 m in this area is highly heterogeneous and has a major impact on the analysis of P-wave travel times. It is shown that using P-wave information solely would not, at least in this case, lead to any reasonable estimate of the elastic constants, in particular C{sub 13}, even if the measurements contained a full range of incident angles. However, if the measurements of SV-waves are available, even over a small range of incident angles, then C{sub 13} is determined more accurately. P-wave velocities measured in the vertical and horizontal directions show that anisotropy is present in the area. Additional measurements, along different incident angles, indicate that the rock down to 500 m depth is predominantly transversely isotropic (TI) with a vertical axis of symmetry. The P-wave anisotropy can be approximated as elliptical. Using the elastic constants estimated from the data analyses, synthetic seismograms for heterogeneous TI media were generated. Comparison of the seismic modeling with real crosshole data shows that it is necessary to include both fault zones and gas accumulations in the model to qualitatively match the real data. By using SV-waves in the multioffset VSP data, reflectors are mapped more accurately than by using P-waves, even under the assumption of isotropy and in the presence of heterogeneity. Mapping of converted P-SV waves by a straight ray approach also produced better results than the corresponding isotropic P-wave mapping. Inclusion of elliptical anisotropy into Kirchhoff migration resulted in better P-wave images than using an isotopic migration code. The authors conclude that both P-wave VSP multioffset mapping and tomographic inversion methods need to account for anisotropy to be accurate in this area, while SV-waves may be handled using isotropic codes. The

  4. A variability sample catalogue selected from the Sydney Observatory Galactic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresneau, A.; Osborn, W. H.

    2009-09-01

    Context: A set of 55×103 stars brighter than about B-magnitude 14 and having at least three observations are identified in the Sydney Observatory Galactic Survey, carried out over the years 1892-1932 along the galactic equator section lin[275°,335°] with galactic latitude bin[-7°,7°]. Short-term (30 min) and long-term (decades) magnitude variations in the data set are analyzed. Aims: Evidence is sought for a correlation between short-term and long-term variabilities which would identify stars in a non-quiescent phase. Methods: We use a reduced proper motion diagram to classify the stars in our sample into probable dwarfs, giants and other types. The validity of the kinematical classification is checked using objective-prism spectroscopic classification for 10× 103 early-type stars. A search is made for statistical correlations between our variability indicators and physical and kinematical stellar properties. Results: We find that suspected photospheric activity for giant and dwarf stellar candidates is correlated with the time to cross the galactic thin disk. We estimate a significant apparent B-magnitude variation of ±0.25 over the 40 years of photographic observations, and candidates for monitoring for possible photospheric activity at the present time are selected employing a statistical colour-diagram which uses the total proper motion component as a distance indicator. Conclusions: Follow up studies of our tentative findings are suggested. Toward this aim the derived data for the set of 55× 103 stars with variability information is archived as the variability Sample Catalogue. The data for a set of 2.4× 105 stars along the section of the galactic equator lin[275°,335°], mid b mid ≤ 7°, and a set of of 1.7× 105 stars along the section of the galactic meridian 330° ±5°, bin[-64°,-7°] is also archived as a quick-look facility for seeking long-term magnitude changes since the century-old photographic observations were obtained. Data files are

  5. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the

  6. Differential proteomic responses of selectively bred and wild-type Sydney rock oyster populations exposed to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E L; O'Connor, W; Parker, L; Ross, P; Raftos, D A

    2015-03-01

    Previous work suggests that larvae from Sydney rock oysters that have been selectively bred for fast growth and disease resistance are more resilient to the impacts of ocean acidification than nonselected, wild-type oysters. In this study, we used proteomics to investigate the molecular differences between oyster populations in adult Sydney rock oysters and to identify whether these form the basis for observations seen in larvae. Adult oysters from a selective breeding line (B2) and nonselected wild types (WT) were exposed for 4 weeks to elevated pCO2 (856 μatm) before their proteomes were compared to those of oysters held under ambient conditions (375 μatm pCO2 ). Exposure to elevated pCO2 resulted in substantial changes in the proteomes of oysters from both the selectively bred and wild-type populations. When biological functions were assigned, these differential proteins fell into five broad, potentially interrelated categories of subcellular functions, in both oyster populations. These functional categories were energy production, cellular stress responses, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and cell signalling. In the wild-type population, proteins were predominantly upregulated. However, unexpectedly, these cellular systems were downregulated in the selectively bred oyster population, indicating cellular dysfunction. We argue that this reflects a trade-off, whereby an adaptive capacity for enhanced mitochondrial energy production in the selectively bred population may help to protect larvae from the effects of elevated CO2 , whilst being deleterious to adult oysters. PMID:25689603

  7. Sampling of Total Mercury in Sand on Sydney Beaches and Assessment of Risk of Exposure to Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, D.; Tang, C.; Edwards, G. C.; Gan, T.; Tran, S.; Geremia, S.; Campbell, J.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial waste, sewage outfall and storm water run-off are potential anthropogenic sources of mercury to Sydney beaches. Children playing on these beaches are possibly at risk of exposure to mercury in beach sand through the ingestion pathway. As part of an investigation into this risk samples were collected from various locations along 7 of Sydney's beaches where children typically would be exposed. Samples were dried and the sand fraction (i.e. >63 µm and <2 mm) analysed for total mercury using a Direct Mercury Analyser (DMA-80) methodology. Risk of Exposure to mercury was assessed based on published estimates of daily ingestion of soil by children and Health Canada's guideline of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1 exposure threshold. For the beaches sampled concentrations of total mercury in beach sand ranged from 0.6 to 58 ppb. The maximum concentrations of total mercury in beach sand were observed on Beach 6, in the vicinity of five storm water runoff sources. Daily mercury intake values were determined for two commonly used published values for daily ingestion of soil by children of 0.2 g soil d-1 and 1.75 g soil d-1. Results to date show the maximum daily intake calculated using an average child weight of 13 kg to be 7.8 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1, well below the currently accepted daily intake threshold of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1.

  8. Age Variation in the Prevalence of "DSM-IV" Disorders in Cases of Suicide of Middle-Aged and Older Persons in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Wyder, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Data concerning 127 persons aged 35 years or above who died by suicide (as determined in consecutive cases by a Sydney coroner) were analyzed. Psychological autopsy (PA) interviews were conducted in 52 cases, and details were compared with the 75 cases where data were available only from coroner's files (CF). Most characteristics of the two groups…

  9. Research within a medical degree: the combined MB BS-PhD program at the University of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Power, Brian D; White, Andrew J; Sefton, Ann J

    Along with its new graduate-entry medical program, the University of Sydney has introduced the Combined Degree (Research) Program which allows students to graduate with an MB BS and PhD. The program includes 2-3 years of full-time research between Years 2 and 3 of the 4-year MB BS program. The program aims to produce clinician-scientists committed to continuing research that reflects their experience of clinical practice. Eight women and 23 men have enrolled since the program began in 1998, with the first cohort graduating in 2003. The students have been active in helping to develop the program and establishing a society and other student support networks. PMID:14636132

  10. Strategies for the municipal waste management system to take advantage of carbon trading under competing policies: The role of energy from waste in Sydney

    SciTech Connect

    El Hanandeh, Ali El-Zein, Abbas

    2009-07-15

    Climate change is a driving force behind some recent environmental legislation around the world. Greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in many industrialised countries. A change in current practices of almost all greenhouse-emitting industrial sectors is unavoidable, if the set targets is to be achieved. Although, waste disposal contributes around 3% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia (mainly due to fugitive methane emissions from landfills), the carbon credit and trading scheme set to start in 2010 presents significant challenges and opportunities to municipal solid waste practitioners. Technological advances in waste management, if adopted properly, allow the municipal solid waste sector to act as carbon sink, hence earning tradable carbon credits. However, due to the complexity of the system and its inherent uncertainties, optimizing it for carbon credits may worsen its performance under other criteria. We use an integrated, stochastic multi-criteria decision-making tool that we developed earlier to analyse the carbon credit potential of Sydney municipal solid waste under eleven possible future strategies. We find that the changing legislative environment is likely to make current practices highly non-optimal and increase pressures for a change of waste management strategy.

  11. Modelling the Spatial-temporal Variation of Urban/peri-urban Forests and Their Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of North-West Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeh, I. A.; Zou, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    In terms of total terrestrial sequestered carbon, the global soils and forests are recognized as the predominant C sinks. Even though urban forests stored a relatively small proportion of the total terrestrial C, they also provide other important ecosystem services such as improving air quality, cooling effect in buildings and aesthetics. Thus in view of these environmental services the quantification of urban tree is increasingly viewed as essential to the understanding of how these ecosystem services can be optimized. The aims of this paper are to: i) quantify the spatial-temporal distribution of urban forests in Northwest Sydney using remote sensing techniques; ii) determine the total urban C-storage over many decades; iii) apply UFORE model to estimate air pollutant removal ability of urban forest. The results revealed the estimated total trees in Northwest Sydney in 2011was approximately 2.3 million. These urban forests potentially store an estimated 1.3 million tons of carbon in various forms such as biomass, soil carbon, etc. The relative carbon sequestration rate of these trees was estimated to be about 20,500 tC/yr (equivalent to AUD 467,000/year). Furthermore, the results show that trees near buildings can potentially avoid AUD 12.9 million of energy cost every year and 70000 tons of carbon emission, the latter which is equivalent to additional savings of nearly AUD 1.6 million per year. We also estimated that urban forests in the study area could potentially remove about 44,600 tons of pollutants (mainly greenhouse gases) annually equivalent to a saving of about AUD 409 million per year. Thus the results reveal the spatial-temporal variation of urban vegetation in the last twenty year between 1991 and 2011. The study has showcased the importance and potential role of urban forests in preserving carbon and thus reducing GHG emissions into atmosphere. Furthermore, these results highlight the significant value of urban forests in term of pollutant removal

  12. The medical officer's journal: HMAS Sydney 1913-1922. An Australian Naval record of surgery and anaesthesia at the time of the outbreak of World War I.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J M; Todd, E M

    2014-07-01

    The Medical Officer's Journal of HMAS Sydney was a record kept by the ship's Surgeon, Leonard Darby, of the conditions on the ship and the health, diseases, injuries and treatment of the sailor's under his care. Records of anaesthesia and surgery indicate chloroform was mostly administered as was ether occasionally. There was some use of intravenous and subcutaneous fluids for resuscitation. The journal also provides an eyewitness account of the Sydney-Emden battle on 9 November 1914 which occurred off the Cocos Keeling Islands and was a famous first victory for the young Australian Navy, making headlines around the world. The treatment of the many injured, mostly Germans, is described; with the two Australian surgeons and the surviving German surgeon working together. PMID:25196953

  13. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. Results A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health

  14. Combined exposure to pyrene and fluoranthene and their molecular effects on the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Nicole G; O'Connor, Wayne A; Brooks, Peter; Keats, Michael; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitously detected in the water column, associated with particulate matter or in the tissue of marine organisms such as molluscs. PAH exposure and their resultant bioaccumulation in molluscs can cause a range of serious physiological effects in the affected animals. To examine the molecular response of these xenobiotics in bivalves, Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) were exposed to pyrene and fluoranthene for seven days. Chemical analysis of the soft-tissue of PAH stressed S. glomerata confirmed that pyrene and fluoranthene could be bioaccumulated by these oysters. RNA-Seq analysis of PAH-exposed S. glomerata showed a total of 765 transcripts differentially expressed between control and PAH-stressed oysters. Closer examination of the transcripts revealed a range genes encoding enzymes involved in PAH detoxification (e.g. cytochrome P450), innate immune responses (e.g. pathogen recognition, phagocytosis) and protein synthesis. Overall, pyrene and fluoranthene exposure appears to have resulted in a suppression of pathogen recognition and some protein synthesis processes, whereas transcripts of genes encoding proteins involved in clearance of cell debris and some transcripts of genes involved in PAH detoxification were induced in response to the stressors. Pyrene and fluoranthene exposure thus invoked a complex molecular response in S. glomerata, with results suggesting that oysters focus on removing the stressors from their system and dealing with the downstream effects of PAH exposure, potentially at the exclusion of other, less immediate concerns (e.g. protection from infection). PMID:27286571

  15. Evidence of Carboniferous volcanic ash in Pictou Group (West-phalian D), Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.C.; Outerbridge, W.F. ); Hacquebard, P.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Until now, Carboniferous-altered volcanic ash in North America was known only from the Middle Pennsylvanian (upper Westphalian A to lower Westphalian D) of the Appalachian basin. Now, however, mineralogical analysis of thin claystones (8-24 mm thick) in mineable bituminous coal (Hub and Harbour seams) form the P-boreholes in the Donkin submarine areas of the Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, indicates the presence of trace amounts of minerals probably derived from a volcanic ash fall of late Westphalian D age. Water-clear to cloudy quartz splinters and euhedral zircon with sharp crystal faces and edges, and length-to-width ratios up to 6:1 - which are typical of Appalachian altered acidic volcanic ash deposits (tonsteins) - were with a dominantly detrital (fluvial ) mineral suite. Fifty to 90% water-laid silt- to sand-size detrital grains of quartz, tourmaline( ), zircon, white mica, and other minerals are found in the HF residum after the removal of the dominant components: clay minerals, pyrite, and coal particles (spores, secretinite, etc.). The fine size of the volcanic minerals and their low concentration indicate a very distant volcanic ash source, perhaps western Europe, where volcanic activity extended into the Stephanian.

  16. Palaeomagnetic data for Permian and Triassic rocks from drill holes in the Southern Sydney Basin, New South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facer, R. A.

    1981-04-01

    A section 300 m thick across the Permian—Triassic boundary has been sampled in the Southern Coalfield of the Sydney Basin, New South Wales. 55 samples, mainly grey to drab sandstones, were collected from 9 diamond drill holes which penetrated the entire Narrabeen Group and the upper part of the conformably underlying Illawarra Coal Measures, as well as a sill emplaced into the coal measures. The samples included fully oriented cores. Additional reconnaissance samples from two further drill holes were also studied. Partial alternating field demagnetization and petrography indicate the magnetic remanence to be a stable DRM. Partial thermal demagnetization above 300°C or 400°C caused large increases in magnetic susceptibility. Partial chemical demagnetization did not cause significant changes in remanence directions. For the Coal Cliff Sandstone (basal Narrabeen Group, Triassic) the palaeomagnetic pole position (Normal) was calculated to be at 59°N 322°E (dp = 27°, dm = 29°), which agrees with previously published data. For the uppermost coal measures (Permian) the pole position was calculated as 58°N 340°E (dp = 09°, dm = 10°). Data for samples from the lower to middle coal measures yield a pole position which is between the new Permian—Triassic pole position and that for the underlying Middle Permian igneous rocks. The top of the Reversed "Kiaman Magnetic Interval" (Permian) may be near the Tongarra coal and Appin Formation boundary — (early) Late Permian.

  17. Gay Asian men in Sydney resist international trend: no change in rates of unprotected anal intercourse, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Van de Ven, Paul; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett

    2004-02-01

    Against a background of increasing unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the Sydney gay community (and internationally), complementary cross-sectional surveys of sexual practice were conducted among gay men of Asian background in 1999 (N = 319) and 2002 (N = 457). Self-complete questionnaires were used with recruitment at gay bars, gay social functions, and gay sex-on-premises venues. In 2002, self-report HIV status was 73.7% HIV-negative, 3.6% HIV-positive, and 22.8% unknown status (no significant change from 1999). Over time, the proportion of gay Asian men who reported any UAI with regular partners (in the previous 6 months) did not change significantly: 27.9% in 1999; 24.3% in 2002. Similarly, rates of any UAI with casual partners remained steady: 16.3% in 1999; 14.4% in 2002. Only one factor, more extensive engagement in esoteric practices (fisting, sadomasochism, group sex, rimming), was independently associated with sexual risk practice. This suggests that risk in this population of gay men, as in others, has more to do with the sexual cultures in which men are embedded rather than individual-level differences. PMID:15058706

  18. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  19. Ethnicity, health and medical care: towards a critical realist analysis of general practice in the Korean community in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Davies, Carmel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system. PMID:17060035

  20. An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium 108/170 at a privately catered barbeque at a Sydney sports club.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Andrew; Ressler, Kelly-Anne; Botham, Susan; Irwin, Melissa J; Shadbolt, Craig; Vally, Hassan; Ferson, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness was identified among attendees at a large community barbeque at a Sydney sports club on 30 January 2009. A retrospective cohort study was initiated, and attendees were identified through hospital emergency department gastroenteritis presentations, snowball recruitment through known cases, responders to linguistically specific press, and those returning to the venue the next week. A symptom and food history was collected from attendees, and stool samples were provided for microbiological investigation. An environmental investigation and trace back of implicated foods was also undertaken. Attendance estimates at the barbeque ranged from 100 to 180, and the food was prepared by a family that was not registered as a food business. Seventy one of the 87 attendees identified met the case definition. Thirty attendees (42%) had laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium phage-type 108/170, all with the same multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis typing. Burden of illness was high with 76% of cases seeking medical attention and 18% admitted to hospital. Microbiological evidence confirmed that a number of food items were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium 108/170, with the raw egg mayonnaise used in a Russian salad being the most likely primary food vehicle (adjusted odds ratio=10.3 [95% confidence interval 1.79-59.5]). Further, having Russian salad on the plate even if it was not consumed increased the relative risk of illness, thus suggesting that other food items may have been contaminated when they came into contact with it on the plate. This Salmonella outbreak highlighted the risks associated with the improper handling of food in private residences, which are then sold at a large public event. PMID:21790276

  1. Developments in undergraduate teaching of small-animal soft-tissue surgical skills at the University of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Deepa; McGreevy, Paul D; Zuber, Richard M; Klupiec, Corinna; Baguley, John; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses recent developments in soft-tissue surgery teaching at the University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science. An integrated teaching program was developed for Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) students with the aim of providing them with optimal learning opportunities to meet "Day One" small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies. Didactic lectures and tutorials were introduced earlier into the curriculum to prepare students for live-animal surgery practical. In addition to existing clinics, additional spay/neuter clinics were established in collaboration with animal welfare organizations to increase student exposure to live-animal surgery. A silicon-based, life-like canine ovariohysterectomy model was developed with the assistance of a model-making and special effects company. The model features elastic ovarian pedicles and suspensory ligaments, which can be stretched and broken like those of an actual dog. To monitor the volume and type of student surgical experience, an E-portfolio resource was established. This resource allows for the tracking of numbers of live, student-performed desexing surgeries and incorporates competency-based assessments and reflective tasks to be completed by students. Student feedback on the integrated surgical soft-tissue teaching program was assessed. Respondents were assessed in the fourth year of the degree and will have further opportunities to develop Day One small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies in the fifth year. Ninety-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they were motivated to participate in all aspects of the program, while 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they received an adequate opportunity to develop their skills and confidence in ovariohysterectomy or castration procedures through the fourth-year curriculum. PMID:22430078

  2. The First World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Wever, Peter C; Hodges, A J

    2016-08-01

    Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet. PMID:27084843

  3. IndoChinese women's breastfeeding practices following immigration to Sydney: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C; Ledwidge, H; Coulon, L

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, most IndoChinese women breastfeed their children for a prolonged period. Recent studies indicate that there is a reduction in the rate and duration of breastfeeding by IndoChinese women following immigration to Western countries. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare pre- and post-migration attitudes of 20 IndoChinese women towards infant feeding. Triangulated methodology was used for data collection and frequency distribution and measures of association were used to analyse the quantitative data. Content analysis identified patterns and themes in the qualitative results. Findings revealed that following migration to Australia the women experienced significant sociocultural problems. Recommendations include in-depth studies of ethnic groups and 'tailor-made' education to promote breastfeeding. PMID:8240763

  4. Barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with never testing among gay and bisexual men attending sexual health clinics in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P; Holt, Martin; Couldwell, Deborah L; Smith, Don E; Davies, Stephen C; McNulty, Anna; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Guy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men have increased over the past decade in Australia. HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) was introduced in Australia in 2011 as a strategy to increase HIV testing by making the testing process more convenient. We surveyed gay and bisexual men undergoing POCT to assess barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with not having previously tested for HIV (never testing). Methods During 2011 and 2012, gay and bisexual men who were undergoing POCT at four Sydney sexual health clinics self-completed questionnaires assessing testing history and psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and never testing. Results Of 1093 participants, 981 (89.9%) reported ever testing for HIV and 110 (10.1%) never testing. At least one barrier to testing was reported by 1046 men (95.7%), with only 47 men (4.3%) not reporting any barrier to testing. The most commonly reported barriers to testing were annoyance at having to return for results (30.2%), not having done anything risky (29.6%), stress in waiting for results (28.4%), being afraid of testing positive (27.5%) and having tested recently (23.2%). Never testing was independently associated with being non-gay-identified (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2), being aged less than 25 years (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.8), living in a suburb with few gay couples (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0), being afraid of testing HIV-positive (AOR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4), not knowing where to test (AOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2) and reporting one or no sexual partners in the last six months (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.2). Conclusions Barriers to HIV testing were commonly reported among the clinic-based gay and bisexual men in this study. Our findings suggest further health promotion and prevention strategies are needed to address the

  5. Assessment of sediment quality in Avicennia marina-dominated embayments of Sydney Estuary: the potential use of pneumatophores (aerial roots) as a bio-indicator of trace metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2014-02-15

    Currently, coastal intertidal environments are under stress from increased contaminant loads due to urbanization and other anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove habitats are abundant in tropical and sub-topical intertidal zones and frequently act as a metal bio-filter in estuarine systems. Mangrove reforestation is often considered as one of the management options to protect estuarine-marine habitats. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the bio-indicator potential of Avicennia marina by determining heavy metal concentrations in pneumatophore (aerial root) tissues and ambient sediments from Sydney Estuary (Australia). We collected mangrove sediments and pneumatophores in fifteen locations covering five major embayments of the estuary for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Metal concentrations in sediment were mostly above Australian interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQG)-Low and in few instances above ISQG-High values. Enrichment factors (EFs >6, especially of Cu, Pb and Zn) suggest "very severe" modification of sediment in Sydney Estuary in all but one embayment which was mainly due to rapid changes in land use in connection with urbanization. High bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were observed for Cu and Ni in comparison with other metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb and Zn). A strong, positive relationship between metals in sediments and pneumatophores suggests potential use of these tissues as a bio-indicator of estuarine contamination and that metals are entering the biotic environment. The study further highlights a positive role of mangroves in sequestering metals from sediments and the water column and thus protecting estuarine environments from pollution. PMID:24345861

  6. Estrogen mediated effects in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, following field exposures to sewage effluent containing estrogenic compounds and activity.

    PubMed

    Andrew-Priestley, M N; O'Connor, W A; Dunstan, R H; Van Zwieten, L; Tyler, T; Kumar, A; MacFarlane, G R

    2012-09-15

    The Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, has been demonstrated as a useful biomonitor of estrogenic compounds following laboratory exposures, yet its utility in the assessment of estrogenic exposure and effects under field conditions requires investigation. To achieve this aim, S. glomerata were deployed in Newcastle, Australia in the effluent receiving marine waters of Burwood Beach WWTP (Burwood Beach "near", <50 m from outfall and Burwood Beach "far", 100-150 m from outfall) and reference locations (Redhead, Fingal Island 1 and Fingal Island 2) at depths of 4, 8 and 12 m for six weeks. Effluent receiving waters of Burwood Beach WWTP were found to be a suitable impact location, demonstrated via measurement of estrogenic compounds and activity throughout the deployment. Estrogenic compounds were detected (average of combined solids and liquid fractions) at average concentrations of: 1.42 ng/L for estrone, 0.69 ng/L for 17β estradiol, 3.83 ng/L for estriol (E3), 0.56 ng/L for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 64.2 ng/L for bisphenol A, 7.51 ng/L for 4-nonylphenol and 5.93 ng/L for 4-tert-octylphenol. Total estrogenic activity was estimated at 4.48 ng/L EEQ via the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES(®)) assay (average of combined solid and liquid fractions). Female vitellogenin gene expression was highest at Burwood Beach locations, yet no significant differences were detected among locations for either sex. Vitellogenin protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) in S. glomerata at Burwood Beach Near compared to reference locations for the 4 and 12 m depths. Increased proportions of females were found at Burwood Beach Near, at 4m depth (p<0.05). Both Burwood Beach locations had higher proportions of mature female gonadal development stages compared to reference locations (p<0.05). Oocyte area was highest at both Burwood Beach locations, but no significant differences were detected among locations. Findings provided further evidence that female S. glomerata may be a suitable

  7. The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocations in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney II: Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant

    2013-08-01

    The aim in this paper is to assess the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water in the political jurisdictions of the peri-urban South Creek catchment of Western Sydney. This catchment has been identified as the region in which the city of Sydney will grow into in the future, with a plan to move an extra one million people into the catchment in the next 25-30 years. In conjunction with this expansion, a plan exists to augment the existing water supply by treating waste water effluent, harvesting stormwater and improving irrigation efficiency, along with a strategy for saving water on farms. Water in this catchment is operated by and in the interests of society, where decisions on its allocation have a political perspective to them. However, the growth within this catchment and the water augmentation strategies are not split evenly amongst the political entities within this catchment, namely the Local Government Authorities. An integrated hydro-economic model segregated according to the political entities in the catchment is used in this study to address a range of water saving scenarios raised by stakeholders. The trade-offs inherent in all water allocation decisions on a regional basis are made transparent in this model and its political ramifications, defined as the impacts on different political regions, are identified. In analysing the measures designed to save water across the catchment, none resulted in a positive Net Present Value. Even just expanding the system to accommodate one million extra people resulted in significant economic losses. In addition, the impact of each measure in each political region was markedly different. The purpose of this study is to provide stakeholders in individual local government regions with evidence of the costs and impacts of rational decisions to change the management of water resources in South Creek catchment.

  8. Agglutinated foraminifera from the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia: Their use as indicators of sea-level changes in Carboniferous coal-bearing strata

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, W.G.; Scott, D.B.; Medioli, F.M.; Gibling, M.R. . Centre for Marine Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Agglutinated foraminifera and arcellaceans (the camoebians) were examined from Carboniferous (Late Westphalian-Stephanian) cyclothems in the Sydney Basin of Nova Scotia. Their presence confirms that the laterally extensive coal seams, limestones, mudstones and carbonaceous shales were deposited in a paralic setting. Four distinctive assemblages are documented from the coal-bearing strata, and these may be used as accurate paleo sea-level indicators on the basis of the modern distribution of similar assemblages. Mixed assemblages dominated by Ammobaculites characterize siltstones overlying the coal seams, an association typical of mineralic substrates within modern estuarine environments. Assemblages dominated by small, finely agglutinated specimens of Ammotium and Ammobaculites occur in organic rich strata between coal seam splits. Similar assemblages are found in modern salt marshes and upper estuarine settings. Trochammina dominated assemblages occur in mudstones underlying the coal seams. Such assemblages are typical of higher elevations in modern brackish and saline marshes. Monotypic assemblages of the arcellacean Difflugia are also found in the seat earths below coal seams. Similar associations occur today in mineralic substrates below modern freshwater floating marshes. The presence of a Trochammina assemblage has aided recognition of a maximum flooding (transgression) surface below the base of an incised paleovalley, interpreted as a type 1 sequence boundary, in the Bonar cyclothem of the Sydney Basin. The valley incision is attributed to glacioeustatic sea-level lowering. The upper 10m of the 25m thick valley fill contains assemblages of Difflugia, which are succeeded by Trochammina assemblages within the seat earth beneath the coal at the top of the cyclothem.

  9. "It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-01-01

    Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…

  10. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  11. Small-scale spatial structuring of interstitial invertebrates on three embayed beaches, Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Belinda C.; Goodwin, Ian D.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-10-01

    An understanding of ecological processes hinges upon an understanding of the spatial structuring of their key biotic components. Interstitial invertebrates are a ubiquitous and ecologically important component of sandy beach ecosystems. As many sandy beach taxa have limited dispersal, it may be expected that their populations exhibit a high degree of spatial structuring, yet the spatial scales across which they display baseline variability remain largely unknown. To assess (1) whether interstitial invertebrates display patchiness on embayed sandy beaches, (2) whether the size of patches they form is consistent across three geographically proximal beaches, (3) the key environmental correlates of this variation and (4) its taxonomic dependence, samples were collected at regular (0.5 m) intervals along 15 m long geomorphically similar stretches of three proximal intermediate beaches and analyses of spatial autocorrelation were conducted. On each of the three beaches, interstitial invertebrate communities formed patches of 2-4.5 m in diameter. Spatial structuring of invertebrate communities was driven by harpacticoid copepods and gastrotrichs, and corresponded to spatial structuring of sediments. Sediments, however, explained only 33% of spatial variation in faunal communities, indicating the importance of other abiotic and/or biotic factors. Our study highlights that even on seemingly homogeneous sandy beaches, faunal communities may display considerable small-scale spatial structuring. Examination of spatial structure may lead to a greater understanding of the ecological processes in this system.

  12. International Congress of Biological Psychiatry. 8-13 February 2004, Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Trevor R

    2004-03-01

    Approximately 1500 psychiatrists, psychologists and basic scientists attended the International Congress of Biological Psychiatry with a specialist interest in the biological aspects of psychiatry. There was relatively little information on new medications for the treatment of psychiatric disorders but the congress emphasized approaches to treatment based on medications and physical therapies, as well as advances in the understanding of the biological basis of psychiatric illnesses. Around 800 abstracts were presented in symposia, sponsored satellite sessions, free communications and poster sessions. The poster sessions were particularly well attended and provided many lively discussions. Of particular interest were sessions devoted to new antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia, management of mood and anxiety disorder, Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorder. This report describes information on the new antipsychotic drug aripiprazole, novel targets for the treatment of mood disorders and psychoses, GABAA receptors in the treatment of panic disorder, and poster presentations on bipolar disorder. PMID:15017455

  13. Media Matters in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kell

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a teacher helped transform a K-12 Christian school near Sydney, Australia, from a book-bound media studies program into a hands-on learning experience for students. Various projects allow students to operate advanced equipment, evaluate their own and their peers' work, present research results to the class, and produce live media…

  14. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  15. The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns (SMILE) study: cluster randomised trial of humour therapy in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lee-Fay; Brodaty, Henry; Goodenough, Belinda; Spitzer, Peter; Bell, Jean-Paul; Fleming, Richard; Casey, Anne-Nicole; Liu, Zhixin; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether humour therapy reduces depression (primary outcome), agitation and behavioural disturbances and improves social engagement and quality-of-life in nursing home residents. Design The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns study was a single-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of humour therapy. Setting 35 Sydney nursing homes. Participants All eligible residents within geographically defined areas within each nursing home were invited to participate. Intervention Professional ‘ElderClowns’ provided 9–12 weekly humour therapy sessions, augmented by resident engagement by trained staff ‘LaughterBosses’. Controls received usual care. Measurements Depression scores on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, agitation scores on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, behavioural disturbance scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, social engagement scores on the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and self-rated and proxy-rated quality-of-life scores on a health-related quality-of-life tool for dementia, the DEMQOL. All outcomes were measured at the participant level by researchers blind to group assignment. Randomisation Sites were stratified by size and level of care then assigned to group using a random number generator. Results Seventeen nursing homes (189 residents) received the intervention and 18 homes (209 residents) received usual care. Groups did not differ significantly over time on the primary outcome of depression, or on behavioural disturbances other than agitation, social engagement and quality of life. The secondary outcome of agitation was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with controls over 26 weeks (time by group interaction adjusted for covariates: p=0.011). The mean difference in change from baseline to 26 weeks in Blom-transformed agitation scores after adjustment for covariates was 0.17 (95% CI 0

  16. FTIR and py-GC-MS spectra of true-fern and seed-fern sphenopterids (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, Pennsylvanian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Sphenopterid specimens from the Late Pennsylvanian of Sydney Coalfield, Canada, are investigated by FTIR and py-GC-MS techniques as part of an on-going research project into the biochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Pennsylvanian-age pteridophylls. Included in the investigation are samples of the true-fern species Oligocarpia brongniartii and Zeilleria delicatula that are preserved as naturally macerated cuticles (NMC), and the seed-fern Eusphenopteris neuropteroides that is also preserved as a compression/impression. FTIR spectra of NMC seed-fern E. neuropteroides, and fern sphenopterid O. brongniartii are very similar, except that the latter does not have aromatic bands in the 700-900 cm-1 out-of-plane region, py-GC-MS show more aromatic compounds for the seed fern than for the two true-fern sphenopterids. Another difference between seed-fern and true-fern sphenopterids is a lower ratio of CH2 to CH3 in chemically treated specimens (CTC) for the seed fern. These observations suggest slightly higher aromaticity for the seed ferns, perhaps related to some chemotaxonomic differences. Comparison of FTIR and py-GC-MS characteristics of sphenopterids and other plant groups shows that these two techniques have potential to identifying chemotaxonomic signals from Carboniferous pteridophylls in general, although more data are needed to confirm this. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

  18. Influenza Outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: The Utility of Laboratory Testing and Case Definitions on Mass Gathering Outbreak Containment

    PubMed Central

    van Hal, Sebastiaan J.; Foo, Hong; Blyth, Christopher C.; McPhie, Kenneth; Armstrong, Paul; Sintchenko, Vitali; Dwyer, Dominic E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a predefined clinical case definition. However, the utility of these clinical case definitions and laboratory testing in mass gathering outbreaks remains unknown. Methods and Results An influenza outbreak was identified during World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. From the data collected on pilgrims presenting to a single clinic, a Markov model was developed and validated against the actual epidemic curve. Simulations were performed to examine the utility of different clinical case definitions and laboratory testing strategies for containment of influenza outbreaks. Clinical case definitions were found to have the greatest impact on averting further cases with no added benefit when combined with any laboratory test. Although nucleic acid testing (NAT) demonstrated higher utility than indirect immunofluorescence antigen or on-site point-of-care testing, this effect was lost when laboratory NAT turnaround times was included. The main benefit of laboratory confirmation was limited to identification of true influenza cases amenable to interventions such as antiviral therapy. Conclusions Continuous re-evaluation of case definitions and laboratory testing strategies are essential for effective management of influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings. PMID:19727401

  19. Refugee Action Support: An Interventionist Pedagogy for Supporting Refugee Students' Learning in Greater Western Sydney Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of community, non-government organisations and universities in assisting secondary schools meet the needs of refugee students. On arrival in Australia, many African refugee communities experience high levels of stress particularly in adjusting to their new environment. The parents and students unfamiliarity with the…

  20. The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocation in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney I: Model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant

    2013-08-01

    In this paper an integrated model of the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water within the political divisions in the South Creek catchment of the ‘peri-urban’ region of Western Sydney is presented. This model enables an assessment of the hydrological and economic merits of different water allocation-substitution strategies, both over the whole catchment and in each political region and jurisdiction within it, to be undertaken. Not only are the differences in the water allocated to each region and use revealed, but also the net present values associated with each use within each region. In addition, it is possible to determine measures of equity in water distribution using this approach. It was found that over a period from 2008 to 2031 the South Creek catchment in total would on average use approximately 50,600 ML of potable water a year, the vast majority of this is used in the two urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown. Agricultural water use was also greatest in these two regions. Over this period the allocation system was estimated to have a small net present value of approximately A301 million and the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated to be 1.06. The urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown and the rural region of Hawkesbury were estimated to have returned a net positive benefit of A76 million, A246 million and A39 million (respectively), while water to Liverpool and Camden was delivered at a loss of A7 million and A52 million over the period assessed. It was found that across the catchment a fair degree of both physical and economic equity occurred between regions, with the exception of Liverpool, which was over endowed with water and paid a high cost for it.

  1. The Westphalian D fossil lepidodendrid forest at Table Head, Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia: Sedimentology, paleoecology and floral response to changing edaphic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calder, J.H.; Gibling, M.R.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; MacNeil, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Strata of Westphalian D age on the western coast of the Sydney Basin expose a fossil forest of approximately 30 lepidodendrid trees within one of several clastic splits of the Harbour Seam. A mutidisciplinary approach was employed to interpret the origins of the coal bed, the depositional history of the site and the response of the fossil forest to changing edaphic conditions. The megaspore and miospore records indicate that the mire vegetation was dominated by arboreous lycopsids, especially Paralycopodites, with subdominant tree ferns. Petrographic, palynological and geochemical evidence suggest that the Harbour coal bed at Table Head originated as a rheotrophic (cf. planar) mire (eutric histosol). The mire forest is interpreted to have been engulfed by prograding distributary-channel sediments; sparse protist assemblages are suggestive of a freshwater delta-plain lake environment occasionally in contact with brackish waters. Lepidodendrids persisted as site colonizers of clastic substrates even after burial of the rheotrophic peatland and influenced the morphology of deposited sediment, but apparently were unable to colonize distributary channels. Equivocal taxonomic data (compression fossils) show the fossil forest to have been composed of both monocarpic (Lepidodendron) and polycarpic (Diaphorodendron, Paralycopodites, ?Sigillaria) lycopsids, genera recorded in the palynology of the uppermost ply of the underlying coal bed. Comparatively rare within the clastic beds of the fossil forest, however, is the stem compression of Paralycopodites, whose dispersed megapores and miospores dominate the underlying coal bed. Tree diameter data recorded equivalent to breast height indicate a forest of mixed age. These data would appear to suggest that some lepidodendrids employing a polycarpic reproductive strategy were better able to cross the ecological barrier imposed between peat and clastic substrates. Foliar compressions indicate that an understory or stand of

  2. Risk Factors for Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Variation with Age and Sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. Methods Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70–90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. Results All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7–49.5%) for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. Discussion Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits. PMID:23799051

  3. Real-Time PCR detection and quantitation of Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin-resistant strains in archival material and correlation with Sydney classification

    PubMed Central

    Gazi, Sofia; Karameris, Andreas; Christoforou, Marios; Agnantis, Niki; Rokkas, Theodore; Stefanou, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), infects gastric mucosa causing gastritis. Treatment failure is mainly due to certain genetic changes in the peptidyltransferase loop of 23S rRNA of the microorganism. The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic changes in gastric biopsies of H. pylori (+) patients that lead to clarithromycin resistance and to correlate them with histology data. Methods A total of 150 H. pylori (+) gastric biopsies were studied, taken before and after eradication therapy from 75 dyspeptic patients divided in 2 groups: group A consisted of 25 H. pylori (+) triple-therapy resistant patients and group B consisted of 50 H. pylori (+) successfully treated patients. Histological classification of the H. pylori (+) gastritis was done according to the Sydney criteria. Genetic material was analyzed with the ClariRes™ RT-PCR bi-probe based assay for the determination of point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and with a Quantitative-RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) method for the quantitation of H. pylori. Results We showed that in 18/ 25 group A patients certain point mutations of 23S rRNA at sites A2142C, A2142G and A2143G had occurred. Nine of these 18 mutated cases (50%) were characterized as mixed infections. Mixed infections in 2/50 patients of group B were also observed. Using Q-RT-PCR, we found that gastric mucosal density of H. pylori correlates well with bacterial colonization. There was a statistically significant association (P<0.005) between the presence of the detected H. pylori genetic alterations and inflammation, activity and H. pylori density as histologically determined. Conclusion Certain point mutations in H. pylori genome that affect susceptibility to clarithromycin correlate with histological features of gastritis. PMID:24714278

  4. Making the Grade? Globalisation and the Training Market in Australia. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Buchanan, John; Bretherton, Tanya; van Barneveld, Kristin; Pickersgill, Richard

    This two-volume document reports on a study of globalization and Australia's training market. Volume 1 begins by examining debate on globalization and industry training in Australia. Discussed next is the study methodology, which involved field studies of the metals and engineering industry in South West Sydney and the Hunter and the information…

  5. Making Visible the First Women in Astronomy in Australia: The Measurers and Computers Employed for the Astrographic Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.

    In Australia a significant number of women were employed to measure and compute the position of stars for the Astrographic Catalogue at Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth Observatories. New archival research has provided evidence that the first women employed in astronomy in Australia were engaged due to this project.

  6. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  7. ACAL National Conference (Sydney, Australia, October 9-11, 1992). Conference Papers, Vol. 3, Workshops with a Local NSW Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy & Numeracy Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This third of three volumes of the 1992 Australian Council for Adult Literacy (ACAL) Conference Papers is a special edition of "Literacy and Numeracy Exchange." It includes nine papers from workshops with a more local New South Wales focus. "Literacy, Language, and Numeracy in the Workplace in the Context of Industry Restructuring" (Ursula…

  8. Women's Forum: Gender, Language and Critical Literacy (Manly, Sydney, Australia, April 7-9, 1994). Forum Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Univ., Sydney (Australia).

    These 12 papers reflect the range of issues and perspectives discussed at a forum that addressed three main topics: what a feminist critical literacy pedagogy is; a gender perspective of policy, organizations, and teachers' work; and concepts and practices of equity and inclusivity. The papers are as follows: "Questioning 'Progressive' Pedagogies"…

  9. Working Knowledge: Productive Learning at Work. Proceedings [of the] International Conference (Sydney, Australia, December 10-13, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains 65 presentations and 3 colloquiums from a conference that dealt with knowledge at work and knowledge that works and with how education can be successfully integrated into work and work into education. The papers are "Reading the Contexts of Complex Incidents of Adult Education Practice" (Apte); "Models of Work…

  10. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 1: The CSIRO Division of Radiophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; George, Martin; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s Australia was a world leader in the specialised field of low frequency radio astronomy, with two geographically-distinct areas of activity. One was in the Sydney region and the other in the island of Tasmania to the south of the Australian mainland. Research in the Sydney region began in 1949 through the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics, and initially was carried out at the Hornsby Valley field station before later transferring to the Fleurs field station. In this paper we summarise the low frequency radio telescopes and research programs associated with the historic Hornsby Valley and Fleurs sites.

  11. Sister outsider, or "just another thing I am": intersections of cultural and sexual identities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Duruz, A

    1999-01-01

    This article originates from a radio project titled Muff Divas and Drag Queens that investigated a wide range of gay and lesbian histories in the state of New South Wales. The project produced two half-hour radio programs that were broadcast nationally on community radio stations in February 1996 to coincide with Sydney's annual month-long Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Festival, the premier event on Australia's queer cultural calendar. Of the two documentaries produced, the first addressed 30 years of queer culture in New South Wales while the second explored our diverse identities as lesbians and gay men. This paper draws extensively on material collected for the second program. Muff Divas and Drag Queens was funded under the Literature and History Program of the New South Wales Government's Ministry for the Arts, with support from the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras cultural program and Sydney community radio station 2SER.FM. PMID:10197553

  12. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  13. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  14. The Use of Sessional Teachers in Universities: Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues and realities presented by the casualisation of higher education teaching staff. It uses a case study from the University of New South Wales [UNSW] in Sydney Australia. The research presents and analyses perspectives from two key stakeholders in a university [students and academic management] on the use of sessional…

  15. Starting School in Australia Is "a Bit Safer, a Lot Easier and More Relaxing": Issues for Families and Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The project described in this paper investigated the needs and concerns identified by parents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as their children started school in Sydney, Australia. Six groups of parents from Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Samoan, Turkish and Vietnamese language backgrounds were interviewed about what was…

  16. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  17. Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline. Part 3. Comparison of unevaporated automotive gasoline samples from Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P M L; Du Pasquier, E

    2004-02-10

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC-MS (SIM)) method was used to discriminate samples of unevaporated gasoline collected from Auckland, New Zealand and Sydney, Australia. This method was applied to 28 samples of unevaporated gasoline, covering three different grades (regular unleaded, premium unleaded and premium plus unleaded), that were collected from service stations in Auckland, New Zealand in summer (February) and winter (August). The 14 samples of summer gasoline collected in New Zealand could be divided into seven unique groups. The 14 samples of winter gasoline from New Zealand could be divided into 14 unique groups. The 14 samples collected in New Zealand during February 2002 were then compared to 24 samples of unevaporated gasoline collected from service stations in Sydney, Australia during the same month. Most of the samples could be differentiated based on their country of origin. PMID:15013167

  18. Emergency department visits, ambulance calls, and mortality associated with an exceptional heat wave in Sydney, Australia, 2011: a time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED) and ambulance surveillance allowed rapid detection of an increase in the number of heat-related ED visits and ambulance calls during this period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the excess heat-related and all-cause ED visits and ambulance calls, and excess all-cause mortality, associated with the heat wave. Methods ED and ambulance data were obtained from surveillance and administrative databases, while mortality data were obtained from the state death registry. The observed counts were compared with the average counts from the same period from 2006/07 through 2009/10, and a Poisson regression model was constructed to calculate the number of excess ED visits, ambulance and deaths after adjusting for calendar and lag effects. Results During the heat wave there were 104 and 236 ED visits for heat effects and dehydration respectively, and 116 ambulance calls for heat exposure. From the regression model, all-cause ED visits increased by 2% (95% CI 1.01-1.03), all-cause ambulance calls increased by 14% (95% CI 1.11-1.16), and all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22). Those aged 75 years and older had the highest excess rates of all outcomes. Conclusions The 2011 heat wave resulted in an increase in the number of ED visits and ambulance calls, especially in older persons, as well as an increase in all-cause mortality. Rapid surveillance systems provide markers of heat wave impacts that have fatal outcomes. PMID:22273155

  19. No Frills: Refereed Papers. National Vocational Education and Training Research Conference (24th, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, Jul 6-8, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Laura, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The 24th National Vocational Education and Training Research Conference, colloquially known as "No Frills", was held in July 2015.The conference highlighted research across three major themes:(1) youth: engaging, inspiring and supporting students to realise their potential; (2) pathways: transitioning through education and training into…

  20. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer - 15th World Conference on Lung Cancer (October 27-31, 2013 - Sydney, Australia).

    PubMed

    Walker, K

    2013-12-01

    The 15th World Conference on Lung Cancer, organized by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), launched the association's celebration of its 40th year promoting research into lung cancer. This year's congress saw highlights from groundbreaking research in several areas, including surgery, radiation oncology, chemo-therapy, immunotherapy, imaging and screening, prevention and epidemiology, and supportive care, with a record number of delegates in attendance. This report focuses on highlights from a poster, oral and mini oral sessions covering from several tracks. PMID:24524099

  1. Converging Technologies. Selected Papers from the EdTech '90 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Sydney, Australia, July 4-6, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; And Others

    This collection contains 30 selected papers and abstracts of six additional papers from the 1990 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology. Titles and authors of the papers are as follows: (1) "Interactive Media into the Millenium" (Clark); (2) "Open Learning Centre Network Project and the Preparatory and Remedial Education…

  2. Research, Training & Practice. Proceedings of the Macarthur Interpreting & Translation Conference (2nd, Sydney, Australia, March, 1996). Interpreting and Translation Publications Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Sydney Univ., Macarthur (Australia). Language Acquisition Research Centre.

    The conference aimed to provide a forum for discussion of a wide variety of issues that relate to Interpreting and Translation, to share research results, training strategies and practice experiences, and to focus on the relationship between research, training, and practice. Papers include: "What Do We on translation and interpreting include:…

  3. The use of vintage surficial sediment data and sedimentary cores to determine past and future trends in estuarine metal contamination (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Chang, C-H; Lee, J-H; Churchill, L J

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the present investigation were to determine past trends in sediment contamination and possibly predict future trends. Multiple vintages of surficial sediment metal data, from a quasi-decadal 'Status and Trends' programme, were used to provide large-scale spatial information on current status and temporal change. This information was augmented by sediment cores, specifically located to verify surface sediment data and to determine trends at major points of stormwater discharge. The data obtained indicate that surficial sediment metal concentrations have declined, since about the early 1990s, in extensive parts of the upper and central estuaries and have increased slightly in the lower estuary, due mainly to a down-estuary shift in industry and urbanisation. Declining surficial sediment metal concentrations is due to a movement of industry out of the catchment, especially from foreshore areas and the introduction of regulation, which prevent pollutants being discharged directly to the estuary. The major present-day source of metals is stormwater, with minor inputs from the main estuary channel into embayments and runoff from previously contaminated mainland sites. Modelled relaxation rates are optimistic as high metal concentrations in stormwater will slow predicted rates. Stormwater remediation should be the main managerial focus for this estuary. Multiple vintages of surficial sediment metal data covering the past 30 years, supplemented by sedimentary core data, have allowed past and future contamination trends to be determined. This type of science-based information provides an important tool for strategic management of this iconic waterway. PMID:23570910

  4. The Future of Interpreting & Translation: Keeping in Touch with a Changing World. Proceedings of the Conference (University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, New South Wales, Australia, April 1, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, George, Ed.; Ginori, Luciano, Comp.

    Papers from a conference on translating and interpreting include: "Babel and the Brain" (Philip Grundy); "Simultaneous Interpreting: Its Role in International Conferences" (Yvonne Hu); "The Past, Present and Future of Legal Interpreting/Translating in NSW" (Ludmilla Robinson); "What's In a Name?" (Terry Chesher); "Interpreting and Advocacy" (Colin…

  5. "Relating in a Global Community." Proceedings of the International Conference on Counseling in the 21st Century (7th, Sydney, Australia, December 29-31, 1998.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The papers presented at this conference consider the many roles counselors play in people's lives throughout their lifespan. The age of technology has aided the practice of counseling in becoming international in scope, although there are different functional frameworks that exist in various political, economic, social, and value systems in world…

  6. Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

    Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.…

  7. The Right to Literacy: The Rhetoric, the Romance, the Reality. ACAL National Conference (Sydney, Australia, October 9-11, 1992). Conference Papers, Vol. 1, Plenary and Keynote Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Adult Literacy, Victoria.

    This first of three volumes of the 1992 Australian Council for Adult Literacy (ACAL) Conference Papers includes 10 papers from the plenary and keynote sessions. The theme of "When Basic Skills and Information Processing Just Aren't Enough: Rethinking Reading in New Times" (Allan Luke) is the moral and political consequences of ways of reading.…

  8. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

  9. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia's largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, 2001, by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The left-hand image is from the instrument's 26-degree forward-viewing camera, and the right-hand image is from the 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The vast extent of smoke from numerous fires is visible, particularly in the more oblique view. Sydney is located just above image center.

    Dubbed the 'black Christmas' fires, the blazes destroyed more than 150 homes and blackened over 5000 square kilometers (about 1.24 million acres) of farmland and wilderness between December 23, 2001 and January 3, 2002. Many of the fires are believed to have been caused by arsonists, with only one fire linked to natural causes. The fires were aggravated by gusty winds and hot dry weather conditions. Approximately 20,000 people have worked to contain the blazes. No people have lost their lives or been seriously injured. Nevertheless, the fires are considered to be the most prolonged and destructive of any in Australia since the Ash Wednesday conflagration of 1983 that claimed 72 lives.

    The images represent an area 322 kilometers x 374 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 10829.

  10. The care of children from developing countries in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nossar, V

    1992-03-16

    Many children from developing countries enter Australia yearly either with their family or alone. Many such immigrants establish themselves in Sydney of Melbourne. Due to infectious, malnutrition, and poverty, the children come with a high risk of death, disease, and disability. these risks continue in Australia due to unemployment, poverty, and social obstacles. The government provides health screenings to protect Australians from infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis. Health services should also tend to the growth, development, and personal health needs of these immigrant children. Few health practitioners have received training in identifying and intervening in their health problems, however. A clinic has organized a service for immigrant children including those who had experienced war, threat, or disaster. An integrated health service which can address unique needs must be available to children from developing countries. In south Western Sydney, such a system exists. A community health nurse works with school age refugees to match them up with appropriate health services. The Service Director of the Department of Community Paediatrics in South Western sydney proposed an even more comprehensive health service for all children from developing countries which would encourage self-reliance and independence. Trained community nurses would actually g into their homes and schools to assist them in finding appropriate practitioners. This system of individual attention would round out the public health screenings. All health practitioners should familiarize themselves with the unique health needs of these children and the different cultural contexts from which they derive. Only then can these children reach the full development potential as Australian-born children. PMID:1545738

  11. Lipopolysaccharide structures of Helicobacter pylori genomic strains 26695 and J99, mouse model H. pylori Sydney strain, H. pylori P466 carrying sialyl Lewis X, and H. pylori UA915 expressing Lewis B classification of H. pylori lipopolysaccharides into glycotype families.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M A; Appelmelk, B J; Rasko, D A; Moran, A P; Hynes, S O; MacLean, L L; Chan, K H; Michael, F S; Logan, S M; O'Rourke, J; Lee, A; Taylor, D E; Perry, M B

    2000-01-01

    This study describes the molecular makeup of the cell-wall lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) (O-chain polysaccharide-->core oligosaccharide-->lipid A) from five Helicobacter pylori strains: H. pylori 26695 and J99, the complete genome sequences of which have been published, the established mouse model Sydney strain (SS1), and the symptomatic strains P466 and UA915. All chemical and serological experiments were performed on the intact LPSs. H. pylori 26695 and SS1 possessed either a low-Mr semi-rough-form LPS carrying mostly a single Ley type-2 blood-group determinant in the O-chain region covalently attached to the core oligosaccharide or a high-Mr smooth-form LPS, as did strain J99, with an elongated partially fucosylated type-2 N-acetyllactosamine (polyLacNAc) O-chain polymer, terminated mainly by a Lex blood-group determinant, connected to the core oligosaccharide. In the midst of semi-rough-form LPS glycoforms, H. pylori 26695 and SS1 also expressed in the O-chain region a difucosylated antigen, alpha-L-Fucp(1-3)-alpha-L-Fucp(1-4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc, and the cancer-cell-related type-1 or type-2 linear B-blood-group antigen, alpha-D-Galp(1-3)-beta-D-Galp(1-3 or 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc. The LPS of H. pylori strain P466 carried the cancer-associated type-2 sialyl Lex blood-group antigen, and the LPS from strain UA915 expressed a type-1 Leb blood-group unit. These findings should aid investigations that focus on identifying and characterizing genes responsible for LPS biosynthesis in genomic strains 26695 and J99, and in understanding the role of H. pylori LPS in animal model studies. The LPSs from the H. pylori strains studied to date were grouped into specific glycotype families. PMID:10632700

  12. Understanding extreme rainfall events in Australia through historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Linden; Karoly, David John

    2016-04-01

    Historical climate data recovery is still an emerging field in the Australian region. The majority of Australia's instrumental climate analyses begin in 1900 for rainfall and 1910 for temperature, particularly those focussed on extreme event analysis. This data sparsity for the past in turn limits our understanding of long-term climate variability, constraining efforts to predict the impact of future climate change. To address this need for improved historical data in Australia, a new network of recovered climate observations has recently been developed, centred on the highly populated southeastern Australian region (Ashcroft et al., 2014a, 2014b). The dataset includes observations from more than 39 published and unpublished sources and extends from British settlement in 1788 to the formation of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in 1908. Many of these historical sources provide daily temperature and rainfall information, providing an opportunity to improve understanding of the multidecadal variability of Australia's extreme events. In this study we combine the historical data for three major Australian cities - Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide - with modern observations to examine extreme rainfall variability over the past 174 years (1839-2013). We first explore two case studies, combining instrumental and documentary evidence to support the occurrence of severe storms in Sydney in 1841 and 1844. These events appear to be at least as extreme as Sydney's modern 24-hour rainfall record. Next we use a suite of rainfall indices to assess the long-term variability of rainfall in southeastern Australia. In particular, we focus on the stationarity of the teleconnection between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and extreme rainfall events. Using ENSO reconstructions derived from both palaeoclimatic and documentary sources, we determine the historical relationship between extreme rainfall in southeastern Australia and ENSO, and examine whether or not this

  13. Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895) (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) is native to Australia, not New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Mesibov, Robert; Car, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895) is partly redescribed and illustrated. Its native range is shown to be in the cool-climate uplands of New South Wales, Australia. H. luxuriosa was originally labelled as collected by L.M. D’Albertis at Sorong in New Guinea. D’Albertis collected on Sorong Island in 1872 and spent the following year in Sydney, New South Wales, before returning to Europe with his New Guinea specimens. It is possible that D’Albertis himself collected H. luxuriosa in 1873, and that the mislabelling occurred later. PMID:24146549

  14. Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895) (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) is native to Australia, not New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mesibov, Robert; Car, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    Hoplatessara luxuriosa (Silvestri, 1895) is partly redescribed and illustrated. Its native range is shown to be in the cool-climate uplands of New South Wales, Australia. H. luxuriosa was originally labelled as collected by L.M. D'Albertis at Sorong in New Guinea. D'Albertis collected on Sorong Island in 1872 and spent the following year in Sydney, New South Wales, before returning to Europe with his New Guinea specimens. It is possible that D'Albertis himself collected H. luxuriosa in 1873, and that the mislabelling occurred later. PMID:24146549

  15. A SETI Course at University of Western Sydney Macarthur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    1999-01-01

    Describes a course based on the scientific approach to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Explores the biological and technological aspects of the search and the social implications of possible contact. (Author/CCM)

  16. Supporting Refugee Students in School Education in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania; Vickers, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Rarely do refugee students entering Australian schools possess the multiple forms of social, linguistic and cultural capital that are taken for granted in mainstream classrooms. While refugees of high-school age are assisted initially through Intensive English Centres (IECs), the transition from IECs to mainstream classrooms presents substantial…

  17. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Sydney

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  18. Five for Sydney--A Journey through Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    What is science? Depending on who is asked, it may mean the pursuit of knowledge, explanations of the everyday world, a difficult subject at school, or a field populated by larger than life characters such as Einstein, Feynman, or Hawking. For the author, science has been and remains an unexpected journey, an adventure and an ever-changing career.…

  19. Geology of principal Australia coals and coal basins: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, A.T.

    1983-09-01

    Bituminous or subbituminous coals are known from nearly all parts of Australia. Those of greatest economic importance today are found in the Permian and Triassic Bowen and Galilee basins of Queensland and the Sydney-Bowen basin of New South Wales, with some coalfields of lesser significance in the Clarence-Moreton basin in Queensland and New South Wales. Structural, sedimentary, and paleobiologic features of the coal-bearing strata and regional trends of various coal characteristics of some of the principal economic or geologically interesting basins and coals are reviewed and illustrated. These include the Hail Creek syncline, Goonyella, Peak Downs, German Creek, Blackwater, Baralaba, Tolmeis and Moura Mines of the Bowen basin. In New South Wales these include the Hunter Valley area Singleton Coal Measures represented by the Foyebrook-Liddell Seam and Ravensworth mines; the Newcastle area; the Ulan Seam of the Goulburn Valley area; the western shelf area and Sydney-Wollongong region represented by the Illawarra (Permian) Coal Measures which are overlain by the thick Triassic Narrabean Series, Hawksbury Sandstone, and Wianamatta Group. A paleobiologic analysis of the thick brown coal sequences in the Yallourn, Latrobe Valley, and Bacchus Marsh areas of Victoria, and the significance of tectonics in the development of these great coal swamps will be reviewed.

  20. The Right to Literacy: The Rhetoric, the Romance, the Reality. ACAL National Conference (Sydney, Australia, October 9-11, 1992). Conference Papers, Vol. 2, Workshops with a National Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Adult Literacy, Victoria.

    This second of three volumes of the 1992 Australian Council for Adult Literacy (ACAL) Conference Papers includes 12 papers from workshops, with a national focus. The "Welcome Speech" (Marie Perrson) is followed by "Literacy: An Ecological View" (David Sless) that shares a view of literacy as an interdependent component in a much larger…

  1. Tantalus, restraint theory, and the low-sacrifice diet: the art of reverse abstraction: 10th International Congress on Obesity; September 4, 2006; Sydney,Australia - Symposium: obesity management: adding art to the science, invited presentation.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, George W

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data - scientific findings - and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  2. Research and Development in Higher Education. Volume 5. Papers Presented at the Annual Conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (8th, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, May 7-10, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Ian R., Ed.

    Issues and solutions in teaching and learning in higher education are addressed in 28 papers and 6 workshop reports from a 1982 conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. Papers are grouped under the major categories of staff development, course evaluation, teaching and learning, and microcomputers in…

  3. Practical Approaches to Resolving Behaviour Problems. Selected Papers from the National Conference on Practical Approaches to Resolving Behaviour Problems (2nd, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, July 1990). Programs Implementation and System Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Susanna, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on practical approaches to resolving behavior problems in the Australian school system. The papers are divided into four general categories: perspectives on behavior problems, focusing on families, schools and system initiatives, and programs in special settings. The papers include: (1) "Beyond Punishment," by…

  4. VET [Vocational Education and Training] Research: Influencing Policy & Practice. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) (1st, Sydney, Australia, February 16-17, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John, Ed.; Barrett, Mary, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 46 papers on the influence of vocational education and training (VET) research on policy and practice. These papers are grouped into these categories: impact of research; equity in participation; partnerships and stakeholders; practice and practitioners; research and policy; learning, work, and organizations; and VET,…

  5. Comparative Perspectives on Futures in Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Comparative and International Education Society (10th, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, November 24-26, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesch, James R., Ed.

    The titles and authors of the 12 conference papers presented in this document are: (1) "China's Immediate Future: Renewed Cultural Borrowing" (R.F. Price); (2) "The Feminization of the Teaching Profession in Singapore" (Christine Inglis); (3) "Towards Equity and Efficiency in the Education System of Mauritius" (Helen Topor); (4) "PNG Education…

  6. Research and Development in Higher Education. Volume 7. Selected Papers Presented at the Annual Conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (10th, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, May 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lublin, Jacqueline, Ed.

    Education, training, and employment are addressed in 33 papers from a 1984 conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. Papers are grouped in the main categories of professional education and the influence of industry, course development for vocationalism, teachers and teaching, learners and learning, higher…

  7. The introduction of expired air resuscitation into Surf Life Saving Australia.

    PubMed

    Ball, C M

    2016-07-01

    Surf Life Saving Australia, which began in the early 1900s, initially adopted the indirect resuscitation methods used by the Royal Life Saving Society. As new indirect methods became available, both organisations adapted their resuscitation techniques and followed international developments closely. In the 1950s, accumulating evidence suggested that direct methods of resuscitation, such as mouth-to-mouth ventilation, might be more efficacious. Subsequently a number of investigations were carried out in Sydney at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital on anaesthetised and paralysed patients. These experiments were recorded for an ABC documentary and reported at the International Convention on Life Saving Techniques held in Sydney in March 1960. Following the convention, Queensland Surf Life Saving conducted training sessions in cooperation with anaesthetists Roger Bennett and Tess Brophy (later Cramond), at St Andrew's Hospital in Brisbane. Two volunteers were anaesthetised and paralysed on two separate weekends to allow over one hundred people to gain experience in expired-air and bag-mask ventilation. One of the volunteers in these training exercises kindly provided much of the material that led to this paper, providing a first hand account of the experiments and an invaluable insight into the cooperation between anaesthetists and volunteer rescue associations. PMID:27456285

  8. Characterisation of the major dust storm that traversed over eastern Australia in September 2009; a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Munday, Chris I.; Brocks, Jochen; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Allison, Gwen E.; Hope, Janet; Norman, Marc; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Tapper, Nigel J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2014-12-01

    In September 2009, a major dust storm passed over the southeast coast of Australia and covered the large city of Sydney that is located on the eastern coast of Australia. It was referred to as the 'Red Dawn' event. Along its course across the state of New South Wales, the dust plume passed over Canberra, the capital of Australia located some 300 km from Sydney. In this study we identified the sources of the dust and tracked the progression of the dust storm using satellite imagery. We also examined the meteorological conditions that led to the formation of the dust plume. We also investigated the microbial and lipid composition, grain-size distribution, pollen content and geochemical composition of several samples of the dust that fell in Canberra (called 'Canberra dust'), with particular attention paid to the ratio of some rare earth elements as well as strontium and neodymium isotopes. This was done to identify a geochemical and palynological 'fingerprint' of this dust to determine the source of the material. Collectively, the meteorological and fingerprinting analyses identified the principal location of dust entrainment as between the large playa Lakes Gairdner and Torrens in arid South Australia, some 1600 km away from Canberra. We also determined through Sr isotope analyses and other elements measured in the dust that fell in Canberra and the township of Eden, located south of Sydney, that the dust changed composition slightly over a few hours, being the consequence of local dust entrainment along the path of the dust plume across South Australia and New South Wales. In addition, we present a scenario which explains dust transport away from the direction of the major dust plume. Those investigations carried out on the Canberra dust are compared with a previously documented event when dust was also sampled in Canberra in 2002. The origin and composition of the 2002 dust plume was clearly different from that which occurred in 2009, as demonstrated by the

  9. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  10. Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations given them by the…

  11. A Multi-Site Study of Norovirus Molecular Epidemiology in Australia and New Zealand, 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kun Lee; Hewitt, Joanne; Sitabkhan, Alefiya; Eden, John-Sebastian; Lun, Jennifer; Levy, Avram; Merif, Juan; Smith, David; Rawlinson, William D.; White, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis across all age groups. In particular, variants of genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) have been associated with epidemics globally, occurring approximately every three years. The pandemic GII.4 variant, Sydney 2012, was first reported in early 2012 and soon became the predominant circulating NoV strain globally. Despite its broad impact, both clinically and economically, our understanding of the fundamental diversity and mechanisms by which new NoV strains emerge remains limited. In this study, we describe the molecular epidemiological trends of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis in Australia and New Zealand between January 2013 and June 2014. Methodology Overall, 647 NoV-positive clinical faecal samples from 409 outbreaks and 238 unlinked cases of acute gastroenteritis were examined by RT-PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to identify NoV capsid genotypes and to establish the temporal dominance of circulating pandemic GII.4 variants. Recombinant viruses were also identified based on analysis of the ORF1/2 overlapping region. Findings Peaks in NoV activity were observed, however the timing of these epidemics varied between different regions. Overall, GII.4 NoVs were the dominant cause of both outbreaks and cases of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis (63.1%, n = 408/647), with Sydney 2012 being the most common GII.4 variant identified (98.8%, n = 403/408). Of the 409 reported NoV outbreaks, aged-care facilities were the most common setting in both Western Australia (87%, n = 20/23) and New Zealand (58.1%, n = 200/344) while most of the NoV outbreaks were reported from hospitals (38%, n = 16/42) in New South Wales, Australia. An analysis of a subset of non-GII.4 viruses from all locations (125/239) showed the majority (56.8%, n = 71/125) were inter-genotype recombinants. These recombinants were surprisingly diverse and could be classified into 18 distinct recombinant

  12. HIV research in Australia: linking basic research findings with clinical and public health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Sharon R; Kaldor, John M; Cooper, David A

    2006-01-01

    Despite a population of only 20 million and sustained low prevalence of HIV infection in Australia, Australian researchers have provided many substantial original findings to the fields of HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. More recently, Australian clinicians and scientists have turned their attention to assisting other countries in developing effective responses, particularly within the Asia-Pacific region. It is therefore fitting that the 4th International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention will be held in Sydney in July 2007. The meeting is expected to attract over 5000 participants and will have a dynamic and innovative programme within the three major themes of HIV basic science, clinical research and biomedical prevention. PMID:17140433

  13. Optimal choice of dairy forages in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Neal, M; Neal, J; Fulkerson, W J

    2007-06-01

    Although several forage species such as perennial ryegrass are predominant, there is a wide range of forage species that could be grown in subtropical and temperate regions in Australia as dairy pastures. These species have differing seasonal patterns of growth, nutrient quality, and water-use efficiency, as demonstrated in a large experiment evaluating over 30 species at the University of Sydney (Camden, New South Wales, Australia). Some species can be grazed, whereas others require mechanical harvesting, which incurs a further cost. Previous comparisons of species that relied on yield of dry matter per unit of some input (typically land or water) did not simultaneously take into account the season in which forage is produced, or other factors related to the costs of production and delivery to the cows. To effectively compare the profitability of individual species, or combinations of species, requires the use of a whole-farm, multiperiod model. Linear programming was used to find the most profitable mix of forage species for an irrigated dairy farm in a warm temperate irrigation region of New South Wales, Australia. It was concluded that for a typical farmer facing the prevailing milk and purchased feed prices with average milk production per cow, the most profitable mix of species would include a large proportion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii). The result was robust to changes in seasonal milk pricing and a move from year-round to a more seasonal calving pattern. PMID:17517747

  14. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  15. Local Studies: A Reaction to the Global Village [and] North Sydney Residents Discover "A Sense of Place" [and] SA State Library Goes Local [and] Stakeholders Discuss Future of Digital Objects [and] The Global Reach of Local Collections [and] Local Interest Re-animates Local History [and] A Country Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Jan; Dalling, Cheryl; Ho, Elizabeth; Allery, Linda; Hays, Sally

    1998-01-01

    Several brief articles examine how library and information workers in Australia, along with community historians, are meeting the challenge of finding, cataloging, preserving, and communicating local history to their clients and the world beyond. Describes cooperative initiatives by state, local, and regional libraries; discusses how technology…

  16. Minibrachium, a new subgenus of Rhamphobrachium (Annelida: Onuphidae) from Australia with the description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Hannelore; Budaeva, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a new subgenus of miniature, progenetic Rhamphobrachium species from eastern Australia. Minibrachium, n. subg. is characterised by such paedomorphic features as lack of peristomial cirri and branchiae, possession of only two pairs of modified parapodia with spiny recurved hooks and very early onset of subacicular hooks. Three new species are described, of which at least R. (Minibrachium) nutrix n. sp., the type species (from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef), is a fully grown adult, brooding several 16- to 20-chaetiger juveniles in the parental tubes. Rhamphobrachium (M.) talboti n. sp. (from off Sydney) and R. (M.) fractum n. sp. (from Bass Strait), although twice as large as the type species, have only partially developed frontal lips, indicating either incomplete growth or presenting an additional paedomorphic character. We discuss the position of the new subgenus in the Rhamphobrachium complex and present a key to the subgenera of Rhamphobrachium and species of R. (Minibrachium). PMID:26624081

  17. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  18. An odyssey of environmental pollution: the rise, fall and remobilization of industrial lead in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. P.; Kristensen, L.; Liqin, W.; Harvey, P. J.; Dong, C.; Rouillon, M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of lead in automobile gasoline resulted in more than 240,000 tonnes of lead being emitted to the Australian environment over its 70-year period of use starting in 1932. The consequences of the emissions and subsequent depositions have resulted in marked contamination of urban and peri-urban aerosols, soils, plants and humans. This paper charts these effects and examines the extent of recovery from one of the most pervasive and persistent environmental pollutants. Lead isotopic composition of Adelaide and Sydney aerosol filters show that air lead composition shifts from values that approximate Broken Hill type ores, the predominant lead source used in gasoline (1.04 206Pb/207Pb and 2.31 208Pb/207Pb), towards ratios that more closely match local uncontaminated soil and bedrock values (Adelaide ~1.19 206Pb/207Pb and ~2.50 208Pb/207Pb; Sydney ~1.15 206Pb/207Pb and 2.48 208Pb/207Pb). Proxy atmospheric measurements from historic wine, lichen and fungi samples extending over 120 years show how both concentration and composition values shifted in the middle to late 20th century to reflect petrol emissions and then recovered rapidly at the end of the century as leaded gasoline consumption declined. For example, lead in wine from South Australia fell from >100 μg/L in the 1960s and 1970s to < 5 μg/L in the 2010s due to the removal of the primary source of atmospheric lead - gasoline. However, measurement of contemporary surface soils, ash produced from wildfires and air filters demonstrate that the effect of depositions persists and industrial lead and other toxic metals (including arsenic, cadmium and nickel) are subject to frequent remobilization. Predicted increases in wildfires and the generation of lead, arsenic and cadmium toxic particulates warrants greater consideration of the risk for vulnerable populations and firefighters who are most exposed.

  19. Protein-controlled versus restricted protein versus low protein diets in managing patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: a single centre experience in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has been an important part of medical management in patients with chronic kidney disease for more than a century. Since the 1970s, due to technological advances in renal replacement therapy (RRT) such as dialysis and transplantation, the importance of nutrition intervention in non-dialysis stages has diminished. In addition, it appears that there is a lack of high-level evidence to support the use of diet therapy, in particular the use of low protein diets to slow down disease progression. However, nutrition abnormalities are known to emerge well before dialysis is required and are associated with poor outcomes post-commencing dialysis. To improve clinical outcomes it is prudent to incorporate practice research and quality audits into routine care, as part of the continuous clinical practice improvement process. This article summarises the experience of and current practices in a metropolitan tertiary teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. PMID:27624699

  20. The Oweniidae (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with the description of two new species of Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844.

    PubMed

    Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Study of the Oweniidae specimens (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) stored at the Australian Museum, Sydney and newly collected in August 2013 revealed the presence of three species, namely Galathowenia quelis Capa et al., 2012 and two new species belonging to the genus Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. Owenia dichotoma n. sp. is characterised by a very short branchial crown of about 1/3 of thoracic length which bears short, dichotomously-branched tentacles provided with the major division close to the base of the crown. Owenia picta n. sp. is characterised by a long branchial crown of about 4/5 of thoracic length provided with no major divisions, ventral pigmentation on thorax and the presence of deep ventro-lateral groove on the first thoracic chaetiger. A key of Owenia species hitherto described or reported in South East Asia and Australasia regions is provided based on characters of the branchial crown. PMID:26624080

  1. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Imported Cases of Leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tamalee; Barratt, Joel; Sandaradura, Indy; Lee, Rogan; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55). Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94%) with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans. PMID:25734905

  3. Space Radar Image of Canberra, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne radar image. Images like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the image. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the image is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.

  4. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-07-01

    Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16-44years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples from Cairns indicates that those wood types were more susceptible to biodegradation. Microscopic analyses revealed that most decay patterns observed in samples analysed from Sydney were consistent with aerobic fungal decay. Only a minor portion of the microbial decay was due to erosion bacteria active in anaerobic/near anaerobic environments. The findings of this study strongly suggest that models that adopt

  5. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Serum samples from 340 pet cats presented to three inner city clinics in Sydney Australia, 68 feral cats from two separate colonies in Sydney, and 329 cattery-confined pedigree and domestic cats in eastern Australia, were collected over a 2-year period and tested for antibodies directed against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using immunomigration (Agen FIV Rapid Immunomigration test) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (Snap Combo feline leukaemia virus antigen/FIV antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories). Western blot analysis was performed on samples in which there was discrepancy between the results. Information regarding breed, age, gender, housing arrangement and health status were recorded for all pet and cattery-confined cats, while the estimated age and current physical condition were recorded for feral cats. The FIV prevalence in the two feral cat populations was 21% and 25%. The majority of FIV-positive cats were male (60-80%). The FIV prevalence in cattery-confined cats was nil. The prevalence of FIV in the pet cat sample population was 8% (27/340) with almost equal prevalence in 'healthy' (13/170) and 'systemically unwell' (14/170) cats. The age of FIV-positive pet cats ranged from 3 to 19 years; all FIV-positive cats were domestic shorthairs with outside access. The median age of FIV-positive pet cats (11 years) was significantly greater than the median age of FIV-negative pet cats (7.5 years: P<0.05). The prevalence of FIV infection in male pet cats (21/172; 12%) was three times that in female pet cats (6/168; 4%; P<0.05). With over 80% of this pet cat population given outside access and continued FIV infection present in the feral population, this study highlights the need to develop rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic methods that are not subject to false positives created by concurrent vaccination against FIV. This is especially important in re-homing stray cats within animal shelters and monitoring the efficacy of the new

  6. Molecular confirmation of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in farmed and imported ornamental fish in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Peter G; Moody, Nicholas J G; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Cummins, David M; Davies, Kelly R; StJ Crane, Mark

    2015-10-16

    Viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus have not been detected in wild populations of fish in Australia but circulate in imported ornamental fish. In 2012, detection of a megalocytivirus in healthy platys Xiphophorus maculatus was reported from a farm in Australia during surveillance testing as part of a research project undertaken at the University of Sydney. Confirmatory testing of the original samples at the AAHL Fish Diseases Laboratory verified the presence of an infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV)-like virus. Additional sampling at the positive farm confirmed the persistence of the virus in the platys, with 39 of 265 (14.7%) samples testing positive. Comparison of 3 separate gene regions of the virus with those of ISKNV confirmed the detection of a virus indistinguishable from ISKNV. Subsequently, ISKNV was also detected in a range of imported ornamental fish from several countries between 2013 and 2014, by screening with real-time PCR and confirmation by conventional PCR and sequence analysis. Accordingly, the current importation of live ornamental fish acts as a potential perpetual source for the establishment of ISKNV viruses within Australia. The testing of the farmed and imported ornamental fish verified the utility of the probe-based real-time PCR assay for screening of ornamental fish for Megalocytivirus. PMID:26480913

  7. Perceived acculturative stress and sense of coherence in Chinese nursing students in Australia.

    PubMed

    He, Flora X; Lopez, Violeta; Leigh, Maria C

    2012-05-01

    University schools of nursing in Australia are the main providers of nursing education programmes for international students. The large cohort of overseas students requires that universities, as education providers, understand their needs and the problems related to studying and living in Australia. An exploratory descriptive quantitative study was conducted to investigate 119 Chinese international undergraduate nursing students' acculturative stress and sense of coherence at an Australian university in Sydney. Two validated scales were used: Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) and Sense of Coherence (SOC). Results indicated that overall Chinese nursing students had a moderate level of acculturative stress and sense of coherence. However, there was a significant difference in the level of acculturative stress among three groups of Chinese nursing students enrolled in the Bachelor of Nursing course, and SOC was negatively correlated with the level of acculturative stress. This study extends the knowledge of the experiences of Chinese nursing students studying and living in an English-speaking country. The study also highlights the need for universities to provide relevant support to overseas students to make their study journey smoother and more successful. PMID:21641702

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of the Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata: Insights into Molluscan Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Nicole G.; O’Connor, Wayne A.; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Wiegand, Aaron N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Oysters have important ecological functions in their natural environment, acting as global carbon sinks and improving water quality by removing excess nutrients from the water column. During their life-time oysters are exposed to a variety of pathogens that can cause severe mortality in a range of oyster species. Environmental stressors encountered in their habitat can increase the susceptibility of oysters to these pathogens and in general have been shown to impact on oyster immunity, making immune parameters expressed in these marine animals an important research topic. Results Paired-end Illumina high throughput sequencing of six S. glomerata tissues exposed to different environmental stressors resulted in a total of 484,121,702 paired-end reads. When reads and assembled transcripts were compared to the C. gigas genome, an overall low level of similarity at the nucleotide level, but a relatively high similarity at the protein level was observed. Examination of the tissue expression pattern showed that some transcripts coding for cathepsins, heat shock proteins and antioxidant proteins were exclusively expressed in the haemolymph of S. glomerata, suggesting a role in innate immunity. Furthermore, analysis of the S. glomerata ORFs showed a wide range of genes potentially involved in innate immunity, from pattern recognition receptors, components of the Toll-like signalling and apoptosis pathways to a complex antioxidant defence mechanism. Conclusions This is the first large scale RNA-Seq study carried out in S. glomerata, showing the complex network of innate immune components that exist in this species. The results confirmed that many of the innate immune system components observed in mammals are also conserved in oysters; however, some, such as the TLR adaptors MAL, TRIF and TRAM are either missing or have been modified significantly. The components identified in this study could help explain the oysters’ natural resilience against pathogenic microorganisms encountered in their natural environment. PMID:27258386

  9. The Sydney Holocaust study: posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychosocial morbidity in an aged community sample.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Charmaine; Brodaty, Henry; Luscombe, Georgina; Ehrlich, Frederick

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the psychological status and social functioning of Holocaust survivors. From 814 responses to a community survey of Jewish elders (aged 60 years or older), survivors (n = 100), refugees who had not experienced the Holocaust (n = 50), and Australian/English-born persons (n = 50), were randomly selected for semistructured interview, which included Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) assessment, ratings on the General Health Questionnaire, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Social Functioning. On all psychological measures, survivors were functioning worse than refugees and Australian/English-born persons. The 3 groups were similar in social and instrumental functioning. The more severe the trauma the greater the level of psychological morbidity. Despite normal social and daily functioning, psychological morbidity following massive trauma endures. PMID:12602651

  10. A Salmonella Typhimurium 197 outbreak linked to the consumption of lambs' liver in Sydney, NSW

    PubMed Central

    HESS, I. M. R.; NEVILLE, L. M.; McCARTHY, R.; SHADBOLT, C. T.; McANULTY, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We identified an increase in the number of cases of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 197 in New South Wales in February 2005. Cases were predominantly of Lebanese descent. To identify risk factors for illness, we conducted an unmatched case-control study including 12 cases and 21 controls. Eight of 12 cases (67%) and no controls reported eating lambs' liver (OR incalculable, P<0·05), and seven of nine cases (78%) and one of 21 controls (5%) reported eating fresh fish (OR 70·0, P<0·05). Among participants who did not eat liver, there was a strong association between eating fish and illness (OR 60·0, P<0·05). The fish was from divergent sources. Five cases had bought the liver from two different butcher's shops, which obtained the lambs' liver from a single abattoir. Consumption of liver is a risk for salmonellosis. Traditional dishes may place some ethnic groups at increased risk of foodborne disease. PMID:17565766

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Incident Dementia: Evidence from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Megan; Mather, Karen A; Xu, Jing; Assareh, Amelia A; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-03-29

    Alcohol consumption is a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, but the literature is not completely consistent. This inconsistency may be partly due to an interaction with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, an established risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident dementia or decline in specific cognitive domains over 4 years, and if this effect is modified by APOEɛ4 status. Non-demented community dwelling older adults (70-90 years) from an ongoing longitudinal study were assessed for cognitive impairment in attention/processing speed, language, executive function, visuospatial ability, and memory. Incident dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Compared to those who did not drink in the previous 12 months, neither low consumption (HR 0.64 95% CI 0.3-1.4) or risky consumption (HR 0.58 95% CI 0.2-1.5) was associated with incident dementia. Carriers of the APOEɛ4 allele were more likely to develop dementia, but there was no significant interaction with alcohol consumption. PMID:27031466

  12. Student Engagement at Two Single-Sex Colleges: Hampden-Sydney and Sweet Briar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Edith L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1960s the higher educational system in the United States has steadily lost its single-sex colleges; and as of 2008 only 51 women's and four men's institutions remain (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2008). Many of the previous single-sex schools have admitted members of the opposite sex, giving in to the national trend of…

  13. Factors Affecting the Integration of Computers in Western Sydney Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Allan

    Integration is based on the assumption that computers should be an integral part of the learning process, both for servicing curriculum needs and as an object for study. The integration of computers into everyday classroom activity has proved to be more slow and difficult than expected, creating the notion that there are incentives enhancing the…

  14. Indicators of Staff Efficacy in Seven Special Schools in the Sydney Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Staff in Special Schools are seldom the focus of research, yet work with a student group some might consider demanding and stressful. Staff who work in Catholic special Schools are under-represented in the academic literature. The motivation and efficacy of Special School staff were studies in 7 Catholic Special Schools. These staff were observed…

  15. "Corsages on Their Parents' Jackets": Employment and Aspiration among Arabic-Speaking Youth in Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George; Idriss, Sherene

    2012-01-01

    Many commentators have observed that late modernity has profoundly reshaped the nature of employment such that workers have become more reflexive, mobile, individualistic and entrepreneurial, free to re-invent themselves as they choose in a world of endless possibilities. Theorists of reflexive modernity suggest that the family unit and class have…

  16. Equity and Local Participation in VET: Some Preliminary Findings in Sydney Postcodes. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John

    More attention should be given to the local dimension of equity research. A question that must be asked is to what extent there is an unequal distribution of opportunities to participate in vocational education and training (VET) that is mirrored by area of residence in both urban and rural localities. Questions must also be asked about the extent…

  17. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,…

  18. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing. PMID:23856366

  19. The Sydney Multicentre Study of Parkinson's disease: a report on the first 3 years.

    PubMed Central

    Hely, M A; Morris, J G; Rail, D; Reid, W G; O'Sullivan, D J; Williamson, P M; Genge, S; Broe, G A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and twenty nine de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease are being followed over a 5 year period in a double-blind multicentre study comparing low-dose bromocriptine (less than 30 mg/day) with low-dose levodopa-carbidopa (less than 600/150 mg/day). Sixty six patients have been randomised to bromocriptine and 63 patients to levodopa-carbidopa. Improvement has been greater in the levodopa-carbidopa group than in the bromocriptine group. Involuntary movements have so far only occurred in patients on levodopa-carbidopa, the incidence being much lower than is usually described with conventional doses. Mild, end-of-dose failure has occurred in both treatment groups; however, no patient has developed the "on-off" phenomenon. Low-dose levodopa-carbidopa appears to be a more effective anti-Parkinsonian treatment than low-dose bromocriptine but more prone to cause dyskinesia. PMID:2647907

  20. Mental health symptoms among street-based psychostimulant injectors in Sydney's Kings Cross.

    PubMed

    Topp, Libby; Hudson, Susan L; Maher, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Urban frontline services have recorded increases in psychostimulant-related presentations. A convenience sample of 183 street-based psychostimulant injectors recruited in April 2006 was administered the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) to assess psychological distress. Homelessness, unemployment, and recent public injection, along with gender (female) and financial and relationship problems, best predicted clinically significant K10 scores. Drug use measures were not significantly associated with distress once indicators of social marginalization were included. The risk environment of the street-based drug market accounts for much of the distress experienced in this milieu, highlighting the need for broad structural interventions, together with drug-specific responses. PMID:20441457

  1. Use of surface waves for geotechnical engineering applications in Western Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokeshi, K.; Harutoonian, P.; Leo, C. J.; Liyanapathirana, S.

    2013-06-01

    Current in situ methods used to geotechnically characterize the ground are predominantly based on invasive mechanical techniques (e.g. CPT, SPT, DMT). These techniques are localized to the tested area thus making it quite time consuming and costly to extensively cover large areas. Hence, a study has been initiated to investigate the use of the non-invasive Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Multichannel Simulation with One Receiver (MSOR) techniques to provide both an evaluation of compacted ground and a general geotechnical site characterization. The MASW technique relies on the measurement of active ambient vibrations generated by sledgehammer hits to the ground. Generated vibrations are gathered by interconnected electromagnetic geophones set up in the vertical direction and in a linear array at the ground surface with a constant spacing. The MSOR technique relies on one sensor, one single geophone used as the trigger, and multiple impacts are delivered on a steel plate at several distances in a linear array. The main attributes of these non-invasive techniques are the cost effectiveness and time efficiency when compared to current in situ mechanical invasive methods. They were applied to infer the stiffness of the ground layers by inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves to derive the shear wave velocity (Vs) profile. The results produced by the MASW and the MSOR techniques were verified against independent mechanical Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This paper identifies that the MASW and the MSOR techniques could be potentially useful and powerful tools in the evaluation of the ground compaction and general geotechnical site characterization.

  2. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  3. Australia's role in HIV prevention in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D A

    1995-12-01

    A scientist with the National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, addresses the fact that Australians working in the area of HIV infection have been very successful in prevention, treatment, and care. In the early 1980s, a bipartisan political decision was made to foster an effective partnership between HIV-infected communities, health care providers, and governments. HIV-infected communities included sex workers, prisoners, Aboriginal people, and high profile gay community activists. These three different groups succeeded in forming such a partnership, as reflected in the fact that the annual number of new HIV cases is down to 500 from a peak of 3000 in 1984. A key method used to contain HIV infection was needle-and-syringe exchange programs and continuing access to needles to prevent HIV transmission in the injecting drug community. Even though Australia has all this experience and success, it had a backseat role in ushering in the UNAIDS program because Australia did not contribute a significant share of the agency's relatively small budget (US$100 million/year). If Australia were to give just 10%, it would acquire a front row seat along with the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, France, and the UK. These nations have the greatest say as to where UNAIDS funds go. The Australian international aid organization has recently received an increase in funds, $110 million for 4 years to spend on four areas, one of which is HIV/AIDS. Australia has just allocated $25 million for a 5-year program for HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) prevention in Indonesia. This money would have been able to buy Australia a leading role in UNAIDS. Australians need to reassess their priorities. Australians can help their neighbors in the Asia-Pacific region move away from their denial of HIV to HIV prevention and care. They can conduct clinical trials of shorter and more user-friendly regimens of antiviral drugs that

  4. Identification and characterisation of an ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µ-var) in Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Cheryl; Hick, Paul; Gabor, Melinda; Spiers, Zoe; Fell, Shayne A; Gu, Xingnian; Read, Andrew; Go, Jeffrey; Dove, Michael; O'Connor, Wayne; Kirkland, Peter D; Frances, Jane

    2013-07-22

    Between November 2010 and January 2011, triploid Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) cultivated in the Georges River, New South Wales, experienced >95% mortality. Mortalities also occurred in wild diploid C. gigas in the Georges River and shortly thereafter in the adjacent Parramatta River estuary upstream from Sydney Harbour. Neighbouring Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) did not experience mortalities in either estuary. Surviving oysters were collected to investigate the cause of mortalities. Histologically all oysters displayed significant pathology, and molecular testing revealed a high prevalence of ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1). Quantitative PCR indicated that many C. gigas were carrying a high viral load at the time of sampling, while the load in S. glomerata was significantly lower (p < 0.001). Subsequent in situ hybridisation experiments confirmed the presence of a herpesvirus in C. gigas but not S. glomerata tissues, suggesting that S. glomerata is not susceptible to infection with OsHV-1. Naïve sentinel triploid C. gigas placed in the Georges River estuary in January 2011 quickly became infected and experienced nearly 100% mortality within 2 wk of exposure, indicating the persistence of the virus in the environment. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences derived from the C2/C6 region of the virus revealed that the Australian strain of OsHV-1 belongs to the microvariant (µ-var) cluster, which has been associated with severe mortalities in C. gigas in other countries since 2008. Environmental data revealed that the Woolooware Bay outbreaks occurred during a time of considerable environmental disturbance, with increased water temperatures, heavy rainfall, a toxic phytoplankton bloom and the presence of a pathogenic Vibrio sp. all potentially contributing to oyster stress. This is the first confirmed report of OsHV-1 µ-var related C. gigas mortalities in Australia. PMID:23872855

  5. The Possibility of Cosmopolitan Learning: Reflecting on Future Directions for Diversity Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Carol; Sriprakash, Arathi

    2012-01-01

    This paper is situated in the re-visioning ethos that has been part of the genealogy of multicultural education. In the context of teacher education, the authors ask: where to now? In this paper, they reflect on their design and delivery of a new undergraduate unit offered by the School of Education, University of Western Sydney. The unit…

  6. Struan Sutherland--Doyen of envenomation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, James

    2006-12-01

    Struan Sutherland (1936-2002) was the doyen of medical research in the field of envenomation and the ultimate authority on the medical management of envenomated victims in Australia for almost 3 decades. In 1981 as Head of Immunology Research of Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL), he produced an antivenom against the Sydney Funnel-web Spider (Atrax robustus)-an accomplishment that had defied numerous previous attempts. Struan also invented the pressure-immobilisation technique of first-aid for snake bite. This ingenious, simple but safe and effective technique revolutionised first-aid management of snake bite and of some other types of envenomation. It made redundant the use of tourniquets and other dangerous first-aid treatments. Similarly, he helped to develop a snake venom detection kit, which enables doctors working at a victim's bedside to ascertain which snake was responsible and which antivenom should be administered. He had a very wide range of research interests and was a prodigious researcher publishing over 200 scientific and medical articles, numerous chapters in books and the standard Australian medical textbook on the management of envenomation, Australian Animal Toxins. He made major contributions to the understanding of the venoms of Australia's remarkable range of fauna including snakes, spiders, Blue-ringed octopus, ants, jellyfish and stinging fish. Struan served the medical fraternity and the public selflessly. He was always available to doctors, or to anybody, to give advice at any hour of the day or night, on management of envenomated victims. Members of the Australian Venom Research Unit, which he founded in 1994 at The University of Melbourne, now continue this 24-h advisory service. PMID:16920170

  7. Field evaluation of repellent formulations against daytime and nighttime biting mosquitoes in a tropical rainforest in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Van Dung, Nguye; Beebe, N W; Debboun, Mustapha

    2002-05-01

    Field trials to compare repellent formulations containing either picaridin or deet against rainforest mosquitoes in northern Queensland, Australia, were conducted. Three repellents were compared at night: 9.3% picaridin and 19.2% picaridin (Autan Repel and Autan Repel Army 20, respectively, Bayer, Sydney, Australia) and 35% deet in a gel (Australian Defense Force [ADF]). During the day, the following three repellents were compared: 19.2% picaridin, 20% deet in a controlled release formulation (Sawyer Controlled Release Deet), and 33% deet in a polymer formulation (U.S. Army Extended Duration Topical Insect and Arthropod Repellent [EDTIAR]). The predominant mosquito species collected was Verrallina lineata (Taylor), with smaller numbers of Ochlerotatus kochi (Donitz), Anopheles farauti s.s. Laveran, Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Skuse), and Coquilletidia xanthogaster (Edwards). In nighttime tests, 19.2% picaridin provided >94.7% protection for at least 9 h, and ADF deet provided >95% protection for 7 h. The 9.3% picaridin formulation provided >95% protection for only 2 h, and provided 60% protection at 9 h. In daytime tests, Sawyer 20% deet provided >95% protection for 6 h, and both 19.2% picaridin and U.S. Army EDTIAR provided >95% protection for 8 h. In both nighttime and daytime tests 19.2% picaridin provided similar or better protection than deet formulations. PMID:12061453

  8. Combining a climatic niche model of an invasive fungus with its host species distributions to identify risks to natural assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kriticos, Darren J; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  9. Combining a Climatic Niche Model of an Invasive Fungus with Its Host Species Distributions to Identify Risks to Natural Assets: Puccinia psidii Sensu Lato in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Morin, Louise; Leriche, Agathe; Anderson, Robert C.; Caley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is an invasive rust fungus threatening a wide range of plant species in the family Myrtaceae. Originating from Central and South America, it has invaded mainland USA and Hawai'i, parts of Asia and Australia. We used CLIMEX to develop a semi-mechanistic global climatic niche model based on new data on the distribution and biology of P. psidii s.l. The model was validated using independent distribution data from recently invaded areas in Australia, China and Japan. We combined this model with distribution data of its potential Myrtaceae host plant species present in Australia to identify areas and ecosystems most at risk. Myrtaceaeous species richness, threatened Myrtaceae and eucalypt plantations within the climatically suitable envelope for P. psidii s.l in Australia were mapped. Globally the model identifies climatically suitable areas for P. psidii s.l. throughout the wet tropics and sub-tropics where moist conditions with moderate temperatures prevail, and also into some cool regions with a mild Mediterranean climate. In Australia, the map of species richness of Myrtaceae within the P. psidii s.l. climatic envelope shows areas where epidemics are hypothetically more likely to be frequent and severe. These hotspots for epidemics are along the eastern coast of New South Wales, including the Sydney Basin, in the Brisbane and Cairns areas in Queensland, and in the coastal region from the south of Bunbury to Esperance in Western Australia. This new climatic niche model for P. psidii s.l. indicates a higher degree of cold tolerance; and hence a potential range that extends into higher altitudes and latitudes than has been indicated previously. The methods demonstrated here provide some insight into the impacts an invasive species might have within its climatically suited range, and can help inform biosecurity policies regarding the management of its spread and protection of valued threatened assets. PMID:23704988

  10. Regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall across Australia - implications for intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships are commonly required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently, IFD information is based on the "stationary climate assumption" that weather at any point in time will vary randomly and that the underlying climate statistics (including both averages and extremes) will remain constant irrespective of the period of record. However, the validity of this assumption has been questioned over the last 15 years, particularly in Australia, following an improved understanding of the significant impact of climate variability and change occurring on interannual to multidecadal timescales. This paper provides evidence of regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall time series (between 1913-2010) using 96 daily rainfall stations and 66 sub-daily rainfall stations across Australia. Furthermore, the effect of these regime shifts on the resulting IFD estimates are explored for three long-term (1913-2010) sub-daily rainfall records (Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne) utilizing insights into multidecadal climate variability. It is demonstrated that IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall depending on the length and time period spanned by the rainfall data used to develop the IFD information. It is recommended that regime shifts in annual maximum rainfall be explicitly considered and appropriately treated in the ongoing revisions of the Engineers Australia guide to estimating and utilizing IFD information, Australian Rainfall and Runoff (ARR), and that clear guidance needs to be provided on how to deal with the issue of regime shifts in extreme events (irrespective of whether this is due to natural or anthropogenic climate change). The findings of our study also have important implications for other regions of the world that exhibit considerable hydroclimatic variability and where IFD information is based on relatively short data sets.

  11. Building healthy bones throughout life: an evidence-informed strategy to prevent osteoporosis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Peter R; Daly, Robin M; Kerr, Deborah A; Kimlin, Michael G

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis imposes a tremendous burden on Australia: 1.2 million Australians have osteoporosis and 6.3 million have osteopenia. In the 2007–08 financial year, 82 000 Australians suffered fragility fractures, of which > 17 000 were hip fractures. In the 2000–01 financial year, direct costs were estimated at $1.9 billion per year and an additional $5.6 billion on indirect costs. Osteoporosis was designated a National Health Priority Area in 2002; however, implementation of national plans has not yet matched the rhetoric in terms of urgency. Building healthy bones throughout life, the Osteoporosis Australia strategy to prevent osteoporosis throughout the life cycle, presents an evidence-informed set of recommendations for consumers, health care professionals and policymakers. The strategy was adopted by consensus at the Osteoporosis Australia Summit in Sydney, 20 October 2011. Primary objectives throughout the life cycle are: to maximise peak bone mass during childhood and adolescence to prevent premature bone loss and improve or maintain muscle mass, strength and functional capacity in healthy adults to prevent and treat osteoporosis in order to minimise the risk of suffering fragility fractures, and reduce falls risk, in older people. The recommendations focus on three affordable and important interventions — to ensure people have adequate calcium intake, vitamin D levels and appropriate physical activity throughout their lives. Recommendations relevant to all stages of life include: daily dietary calcium intakes should be consistent with Australian and New Zealand guidelines serum levels of vitamin D in the general population should be above 50nmol/L in winter or early spring for optimal bone health regular weight-bearing physical activity, muscle strengthening exercises and challenging balance/mobility activities should be conducted in a safe environment. PMID:25370432

  12. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour. PMID:26983935

  13. Generating Quitline calls during Australia's National Tobacco Campaign: effects of television advertisement execution and programme placement

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, T; Rock, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study sought to measure the relative efficiency of different television advertisements and types of television programmes in which advertisements were placed, in generating calls to Australia's national Quitline. Design: The study entailed an analysis of the number of calls generated to the Quitline relative to the weight of advertising exposure (in target audience rating points (TARPs) for particular television advertisements and for placement of these advertisements in particular types of television programmes. A total of 238 television advertisement placements and 1769 calls to the Quitline were analysed in Sydney and Melbourne. Results: The more graphic "eye" advertisement conveying new information about the association between smoking and macular degeneration leading to blindness was more efficient in generating quitline calls than the "tar" advertisement, which reinforced the message of tar in a smoker's lungs. Combining the health effects advertisements with a quitline modelling advertisement tended to increase the efficiency of generating Quitline calls. Placing advertisements in lower involvement programmes appears to provide greater efficiency in generating Quitline calls than in higher involvement programmes. Conclusions: Tobacco control campaign planners can increase the number of calls to telephone quitlines by assessing the efficiency of particular advertisements to generate such calls. Pairing of health effect and quitline modelling advertisements can increase efficiency in generating calls. Placement of advertisements in lower involvement programme types may increase efficiency in generating Quitline calls. PMID:12878772

  14. Socio-cultural reflections on heat in Australia with implications for health and climate change adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Bambrick, Hilary; Edwards, Ferne; Kjellström, Tord

    2012-01-01

    Background Australia has a hot climate with maximum summer temperatures in its major cities frequently exceeding 35°C. Although ‘heat waves’ are an annual occurrence, the associated heat-related deaths among vulnerable groups, such as older people, suggest that Australians could be better prepared to deal with extreme heat. Objective To understand ways in which a vulnerable sub-population adapt their personal behaviour to cope with heat within the context of Australians’ relationship with heat. Design We draw upon scientific, historical and literary sources and on a set of repeat interviews in the suburbs of Western Sydney with eight older participants and two focus group discussions. We discuss ways in which this group of older people modifies their behaviour to adapt to heat, and reflect on manifestations of Australians’ ambivalence towards heat. Results Participants reported a number of methods for coping with extreme heat, including a number of methods of personal cooling, changing patterns of daily activity and altering dietary habits. The use of air-conditioning was near universal, but with recognition that increasing energy costs may become more prohibitive over time. Conclusions While a number of methods are employed by older people to stay cool, these may become limited in the future. Australians’ attitudes may contribute to the ill-health and mortality associated with excessive heat. PMID:23078748

  15. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  16. Surface elevation dynamics in a regenerating mangrove forest at Homebush Bay, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.; Saintilan, N.; Cahoon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Following the dieback of an interior portion of a mangrove forest at Homebush Bay, Australia, surface elevation tables and feldspar marker horizons were installed in the impacted, intermediate and control forest to measure vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence. The objectives of the study were to determine current vertical accretion and elevation change rates as a guide to understanding mangrove dieback, ascertain the factors controlling surface elevation change, and investigate the sustainability of the mangrove forest under estimated sea-level rise conditions. The study demonstrates that the influences on surface dynamics are more complex than soil accretion and soil autocompaction alone. During strong vegetative regrowth in the impacted forest, surface elevation increase exceeded vertical accretion apparently as a result of belowground biomass production. In addition, surface elevation in all forest zones was correlated with total monthly rainfall during a severe El Ni?o event, highlighting the importance of rainfall to groundwater recharge and surface elevation. Surface elevation increase for all zones exceeded the 85-year sea level trend for Sydney Harbour. Since mean sea-level also decreased during the El Ni?o event, the decrease in surface elevation did not translate to an increase in inundation frequency or influence the sustainability of the mangrove forest. These findings indicate that subsurface soil processes such as organic matter accumulation and groundwater flux can significantly influence mangrove surface elevation, and contribute to the long-term sustainability of mangrove systems under a scenario of rising sea levels.

  17. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  18. The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( λ=2-20 Å) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

  19. CO 2 degassing and trapping during hydrothermal cycles related to Gondwana rifting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, I. Tonguç; Golding, Suzanne D.; Bolhar, Robert; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Baublys, Kim A.; Greig, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Intensive carbonate and clay mineral authigenesis took place throughout the Late Permian Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney basin system in eastern Australia. We conducted isotopic and trace element analyses of carbonate and clay minerals from clastic sedimentary rocks of the Gunnedah Basin and the Denison Trough in the Bowen Basin. Rb-Sr isochron age data of the illitic clays are consistent with episodic hydrothermal fluid flow events that occurred in association with Gondwana rifting accompanied by alkaline magmatism at ˜85 Ma and ˜95 Ma. Stable isotope data of carbonate and clay minerals from the Gunnedah Basin are indicative of meteoric waters from a high-latitude environment as the main fluid source, whereas trace element, Sr and Nd isotope data highlight mixing of meteoric fluids with magmatic and/or crustal components, with a possible input from marine carbonates for some samples. Trace metals, oxygen and strontium isotopes of dawsonites from the Denison Trough are interpreted to have been mobilised by fluids that interacted with evolved clastic sedimentary and marine carbonate end members. According to the carbon isotope data, CO 2 for calcite and ankerite precipitation was sourced mainly from thermal degradation of organic matter and magmatism, whereas the CO 2 used for dawsonite formation is inferred to have been derived from magmatic and marine sources. In the low permeability environments (particularly in coal seams), the increasing accumulation and oversaturation of CO 2 particularly promote the precipitation of dawsonite.

  20. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids. PMID:27395159

  1. Iron oxide minerals in dust of the Red Dawn event in eastern Australia, September 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Cattle, Stephen R.; Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Yauk, Kimberly; Flagg, Cody B.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Morman, Suzette; Breit, George N.

    2014-12-01

    Iron oxide minerals typically compose only a few weight percent of bulk atmospheric dust but are important for potential roles in forcing climate, affecting cloud properties, influencing rates of snow and ice melt, and fertilizing marine phytoplankton. Dust samples collected from locations across eastern Australia (Lake Cowal, Orange, Hornsby, and Sydney) following the spectacular "Red Dawn" dust storm on 23 September 2009 enabled study of the dust iron oxide assemblage using a combination of magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Red Dawn was the worst dust storm to have hit the city of Sydney in more than 60 years, and it also deposited dust into the Tasman Sea and onto snow cover in New Zealand. Magnetization measurements from 20 to 400 K reveal that hematite, goethite, and trace amounts of magnetite are present in all samples. Magnetite concentrations (as much as 0.29 wt%) were much higher in eastern, urban sites than in western, agricultural sites in central New South Wales (0.01 wt%), strongly suggesting addition of magnetite from local urban sources. Variable temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy (300 and 4.2 K) indicates that goethite and hematite compose approximately 25-45% of the Fe-bearing phases in samples from the inland sites of Orange and Lake Cowal. Hematite was observed at both temperatures but goethite only at 4.2 K, thereby revealing the presence of nanogoethite (less than about 20 nm). Similarly, hematite particulate matter is very small (some of it d < 100 nm) on the basis of magnetic results and Mössbauer spectra. The degree to which ferric oxide in these samples might absorb solar radiation is estimated by comparing reflectance values with a magnetic parameter (hard isothermal remanent magnetization, HIRM) for ferric oxide abundance. Average visible reflectance and HIRM are correlated as a group (r2 = 0.24), indicating that Red Dawn ferric oxides have capacity to absorb

  2. Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-09-15

    We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica. PMID:25123611

  3. CareTrack Kids—part 3. Adverse events in children's healthcare in Australia: study protocol for a retrospective medical record review

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Peter D; Hallahan, Andrew R; Muething, Stephen E; Lachman, Peter; Hooper, Tamara D; Wiles, Louise K; Jaffe, Adam; White, Les; Wheaton, Gavin R; Runciman, William B; Dalton, Sarah; Williams, Helena M; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A high-quality health system should deliver care that is free from harm. Few large-scale studies of adverse events have been undertaken in children's healthcare internationally, and none in Australia. The aim of this study is to measure the frequency and types of adverse events encountered in Australian paediatric care in a range of healthcare settings. Methods and analysis A form of retrospective medical record review, the Institute of Healthcare Improvement's Global Trigger Tool, will be modified to collect data. Records of children aged <16 years managed during 2012 and 2013 will be reviewed. We aim to review 6000–8000 records from a sample of healthcare practices (hospitals, general practices and specialists). Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from the Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, and the Women's and Children's Hospital Network in South Australia. An application is under review with the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and undertake national and international oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers. PMID:25854978

  4. Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

    2010-12-01

    In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to

  5. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Cope with a Literacy Intervention Program in a Remote Indigenous Community? The Community Action Support Program in the Northern Territory, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the…

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in Australia: trends in socioeconomic inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors using educational attainment to indicate socioeconomic status. DESIGN--Behavioural data, physical measurements, blood pressure, and lipid determination collected in three, successive multicentre cross sectional community surveys conducted in 1980, 1983, and 1989. SETTING--The six state capital cities of Australia; Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and Hobart. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 19,315 randomly selected respondents stratified by age (25-44, 45-64) and sex. RESULTS--During the 1980s, average blood pressure declined for each level of educational attainment. Dietary messages to reduce the intake of saturated fat had little effect on the lipid profile of any population group. Height and educational attainment were positively associated. Women increased in weight from between 2 to 4 kg depending on age and educational attainment while older men experienced increases of around 2.5 kg regardless of educational attainment. Advice to avoid salt was adopted across the spectrum of educational attainment but with no suggestion that the socioeconomic gradient, which favoured the more highly educated, was diminishing. Men of all education levels responded positively to the anti-smoking initiatives of the 1980s but the relative disadvantage of those of lower education was maintained. Among women, the decline in smoking was less among those in the low education group. The prevalence of moderate to heavy drinkers was higher in men of lower educational attainment but declined significantly over the period. Walking for recreation or exercise became more popular, especially among older men of low education, while the prevalence of aerobic exercise and vigorous exercise remained largely unchanged. Overall, the clear socioeconomic gradient between leisure time physical activity and education attainment remained. CONCLUSIONS--The lower socioeconomic group has improved its risk

  7. Non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall across Australia - implications for Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IFD) relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

    2015-03-01

    Rainfall Intensity-Frequency-Duration (IFD) relationships are commonly required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently IFD information is based on the "stationary climate assumption" - that weather at any point in time will vary randomly and that the underlying climate statistics (including both averages and extremes) will remain constant irrespective of the period of record. However, the validity of this assumption has been questioned over the last 15 years, particularly in Australia, following an improved understanding of the significant impact of climate variability and change occurring on interannual to multidecadal timescales. This paper provides evidence of non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall timeseries using 96 daily rainfall stations and 66 sub-daily rainfall stations across Australia. Further, the effect of non-stationarity on the resulting IFD estimates are explored for three long-term sub-daily rainfall records (Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne) utilising insights into multidecadal climate variability. It is demonstrated that IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall depending on the length and time period spanned by the rainfall data used to develop the IFD information. It is recommended that non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall be explicitly considered and appropriately treated in the ongoing revisions of Engineers Australia's guide to estimating and utilising IFD information, "Australian Rainfall and Runoff", and that clear guidance needs to be provided on how to deal with the issue of non-stationarity of extreme events (irrespective of whether that non-stationarity is due to natural or anthropogenic climate change). The findings of our study also have important implications for other regions of the world that exhibit considerable hydroclimatic variability and where IFD information is based on relatively short data sets.

  8. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health. PMID:26077856

  9. Assessing preferences of beach users for certain aspects of weather and ocean conditions: case studies from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xiao Hua

    2013-05-01

    Three well-known Australian beaches, Surfers Paradise Beach (Gold Coast), Narrowneck Beach (Gold Coast) and Bondi Beach (Sydney), were selected for analysis of beach user preferences for certain weather and ocean conditions. Regression methods were used to determine how the numbers of visitors to these beaches are affected by these conditions. Actual visitor numbers were counted at three times during the day over several months at each beach with the aid of web cameras. The corresponding weather and ocean conditions were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and local government agencies. Weekly and seasonal factors were also considered. The conditions preferred by beach users, as found in this study, are: no precipitation, higher temperatures, light-to-moderate wind speed (less than 30 km/h) and low wave height (up to 1.25 m). This study, the first to provide an analysis of beach user preferences for both weather and ocean conditions, shows that ocean conditions play a significant role in explaining the demand for beach recreation in Australia. It is therefore necessary for tourism management authorities or local governments to provide accurate and timely weather and ocean information to local, domestic and international beach users.

  10. A multi-decade dataset of monthly beach profile surveys and inshore wave forcing at Narrabeen, Australia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ian L; Harley, Mitchell D; Short, Andrew D; Simmons, Joshua A; Bracs, Melissa A; Phillips, Matthew S; Splinter, Kristen D

    2016-01-01

    Long-term observational datasets that record and quantify variability, changes and trends in beach morphology at sandy coastlines together with the accompanying wave climate are rare. A monthly beach profile survey program commenced in April 1976 at Narrabeen located on Sydney's Northern Beaches in southeast Australia is one of just a handful of sites worldwide where on-going and uninterrupted beach monitoring now spans multiple decades. With the Narrabeen survey program reaching its 40-year milestone in April 2016, it is timely that free and unrestricted use of these data be facilitated to support the next advances in beach erosion-recovery modelling. The archived dataset detailed here includes the monthly subaerial profiles, available bathymetry for each survey transect extending seawards to 20 m water depth, and time-series of ocean astronomical tide and inshore wave forcing at 10 m water depths, the latter corresponding to the location of individual survey transects. In addition, on-going access to the results of the continuing monthly survey program is described. PMID:27070299

  11. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  12. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  13. Travel risk behaviours and uptake of pre-travel health preventions by university students in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased risk of importing infectious disease as many undertake multiple visits to regions with higher infectious disease endemicity. Little is known about the health behaviours of domestic or international university students, particularly students from low resource countries who travel to high-resource countries for education. This study aimed to assess travel-associated health risks and preventative behaviours in a sample of both domestic and international university students in Australia. Methods In 2010, a 28 item self-administered online survey was distributed to students enrolled at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Multiple methods of distributing links to the online survey were utilised. The survey examined the international travel history, travel intentions, infection control behaviours and self-reported vaccination history. Results A total of 1663 respondents completed the online survey, 22.1% were international students and 83.9% were enrolled at an undergraduate level. Half had travelled internationally in the previous 12 months, with 69% of those travelling only once during that time with no difference in travel from Australia between domestic and international students (p = 0.8). Uptake of pre-travel health advice was low overall with 68% of respondents reporting they had not sought any advice from a health professional prior to their last international trip. Domestic students were more likely to report uptake of a range of preventative travel health measures compared to international students, including diarrhoeal medication, insect repellent, food avoidance and condoms (P < 0.0001). Overall, students reported low risk perception of travel threats and a low corresponding concern for these threats. Conclusions Our study

  14. An automated, broad-based, near real-time public health surveillance system using presentations to hospital Emergency Departments in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, David J; Churches, Tim; Kaldor, Jill; Zheng, Wei; Chiu, Clayton; Correll, Patricia; Jorm, Louisa

    2005-01-01

    Background In a climate of concern over bioterrorism threats and emergent diseases, public health authorities are trialling more timely surveillance systems. The 2003 Rugby World Cup (RWC) provided an opportunity to test the viability of a near real-time syndromic surveillance system in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. We describe the development and early results of this largely automated system that used data routinely collected in Emergency Departments (EDs). Methods Twelve of 49 EDs in the Sydney metropolitan area automatically transmitted surveillance data from their existing information systems to a central database in near real-time. Information captured for each ED visit included patient demographic details, presenting problem and nursing assessment entered as free-text at triage time, physician-assigned provisional diagnosis codes, and status at departure from the ED. Both diagnoses from the EDs and triage text were used to assign syndrome categories. The text information was automatically classified into one or more of 26 syndrome categories using automated "naïve Bayes" text categorisation techniques. Automated processes were used to analyse both diagnosis and free text-based syndrome data and to produce web-based statistical summaries for daily review. An adjusted cumulative sum (cusum) was used to assess the statistical significance of trends. Results During the RWC the system did not identify any major public health threats associated with the tournament, mass gatherings or the influx of visitors. This was consistent with evidence from other sources, although two known outbreaks were already in progress before the tournament. Limited baseline in early monitoring prevented the system from automatically identifying these ongoing outbreaks. Data capture was invisible to clinical staff in EDs and did not add to their workload. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of syndromic surveillance using routinely collected data

  15. Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference: Youth Schooling & Employment. Part B. (Sydney, November 6-9, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ian D., Comp.

    This second of the two-part proceedings of an Australian conference on youth schooling and unemployment contains 25 research reports and texts from two symposia on alienation from school to work, and youth in transition. Focus of the papers is on educational practices and specific problems in the area of educational research. Topics covered in…

  16. The effect of a culture-specific education program to promote breastfeeding among Vietnamese women in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C

    1994-08-01

    The rate of breastfeeding among immigrant Vietnamese women in Western countries is low compared to those in Vietnam. To counteract this trend, a language and culture specific education program was developed. An experimental design was used to test the effectiveness of this program. The sample consisted of 182 prenatal Vietnamese women. Data collection included questionnaires and interviews. Results suggested that the education program had significant effects on knowledge, attitudes, planned and actual behaviour towards breastfeeding. However, the effect did not sustain until 6 months postpartum. Implications for nursing practice and further research are discussed. PMID:7928125

  17. Extra-Curricular Undergraduate Research Training: Notes on the Pedagogical Practices behind the Sydney Undergraduate Journal of Musicology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Christopher; Nelson, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a clear body of evidence supporting the idea that undergraduate students benefit from participation in original research projects, many units of study--particularly in the creative arts and humanities--have been slow to embrace curriculum renewal along these lines. In this paper, we detail a pragmatic approach to meeting this…

  18. What Role Can Community Contact Play in Heritage Language Literacy Development? Japanese-English Bilingual Children in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2012-01-01

    When linguistic minority parents wish to develop and maintain their children's literacy in heritage languages (HLs), what can they do to help? How and to what extent do the individual contexts of language use and background affect the development and maintenance of HL literacy, compared with the sociocultural context of community? What are the…

  19. Levels and Functions of HIV/AIDS Stigma within the Iranian Community Living in the Sydney Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia; Niknami, Shamsaddin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related stigma among the Iranian population and the factors that contribute to the formation of stigma within the study population. Design: A quantitative research design was used in this research whereby participants completed…

  20. Developing Social Inclusion through After-School Homework Tutoring: A Study of African Refugee Students in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    Schools represent the primary setting where refugee children learn about Australian life and culture. They serve as a broad context for acculturation not only for academic development and language acquisition but for cultural learning too. This paper focuses on the after-school homework tutoring programme that uses University of Western Sydney…

  1. Indian-born patients attending a sexual health clinic in Australia have differing characteristics to their Australian-born counterparts.

    PubMed

    Sawleshwarkar, S; Kakar, S R; Jones, R; Lagios, K; Mindel, A; Hillman, R J

    2013-12-01

    We report a retrospective cross-sectional study from Western Sydney that assessed the sexual health characteristics of Indian-born patients attending sexual health services compared with Australian-born controls. The sexual health needs of Indian-born patients differed significantly from controls with those born in India reporting more sexual dysfunction and controls having more sexually transmitted infections (STI). These issues should be considered when delivering services to people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. PMID:24330362

  2. Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R; Grzebieta, Raphael H

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991-2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure. PMID:23026203

  3. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants. PMID:25632724

  4. From Potts Hill (Australia) to Pune (India): The journey of a radio astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarup, Govind

    2006-06-01

    In this paper I recapitulate my initiation into the field of radio astronomy during 1953-1955 at CSIRO, Australia; the transfer of thirty-two parabolic dishes of six-feet (1.8-m) diameter from Potts Hill, Sydney, to India in 1958; and their erection at Kalyan, near Bombay (Mumbai), in 1963-1965. The Kalyan Radio Telescope was the first modern radio telescope built in India. This led to the establishment of a very active radio astronomy group at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, which subsequently built two world-class radio telescopes during the last forty years and also contributed to the development of an indigenous microwave antenna industry in India. The Ooty Radio Telescope, built during 1965-1970, has an ingenious design which takes advantage of India's location near the Earth's Equator. The long axis of this 530 m × 30 m parabolic cylinder was made parallel to the Equator, by placing it on a hill with the same slope as the geographic latitude (11 degrees), thus allowing it to track celestial sources continuously for 9.5 hours every day. By utilizing lunar occultations, the telescope was able to measure the angular sizes of a large number of faint radio galaxies and quasars with arc-second resolution for the first time. Subsequently, during the 1990s, the group set up the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) near Pune in western India, in order to investigate certain astrophysical phenomena which are best studied at decimetre and metre wavelengths. The GMRT is an array of thirty fully-steerable parabolic dishes of 45 m diameter, which operates at several frequencies below 1.43 GHz. These efforts have also contributed to the recent international proposal to construct the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  5. Treatment for substance abuse in Australia: a comparison of public and private programs.

    PubMed

    McNeese-Smith, Donna K

    2003-09-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse is a major problem in Australia and caused over 4000 deaths in 1998 alone. The national policy for reducing the harmful consequences of drug and alcohol use focuses on decreasing the production and supply of drugs, reducing the demand for drugs including a focus on abstinence in treatment, and minimizing the harm to individuals and communities. This research examines substance abuse treatment in Australia, and identifies similarities and differences in funding, philosophy, purpose, and strategies between public and private treatment programs. Interviews of 21 treatment program directors in Sydney and Melbourne were done, using a valid and reliable semi-structured interview guide. Nine public, not-for-profit programs primarily focused on consultation to medical providers, detoxification, outpatient counseling, and harm minimization including methadone treatment and needle exchange. Rehabilitation, prevention, and/or research were objectives of a limited number. Twelve private, non-governmental programs primarily provided abstinence-based treatment in a variety of settings. Some for-profit programs, funded by insurance, provided three to four weeks inpatient care, usually with outpatient follow-up. Not-for-profit programs provided residential treatment in a therapeutic community over a period of 6 months to 2 years. Still others (both profit and not-for-profit) provided methadone treatment or outpatient treatment. Four were church related and six received funding through government contracts, social security illness benefits, and housing assistance. The general lack of structured rehabilitation programs seemed to be the greatest weakness of the Australian public programs. A low percentage of patients completing detoxification entered counseling, and studies were not available to show the outcomes of detoxification without follow-up. The availability of consultations to hospitals and health care practitioners seemed to be an excellent advantage

  6. 11th Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology 2003 (ISMB 2003)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    This report profiles the keynote talks given at ISMB03 in Brisbane, Australia by Ron Shamir, David Haussler, John Mattick, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Sydney Brenner, the Overton Prize winner, Jim Kent, and the ISCB Senior Accomplishment Awardee, David Sankov. PMID:18629025

  7. A Random Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of papers presented at the 25th International Geological Congress held August 16-25, 1976, Sydney, Australia. Topics include precambrian geology, tectonics, biostratigraphy, geochemistry, quaternary geology, engineering geology, planetology, geological education, and stress environments. (SL)

  8. Persistence of related bla-IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical and environmental specimens within a burns unit in Australia - a six-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To describe the clinical epidemiology, environmental surveillance and infection control interventions undertaken in a six-year persistence of bla-IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae within a separately confined hospital burns unit in a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Methods MBL positive clinical and environmental isolates were collected from the Burns Unit, from the first detection of isolates in September 2006 to August 2012. Unit-acquired clinical isolates were included, and patient outcomes analyzed amongst those who acquired clinically significant infections. Environmental isolates were analyzed with regard to relationship to clinical isolates, bacterial species, and persistence despite cleaning efforts. Results Thirty clinical isolates detected from 23 patients were identified. Clinically significant infection developed in 7 (30%) patients – 2 bacteremias, 2 central venous catheter tip infections without bacteremia, and 3 wound infections. All patients survived at 30 days. Seventy-one environmental isolates were confirmed to be MBL-positive, with 85% sourced from shower facilities or equipment. MBL organisms persisted at these sites despite both usual hospital cleaning, and following targeted environmental disinfection interventions. Conclusions Clear association exists between environmental Burns Unit contamination by MBLs and subsequent patient colonization. Clinical infection occurred in a small proportion of patients colonized by MBLs, and with generally favorable outcomes. Its persistence in the Burns Unit environment, despite concerted infection control measures, pose concern for ongoing clinical transmission. PMID:24345195

  9. POPs monitoring in Australia and New Zealand using plastic resin pellets, and International Pellet Watch as a tool for education and raising public awareness on plastic debris and POPs.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Taylor, Heidi; Ito, Maki; Hosoda, Junki; Allinson, Mayumi; Connell, Sharnie; Greaves, Laura; McGrath, John

    2015-12-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (i.e. PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs) were analyzed along Australia and New Zealand North Island coastlines. PCB concentrations were high in urban areas (107-294 ng/g-pellet), with Sydney Harbour the most polluted. Hepta-chlorinated PCB was abundant, with ~30% in urban areas suggesting legacy pollution. DDT concentrations showed similar pattern except in rural agricultural sites, Taupo Bay and Ahipara, New Zealand (23 and 47 ng/g-pellet). p,p'-DDE predominance at these 2 sites suggested historical input; they also had high HCH concentrations (17 and 29 ng/g-pellet). The role of International Pellet Watch (IPW) in science communication was studied through feedbacks from IPW volunteers, case studies and examples. IPW data were categorized into understandable terms and tailored reports based on volunteers' backgrounds complemented with pollution maps. The effectiveness of IPW science communication has led to its use in awareness and education activities focusing on both POPs and plastic debris issues. PMID:26586511

  10. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given. PMID:27394475

  11. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (P< 0.001) compared with non-GF products; however, there were no significant differences in the mean HSR for breads or ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (P≥ 0.42 for both). Relative to non-GF foods, GF products had consistently lower average protein content across all the three core food groups, in particular for pasta and breads (52 and 32% less, P< 0.001 for both). A substantial proportion of foods in discretionary categories carried GF labels (e.g., 87% of processed meats), and the average HSR of GF discretionary foods were not systematically superior to those of non-GF products. The consumption of GF products is unlikely to confer health benefits, unless there is clear evidence of gluten intolerance. PMID:26119206

  12. Minority stress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults in Australia: associations with psychological distress, suicidality, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; de Wit, John; Reynolds, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other same-sex attracted young people have been shown to be at a higher risk of mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, suicidality, and substance abuse, compared to their heterosexual peers. Homophobic prejudice and stigma are often thought to underlie these disparities. In this study, the relationship between such experiences of social derogation and mental health and substance use in same-sex attracted young people was examined using Meyer's minority stress theory. An online survey recruited 254 young women and 318 young men who identified as same-sex attracted, were aged 18-25 years, and lived in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that internalized homophobia, perceived stigma, and experienced homophobic physical abuse were associated with higher levels of psychological distress and self-reported suicidal thoughts in the previous month. Furthermore, perceived stigma and homophobic physical abuse were associated with reporting a lifetime suicide attempt. The association between minority stress and substance use was inconsistent. While, as expected, higher levels of perceived stigma were associated with club drug dependence, there was an inverse association between internalized homophobia and club drug use, and between perceived stigma and hazardous alcohol use. The findings of this study provide support for the minority stress theory proposition that chronic social stress due to sexual orientation is associated with poorer mental health. The high rates of mental health and substance use problems in the current study suggest that same-sex attracted young people should continue to be a priority population for mental health and substance use intervention and prevention. PMID:24573397

  13. Structural evolution of the early Permian Nambucca Block (New England Orogen, eastern Australia) and implications for oroclinal bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo

    2014-07-01

    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable ear-shaped curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for its formation are unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the deposition of the rift-related Sydney, Gunnedah, and Bowen basins, which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is another early Permian rift basin, but it is situated in the core of the oroclinal structure. Here we present new stratigraphic, structural, and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its tectonic history and relationships to the formation of the oroclines. We recognized four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics (S1-4), with the second phase (S2) dated at 275-265 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of muscovite. This age overlaps with independent constraints on the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the earlier two phases of deformation in the Nambucca Block (F1 and F2) were associated with orocline formation. We propose that oroclinal bending involved three major stages. The first stage (<300 Ma) was associated with variations in rates of trench rollback and formation of rift basins in a hot extensional back-arc setting. This was followed by a second stage of oroclinal bending, possibly linked to dextral wrench faulting, which involved ~ N-S contraction (F1). Subsequent deformation at 275-265 Ma involved formation of nappe-style structures (F2). This phase of contractional deformation may have resulted from an increased plate coupling that was possibly linked to flat-slab subduction.

  14. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had

  15. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  16. Impact of the New South Wales fires during October 2013 on regional air quality in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Géraldine; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Turquety, Solène; Cope, Martin; Griffith, David

    2016-04-01

    Smoke plumes from fires contain atmospheric pollutants that can be transported to populated areas and effect regional air quality. In this paper, the characteristics and impact of the fire plumes from a major fire event that occurred in October 2013 (17-26) in the New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, near the populated areas of Sydney and Wollongong, are studied. Measurements from the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer located at the University of Wollongong allowed a calculation of specific emission factors (EFs) in terms of grams per kilogram of dry fuel burned: 1640 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 107 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 7.8 g kg-1 of methane; and 0.16 g kg-1 of nitrous oxide. These EFs have then been used to calculate daily fire emissions for the NSW fire event using the APIFLAME emissions' model, leading to an increase of 54% of CO emitted compared to calculations with EFs from Akagi et al. (2011), widely used in the literature. Simulations have been conducted for this event using the regional chemistry-transport model (CTM) CHIMERE, allowing the first evaluation of its regional impact. Fire emissions are assumed well mixed into the boundary layer. The model simulations have been evaluated compared to measurements at the NSW air quality stations. The mean correlation coefficients (R) are 0.44 for PM10, 0.60 for PM2.5 and 0.79 for CO, with a negative bias for CO (-14%) and a positive bias for PM2.5 (64%). The model shows higher performance for lower boundary layer heights and wind speeds. According to the observations, 7 days show concentrations exceeding the air quality Australian national standards for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. In the simulations, 5 days are correctly simulated for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. For PM10, the model predicts 1 additional day of exceedance (one false detection). During this fire episode, inner Sydney is affected during 5 days by PM exceedances, that are mainly attributed to organic carbon in the model simulations. To

  17. The Acid Test: pH Tolerance of the Eggs and Larvae of the Invasive Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) in Southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cane toads are colonizing southeastern Australia via a narrow coastal strip sandwiched between unsuitable areas (Pacific Ocean to the east, mountains to the west). Many of the available spawning sites exhibit abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity, and pH) more extreme than those encountered elsewhere in the toad's native or already invaded range. Will that challenge impede toad expansion? To answer that question, we measured pH in 35 ponds in northeastern New South Wales and 8 ponds in the Sydney region, in both areas where toads occur (and breed) and adjacent areas where toads are likely to invade, and conducted laboratory experiments to quantify effects of pH on the survival and development of toad eggs and larvae. Our field surveys revealed wide variation in pH (3.9-9.8) among natural water bodies. In the laboratory, the hatching success of eggs was increased at low pH (down to pH 4), whereas the survival, growth, and developmental rates of tadpoles were enhanced by higher pH levels. We found that pH influenced metamorph size and shape (relative head width, relative leg length) but not locomotor performance. The broad tolerance range of these early life-history stages suggests that pH conditions in ponds will not significantly slow the toad's expansion southward. Indeed, toads may benefit from transiently low pH conditions, and habitat where pH in wetlands is consistently low (such as coastal heath) may enhance rather than reduce toad reproductive success. A broad physiological tolerance during embryonic and larval life has contributed significantly to the cane toad's success as a widespread colonizer. PMID:26052640

  18. Comparison of health outcomes between hospitalised and non-hospitalised persons with minor injuries sustained in a road traffic crash in Australia: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Harris, Ian A; Nicholas, Michael; Maher, Christopher G; Casey, Petrina; Blyth, Fiona; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in health outcomes among persons with mild or moderate injuries who were hospitalised compared with those not hospitalised following a road traffic crash. Setting Sydney Metropolitan, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Persons aged ≥18 years involved in a motor vehicle crash were surveyed at baseline (n=364), and at 12 (n=284) and 24 months (n=252). A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on a range of socioeconomic, and preinjury and postinjury psychological and heath characteristics of all participants. Primary outcome measure Participants who reported admission to hospital for 24 h or more (but less than 7 days) after the crash were classified as being hospitalised; those admitted for less than 24 h were classified as non-hospitalised. Results Around 1 in 5 participants (19.0%) were hospitalised for ≥24 h after the crash. After adjusting for age and sex, hospitalised participants compared with those not hospitalised had approximately 2.6 units (p=0.01) lower Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) scores (poorer physical well-being) and approximately 4.9 units lower European Quality of Life visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) scores (p=0.05), 12 months later. After further adjusting for education level, whiplash, fracture and injury severity score, participants who were hospitalised had approximately 3.3 units lower SF-12 PCS (p=0.04), 12 months later. The association with EQ-VAS did not persist after multivariable adjustment. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in health outcomes at 24-month follow-up. Conclusions These findings indicate that long-term health status is unlikely to be influenced by hospitalisation status after sustaining a mild/moderate injury in a vehicle-related crash. PMID:26408286

  19. Evidence against early nineteenth century major European induced environmental impacts by illegal settlers in the New England Tablelands, south eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Craig; Chang, Jie; Zawadzki, Atun; Shulmeister, James; Haworth, Robert; Collecutt, Sasha; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2011-12-01

    Paleoenvironmental reconstructions from Little Llangothlin Lagoon have been used to argue for early European impact on the eastern Australian landscape. In particular, these studies have argued for European arrival on the New England Tablelands at about 1800 AD, with significant impacts including the clearance of one species of Casuarina before 1820 AD and significant erosion by 1836 AD ( Gale et al., 1995; Gale and Pisanu, 2001; Gale and Haworth, 2002, 2005). We have re-cored the lagoon, dated the cores using 210Pb and radiocarbon, and counted pollen and other proxies. Our 210Pb results indicate that 210Pb background was achieved stratigraphically later than the erosion event and we have three early Holocene radiocarbon ages in the erosion event interval. We conclude that the 'erosion event' predates European settlement. The 210Pb results indicate much less erosion in response to European settlement than suggested by these earlier studies. We also find no notable decline in Casuarina in the pollen record spanning the time of initial European impact, and in fact we find very little Casuarina in the record. Instead of a Casuarina dominated vegetation we conclude that the area was dominated by open Eucalypt forest prior to European settlement. Rather than changes in the regional vegetation in the early 19th century, we attribute changes in the palynoflora spanning the 'erosion event' to changes within the lake/wetland and in particular to changes in the dominance of different species of Myriophyllum; most likely due to water depth fluctuation. This site has stood out as indicating an earlier European impact than other localities in eastern Australia, beyond the original limits of settlement near Sydney. Our findings suggest that a more traditional interpretation of this site is warranted and that no very early impact is discernable.

  20. Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.

    PubMed

    Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role. PMID:24292466

  1. FUSE - Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  2. RIDBC Teleschool[TM]: A Hub of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children (RIDBC) is Australia's largest independent special education provider and one of Australia's oldest charities. Founded in 1860 in Sydney, Australia, RIDBC seeks to provide high quality, innovative education and therapy to children who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families. RIDBC initially…

  3. Reduced sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of sewer networks in Australia: geographic (and seasonal) variations.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Sivret, E C; Parcsi, G; Le, N M; Kenny, S; Bustamante, H; Stuetz, R M

    2014-01-01

    The management of odorous emissions from sewer networks has become an important issue for sewer system operators resulting in the need to better understand the composition of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs). Gaseous RSCs including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were measured in the atmosphere of selected sewer networks in two major Australian cities (Sydney and Melbourne) during 2011-2012. The RSC concentrations in the sewer air were detected in a highly variable range. H2S and MeSH were found at the highest concentrations, followed by DMS (39.2-94.0 μg/m(3)), CS2 (18.3-19.6 μg/m(3)), DMDS (7.8-49.6 μg/m(3)) and DMTS (10.4-35.3 μg/m(3)). Temporal trends in the occurrence of targeted RSCs were observed and the highest sulfur concentration occurred either in summer or spring, which are typically regarded as the warmer seasons. Statistical significant difference in the magnitude of targeted RSCs was found between samples collected in Sydney and Melbourne. PMID:24647180

  4. Landslide tsunami hazard in New South Wales, Australia: novel observations from 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Hannah; Clarke, Samantha; Hubble, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the potential of tsunami inundation generated from two case study sites of submarine mass failures on the New South Wales coast of Australia. Two submarine mass failure events are investigated: the Bulli Slide and the Shovel Slide. Both slides are located approximately 65 km southeast of Sydney and 60 km east of the township of Wollongong. The Bulli Slide (~20 km3) and the Shovel Slide (7.97 km3) correspond to the two largest identified erosional surface submarine landslides scars of the NSW continental margin (Glenn et al. 2008; Clarke 2014) and represent examples of large to very large submarine landslide scars. The Shovel Slide is a moderately thick (80-165 m), moderately wide to wide (4.4 km) slide, and is located in 880 m water depth; and the Bulli Slide is an extremely thick (200-425 m), very wide (8.9 km) slide, and is located in 1500 m water depth. Previous work on the east Australian margin (Clarke et al., 2014) and elsewhere (Harbitz et al., 2013) suggests that submarine landslides similar to the Bulli Slide or the Shovel Slide are volumetrically large enough and occur at shallow enough water depths (400-2500 m) to generate substantial tsunamis that could cause widespread damage on the east Australian coast and threaten coastal communities (Burbidge et al. 2008; Clarke 2014; Talukder and Volker 2014). Currently, the tsunamogenic potential of these two slides has only been investigated using 2D modelling (Clarke 2014) and to date it has been difficult to establish the onshore tsunami surge characteristics for the submarine landslides with certainty. To address this knowledge gap, the forecast inundation as a result of these two mass failure events was investigated using a three-dimensional model (ANUGA) that predicts water flow resulting from natural hazard events such as tsunami (Nielsen et al., 2005). The ANUGA model solves the two-dimensional shallow water wave equations and accurately models the process of wetting and drying thus

  5. Breastfeeding and Chinese mothers living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Diong, S; Johnson, M; Langdon, R

    2000-07-01

    This study sought information on the breastfeeding rates, knowledge and beliefs of 101 migrant Chinese mothers living in south-west Sydney. Differences in beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding practices between migrant and indigenous groups of mothers were also examined. Sixty-five percent of Chinese mothers were fully breastfeeding their infants on discharge, with a further 6.9% partially breastfeeding. However, only 34% were still breastfeeding at three months. The most important factor to influence mothers' choice to breastfeed was the belief that it was 'good for the baby', whilst mothers choosing to bottle-feed were influenced by low milk supply and the belief that it was easier. Similar beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding were held by indigenous and migrant Chinese mothers, although concerns about the baby becoming too attached were markedly higher in the migrant group and may be related to sudden drops in breastfeeding rates at three months. Focusing ethno-specific services upon continuation of breastfeeding throughout the first six months of the infant's life is recommended, with a Chinese mothers' breastfeeding support network being posed as a possible approach. PMID:10941319

  6. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH2/CH3 ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A pilot study of the prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration in elite athletes with lower back pain at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Ong, A; Anderson, J; Roche, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the prevalence of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration in elite athletes as compared with published literature of changes seen in non-athletes—that is, normal population. Methods: The lumbar spines of 31 Olympic athletes who presented to the Olympic Polyclinic with low back pain and/or sciatica were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Three criteria were looked at: (a) the loss of disc signal intensity; (b) the loss of disc height; (c) the presence of disc displacement. The results were then recorded and correlated with the lumbar levels. Results: The disc signal intensity was progressively reduced the more caudal the disc space. It was most common at the L5/S1 level, and, of the abnormal group, 36% (n = 11) showed the most degenerative change. Disc height reduction was also found to be most common at the L5/S1 level. However, the most common height reduction was only mild. A similar trend of increased prevalence of disc herniation was noted with more caudal levels. At the L5/S1 level, 58% were found to have an element of disc displacement, most of which were disc bulges. Compared with changes seen in the normal population (non-athletes) as described in the literature, disc degeneration defined by the above criteria was found to be significantly more severe in these Olympic athletes. Conclusions: Although the study was limited, the results suggest that elite athletes have a greater prevalence and greater degree of lumbar disc degeneration than the normal population. A more detailed follow up study should be considered to investigate which particular training activities have the most impact on the lumbar spine, and how to modify training methods so as to avoid the long term sequelae of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:12782554

  8. Vitamin D status is associated with sun exposure, vitamin D and calcium intake, acculturation and attitudes in immigrant East Asian women living in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye E; Ke, Liang; Tseng, Marilyn; Clemson, Lindy; Koo, Fung K; Jang, Haeyoung; Seibel, Markus J; Mpofu, Elias; Fraser, David R; Mason, Rebecca S

    2013-07-01

    Known determinants of vitamin D status (measured in serum as 25(OH)Dnmol/L) are exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D, either from foods or vitamin supplements. Recently, low vitamin D status in East Asian Australian immigrants has been reported. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate associations with vitamin D status in East Asian Australian immigrant women. In this cross-sectional study of women (n=152 aged 18-92), 25(OH)D levels were measured from serum samples (radio-immuno assay). Demographics, sun exposure patterns, dietary intake and acculturation factors were obtained by questionnaire. In spring, 53% of the study population had serum 25(OH)D levels <50nmol/L (deficiency); whereas in summer only 19% were deficient. Associations with vitamin D deficiency were younger age, higher education, more sun protection behavior, fewer minutes of sun exposure on weekends, low vitamin D and calcium intake through foods or supplements and less acculturation to Australian lifestyle. After multivariate adjustment, those who had no intake of vitamin D supplements (OR=5.6, CI=1.4-22), less sunlight exposure on weekends (OR=2.7, CI=1.0-7.3) and lower acculturation to Australian lifestyle (OR=2.5, CI=1.0-6.3) had increased risk of being deficient in vitamin D. Thus there is a need for vitamin D education in this "at-risk" population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23262263

  9. Connect, Combine, Communicate: Revitalizing the Arts in Canadian Schools. Selected Papers from the National Symposium on Arts Education (Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, August 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brian A., Ed.

    The National Symposium on Arts Education 1997 provided an opportunity for arts educators, professional artists, and representatives from government agencies to discuss common concerns and to develop strategies for strengthening the arts in Canadian schools. This collection of papers from the symposium addresses many questions about the future of…

  10. Twenty two cases of canine neural angiostronglyosis in eastern Australia (2002-2005) and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cases of canine neural angiostrongylosis (NA) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluations in the peer-reviewed literature were tabulated. All cases were from Australia. A retrospective cohort of 59 dogs was contrasted with a series of 22 new cases where NA was diagnosed by the presence of both eosinophilic pleocytosis and anti-Angiostrongylus cantonensis immunloglobulins (IgG) in CSF, determined by ELISA or Western blot. Both cohorts were drawn from south east Queensland and Sydney. The retrospective cohort comprised mostly pups presented for hind limb weakness with hyperaesthesia, a mixture of upper motor neurone (UMN) and lower motor neurone (LMN) signs in the hind limbs and urinary incontinence. Signs were attributed to larval migration through peripheral nerves, nerve roots, spinal cord and brain associated with an ascending eosinophilic meningo-encephomyelitis. The contemporary cohort consisted of a mixture of pups, young adult and mature dogs, with a wider range of signs including (i) paraparesis/proprioceptive ataxia (ii) lumbar and tail base hyperaesthesia, (iii) multi-focal central nervous system dysfunction, or (iv) focal disease with neck pain, cranial neuropathy and altered mentation. Cases were seen throughout the year, most between April and July (inclusive). There was a preponderance of large breeds. Often littermates, or multiple animals from the same kennel, were affected simultaneously or sequentially. A presumptive diagnosis was based on consistent signs, proximity to rats, ingestion/chewing of slugs or snails and eosinophilic pleocytosis. NA was diagnosed by demonstrating anti-A. cantonensis IgG in CSF. Detecting anti-A. cantonensis IgG in serum was unhelpful because many normal dogs (20/21 lb dogs; 8/22 of a hospital population) had such antibodies, often at substantial titres. Most NA cases in the contemporary series (19/22) and many pups (16/38) in the retrospective cohort were managed successfully using high doses of prednisolone and opioids

  11. Preservice Teachers' Learning among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Anne; Costley, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a collaborative venture between Autism Spectrum Australia and the University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Social Club network was formed for children and adolescents to provide structured opportunities for positive peer interactions in safe, stimulating and nonjudgmental environments. The Social Clubs…

  12. Story Telling: Australian Indigenous Women's Means of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Acklin, F.; Newman, J.; Arbon, V.; Trindal, A.; Bermingham, M.; Thompson, B.

    Story-telling, an oral tradition of the indigenous peoples of Australia, was recorded on video as a vehicle for conveying health promotion messages in several urban Aboriginal (Koori) communities in Sydney, Australia. The video was made by a group of Koori women Elders and two female Aboriginal academics. The Elders integrated their personal…

  13. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  14. An outbreak of cholera in Australia due to food served in flight on an international aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, R. G. A.

    1974-01-01

    An outbreak of cholera occurred in November 1972 among passengers on an aircraft that had flown from London to Sydney. The infection was confined to economy-class passengers and the available evidence indicates that it was due to a dish of hors d'œuvres served on the aircraft between Bahrain and Singapore. Although one person died, the infection was generally mild, and almost half of those infected were symptomless. There was a significant difference between the immunization status of persons with clinical illness and the immunization status of other passengers. Current cholera immunization appeared to play a significant role in preventing symptoms of the disease, but it did not prevent a person becoming a carrier of the organism. PMID:4526408

  15. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Records from road transport of horses from Perth to Sydney over a two year period were analysed to explore the incidence of transport related issues and identify risk factors. Transportation resulted in health problems in 2.8% of the transported horses, and in fatalities in 0.24%. Journey duration and season were risk factors for the development of transport related health problems, while breed, sex and age did not predict disease or injury risk. Overall, this study provides statistics to inform policy development for the equine transport industry and enhance management of the transported horse. Abstract Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013–2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues (p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems (i.e., gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and

  16. Provenance and structural constraints of the early Permian Nambucca Block (eastern Australia), and implications for the origin of the New England oroclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Li, Pengfei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Wormald, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic southern New England Orogen of eastern Australia exhibits a remarkable omega-shaped orogenic curvature (orocline), but the geodynamic processes responsible for the formation of the orogenic curvatures (oroclines) are still unclear. Oroclinal bending took place during the early Permian, simultaneously with the development of rift-related sedimentary basins (Sydney, Gunnedah and Bowen basins), which bound the oroclines to the west. The Nambucca Block is part of another early Permian rift basin that is situated farther east, in the core of the oroclinal structure. We present new stratigraphic, structural and geochronological data from the Nambucca Block in an attempt to better understand its provenance, tectonic history and its role in the formation of the oroclines. Four phases of folding and associated structural fabrics are recognised in the Nambucca Block. 40Ar/39Ar age of metamorphic micas from the second deformational phase provides a minimum depositional age constraint at 275-265 Ma. This age overlaps with the timing of oroclinal bending, suggesting that the first two phases of deformation resulted from the same mechanism that formed the oroclines. Detrital zircon geochronology (U/Pb ICP-MS ages) of six samples from the Nambucca Block constrains the maximum depositional age of the sequence to 280 Ma. The sedimentary succession, though extremely polymictic, is unimodal in its sources, and is therefore interpreted to consist mainly of recycled detritus from a Devonian-Carboniferous accretionary complex. We propose a model for oroclinal bending involving three stages. The first stage, starting at about 293 Ma and including the deposition of the sequence of Nambucca (i.e. overlaps with the 280-265 Ma time constraint), was associated with formation of rift basins in an extensional backarc setting. This was followed by N-S contraction, which gave rise to second-order oroclinal structures. The third and final stage involved

  17. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of <0.5 ppb for CH4. These surveys were undertaken during dry daytime hours and all measurements were moisture corrected. We compare the concentration of methane in the near surface atmosphere adjacent to open-cut coal mines, unconventional gas developments (coal seam gas; CSG), and leaks detected in cities and country towns. In areas of dryland crops the median methane concentration was 1.78 ppm, while in the irrigation districts located on vertisol soils the concentration was as low as 1.76 ppm, which may indicate that these soils are a sink for methane. In the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, open-cut coal mining district we mapped a continuous 50 km interval where the concentration of methane exceeded 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 2.02 ppm. Peak readings were beyond the range of the reliable measurement (in excess of 3.00 ppm). This extended plume is an amalgamation of plumes from 17 major pits 1 to 10 km in length. Adjacent to CSG developments in the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland, only small anomalies were detected near the well-heads. Throughout the vast majority of the gas fields the concentration of methane was below 1.80 ppm. The largest source of fugitive methane associated with CSG was off-gassing methane from the co-produced water holding ponds. At one location the down wind plume had a cross section of approximately 1 km where the concentration of methane was above 1.80 ppm. The median concentration within this section was 1.82 ppm

  18. A British Graphic Designer Teaching and Learning in South-East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinnie, Louise

    This paper is the work of an international student studying within the School of Art Education at the University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia), who has undertaken doctoral research on the teaching and learning experiences of international Asian graphic design students within the setting of an overseas university. It identifies the nature…

  19. Explorations in Early Childhood Education: The Mount Druitt Early Childhood Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, John; And Others

    This book concerns the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project, which was developed to provide quality educational programs for disadvantaged children living in the western suburbs of Sydney, Australia. In order to set the subsequent discussion in broader perspective, chapter 1 addresses several key issues influencing project development. Chapter 2…

  20. National Curriculum Inching Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Whether in the business center of Sydney and its suburbs to the east, in the mining and agricultural communities of the remote Kimberley region in the northwest, or elsewhere, most of Australia's 3.3 million K-12 students share the customary features of schooling--from physical structures to academic schedules. The content also has a common…

  1. Heritage Language Maintenance and Japanese Identity Formation: What Role Can Schooling and Ethnic Community Contact Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of schooling and ethnic community contact in ethnolinguistic and cultural identity construction and heritage language maintenance through the surveys and narratives of three groups of Japanese-English bilingual youths and their parents in Sydney, Australia, as a part of a larger longitudinal study from childhood. The…

  2. Profiling Sport Role Models to Enhance Initiatives for Adolescent Girls in Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vescio, Johanna; Wilde, Kerrie; Crosswhite, Janice J.

    2005-01-01

    This study involved the investigation of sport role models for adolescent girls in Australia. Initially, a theoretical perspective is presented based on social learning and gender theory. Then, using quantitative and qualitative data obtained through two focus group interviews and a survey (n = 357) conducted at two Sydney high schools, the…

  3. The Impact of World Youth Day on Religious Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    World Youth Day, a youth-focused Catholic celebration, is the largest recurring youth event in the world. The 10th International World Youth Day (WYD) was held from 15-20 July 2008, in Sydney, Australia and attenders participated in a week-long series of religious events and activities. Little research in English has been conducted on WYD…

  4. Language Socialization of the Child through Caretaker-Child Personal Narratives : A Comparison of Thai and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Yangklang, Peerapat

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports preliminary findings on the elicitation strategies used by Thai and English caretakers when eliciting past event narratives from pre-schoolers. Ten Thai and ten English-speaking caretaker-child dyads were recruited from Bangkok, Thailand and from Sydney, Australia. Caretakers were asked to elicit past event narratives…

  5. A Further Local Participation Study: TAFE and ACE in Melbourne Postcodes. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John

    A study analyzed patterns of participation at the local level in adult and community education (ACE) and technical and further education (TAFE) in Melbourne, Australia postcodes. Patterns of participation were hypothesized as being different from those in Sydney, New South Wales, where previous research established the marked differentiation of…

  6. Brief Report: The Factor Structure of Mood States in an Early Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Christopher J.; Cunningham, Everarda G.; Moore, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of negative mood states among young adolescents. Students (N=216) aged 11-15 years from a secondary school in Melbourne, Australia, completed the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) [Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1996). "Depression anxiety stress scales." Sydney: The Psychology…

  7. The Demand for Training. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom; Cully, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper was presented in Sydney in September 2008 at a seminar conducted by Skills Australia and the Academy of Social Sciences. It examines the demand for training. It concentrates on the factors that affect individual and employer demand, and points out that accredited vocational education and training (VET) need to be considered in the…

  8. Imagination "First": Unleash the Power of Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Manoj Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The creativity program, "imagination 'first': unleash the power of possibility," implemented in public primary and secondary schools in Northern Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, deals with the power of imagination in unleashing creativity among gifted students and teachers. Following an in-depth literature review on creativity for…

  9. Professional Development of Teacher Educators: A Cross Border Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Kevin; Harbon, Lesley; Nguyen, Nam; Trinh, Lap

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a collaborative project between the Faculty of Education and Social Work at the University of Sydney, Australia, and the School of Education at Can Tho University, Vietnam. The project aimed to develop a model for the professional development of teacher educators in the context of educational innovations in…

  10. An Introduction to the Third International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Colin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the highlights of the Third International Symposium on Career Development and Public Policy, which was held at the Manly Pacific Hotel in Sydney, Australia from April 21-24, 2006. This symposium built on those held in Ottawa and Vancouver in 1999 and 2001 respectively and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and…

  11. The Role of Rehabilitation Medicine in a Developmental Disability Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines the principles of the rehabilitation process; describes the role of rehabilitation medicine with reference to services in the Saint George district of southern Sydney (Australia); and discusses the problem of the transition of patients to adult services. (Author/JDD)

  12. Knowledge Management: Education for Information Professionals in the Age of the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.; Southon, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of knowledge management focuses on the program for professional education for knowledge management at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Considers attributes of graduates, industry trends that inform the program, the information-knowledge debate, information management, organizational culture, and learning principles and…

  13. Information Disclosure on MySpace--the What, the Why and the Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Souza, Zaineb; Dick, Geoffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the first academic study of the use of a major social networking website, MySpace, by children. The study examined the degree of, and reasons for, information disclosure by children in high schools in Sydney, Australia. Social networking sites such as MySpace are a huge Internet phenomenon, some with hundreds of…

  14. Comparison of Technology Use between Biology and Physics Teachers in a 1:1 Laptop Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Simon J.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Wilson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach the authors compared the associated practices of senior physics teachers (n = 7) and students (n = 53) in a 1:1 laptop environment with those of senior biology teachers (n = 10) and students (n = 125) also in a 1:1 laptop environment, in seven high schools in Sydney, NSW, Australia. They found that the physics…

  15. International Perspectives on Literacy Learning with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane; Rowsell, Jennifer; Simpson, Alyson; Scott, Ruth McQuirter; Walsh, Maureen; Ciampa, Katia; Saudelli, Mary Gene

    2015-01-01

    This article profiles the use of the iPad in classroom literacy activities in three instructional environments: Toronto, Canada; San Diego, United States; and Sydney, Australia. The two-year, qualitative study included observational fieldwork filming students' interactions with tablets in the midst of literacy events. Students in each context used…

  16. ESO Director General appointed President-Elect of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Sydney (Australia) in July, has appointed the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President-Elect for the three-year period 2003-2006. The IAU is the world's foremost organisation for astronomy, uniting almost 9000 professional scientists on all continents.

  17. The High-Skilled VET Practitioner: Interim Findings from the Evaluation of the Long-Term Impacts of the Framing the Future Projects in 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John; Wood, Sarah; Young, Susan

    Research was conducted in 2000-01 on the long-term impacts of the 200 projects funded by Australia's Framing the Future in 1999 and of the 250 conducted in 2000. Two main research methodologies (case study investigations and a survey) were used for the study. Case study investigations were conducted with the Deaf Education Network in Sydney; South…

  18. Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Stephanie D.; Rogers, Karen B.; McCormick, John; Low, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to empirically verify findings from qualitative studies that showed selective consumers could be distinguished from underachievers with regard to academic self-perception and thinking style preference. Participants, gifted males from an independent secondary boys' school in Sydney, Australia, were categorized as achieving,…

  19. Answering the Call: Reflections on Professional Learning and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott; O'Grady, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Research in English involves understanding the complex process of professional learning, which begins in teacher education programs. In this special issue of "English in Australia," we draw on our experiences as researchers and teacher educators at the University of Sydney. We take a sociocultural and situated perspective in order to…

  20. The Transition from Single-Sex to Coeducational High Schools: Effects on Multiple Dimensions of Self-Concept and on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-concept measures and state certificate program achievement grades were used to determine the effects on 7th through 11th graders in Sydney (Australia) of converting two single-sex high schools to coeducational institutions. Pre- to post-transition data were collected from 1982 to 1985. Coeducational organizations benefit self-concept, while…

  1. "A Scientific Library of Some Value": An Early History of the Australian Museum Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Museum, Sydney, is Australia's oldest museum, internationally recognised for its longstanding scientific contributions. Less well-known is the Museum's fine collection of monographs and journals relating to natural history and anthropology, which has been used to support the work of Museum staff and external enquirers since the late…

  2. Building Stone and Its Use in Rock Weathering Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, Deirdre

    1979-01-01

    Building stone provides opportunities for geological study of weathering of different rocks in a particular environment and similar rocks in different environment. The principle studied can be applied on a large scale from the observation of small-scale weathering. Examples of weathering are drawn mainly from the Sydney region of Australia. (RE)

  3. Exploring and Supporting Home Language Maintenance in Informal Playgroups: Working with Pacific Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Liam; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on three years of fieldwork within informal supported play-groups in inner Sydney. In Australia, some 40% of children reach school age without attending formal preschools. Aboriginal and immigrant groups are greatly overrepresented in this statistic. For these children, informal playgroups, funded from a range of government and…

  4. Rumour Has It: The Impact of Maternal Talk on Primary School Choice for Children Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Rozanna

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the pivotal role of rumour in shaping primary school choice decisions for parents of children diagnosed with autism. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 22 mothers conducted in Sydney, Australia, this study points to the varied functions of grapevine knowledge about schools gleaned in diverse contexts, including early…

  5. GATS and the New Developmentalism: Governing Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces a relatively recent development, the inclusion of education as a tradable service under the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS). The author focuses on two Trade in Education Services forums--one in Washington, DC (USA), and one in Sydney (Australia)--to investigate the…

  6. Leading Reform in Teacher Education: A Rocky Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Christine E.

    This paper presents one educator's experiences at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, in leading teacher education reform from 1990-1996. It is written from her perspective as the head of a school of teacher education. The school is primarily concerned with preparing elementary educators, with smaller programs for secondary educators…

  7. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.…

  8. Disruptive Events: Elite Education and the Discursive Production of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the discursive production of violence in the context of educational markets. Drawing on a larger study of sexually violent incidents that occurred in an elite private boys' school in Sydney, Australia, in 2000, the paper examines disciplinary traditions and communicative practices surrounding these events. Insights from Michel…

  9. What Do Early Childhood Educators and Parents Think Is Important about Children's Transition to School? A Comparison between Data from the City and the Bush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob; Howard, Peter; Meckley, Alice

    During 1998 and 1999, the Starting School Project at the University of Western Sydney-Macarthur conducted a survey across New South Wales (Australia) of parent and teacher opinions about children's successful transition to school. Survey responses were received from 240 teachers and 243 parents of young children. Respondents were grouped according…

  10. Becoming a Japanese Language Learner, User, and Teacher: Revelations From Life History Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how Sarah Lamond, a Japanese language teacher in Sydney, Australia has juggled three of her identities: second language (L2) learner, L2 user, and L2 teacher. Data come from four interviews used to create an edited life history. These data are used to draw attention to the relationship between L2 learner and language user.…

  11. Drugs and Personality: Personality Correlates and Predictors of Non-Opiate Drug Use. Research Issues 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of abstracts from current research and theoretical studies explores various aspects of the relationship between non-opiate drug use and personality. The literature covers a period from 1968 through 1975 and focuses on tests that were conducted on adolescents and college students from the United States, Canada and Sydney, Australia.…

  12. The Learning of Popular Music: A Pedagogical Model for Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Neal

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of an integrated curriculum on the learning of popular music, the Sting Curriculum was designed for senior secondary students of mixed ability. This nine-week program was presented to a sample of students aged between 16 and 18 years in urban Sydney (Australia). This article draws on some of the results from this…

  13. The Value of Using Short-Format Podcasts to Enhance Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Brady, Catherine; Scott, Karen M.; Taylor, Lucy; Carabetta, Giuseppe; Clark, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a podcasting trial held in 2007-2008 within the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Sydney, Australia. The trial investigates the value of using short-format podcasts to support assessment for postgraduate and undergraduate students. A multi-method approach is taken in investigating…

  14. Corrigendum to "An equation decoupling approach to identify the equivalent foundation in rotating machinery using modal parameters" [J. Sound Vib. 365 (2016) 182-198

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minli; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.

    2016-08-01

    The authors would like to apologise for the error made to the affiliation details of Dr Ningsheng Feng and Dr Eric J. Hahn in the original publication and who are both affiliated to The School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

  15. Do free-ranging Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) play a role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the possible role of Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment, a serological survey of a free-ranging population resident within Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia was undertaken using the modified agglutination tes...

  16. "A Love of Teaching and Learning": A Case Study of English Teaching Transformed through Quality Teaching and Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treble, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how Balgowlah North Public School, a co-educational government primary school situated in metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales (NSW), Australia undertook a whole-school cultural transformation with a particular focus on moving beyond the teaching of English by focusing principally on literacy with a heavy emphasis upon…

  17. The Development of Students' Mathematics Self-Concept in Relation to Gender: Different Countries, Different Trajectories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Gabriel; Watt, Helen M. G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in the development of children's and adolescents' academic self-perceptions have received increasing attention in recent years. This study extends previous research by examining the development of mathematics self-concept across grades 7-12 in three cultural settings: Australia (Sydney; N = 1,333), the United States (Michigan; N…

  18. See No Evil, Hear No Evil, Interact No Evil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    This paper presents findings of an exploratory study undertaken at Marist Sisters' College in Woolwich, Sydney (Australia) to examine student use of multimedia software packages. Students (n=70) in years 7-12 were randomly selected to complete an evaluation of a popular multimedia package, "Encarta," on the following factors: ease of use,…

  19. Benchmarking Learning and Teaching: Developing a Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson-Smart, Cheryl; Winning, Tracey; Gerzina, Tania; King, Shalinie; Hyde, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for benchmarking teaching and learning in response to an institutional need to validate a new program in Dentistry at the University of Sydney, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: After a collaborative partner, University of Adelaide, was identified, the areas of teaching and learning to be benchmarked, PBL…

  20. Beyond "Delayering": Process, Structure, and Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Examines the experience of the University of Western Sydney - Nepean (Australia) in the context of 1989 restructuring of the Australian system of higher education since 1989. Notes the institution's efforts to leave the larger university including the removal of faculties and deans and development of an ongoing process based on a culture of client…

  1. Draft Genome of Australian Environmental Strain WM 09.24 of the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Scedosporium aurantiacum

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bercoff, Åsa; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Ramsperger, Marc; Kaur, Jashanpreet; Patel, Hardip R.; Harun, Azian; Duan, Shu Yao; Elbourne, Liam; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nevalainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    We report here the first genome assembly and annotation of the human-pathogenic fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum, with a predicted 10,525 genes, and 11,661 transcripts. The strain WM 09.24 was isolated from the environment at Circular Quay, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. PMID:25676755

  2. International, High-Ability Adventures: An Interview with Miraca Gross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Miraca Gross, Professor of Gifted Education, and Director of the Gifted Education Research, Resource, and Information Centre (GERRIC), at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Dr. Gross is a leading international authority on the education of gifted and talented children, particularly…

  3. Beyond Lip Service: A Council Approach to Planning for Behaviour Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Grahame; Smith, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The Council of the City of Sydney--like many other councils around Australia--has embarked on a whole-of-council approach to establishing sustainable behaviours amongst its residents. In developing its "Residential Environmental Action Plan"--designed to motivate and bring about real change in resident choices and behaviours--the City sought to…

  4. The Rise and Fall of Innovative Education: An Australian University Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas F., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    From 1980 to 1995, the University of Western Sydney at Hawkesbury (formerly Hawkesbury Agricultural College) in Richmond, New South Wales, Australia, pioneered an innovative undergraduate degree in Systems Agriculture based on experiential education, systems thinking, and adult learning theory. Today this program is in trouble and has reverted…

  5. Alcohol-Induced Disruption of Endocrine Signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article contains the proceedings of a symposium at the 2006 ISBRA Meeting in Sydney Australia, organized and co-chaired by Martin J. Ronis and Thomas M. Badger. The presentations were (1) Effects of long term ethanol consumption on liver injury and repair, by Jack R. Wands; (2) Alcohol-induced...

  6. Online Self-Assessment Materials: Do These Make a Difference to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of Web-based online self-assessment in a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses a more student-centered focus to aid lifelong learning; collaborative learning; suitable and timely feedback; the use of Bloom's taxonomy; and student evaluations of self-assessment modules. (LRW)

  7. Staff and Student Views of the Usefulness of Information Technology Materials within an Integrated Curriculum: Are These Educational Resources Effective in Promoting Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue; Lewis, Alison; Sims, Rod

    This paper reports on a study on the perceived effectiveness of educational resources within the context of a single course in a first-year biology program at the University of Sydney (Australia). The overall study examined the dynamic state of perceptions towards these resources by the major stakeholders involved with the course (students,…

  8. Enhancing the Transition to University by Facilitating Social and Study Networks: Results of a One-Day Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Dalziel, James; Grant, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a one-day workshop developed at the University of Sydney (Australia) to facilitate social and study-related peer networks. Qualitative and quantitative analyses found that the workshops enhanced study, self-motivation, and general enjoyment of university life and were helpful in easing the transition of undergraduate students.…

  9. Supporting Student Learning: The Use of Computer-Based Formative Assessment Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a variety of computer-based assessment opportunities, both formative and summative, that are available to a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses online access to weekly quizzes, a mock exam, and special self-assessment modules that are beneficial to student learning.…

  10. Meeting Drug Information Needs of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    Drugs are an important life concern of adolescents, yet statistics show alarming and disturbing increases internationally in drug abuse. This paper reports on research that examines how adolescents cognitively process information about drugs. Four 17-year-old girls at a Catholic college in Sydney, Australia participated in a two-phase experiment…

  11. Rates of Cyber Victimization and Bullying among Male Australian Primary and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Tass; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of electronic forms of bullying (cyberbullying) was investigated among 1,530 primary and secondary school aged male students (Years 6 to 12; 9-18 years, chronologically) in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Findings revealed that victimization via the Internet was the most common form of cyberbullying with 11.5 percent of…

  12. "Neoliberal Spatial Technologies": On the Practices of Educational Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the spatial dimensions of neoliberalism, in relation to educational policy change in the inner-city of Sydney, Australia. It offers a response to Peck and Tickell's challenge that studies of neoliberalism are often undertaken as discrete macro- or micro-analyses without attention to the links between, and across, these scales.…

  13. "Nobody Dodges Remington": The Free Library Movement and the Achievement of Public Library Legislation in New South Wales, 1935-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Carmel

    2007-01-01

    Traces the role of Geoffrey Cochrane Remington, Sydney solicitor and businessman, in free public library development in Australia. Describes how the Munn Pitt Report on Australian libraries and Remington's acquaintance with John Wallace Metcalfe of the Public Library of New South Wales led to the birth of the Free Library Movement in 1935, and…

  14. Aboriginal Family Education Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, A.

    1970-01-01

    The Department of Adult Education of the University of Sydney (Australia) has been conducting an action-research project in family education for the Aborigines. The staff is to be available on request to visit communities, listen to expressed needs, and find ways of translating professional knowledge into media that can be understood. Gradually,…

  15. Campus Sustainability: Climate Change, Transport and Paper Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Alison; Giurco, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to detail the design of a campus climate change strategy, transport strategy and paper reduction strategy at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Design/methodology/approach: The approach to strategy development used desktop research and staff/student consultation to inform the development of objectives,…

  16. "We Had To Hide We're Muslim": Ambient Fear, Islamic Schools and the Geographies of Race and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been virulent urban politics surrounding the provision of government-funded Islamic K-12 schooling in suburban south-western Sydney, Australia. In this paper, drawing on examples of local government opposition to Islamic schools, we argue that race and religion constitute contestations of urban space around the…

  17. Boys and "Second Chance" Education: Same Jeans, Different Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Mark G.

    This paper examines the perceptions and interactions of disadvantaged young people returning to mainstream education through Street Kids Access Tertiary Education (SKATE), a university bridging program in Sydney, Australia. Although both males and females in the study shared common backgrounds of disadvantage, "second-chance" educational success…

  18. Conceptualising Goodies and Baddies through Narratives of Jesus and Superman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugni, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Religion, like Superhero discourse, is a contested topic of question and debate in early childhood education. This article draws on data from a small ethnographic study that took place in a long day care centre in Sydney Australia. The study examined how children negotiated their "identity work" in the context of popular culture. In this article,…

  19. Hegemony, Big Money and Academic Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article considers whether a threat is posed to academic independence in corporate universities by the United States Studies Centre (USSC) at the University of Sydney. The USSC rapidly worked its way into Australia's oldest university, building a unique governance structure in which a private business lobby vets senior academics and controls…

  20. Joining forces: Collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management

    PubMed Central

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  1. ESO at the IAU General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The 25th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union was held in Sydney,Australia, from 13-24 July 2003. For two weeks the world of professional astronomy descended on Darling Harbour. In the early days it was used for receiving fresh produce and timber from Parramatta and the north coast, but with time had become a somewhat derelict dock area. Following massive redevelopment of the old wharves in the course of the 1980s, it now constitutes a spectacular example of contemporary urban renovation, with shopping malls, hotels, restaurants, museums and other leisure facilities, as well as the magnificent Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre (SCEC).

  2. Lesbians in the city: mobilities and relational geographies.

    PubMed

    Nash, Catherine; Gorman-Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article examines contemporary lesbians' (and queer women's) urban geographies, drawing from empirical research on Toronto, Canada and Sydney, Australia. Our argument is grounded in research highlighting lesbians' distinctive urban experiences: lesbians have both participated in gay villages and gay male spaces and, importantly, carved out their own urban places, including commercial and residential concentrations. In this article we use new mobilities scholarship to delineate historical and contemporary relational geographies materializing since World War II, which continue to rewrite lesbians' and queer women's inhabitation and experiences of urban landscapes in Toronto and Sydney. PMID:25760994

  3. Joining forces: collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  4. Analysis of long-term water quality for effective river health monitoring in peri-urban landscapes--a case study of the Hawkesbury-Nepean river system in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B L; Ollerton, R L

    2013-06-01

    The Hawkesbury-Nepean River (HNR) system in South-Eastern Australia is the main source of water supply for the Sydney Metropolitan area and is one of the more complex river systems due to the influence of urbanisation and other activities in the peri-urban landscape through which it flows. The long-term monitoring of river water quality is likely to suffer from data gaps due to funding cuts, changes in priority and related reasons. Nevertheless, we need to assess river health based on the available information. In this study, we demonstrated how the Factor Analysis (FA), Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) and Trend Analysis (TA) can be applied to evaluate long-term historic data sets. Six water quality parameters, viz., temperature, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, oxides of nitrogen, suspended solids and reactive silicates, measured at weekly intervals between 1985 and 2008 at 12 monitoring stations located along the 300 km length of the HNR system were evaluated to understand the human and natural influences on the river system in a peri-urban landscape. The application of FA extracted three latent factors which explained more than 70 % of the total variance of the data and related to the 'bio-geographical', 'natural' and 'nutrient pollutant' dimensions of the HNR system. The bio-geographical and nutrient pollution factors more likely related to the direct influence of changes and activities of peri-urban natures and accounted for approximately 50 % of variability in water quality. The application of HACA indicated two major clusters representing clean and polluted zones of the river. On the spatial scale, one cluster was represented by the upper and lower sections of the river (clean zone) and accounted for approximately 158 km of the river. The other cluster was represented by the middle section (polluted zone) with a length of approximately 98 km. Trend Analysis indicated how the point sources influence river water quality on spatio

  5. Community Music in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  6. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  7. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  8. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  9. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  10. Astronaut Andy Thomas holds facsimile Olympic torch like one to fly on STS-101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Andy Thomas holds a facsimile of the Olympic torch that is being carried on Space Shuttle Atlantis during mission STS- 101. Thomas is from Australia, which is the site of the 2000 Olympics. He coordinated the effort to have the torch added to the manifest so that it would truly circle the Earth in the spirit of the worldwide sporting event. The Sydney Olympic Torch Relay will arrive in Australia on June 8. The games begin Sept. 1.

  11. Healthcare in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  12. Surgery in Australia.

    PubMed

    Clunie, G J

    1994-01-01

    More than 4000 surgeons in Australia provide services to 17.6 million people living in the world's driest continent, with a land mass comparable to that of the United States. The problem of distance has been overcome in large part for the 17% of the population who live in remote areas by modern communication systems and by the Flying Doctor and Flying Surgeon services. For the remaining population, largely clustered on the fertile eastern seaboard, surgical services rival the best in the world, and surgical training, under the control of The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, has set an example for which Australia can be justifiably proud. PMID:8279935

  13. Bridging the chronic care gap: HealthOne Mt Druitt, Australia.

    PubMed

    McNab, Justin; Gillespie, James A

    2015-01-01

    HealthOne was part of a state-wide initiative to invest in new community-based facilities for collocating services. The HealthOne Mount Druitt is a virtual hub and spoke organisation established in 2006 in a socially disadvantaged part of Western Sydney based out of a new community health hub. The model is based on 'virtual' care planning and aims to improve coordination of care for older people with complex health needs, reduce unnecessary hospitalisations and ensure appropriate referral to community and specialist health services. General practitioner liaison nurses (GPLNs) work closely with clients as well as general practitioners (GPs) and other health care providers. Primary health care providers reported improved communication and coordination of services, and there have been lower levels of utilisation of the emergency department (ED) for patients following enrolment in the programme. HealthOne provides an example of how a virtual organisation together with highly skilled care coordinators can overcome some of the barriers to providing integrated care created by fragmented funding streams and care delivery systems. PMID:26417210

  14. Bridging the chronic care gap: HealthOne Mt Druitt, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McNab, Justin; Gillespie, James A.

    2015-01-01

    HealthOne was part of a state-wide initiative to invest in new community-based facilities for collocating services. The HealthOne Mount Druitt is a virtual hub and spoke organisation established in 2006 in a socially disadvantaged part of Western Sydney based out of a new community health hub. The model is based on ‘virtual’ care planning and aims to improve coordination of care for older people with complex health needs, reduce unnecessary hospitalisations and ensure appropriate referral to community and specialist health services. General practitioner liaison nurses (GPLNs) work closely with clients as well as general practitioners (GPs) and other health care providers. Primary health care providers reported improved communication and coordination of services, and there have been lower levels of utilisation of the emergency department (ED) for patients following enrolment in the programme. HealthOne provides an example of how a virtual organisation together with highly skilled care coordinators can overcome some of the barriers to providing integrated care created by fragmented funding streams and care delivery systems. PMID:26417210

  15. Downscaling approach to develop future sub-daily IDF relations for Canberra Airport Region, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herath, H. M. S. M.; Sarukkalige, P. R.; Nguyen, V. T. V.

    2015-06-01

    Downscaling of climate projections is the most adopted method to assess the impacts of climate change at regional and local scale. In the last decade, downscaling techniques which provide reasonable improvement to resolution of General Circulation Models' (GCMs) output are developed in notable manner. Most of these techniques are limited to spatial downscaling of GCMs' output and still there is a high demand to develop temporal downscaling approaches. As the main objective of this study, combined approach of spatial and temporal downscaling is developed to improve the resolution of rainfall predicted by GCMs. Canberra airport region is subjected to this study and the applicability of proposed downscaling approach is evaluated for Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and Darwin regions. Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) is used to spatial downscaling and numerical model based on scaling invariant concept is used to temporal downscaling of rainfalls. National Centre of Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data is used in SDSM model calibration and validation. Regression based bias correction function is used to improve the accuracy of downscaled annual maximum rainfalls using HadCM3-A2. By analysing the non-central moments of observed rainfalls, single time regime (from 30 min to 24 h) is identified which exist scaling behaviour and it is used to estimate the sub daily extreme rainfall depths from daily downscaled rainfalls. Finally, as the major output of this study, Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) relations are developed for the future periods of 2020s, 2050s and 2080s in the context of climate change.

  16. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities. PMID:24087911

  17. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013-2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues ( p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems ( i.e. , gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress. PMID:26690482

  18. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  19. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  20. Children's Books in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Vida

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, describes children's literature in Australia, discussing specifically the background of this literature (the country and early children's books); various influences on the literature, such as the Children's Book Council and children's and school libraries; present-day publishing, including…

  1. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    PubMed

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory. PMID:20941881

  2. Networking in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peake, Dorothy G.

    1976-01-01

    The last few years have seen increasing interest in library networking in Australia from a number of different groups. All the projects have concerned networks of similar libraries and no parallel to U.S.A. developments of networks encompassing a variety of types of libraries has yet appeared. (Author)

  3. Classification in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  4. English in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    This paper provides a review of "English Transported: Essays on Australasian English," edited by W. S. Ramson. The book is a collection of articles on the various types of English spoken mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Articles discuss such varieties as nineteenth and twentieth century Australian English, New Zealand English, Pidgin English…

  5. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  6. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  7. Large-scale investment in green space as an intervention for physical activity, mental and cardiometabolic health: study protocol for a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction ‘Green spaces’ such as public parks are regarded as determinants of health, but evidence from tends to be based on cross-sectional designs. This protocol describes a study that will evaluate a large-scale investment in approximately 5280 hectares of green space stretching 27 km north to south in Western Sydney, Australia. Methods and analysis A Geographic Information System was used to identify 7272 participants in the 45 and Up Study baseline data (2006–2008) living within 5 km of the Western Sydney Parklands and some of the features that have been constructed since 2009, such as public access points, advertising billboards, walking and cycle tracks, BBQ stations, and children's playgrounds. These data were linked to information on a range of health and behavioural outcomes, with the second wave of data collection initiated by the Sax Institute in 2012 and expected to be completed by 2015. Multilevel models will be used to analyse potential change in physical activity, weight status, social contacts, mental and cardiometabolic health within a closed sample of residentially stable participants. Comparisons between persons with contrasting proximities to different areas of the Parklands will provide ‘treatment’ and ‘control’ groups within a ‘quasi-experimental’ study design. In line with expectations, baseline results prior to the enhancement of the Western Sydney Parklands indicated virtually no significant differences in the distribution of any of the outcomes with respect to proximity to green space preintervention. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained for the 45 and Up Study from the University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the University of Western Sydney Ethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through partner organisations (the Western Sydney Parklands and the National Heart Foundation of Australia), as well as to policymakers in

  8. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  9. Australia and Gondwanaland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teichert, C.

    1959-01-01

    Along the western margin of the Australian continent there exist four major sedimentary basins, filled with predominantly marine rocks from Cambrian to Tertiary in age, and up to 40,000 feet thick. Seaward these basins continue into depressions recognizable in the continental shelf and even the continental slope. Their very presence, the nature of their sediments and the composition and relationships of their fossil faunas indicate the existence of an open ocean to the west of Australia since early Paleozoic time. Composition of the Australian fossil land vertebrate faunas suggests isolation of the Australian continent since at least Permian time. ?? 1959 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  10. Earth - India and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  11. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  12. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Chris Christiansen and the Chris Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Mathewson, Don

    2009-03-01

    The Chris Cross was the world's first crossed-grating interferometer, and was the brainchild of orte of Australia's foremost radio astronomers, W.N. (Chris) Christiansen, from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney. Inspired by the innovative and highly-successful E-W and N-S solar grating arrays that he constructed at Potts Hill (Sydney) in the early 1950s, Christiansen sited the Chris Cross at the Division's Fleurs field station near Sydney, and from 1957 to 1988 it provided two-dimensional maps of solar radio emission at 1423 MHz. In 1960 an 18m parabolic antenna was installed adjacent to the Chris Cross array, and when used with the Chris Cross formed the Southern Hemisphere's first high-resolution compound interferometer. A survey of discrete radio sources was carried out with this radio telescope. The Division of Radiophysics handed the Fleurs field station over to the School of Engineering at the University of Sydney in 1963, and Christiansen and his colleagues from the Department of Electrical Engineering proceeded to develop the Chris Cross into the Fleurs Synthesis Telescope (FST) by adding six stand-alone 13.7m parabolic antennas. The FST was used for detailed studies of large radio galaxies, supernova remnants and emission nebulae. The FST was closed down in 1988, and antennas in the original Chris Cross array quickly began to deteriorate. A number of individual antennas in the central part of the array received a new lease of life in 1991 when they were refurbished by staff and students from the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Universityy of Western Sydney, but this only proved to be a temporary reprieve as even these aerials were bulldozed by the landowner in 2004, bringing to an untimely end one of the world's most remarkable radio telescopes.

  15. Asian student migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  16. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  17. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  18. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  19. Pilot surveillance for childhood encephalitis in Australia using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network.

    PubMed

    Britton, P N; Dale, R C; Elliott, E; Festa, M; Macartney, K; Booy, R; Jones, C A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records. Comprehensive clinical data were prospectively collected on consented participants and subsequently reviewed by an expert panel. Cases were categorized as confirmed encephalitis or 'not encephalitis'; encephalitis cases were sub-categorized as infectious, immune-mediated or unknown. We performed an ICD-10 diagnostic code audit of hospitalizations for the pilot period. We compared case ascertainment in the four screening methods and with the ICD code audit. Forty-eight cases of suspected encephalitis were identified by one or more methods. PAEDS was the most efficient mechanism (yield 34%), followed by MRI, CSF, and pharmacy audits (yield 14%, 12%, and 7% respectively). Twenty-five cases met the criteria for confirmed encephalitis. PAEDS was the most sensitive of the mechanisms for confirmed encephalitis (92%) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72%. The ICD audit was moderately sensitive (64%) but poorly specific (Sp 9%, PPV 14%). Of the 25 confirmed encephalitis cases, 19 (76%) were sub-categorized as infectious, three (12%) were immune-mediated, and three (12%) were 'unknown'. We identified encephalitis cases associated with two infectious disease outbreaks (enterovirus 71, parechovirus 3). PAEDS is an efficient, sensitive and accurate surveillance mechanism for detecting cases of childhood encephalitis including those

  20. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them. PMID:25015592