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Sample records for sydney sydney australia

  1. Sydney

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... metropolitan area. This city is host to the 2000 Olympic Games, which opened Friday, September 15. Sydney Harbour is the rugged-shaped ... central city area. Olympic Park, the main venue for the Games, is on a southern arm of the harbor, about 20 kilometers from the coast. ...

  2. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  3. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  4. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  5. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. PMID:26414085

  6. Toxicity of surficial sediments from Sydney Harbour and vicinity, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCready, S; Spyrakis, G; Greely, C R; Birch, G F; Long, E R

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological responses of three species to 103 surficial saltwater sediment samples from Sydney Harbour, and coastal lakes and estuaries on the south-east coast of New South Wales, Australia, were tested in a battery of four to six laboratory toxicity tests. This is the first large-scale toxicological study of sediments in Australia, the objective of which is to assess the protective and predictive abilities of North American biological effects-based sediment quality guidelines, recently adopted in Australia. Amphipods were exposed to whole sediments in survival and reburial tests, sea urchin fertilisation and larval development tests were conducted on porewaters, and bacterial bio-luminescence (Microtox) tests were conducted on organic solvent extracts and porewaters. Local indigenous species were used for the amphipod and sea urchin tests (Corophium sp. and Heliocidaris tuberculata, respectively). A wide range of responses, from <25 to 100% of negative controls were observed in all tests. Mean control-adjusted responses ranged from 46 to 96% for all tests. The percentages of highly toxic samples ranged from 11 to 83% in the various tests. The order of test sensitivity was: amphipod survival < Microtox test of porewaters < amphipod reburial < sea urchin larval development < sea urchin fertilisation < Microtox test of solvent extracts. Concordance between toxicity tests in classifying samples as highly toxic or not, ranged from 47 to 79%, indicating some similarities between test results, but not complete equivalence. Combined toxicity test results showed that the incidence of highly toxic responses occurring in the majority of tests (75-100% of tests) was low (5% of samples), but a large percentage of samples had highly toxic results in at least one test (76% of samples). Toxicity was more pervasive in the Sydney region than in coastal lakes and estuaries south of Sydney. The current study demonstrated the utility of indigenous invertebrate species and the

  7. SEROLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS FINDINGS IN THE WATER SUPPLY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    From July to September, 1998, high levels of Cryptospordium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected in Sydney, Australia drinking water. To evaluate whether Sydney residents had an elevated risk of infection, serological responses to two Cryptospordium antigen groups (15/17 - an...

  8. Notes from an Unknown Presenter at the Third International Conference of English Teachers in Sydney, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Flossie

    1981-01-01

    Offers an English teacher's observations about an international conference held in Sydney, Australia, with particular emphasis on George Orwell's "1984" and his views on language, multiculturalism, and humanism and on George Steiner's "Language and Silence." (RL)

  9. MISR Looks at Sydney and the Southeastern Australia Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image from MISR's nadir-looking camera was acquired on July 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 3009) and shows a 200-kilometer section of the eastern Australian coast, centered around the Sydney metropolitan area. This city is host to the 2000 Olympics Games, which open Friday, September 15. Sydney Harbour is the rugged-shaped inlet toward the northern side of the grey-colored central city area. Olympic Park, the main venue for the Games, is on a southern arm of the harbor, about 20 kilometers from the coast.

    The areas to the north, west, and south of Sydney are characterized by rugged terrain and extensive forests. Just north of the city the Ku-ring-gai Chase and Brisbane Waters National Parks surround the Hawkesbury River estuary. Further north and separated from the ocean by narrow dunes are a series of lakes, the two largest in this image being Lake Macquarie (at the top) and Tuggerah Lake.

    West of the metropolitan area, some 65 kilometers inland, are the Blue Mountains. The primary transport corridor for road and rail across the mountains is clearly visible, and just north of it is the steep-sided Grose River valley. In the southern part of the mountains is a series of long valleys filled by Lake Burragorang, a major source of Sydney's water supply.

    South of Sydney's central area are Botany Bay, Bate Bay and Port Hacking, and the Royal National Park. Further south, the forested coastline gives way to the city of Wollongong, the adjacent steel-making complex at Port Kembla, and Lake Illawarra.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Everyday astronomy @ Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parello, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    Catering to a broad range of audiences, including many non-English speaking visitors, Sydney Observatory offers everything from school programmes to public sessions, day care activities to night observing, personal interactions to web-based outreach. With a history of nearly 150 years of watching the heavens, Sydney Observatory is now engaged in sharing the wonder with everybody in traditional and innovative ways. Along with time-honoured tours of the sky through two main telescopes, as well as a small planetarium, Sydney Observatory also boasts a 3D theatre, and offers programmes 363 days a year - rain or shine, day and night. Additionally, our website neversleeps, with a blog, YouTube videos, and night sky watching podcasts. And for good measure, a sprinkling of special events such as the incomparable Festival of the Stars, for which most of northern Sydney turns out their lights. Sydney Observatory is the oldest working observatory in Australia, and we're thrilled to be looking forward to our 150th Anniversary next year in anticipation of the International Year of Astronomy immediately thereafter.

  11. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  12. A Report on the Peace Education Commission Program, International Peace Research Association Conference 2010, Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Swee-Hin

    2010-01-01

    From July 6th to 10th, 2010, International Peace Research Association (IPRA) held its biennial conference at the University of Sydney in Australia. Hosted by the University's Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies and coordinated by Jake Lynch and a team of dedicated staff and volunteers, the conference featured seven plenary panels and many papers…

  13. Identification of lead sources in residential environments: Sydney Australia.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, M A S; Zahran, S; Pingitore, N; Clague, J; Devlin, G; Taylor, M P

    2014-01-01

    Interior and exterior dust, soil and paint were analysed at five brick urban Sydney homes over 15 months to evaluate temporal variations and discriminate sources of lead (Pb) exposure. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates (μg/m(2)/28 days), interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations (mg/kg) and interior petri-dish Pb loading rates (μg/m(2)/28 days), were correlated positively with soil Pb concentrations. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates and interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations peaked in the summer. Lead isotope and Pb speciation (XAS) were analysed in soil and vacuum dust samples from three of the five houses that had elevated Pb concentrations. Results show that the source of interior dust lead was primarily from soil in two of the three houses and from soil and Pb paint in the third home. IEUBK child blood Pb modelling predicts that children's blood Pb levels could exceed 5 μg/dL in two of the five houses. PMID:24071634

  14. High-Resolution View of Fires and Smoke near Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke obscures much of the landscape near Sydney, Australia, in the true-color image above (top). However, the areas with active fires are revealed by the false-color image (bottom), which was made using shortwave infrared data that are sensitive to heat and provide the ability to 'see' through smoke. In the bottom scene, the black areas show fresh burn scars, while greens show landscape untouched by fire. Apparently, the fire burned up to the edge of a road (the thin black line snaking from the lefthand side of the image and disappearing off the bottom) and was unable to jump across. The thick dark line along the bottom of the scene is a river. Both images were made using data acquired on December 28, 2001, by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), flying aboard NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. For more images of the recent fires in Australia, read Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia, Fires Continue to Rage Near Sydney, Australia, and Severe Bush Fires Near Sydney, Australia. For more information about the effects of fire on the environment, read the Biomass Burning fact sheet. Images by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by Lawrence Ong, EO-1 Science Team

  15. Breastfeeding: how could it be enhanced? The perceptions of Vietnamese women in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C; Yam, B M

    2000-01-01

    In Australia, the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding is on the decline. The low incidence of breastfeeding includes the immigrant Vietnamese. The purpose of this study was to examine Vietnamese women's perceptions of factors that might influence their choice of infant feeding and how breastfeeding could be promoted and maintained by nurses, midwives, other health professionals, and the health care system as a whole. A convenience sample of 124 postnatal Vietnamese women from community agencies in western and southwestern suburbs of Sydney was interviewed. Content analysis showed that factors that affect their choice of infant feeding method were language difficulties in communicating with health professionals concerning breastfeeding, lack of social support and follow-up care, and attitudes of health professionals toward breastfeeding. To promote and maintain breastfeeding within the Vietnamese community in Sydney, Australia, appropriate health care planning and implementation based on their social, cultural, and language backgrounds and practices need to be considered. PMID:10907337

  16. Historic change in catchment land use and metal loading to Sydney estuary, Australia (1788-2010).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-09-01

    Sydney estuary has a long history of environmental degradation and is one of the most modified water ways in Australia due to a highly urbanised catchment (~77 %) and a high population (4.6 million). The objectives of the present study were to map historical land use change from European settlement (1788) to 2010 to determine catchment evolutionary pathways and to estimate catchment loading (total suspended solids, Cu, Pb and Zn) to the estuary over this period. Land use distribution in Sydney catchment, determined for seven time horizons over this period, indicated that a substantial increase in residential land use through subdivision of large estates and an increase in road area resulted in a marked increase in metal loading to Sydney estuary between 1892 and 1936. The decline in industrial activity from a maximum in 1978 (3.9 %) to 1.8 % in 2010 and the introduction of unleaded fuel during this time was accompanied by reduction in metal loading to the estuary. Land use time horizon maps enabled the creation of novel, ternary diagrams to represent temporal evolution in catchment land use. The 15 sub-catchments of Sydney estuary were combined into three major catchment categories, i.e., urban, dense urban and commercial. Present-day annual discharge of stormwater from the Sydney catchment was calculated to be 466,000 ML and annual loadings of total suspended sediment (TSS), Cu, Pb and Zn in tonnes were 49,239, 27, 37 and 57, respectively. Stormwater has superseded industry as the main source of anthropogenic metals to this estuary in recent times. PMID:26311263

  17. Metal-contaminated resuspended sediment particles are a minor metal-uptake route for the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) - A mesocosm study, Sydney Harbour estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Birch, G F; Simpson, S L

    2016-03-15

    Resuspension of surficial sediments is considered a key process influencing bioaccumulation of metals in filter-feeders in the contaminated Sydney Harbour estuary (Australia). However, previous investigations were unable to establish a significant relationship between metals in sediments or suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster tissue concentrations. This study used a 60-d laboratory mesocosm experiment to expose Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, to a natural range of SPM concentrations with different SPM-metal concentrations. Dissolved metal concentrations were low and the availability of algae provided as food was constant for all treatments. Tissue metal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn increased significantly, however, no relationship was determined between tissue metal concentrations in the oyster and either SPM or SPM-metal concentrations. The results indicated that exposure to resuspended contaminated sediment particles contributed little to the observed metal uptake. Dissolved or algae food sources appear to be more important for metal accumulation in these oysters. PMID:26849915

  18. Descriptive epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Sibbritt, David; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Rawlinson, William; Andresen, David; Van Hal, Sebastian; Merif, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of information about the prevalence of gastrointestinal illnesses in Australia. Current disease surveillance systems capture only a few pathogens. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who visited tertiary public hospitals in Sydney was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Patients with diarrhoea or loose stools with an enteric pathogen detected were identified. Demographic, clinical and potential risk factor data were collected from their medical records. Measures of association, descriptive and inferential statistics were analysed. Results In total, 1722 patients were included in this study. Campylobacter (22.0%) and Clostridium difficile (19.2%) were the most frequently detected pathogens. Stratified analysis showed that rotavirus (22.4%), norovirus (20.7%) and adenovirus (18.1%) mainly affected children under 5 years; older children (5–12 years) were frequently infected with Campylobacter spp. (29.8%) and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. (24.4%); infections with C. difficile increased with age.Campylobacter and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. showed increased incidence in summer months (December to February), while rotavirus infections peaked in the cooler months (June to November). Discussion This study revealed that gastrointestinal illness remains a major public health issue in Sydney. Improvement of current disease surveillance and prevention and control measures are required. This study emphasizes the importance of laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections and the need for better clinical data collection to improve management of disease risk factors in the community. PMID:26798556

  19. Historical trends of PBDEs and HBCDs in sediment cores from Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Drage, D; Mueller, J F; Birch, G; Eaglesham, G; Hearn, L K; Harrad, S

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents the first historical data on the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) in estuarine sediment from Australia. Sediment cores and surficial sediment samples were collected from four locations within Sydney estuary, Australia. Large increases in concentrations were observed for all compounds between 1980 and 2014, especially for BDE-209 (representative usage of Deca-BDE commercial mixture), which was found in surficial sediment at an average concentration of 42 ng/g dry wt (21-65 ng/g dry wt). PBDE congeners representative of both the Penta- and Octa-BDE commercial mixtures (∑6PBDEs) were also found in their highest concentrations in surficial sediments (average: 1.3 ng/g dry wt; range: 0.65-2.5 ng/g dry wt). PBDE concentrations in surficial sediments were relatively high when compared with those presented in the available literature. This suggests that their input into the Sydney estuary has not decreased since their bans almost a decade earlier. After a sharp increase in the 1990s, HBCD concentrations peaked at an average of 3.5 ng/g dry wt (1.8-5.3 ng/g dry wt) in surficial samples. With global legislation on HBCDs allowing its usage for the next 10 years, it is expected that its input into the estuary is likely to continue. PMID:25617997

  20. Azithromycin-Resistant Syphilis-Causing Strains in Sydney, Australia: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jeoffreys, Neisha; Tagg, Kaitlin; Guy, Rebecca J.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Donovan, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin has shown high efficacy in randomized trials when used for treating infectious syphilis in Africa. However, its use in clinical practice has been limited by the development of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance has not previously been reported from Australasia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for azithromycin-resistant syphilis-causing strains in Sydney, Australia. We evaluated 409 samples that were PCR positive for Treponema pallidum DNA collected between 2004 and 2011 for the presence of the A2058G mutation, which confers resistance to macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin. Overall, 84% of samples harbored the mutation. The prevalence of the mutation increased during the study period (P trend, 0.003). We also collected clinical and demographic data on 220 patients from whom these samples had been collected to determine factors associated with the A2058G mutation; 97% were from men who have sex with men. Reporting sex in countries other than Australia was associated with less macrolide resistance (adjusted odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.66; P = 0.005), with other study factors showing no association (age, HIV status, recent macrolide use, stage of syphilis, or history of prior syphilis). Azithromycin cannot be recommended as an alternative treatment for syphilis in Sydney. PMID:24850356

  1. Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 42 x 32 km (25.1 x 19.2 miles) Location: 33.7 deg. South lat., 151.4 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 12, 2001

  2. Air pollution and daily mortality in Sydney, Australia, 1989 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, G; Corbett, S; Wlodarczyk, J; Lewis, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of outdoor air pollutants in Sydney, Australia, on daily mortality. METHODS: Time-series analysis was performed on counts of daily mortality and major outdoor air pollutants (particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide) in Sydney (1989 to 1993) with adjustment for seasonal and cyclical factors. Poisson regression was calculated with allowance for overdispersion and autocorrelation. The effects of lagging exposure by 0 to 2 days were assessed with single- and multiple-pollutant models. RESULTS: An increase in daily mean particulate concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile was associated with an increase of 2.63% (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 4.41) in all-cause mortality and 2.68% (0.25 to 5.16) in cardiovascular mortality. An increase in daily maximum 1-hour ozone concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile was associated with an increase of 2.04% (0.37 to 3.73) in all-cause mortality and 2.52% (-0.25 to 5.38) in cardiovascular mortality. An increase in the daily mean nitrogen dioxide concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile was associated with an increase of 7.71% (-0.34 to 16.40) in respiratory mortality. Multiple-pollutant models suggest that the effects of particulates and ozone on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and of nitrogen dioxide on respiratory mortality, are independent of the effects of the other pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: Current levels of air pollution in Sydney are associated with daily mortality. PMID:9585741

  3. Impact of urban sprawl on overweight, obesity, and physical activity in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Garden, Frances L; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and inadequate physical activity are major risk factors for many diseases. The built environment plays an important role in influencing participation in physical activity. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl in Sydney, Australia is associated with overweight/obesity and levels of physical activity. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design to relate urban sprawl (based on population density) measured at an area level to overweight/obesity and levels of physical activity measured at an individual level whilst controlling for individual and area level covariates in metropolitan Sydney. Individual level data were obtained from the 2002 and 2003 New South Wales Population Health Survey. We had information on 7,290 respondents. The mean population density was 2,168 persons per square kilometer (standard deviation=1,741, range=218-7,045). After controlling for individual and area level covariates, for an inter-quartile increase in sprawl, the odds of being overweight was 1.26 (95% CI=1.10-1.44), the odds of being obese was 1.47 (95% CI=1.24-1.75), the odds of inadequate physical activity was 1.38 (95% CI=1.21-1.57), and the odds of not spending any time walking during the past week was 1.58 (95% CI=1.28-1.93). Living in more sprawling suburbs increases the risk of overweight/obesity and inadequate physical activity despite the relatively low levels of urban sprawl in metropolitan Sydney. Modifications to the urban environment to increase physical activity may be worthwhile. PMID:19052877

  4. 5 for Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    ASE has a long history of sending students to the International Science School (ISS), having been doing so since 1968. The ISS is a free science education programme run biennially by the Science Foundation for Physics at the University of Sydney. ASE's role is to select the students and organise funding to enable the students and escorts to…

  5. Five for Sydney 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Professor Harry Messel International Science School is organised by the Science Foundation for Physics within the University of Sydney. In 1968, the Foundation extended the participation to the UK and Japan and each country sends five scholars to the Science Schools, which are held every second year. Nowadays, scholars from Singapore,…

  6. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations. PMID:25937494

  7. Shooting gallery operation in the context of establishing a medically supervised injecting center: Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Jo; Dolan, Kate

    2007-03-01

    Shooting galleries (SGs) are illicit off-street spaces close to drug markets used for drug injection. Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are low threshold health services where injecting drug users (IDUs) can inject pre-obtained drugs under supervision. This study describes SG use in Kings Cross, Sydney before and after the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), Australia's first SIF. Operational and environmental characteristics of SGs, reasons for SG use, and willingness to use MSIC were also examined. An exploratory survey of SG users (n = 31), interviews with SG users (n = 17), and drug workers (n = 8), and counts of used needles routinely collected from SGs (6 months before and after MSIC) and visits to the MSIC (6 months after MSIC) were triangulated. We found five SGs operated during the study period. Key operational characteristics were 24-h operation, AUS $10 entry fee, 30-min time limit, and dual use for sex work. Key reasons for SG use were to avoid police, a preference not to inject in public, and assistance from SG operators in case of overdose. SG users reported high levels of willingness to use the MSIC. The number of used needles collected from SGs decreased by 69% (41,819 vs. 12,935) in the 6 months after MSIC opened, while MSIC visits increased incrementally. We conclude that injections were transferred from SGs to the MSIC, but SGs continued to accommodate injections and harm reduction outreach should be maintained. PMID:17273925

  8. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations. PMID:23852467

  9. DEVELOPMENTS AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH (8TH), HELD IN SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA ON OCTOBER 17-22, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a critical analysis of formal and informal developments of potential interest to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at the Eighth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Sydney, Australia, on October 17-22, 1976. The conference subject ma...

  10. A profile of gaming machine players in clubs in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen

    2002-01-01

    New South Wales, Australia, is one of the major markets in the world for machine gaming, with its 1,441 registered clubs holding the dominant share of the state's machines. This study examined machine gambling behavior amongst a random sample of 3,000 club members from six of the largest clubs in Sydney, the capital city of New South Wales. The findings identify their machine gambling preferences and participation levels, isolate significant sociodemographic and other differences between gaming machine and non-gaming machine players, measure the prevalence of probable pathological gambling associated with machine gambling, and identify certain characteristics which differ significantly between probable pathological and non-pathological machine gamblers amongst the respondents. PMID:12096448

  11. Contamination and screening level toxicity of sediments from remediated and unremediated wetlands near Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Rawson, Christopher A; Kookana, Rai S; Peng, Ping-An; Warne, Michael S J; Tremblay, Louis A; Laginestra, Edwina; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P

    2009-10-01

    The present study assessed contamination and toxicity of sediments from seven remediated and remnant wetland sites within Sydney Olympic Park, Australia, and four unremediated sites adjacent to its boundary using chemical analysis and a luminescent bacterial biosensor assay (Escherichia coli). Concentrations of metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and As) and persistent organic chemicals (DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) in sediments and their pore-water samples were determined. Zinc concentrations were the highest of the metals in the sediments (84-618 mg/kg), and at eight sites, metal concentrations in sediments exceeded the Australian ecological trigger values for Pb, Zn, and Ni. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the sediments exceeded the trigger values at all 11 sites for DDTs, at 6 sites for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 5 sites for polychlorinated biphenyls. Sediment samples from the four unremediated sites outside the Sydney Olympic Park had dioxin concentrations greater than 200 pg (toxic equivalency per gram). The same four sites were identified as contaminated in pore-water toxicity tests with the luminescent biosensor, generally consistent with the bioavailable fractions of the contaminants (pore-water and Tenax extraction data), as well as dioxin levels, in the sediments. Preliminary toxicity identification and evaluation tests of the pore water from the four sites outside the park demonstrated that organic contaminants were the main cause of toxicity to E. coli, with no evidence that metals contributed to the toxicity of the pore water. PMID:19589001

  12. Effectiveness of remediation of metal-contaminated mangrove sediments (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, Gavin; Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2015-04-01

    Industrial activities and urbanization have had a major consequence for estuarine ecosystem health and water quality globally. Likewise, Sydney estuary has been significantly impacted by widespread, poor industrial practices in the past, and remediation of legacy contaminants have been undertaken in limited parts of this waterway. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of remediation of a former Pb-contaminated industrial site in Homebush Bay on Sydney estuary (Australia) through sampling of inter-tidal sediments and mangrove (Avicennia marina) tissue (fine nutritive roots, pneumatophores, and leaves). Results indicate that since remediation 6 years previously, Pb and other metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) in surficial sediment have increased to concentrations that approach pre-remediation levels and that they were considerably higher than pre-settlement levels (3-30 times), as well as at the reference site. Most metals were compartmentalized in fine nutritive roots with bio-concentration factors greater than unity, while tissues of pneumatophores and leaves contained low metal concentrations. Lead concentrations in fine nutritive root, pneumatophore, and leaf tissue of mangroves from the remediated site were similar to trees in un-remediated sites of the estuary and were substantially higher than plants at the reference site. The situation for Zn in fine nutritive root tissue was similar. The source of the metals was either surface/subsurface water from the catchment or more likely remobilized contaminated sediment from un-remediated parts of Homebush Bay. Results of this study demonstrate the problems facing management in attempting to reduce contamination in small parts of a large impacted area to concentrations below local base level. PMID:25404497

  13. Vertical Hydrochemical Zonation in a Coastal Section of the Botany Sands Aquifer, Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavitt, N.; Acworth, R. I.; Jankowski, J.

    1997-02-01

    Near Sydney, Australia, unconsolidated aeolian and alluvial sediments of Quaternary age form the Botany Sands aquifer and lie unconformably on Triassic-age sandstone (Narrabeen Group). Botany Bay is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean about 10 km south of the city centre. Reclamation of the northern foreshore of Botany Bay commenced in 1979. One impact of this reclamation was to move the saline interface in the aquifer southward. In 1993, a multi-level piezometer and a cored borehole were installed at a location coincident with the foreshore position, prior to reclamation. Analysis of data from this site indicates that distinctive hydrochemical zonation now exists within the aquifer. Southward-flowing groundwater has removed the saline water from the upper 24 m of the sand column. Below this depth, peat beds occur that appear to form the base of active aquifer flushing. Groundwater from beneath the peat beds has the chemical characteristics of partially flushed sea water. At a depth interval of 14-21 m, a contaminant plume has been identified; its probable source is a non-putrescible landfill, about 2.5 km up the groundwater gradient.

  14. Epidemiology and Geographical Distribution of Enteric Protozoan Infections in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Caprarelli, Graziella; Merif, Juan; Andresen, David; Hal, Sebastian Van; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%), Giardia intestinalis (27%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%). The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1%) are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural areas is needed. Significance for public health This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted

  15. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  16. A Sydney proteome story.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Gooley, Andrew A; Wilkins, Marc R; Packer, Nicolle H

    2014-07-31

    This is the story of the experience of a multidisciplinary group at Macquarie University in Sydney as we participated in, and impacted upon, major currents that washed through protein science as the field of Proteomics emerged. The large scale analysis of proteins became possible. This is not a history of the field. Instead we have tried to encapsulate the stimulating personal ride we had transiting from conventional academe, to a Major National Research Facility, to the formation of Proteomics company Proteome Systems Ltd. There were lots of blind alleys, wrong directions, but we also got some things right and our efforts, along with those of many other groups around the world, did change the face of protein science. While the transformation is by no means yet complete, protein science is very different from the field in the 1990s. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez. PMID:24735915

  17. Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in the 1990s in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Ferson, M. J.; Young, L. C.; Stokes, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Surveillance of hepatitis A in residents of Eastern Sydney Health Area identified substantial epidemics in homosexual males in 1991-2 with a peak rate of 520 per 100,000 recorded in males aged 25-29 years, and again in 1995-6, with a peak rate of 405 per 100,000 per year in males aged 30-34 years. During 1994-5 an epidemic was detected among disadvantaged youth associated with injecting drug use; peak rates of 200 per 100,000 per year were reported in males aged 25-29 years and of 64 per 100,000 per year among females aged 20-24 years. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in these inner suburbs of Sydney is characterized by very few childhood cases and recurrent epidemics among homosexual men. Identified risk groups need to be targeted with appropriate messages regarding the importance of hygiene and vaccination in preventing hepatitis A. However, poor access to health services among disadvantaged youth and a constant influx of young homosexual males into these inner suburbs present major challenges to hepatitis A control. PMID:10030713

  18. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics. PMID:24835081

  19. Spatial analysis of heat-related mortality among the elderly between 1993 and 2004 in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vaneckova, Pavla; Beggs, Paul J; Jacobson, Carol R

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the geographical patterns of heat-related mortality among the population aged 65 and over within the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia between 1993 and 2004, and evaluated the role of some physical and socio-demographic risk factors associated with it. The effect of temperature on all-cause mortality during unusually hot days was investigated using spatial analytic techniques, such as cluster analysis and spatial regression analysis. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were used to investigate the role of daily average temperature, ozone (O(3)) and particulate matter of diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)) at the regions that showed a significant increase in mortality on unusually hot days. Spatial variation in mortality on unusually hot days was observed among the population 65 and over. Elderly people living within 5-20 km south-west and west of the Sydney Central Business District (CBD) were found to be more vulnerable. However, analysis using GLMs showed temperature to be a significant modifier of daily mortality in the region to the south-west of the CBD only. O(3) and PM(10) were found to be non-significant factors in the regions where air pollutants were studied. Socio-economic status and the proportion of vegetation or developed land in each Statistical Local Area (SLA) were also not a significant factor explaining the increased mortality. A combination of social and environmental factors may be at play. Our results suggest an effect of temperature on mortality of the elderly population in Sydney Statistical Division at the SLA level. More spatially-based research would be beneficial once climate datasets with improved spatial coverage become available. PMID:19880232

  20. Shooting Gallery Operation in the Context of Establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Center: Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Shooting galleries (SGs) are illicit off-street spaces close to drug markets used for drug injection. Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are low threshold health services where injecting drug users (IDUs) can inject pre-obtained drugs under supervision. This study describes SG use in Kings Cross, Sydney before and after the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), Australia’s first SIF. Operational and environmental characteristics of SGs, reasons for SG use, and willingness to use MSIC were also examined. An exploratory survey of SG users (n = 31), interviews with SG users (n = 17), and drug workers (n = 8), and counts of used needles routinely collected from SGs (6 months before and after MSIC) and visits to the MSIC (6 months after MSIC) were triangulated. We found five SGs operated during the study period. Key operational characteristics were 24-h operation, AUS$10 entry fee, 30-min time limit, and dual use for sex work. Key reasons for SG use were to avoid police, a preference not to inject in public, and assistance from SG operators in case of overdose. SG users reported high levels of willingness to use the MSIC. The number of used needles collected from SGs decreased by 69% (41,819 vs. 12,935) in the 6 months after MSIC opened, while MSIC visits increased incrementally. We conclude that injections were transferred from SGs to the MSIC, but SGs continued to accommodate injections and harm reduction outreach should be maintained. PMID:17273925

  1. The evolving market structures of gambling: case studies modelling the socioeconomic assignment of gaming machines in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Baker, Robert G V

    2002-01-01

    The expansion of gambling industries worldwide is intertwined with the growing government dependence on gambling revenue for fiscal assignments. In Australia, electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have dominated recent gambling industry growth. As EGMs have proliferated, growing recognition has emerged that EGM distribution closely reflects levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. More machines are located in less advantaged regions. This paper analyses time-series socioeconomic distributions of EGMs in Melbourne, Australia, an immature EGM market, and then compares the findings with the mature market in Sydney. Similar findings in both cities suggest that market assignment of EGMs transcends differences in historical and legislative environments. This indicates that similar underlying structures are evident in both markets. Modelling the spatial structures of gambling markets provides an opportunity to identify regions most at risk of gambling related problems. Subsequently, policies can be formulated which ensure fiscal revenue from gambling can be better targeted towards regions likely to be most afflicted by excessive gambling-related problems. PMID:12375384

  2. The Declaration of Sydney on human death

    PubMed Central

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; de la C García, M; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-01-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of “irreversible coma” established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  3. The Declaration of Sydney on human death.

    PubMed

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; García, M de la C; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-12-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of "irreversible coma" established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  4. Teachers' and Parents' Roles in the Sexuality Education of Primary School Children: A Comparison of Experiences in Leeds, UK and in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joy; Milton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    There is little international research focusing on parents' and teachers' roles in sexuality education during children's primary school years. This paper focuses on teachers' and parents' key experiences as sexuality educators of primary-school-age children in both Leeds, UK and in Sydney, Australia. Based on research findings from both the United…

  5. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney, Australia, 8 14 July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-07-01

    At GR17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GR18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GR conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GR18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb overviews

  6. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, O. A.; Jones, B. G.; Fergusson, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Sydney Basin is a foreland basin forming the southern part of the Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basin system in Eastern Australia. Tectonically the Sydney Basin is regarded as a retro-arc foreland basin that developed through Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic. Constructing a tectonstratigraphic framework for the basin is difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and poor age control, along with its complex tectonic history. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin is presented based on literature synthesis combined with new data analysis. The chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework will provide an up-to-date and easy to follow detailed basin history which can be utilize in the exploration for conventional and unconventional resources in the Sydney Basin.

  7. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant. PMID:21879398

  8. Enantioselective analysis and fate of polycyclic musks in a water recycling plant in Sydney (Australia).

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Khan, S J

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic polycyclic musks (PCMs) Galaxolide (HHCB), Tonalide (AHTN), Phantolide (AHDI), Traseolide (ATII) and Cashmeran (DPMI) are chiral chemicals that are commonly used in washing product industries as racemic mixtures. The major source of PCMs in municipal wastewater is from personal care and household products. Recent studies have shown that PCMs may enhance the relative toxicity of other environmental chemicals by inhibiting cellular xenobiotic defence systems. High sensitivity enantioselective analysis of these compounds enables improved characterisation of the environmental persistence and fate of PCMs, distinguishing between individual enantiomers so that a more complete understanding of environmental risks tributed by individual enantiomers may be obtained. Concentrations of PCMs through the various treatment stages of an advanced water recycling plant in Sydney were investigated to assess the removal of these chemicals. Average concentrations of HHCB, AHTN, AHDI, ATII and DPMI in influent were: 2,545, 301, 2, 5 and 33 ng L(-1), respectively. In the final effluent, AHDI, ATII and DPMI were not detected, while HHCB and AHTN were still measured at concentrations of 21 and 2 ng L(-1). No significant enantioselective transformation was detected during biological or advanced treatment processes. PMID:24845313

  9. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context. PMID:26344369

  10. The spatial domain of wildfire risk and response in the Wildland Urban Interface in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    In order to quantify the risks from fire at the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of 999 fires in the Sydney region we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting more than 2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances further than 10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the region. We examined whether the management responses to wildfires are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of wildfires with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than wildfires as a whole, but further away than wildfires that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.

  11. The spatial domain of wildfire risk and response in the wildland urban interface in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In order to quantify the risks from fire at the wildland urban interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of the 999 fires in the Sydney region we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire's weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting >2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances >10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the region. We examined whether the management responses to wildfires are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of wildfires with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than wildfires as a whole, but further away than wildfires that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). Overall, 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.

  12. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  13. Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

  14. Emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, a food additive and pesticides) in waters of Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Drage, D S; Thompson, K; Eaglesham, G; Mueller, J F

    2015-08-15

    The current investigation of marine water from 30 sites adjacent to stormwater outlets across the entire Sydney estuary is the first such research in Australia. The number of analytes detected were: 8/59 pharmaceutical compounds (codeine, paracetamol, tramadol, venlafaxine, propranolol, fluoxetine, iopromide and carbamazepine), 7/38 of the pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,4-dichloroaniline, carbaryl, diuron, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop and simazine) and 0/3 of the personal care products (PCPs) analysed. An artificial sweetener (acesulfame) was detected, however none of the nine antibiotics analysed were identified. Sewage water is not discharged to this estuary, except infrequently as overflow during high-precipitation events. The presence of acesulfame (a recognised marker of domestic wastewater) and pharmaceuticals in water from all parts of the estuary after a dry period, suggests sewage water is leaking into the stormwater system in this catchment. The pesticides are applied to the environment and were discharged via stormwater to the estuary. PMID:26130525

  15. Social and environmental factors drive variation in plant and bird communities across urban greenspace in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Ashlea J; Luck, Gary W

    2016-03-15

    We examined whether environmental or social factors alone, or a combination of social-ecological factors were more effective at explaining patterns in plant and bird assemblages across urban greenspaces. Thirty publicly accessible, passive recreation greenspaces provided by municipal councils (i.e. city parks) were surveyed in a highly urbanised city - Sydney, Australia. Plant communities were influenced most by topography and park management approach, and to a lesser extent by land-use history. Greenspaces with greater topographic variation and that were co-managed with local citizen groups hosted higher plant species richness and abundance. Bird species richness within greenspaces increased with increasing distance from the central business district and decreasing distance from freshwater. Bird abundance was best explained by a combination of social-ecological factors, with abundance increasing with increasing site (greenspace) age, increasing percent concrete groundcover of a site and increasing proximity to the central business district. We identified a group of 'rare city parks', dissimilar in ecological composition that hosted more complex and species rich plant communities compared to 'common city parks'. We suggest this difference is likely because rare city parks received management and maintenance input from local citizen groups, whereas common city parks were managed and maintained exclusively by local councils. How different social factors, such as management approach and ongoing maintenance, are linked to the ecology of urban greenspaces are key areas for future investigation to help create sustainable urban landscapes that provide maximum benefits to urban residents. PMID:26773425

  16. Evaluating the transport, health and economic impacts of new urban cycling infrastructure in Sydney, Australia – protocol paper

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are repeated calls to build better cycling paths in Australian cities if the proportion of people cycling is to increase. Yet the full range of transport, health, environmental and economic impacts of new cycling infrastructure and the extent to which observed changes are sustained is not well understood. The City of Sydney is currently building a new bicycle network, which includes a new bicycle path separated from road traffic in the south Sydney area. This protocol paper describes a comprehensive method to evaluate this new cycling infrastructure. Method A cohort of residents within two kilometres of the new bicycle path will be surveyed at baseline before a new section of bicycle path is built, and again 12 and 24 months later to assess changes in travel behaviour, sense of community, quality of life and health behaviours. Residents in a comparable area of Sydney that will not get a new separated bike path will act as a comparison group. At baseline a sub-set of residents who volunteer will also take a small GPS device with them for one week to assess travel behaviour. Discussion This research should contribute to the advancement in evaluation and appraisal methods for cycling projects. PMID:24131667

  17. Assessment of biotic response to heavy metal contamination in Avicennia marina mangrove ecosystems in Sydney Estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Birch, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    Mangrove forests act as a natural filter of land-derived wastewaters along industrialized tropical and sub-tropical coastlines and assist in maintaining a healthy living condition for marine ecosystems. Currently, these intertidal communities are under serious threat from heavy metal contamination induced by human activity associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. Studies on the biotic responses of these plants to heavy metal contamination are of great significance in estuary management and maintaining coastal ecosystem health. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the biotic response in Avicennia marina ecosystems to heavy metal contamination through the determination of metal concentrations in leaves, fine nutritive roots and underlying sediments collected in fifteen locations across Sydney Estuary (Australia). Metal concentrations (especially Cu, Pb and Zn) in the underlying sediments of A. marina were enriched to a level (based on Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines) at which adverse biological effects to flora could occasionally occur. Metals accumulated in fine nutritive roots greater than underlying sediments, however, only minor translocation of these metals to A. marina leaves was observed (mean translocation factors, TFs, for all elements <0.13, except for Mn). Translocation factors of essential elements (i.e., common plant micro-nutrients, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn) were greater than non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb), suggesting that A. marina mangroves of this estuary selectively excluded non-essential elements, while regulating essential elements and limiting toxicity to plants. This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination. PMID:25011126

  18. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC) Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart) of a cohort of residents (n = 909) in the intervention area (n = 520) (Fairfield and Liverpool) and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389) (Bankstown). Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p < 0.05) in the intervention area, with significantly higher rates of cycling in the intervention area (32.9%) compared with the comparison area (9.7%) amongst those aware of the project. There was a significant increase in use of bicycle paths in the intervention area (28.3% versus 16.2%, p < 0.05). These findings were confirmed by the bike count data. Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels. PMID:20181019

  19. Concentration of ptaquiloside, a major carcinogen in bracken fern (Pteridium spp.), from eastern Australia and from a cultivated worldwide collection held in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Seawright, A A; Ng, J C; Hertle, A T; Thomson, J A; Bostock, P D

    1994-01-01

    Two surveys of bracken fern for the concentration of the carcinogen ptaquiloside (PT) have been carried out, one of bracken fern from the eastern side of Australia and the other from a worldwide collection of bracken clones held in Sydney Australia. Bracken from eastern Australia contained concentrations of ptaquiloside ranging from 0 to 12,945 micrograms PT/g. From 91 samples 15% contained greater than 5,000 micrograms PT/g and 57% of samples contained more than 1,000 micrograms PT/g bracken on the dry weight basis. Ptaquiloside concentrations were highest in Pteridium revolutum and from P. esculentum from areas where bovine enzootic haematuria was known to occur. Bracken from the cultivated bracken clone collection from world-wide sources tended to have lower concentrations of ptaquiloside ranging from 0 to 9,776 micrograms PT/g. From 77 samples, 8% contained more than 5,000 micrograms PT/g and 35% contained more than 1,000 micrograms PT/g bracken. Samples from both the eastern Australia survey and the Australian representatives in the worldwide collection showed significantly higher concentrations of PT in the P. esculentum collected from the more southern states. In samples from the worldwide collection there were no statistical differences in the concentrations of PT in bracken between taxa. PMID:7704447

  20. Use of Sediment Risk and Ecological/Conservation Value for Strategic Management of Estuarine Environments: Sydney Estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gavin F.; Hutson, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Sediment mantling the floor of Sydney estuary contains a wide range of chemicals at highly elevated concentrations over extensive areas. Appropriate sediment management decisions are urgently required to prevent further degradation of sediment quality and to minimize resulting adverse ecological effects. The objective of the present work was to provide a systematic, estuary-wide assessment of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value throughout the harbor to guide sediment management decisions. Sediment risk is the likelihood of sediment chemistry causing adverse biological effects to bottom-dwelling animals and was conducted using national sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for single contaminants and the mean SQG quotient approach to assess chemical mixtures. Sediment risk was negligible at the mouth of the estuary, but increased strongly landwards. The ecological/conservation value assessment was conducted to identify sites that warrant different levels of protection and was conducted using the value of ecological communities and priority waterway use. Consideration of these two parameters combined enabled the estuary to be prioritized for management attention. The prioritization and identification of appropriate management strategies were determined through the use of management matrices also based on sediment risk and ecological/conservation value. A computer package is being developed to provide managers with information on sediment risk, ecological/conservation value, the urgency and the type of management intervention required for any location in Sydney estuary, in real-time. This approach to estuarine management is unique and will greatly improve effective management of Sydney estuary, and other harbors in urgent need of management action and protection.

  1. Use of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value for strategic management of estuarine environments: Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, Gavin F; Hutson, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Sediment mantling the floor of Sydney estuary contains a wide range of chemicals at highly elevated concentrations over extensive areas. Appropriate sediment management decisions are urgently required to prevent further degradation of sediment quality and to minimize resulting adverse ecological effects. The objective of the present work was to provide a systematic, estuary-wide assessment of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value throughout the harbor to guide sediment management decisions. Sediment risk is the likelihood of sediment chemistry causing adverse biological effects to bottom-dwelling animals and was conducted using national sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for single contaminants and the mean SQG quotient approach to assess chemical mixtures. Sediment risk was negligible at the mouth of the estuary, but increased strongly landwards. The ecological/conservation value assessment was conducted to identify sites that warrant different levels of protection and was conducted using the value of ecological communities and priority waterway use. Consideration of these two parameters combined enabled the estuary to be prioritized for management attention. The prioritization and identification of appropriate management strategies were determined through the use of management matrices also based on sediment risk and ecological/conservation value. A computer package is being developed to provide managers with information on sediment risk, ecological/conservation value, the urgency and the type of management intervention required for any location in Sydney estuary, in real-time. This approach to estuarine management is unique and will greatly improve effective management of Sydney estuary, and other harbors in urgent need of management action and protection. PMID:19705195

  2. Water-saving impacts of Smart Meter technology: An empirical 5 year, whole-of-community study in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirsten; Doolan, Corinna; van den Honert, Robin; Shi, Rose

    2014-09-01

    In 2009-2010 Sydney Water, the primary water utility in Sydney, conducted a comprehensive Smart Metering trial in residential homes in the suburb of Westleigh, in Sydney's north. The trial involved 1923 participants residing in 630 households. A whole-of-community method of engagement was applied to capture the views of residents from 12 to 70+ years of age. The trial examined the effects of the technology on the water consumption of an intervention group compared with that of a matched control group. After removing properties that had been sold since the beginning of the trial, properties in the study group were matched with a control group property on the basis of the household size, property size and the presence (or otherwise) of a swimming pool. The effects of the technology on consumption were measured and analyzed for the period July 2009 to June 2010, coupled with qualitative information that was collected throughout the duration of the study. A key finding was that households with the in-home display (IHD) installed, reduced their consumption by an average of over 6.8% over the study period when compared to the control group. Since completion of the study the community has not had any further interventions. The trial created an opportunity to examine the longer-term effects of the technology (June 2008 to September 2013). Consumption data collected over the 3 year posttrial period revealed that the participant group consumed 6.4% per month less water when compared to the pretrial period, whilst the matched control group consumed 1.3% per month more water when compared to the pretrial period. The reduced consumption of the participant group was maintained over time, demonstrating the long-term value of this technology.

  3. Interpretation at Wetland Sites in the Sydney Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadhokar, Yojana; McLoughlin, Lynette C.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretive and educational facilities at five wetland sites near Sydney (Australia) were studied to determine their goals, range of facilities and activities, and themes related to wetlands and their conservation covered in informal visitor programs and formal education programs for school groups. Program objectives and activities were generally…

  4. Genotype heterogeneity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within geospatial hotspots suggests foci of imported infection in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Jelfs, Peter; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Marais, Ben J; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2016-06-01

    In recent years the State of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, has maintained a low tuberculosis incidence rate with little evidence of local transmission. Nearly 90% of notified tuberculosis cases occurred in people born in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We analyzed geographic, epidemiological and genotypic data of all culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases to identify the bacterial and demographic determinants of tuberculosis hotspot areas in NSW. Standard 24-loci mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-24) typing was performed on all isolates recovered between 2009 and 2013. In total 1692/1841 (91.9%) cases with confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection had complete MIRU-24 and demographic data and were included in the study. Despite some year-to-year variability, spatio-temporal analysis identified four tuberculosis hotspots. The incidence rate and the relative risk of tuberculosis in these hotspots were 2- to 10-fold and 4- to 8-fold higher than the state average, respectively. MIRU-24 profiles of M. tuberculosis isolates associated with these hotspots revealed high levels of heterogeneity. This suggests that these spatio-temporal hotspots, within this low incidence setting, can represent areas of predominantly imported infection rather than clusters of cases due to local transmission. These findings provide important epidemiological insight and demonstrate the value of combining tuberculosis genotyping and spatiotemporal data to guide better-targeted public health interventions. PMID:26187743

  5. Overdose beliefs and management practices among ethnic Vietnamese heroin users in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Ho, Hien T

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic Vietnamese injecting drug users (IDUs) in Australia draw on a range of beliefs and etiologic models, sometimes simultaneously, in order to make sense of health and illness. These include understandings of illness as the result of internal imbalances and Western concepts of disease causation including germ/pollution theory. Methods Observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews were conducted between 2001 and 2006 in neighbourhoods characterised by high proportions of Asian background IDUs and street-based drug markets. Eligibility criteria for the study were: 1) ethnic Vietnamese cultural background; 2) aged 16 years and over and; 3) injected drugs in the last 6 months. Results Participants commonly attempted to treat heroin overdose by withdrawing blood (rút máu) from the body. Central to this practice are cultural beliefs about the role and function of blood in the body and its relationship to illness and health. Participants' beliefs in blood were strongly influenced by understandings of blood expressed in traditional Chinese and Vietnamese medicine. Many participants perceived Western drugs, particularly heroin, as "hot" and "strong". In overdose situations, it was commonly believed that an excessive amount of drugs (particularly heroin) entered the bloodstream and traveled to the heart, making the heart work too hard. Withdrawing blood was understood to reduce the amount of drugs in the body which in turn reduced the effects of drugs on the blood and the heart. Conclusion The explanatory model of overdose employed by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs privileges traditional beliefs about the circulatory, rather than the respiratory, system. This paper explores participants' beliefs about blood, the effects of drugs on blood and the causes of heroin overdose in order to document the explanatory model of overdose used by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs. Implications for overdose prevention, treatment and management are identified and discussed. PMID:19397811

  6. Body mass, cardiovascular risk and metabolic characteristics of young persons presenting for mental healthcare in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; GeHue, Jeanne; Whitwell, Bradley G; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young people presenting for mental healthcare. Design Cross-sectional assessments of body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Setting Two primary-care based sites in Sydney, Australia for young people in the early stages of mental disorders. Participants A clinical sample of young people (12–30 years) with mental health problems. Outcome measures Daily smoking rates, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate. Results Of 1005 young people who had their BMI determined (62% female; 19.0±3.5 years), three quarters (739/1005) also had BP recordings and one-third (298/1005) had blood sampling. Clinically, 775 were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories (anxious-depression: n=541; mania-fatigue, n=104; developmental-psychotic n=130). The profile of BMI categories approximated that of the comparable segments of the Australian population. Older age, lower levels of social functioning and higher systolic BP were all associated with high BMI. In a subset (n=129), current use of any psychotropic medication was associated (p<0.05) with increased BMI. Almost one-third of cases were current daily smokers (compared to population rate of 11%). Males had a higher proportion of raised glucose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to females (9.3% and 34.1% vs 2.1% and 5.9%, respectively). Overall, there was no relationship between BMI and fasting glucose but significant relationships with triglycerides and HDL were noted. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between diagnostic subgroup and metabolic profiles. Conclusions Daily smoking rates are increased among young people presenting for mental healthcare. However, these young people do not demonstrate adverse cardiometabolic profiles. The high levels of smoking, and association of BMI with adverse social circumstances, suggest that risk factors for chronic

  7. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

  8. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osso, F; Dominey-Howes, D; Moore, C; Summerhayes, S; Withycombe, G

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney. PMID:25492514

  9. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney. PMID:25492514

  10. Illuminating incidents in antipodean astronomy: John Tebbutt and the Sydney Observatory directorship of 1862.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, W.

    During much of the second half of the nineteenth century John Tebbutt of Windsor Observatory was Australia's foremost astronomer, despite having chosen to remain an amateur when offered the directorship of Sydney Observatory in 1862. In this paper, the circumstances relating to this offer are investigated, and Tebbutt's subsequent relations with Sydney Observatory are critically examined.

  11. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation Strategies: Summary of the E. & F. White Conference held in Sydney, Australia, December 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jon F.; Ekers, Ron D.; Bunton, John D.

    2000-12-01

    The E. & F. White Conference held in Sydney in December 1999 brought together expertise on a range of interference mitigation techniques from CSIRO, Australian and international industry and universities. Key goals were to enhance the understanding of techniques and their inter-relationship, to increase awareness of advanced technologies such as software radios and photonics, and to foster a cooperative approach to the development of interference mitigation techniques. The foremost application in mind was the square kilometre array (SKA) and the need to find ways to develop a hierarchical scheme for removing unwanted signals from astronomical data. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at the conference and summarises some of the key ideas and results that were presented.

  12. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  13. Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M; Norris, Jacqueline M; White, Joanna D; Dhand, Nanveet K; Hamilton, Samuel A; Malik, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further occasions, 2 and 4 weeks after the first posting. Completed questionnaires were received from 884 households. No pets were kept by 387 (43.8%) respondents. Dogs and cats were owned by 295 (33.4%) and 198 (22.5%) of households, respectively, with 7.8% of households having both cat(s) and dog(s). Fish and birds were the next most popular pets. Of the 198 cat-owning households, 54.0% kept only cat(s), while 46.5% kept cats with other pets. The distribution of cat ownership across Sydney was non-uniform. Each cat-owning household kept 1.3 cats on average, with the majority keeping one (75.8% households) or two (18.7%). For the 260 cats, the mean age was 7.1 years, the median 6 years, with a range of 3 months to 22 years. There were significantly more female (143; 55%) than male cats (117; 45%). Only seven cats (2.7%) were sexually entire, and these were all < or =6 years. Crossbred cats outnumbered pedigree cats by a ratio of 3.3:1. The Burmese was the most common breed, followed by the Persian. The median age of pedigree cats (5.5 years) was significantly lower than for domestic crossbred cats (7.0 years). Most cats were housed both indoors and outdoors (72.6%), with 19.7% being restricted to indoors and/or 'pet park enclosures'. Pedigree cats were significantly more likely than crossbreds to be housed indoors. Most owners fed their cats a combination of commercial dry and canned food (38.1%), although fresh meat was popular also and either fed alone (1.6%) or in combination with dry food (14.4%), tinned food (1.6%) or canned and dry food (25.8%). A diet

  14. Unpacking Time: Minutes from Reggio Emilia, Australia and America. Conference Proceedings (5th, Sydney, Australia, July 8-9, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    This conference proceedings compiles papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2000, the fifth in a series examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on time and play in preschool education. Paper topics related to the history of…

  15. Field Evaluation of Melolure, a Formate Analogue of Cuelure, and Reassessment of Fruit Fly Species Trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Campbell, Angus J; Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure or methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol is a very effective lure, but cuelure is less effective likely due to low volatility. A new formate analogue of cuelure, melolure, has increased volatility, resulting in improved efficacy with the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett. We tested the efficacy of melolure with fruit fly species in Sydney as part of the National Exotic Fruit Fly Monitoring programme. This monitoring programme has 71 trap sites across Sydney, with each trap site comprising separate Lynfield traps containing either cuelure, methyl eugenol, or capilure lure. In 2008, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure plugs was added to seven sites. In 2009 and 2010, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure wicks was added to 11 trap sites and traps were monitored fortnightly for 2 yr. Capture rates for melolure traps were similar to cuelure traps for Dacus absonifacies (May) and Dacus aequalis (Coquillet), but melolure traps consistently caught fewer Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) than cuelure traps. However, trap sites with both a cuelure and melolure traps had increased capture rates for D. absonifacies and D. aequalis, and a marginally significant increase for B. tryoni. Melolure plugs were less effective than melolure wicks, but this effect may be related to lure concentration. The broader Bactrocera group species were attracted more to cuelure than melolure while the Dacus group species were attracted more to melolure than cuelure. There is no benefit in switching from cuelure to melolure to monitor B. tryoni, the most important fruit fly pest in Australia. PMID:26470243

  16. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. PMID:23973180

  17. Fluid flow histories in Permo-Triass sediments of the Sydney Basin, SE Australia; isotope and fluid inclusion constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.J.; Bai, G.P.

    1996-12-31

    A petrographic, isotopic and fluid inclusion investigation of Permo-Triassic sandstones in the Sydney Basin has enabled reconstruction of the history of fluid flow. Diagenetic cements in Triassic sandstones comprise, in order, grain coating clays and carbonates, pore filling carbonates, kaolin, quartz, late interstitial carbonate and illite. Diagenesis in the Permian sandstones began with pore filling siderite prior to saddle ankerite, followed by quartz and then illite and late carbonates. Fluid rock interaction during burial resulted in increases in pore water 8180 from depositional values of -17{per_thousand} to about -12{per_thousand} to -7{per_thousand} at the time of quartz overgrowth crystallization and to between -7{per_thousand} to -1{per_thousand} at the time of illite crystallisation. Interpretation of fluid inclusion data and maturity measurements indicates that heat flow increased during the Triassic and Jurassic, reaching a maximum of about 2.1 HFU in the Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous uplift, cooling and erosion was initiated at the same time as, and probably related to, the initiation of Tasman Sea rifting. The rocks had previously been more deeply buried by 1500-2100m. The uplift resulted in cessation of illite diagenesis timed at 90Ma and meteoric water invasion of the sandstones in turn causing partial resetting of {delta}D compositions of the diagenetic clays to less D-depleted values.

  18. Fluid flow histories in Permo-Triass sediments of the Sydney Basin, SE Australia; isotope and fluid inclusion constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.J. ); Bai, G.P. )

    1996-01-01

    A petrographic, isotopic and fluid inclusion investigation of Permo-Triassic sandstones in the Sydney Basin has enabled reconstruction of the history of fluid flow. Diagenetic cements in Triassic sandstones comprise, in order, grain coating clays and carbonates, pore filling carbonates, kaolin, quartz, late interstitial carbonate and illite. Diagenesis in the Permian sandstones began with pore filling siderite prior to saddle ankerite, followed by quartz and then illite and late carbonates. Fluid rock interaction during burial resulted in increases in pore water 8180 from depositional values of -17[per thousand] to about -12[per thousand] to -7[per thousand] at the time of quartz overgrowth crystallization and to between -7[per thousand] to -1[per thousand] at the time of illite crystallisation. Interpretation of fluid inclusion data and maturity measurements indicates that heat flow increased during the Triassic and Jurassic, reaching a maximum of about 2.1 HFU in the Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous uplift, cooling and erosion was initiated at the same time as, and probably related to, the initiation of Tasman Sea rifting. The rocks had previously been more deeply buried by 1500-2100m. The uplift resulted in cessation of illite diagenesis timed at 90Ma and meteoric water invasion of the sandstones in turn causing partial resetting of [delta]D compositions of the diagenetic clays to less D-depleted values.

  19. The mismatch of bioaccumulated trace metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in field and transplanted oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to ambient surficial sediments and suspended particulate matter in a highly urbanised estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Birch, Gavin F

    2016-04-01

    A significant correlation between sedimentary metals, particularly the 'bio-available' fraction, and bioaccumulated metal concentrations in the native Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) tissues has been successfully demonstrated previously for Cu and Zn in a number of estuaries in New South Wales, Australia. However, this relationship has been difficult to establish in a highly modified estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia) where metal contamination is of greatest concern and where a significant relationship would be most useful for environmental monitoring. The use of the Sydney rock oyster as a biomonitoring tool for metal contamination was assessed in the present study by investigating relationships between metals attached to sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) to bioaccumulated concentrations in oyster tissues. Surficial sediments (both total and fine-fraction), SPM and wild oysters were collected over 3 years from three embayments (Chowder Bay, Mosman Bay and Iron Cove) with each embayment representing a different physiographic region of Sydney estuary. In addition, a transplant experiment of farmed oysters was conducted in the same embayments for 3 months. No relationship was observed between sediments or SPM metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) to tissue of wild oysters; however, significant relationship was observed against transplanted oysters. The mismatch between wild and farmed, transplanted oysters is perplexing and indicates that wild oysters are unsuitable to be used as a biomonitoring tool due to the involvement of unknown complex factors while transplanted oysters hold strong potential. PMID:27003401

  20. Ethnomedicine and dominant medicine in multicultural Australia: a critical realist reflection on the case of Korean-Australian immigrants in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; Ballis, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Background Viewed through the micro focus of an interpretive lens, medical anthropology remains mystified because interpretivist explanations seriously downplay the given context in which individual health seeking-behaviours occur. This paper draws upon both the interpretivist and political economy perspectives to reflect on the ethno medical practices within the Korean-Australian community in Sydney. Methods We draw on research data collected between 1995 and 1997 for an earlier study of the use of biomedical and traditional medicine by Korean-Australians in Sydney. A total of 120 interviews were conducted with a range of participants, including biomedical doctors, traditional health professionals, Korean community leaders and Korean migrants representing a range of socio-economic backgrounds and migration patterns. Results and Discussion First, the paper highlights the extent to which the social location of migrants in a host society alters or restructures their initial cultural practices they bring with them. Second, taking hanbang medicine in the Korean-Australian community as an illustrative case, the paper explores the transformation of the dominant biomedicine in Australia as a result of the influx of ethnomedicine in the era of global capitalism and global movement. Conclusion In seeking to explain the popularity and supply of alternative health care, it is important to go beyond the culture of each kind of health care itself and to take into consideration the changes occurring at societal, national and global levels as well as consequential individual response to the changes. New social conditions influence the choice of health care methods, including herbal/alternative medicine, health foods and what are often called New Age therapies. PMID:17201916

  1. Development of an estuarine assessment scheme for the management of a highly urbanised catchment/estuary system, Sydney estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Gunns, T J; Chapman, D; Harrison, D

    2016-05-01

    As coastal populations increase, considerable pressures are exerted on estuarine environments. Recently, there has been a trend towards the development and use of estuarine assessment schemes as a decision support tool in the management of these environments. These schemes offer a method by which complex environmental data is converted into a readily understandable and communicable format for informed decision making and effective distribution of limited management resources. Reliability and effectiveness of these schemes are often limited due to a complex assessment framework, poor data management and use of ineffective environmental indicators. The current scheme aims to improve reliability in the reporting of estuarine condition by including a concise assessment framework, employing high-value indicators and, in a unique approach, employing fuzzy logic in indicator evaluation. Using Sydney estuary as a case study, each of the 15 sub-catchment/sub-estuary systems were assessed using the current scheme. Results identified that poor sediment quality was a significant issue in Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Iron Cove and Hen and Chicken Bay while poor water quality was of particular concern in Duck River, Homebush Bay and the Parramatta River. Overall results of the assessment scheme were used to prioritise the management of each sub-catchment/sub-estuary assessed with Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Homebush Bay, Iron Cove and Duck River considered to be in need of a high priority management response. A report card format, using letter grades, was employed to convey the results of the assessment in a readily understood manner to estuarine managers and members of the public. Letter grades also provide benchmarking and performance monitoring ability, allowing estuarine managers to set improvement targets and assesses the effectiveness of management strategies. The current assessment scheme provides an effective, integrated and consistent assessment of estuarine health and

  2. A human thermal climatology of subtropical Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, J. C.; de Dear, R. J.

    2003-09-01

    Using a physiologically relevant thermal comfort index (OUT_SET*), an analysis of the week-by-week human thermal climate of Sydney was carried out for three levels of metabolic activity. The OUT_SET* index is an outdoor version of the widely used indoor comfort index called the standard effective temperature (SET*) incorporating air and mean radiant temperatures, relative humidity, air velocity, clothing insulation and activity level. The outdoor comfort zone for Sydney in terms of OUT_SET* was found from earlier subjective field studies to be in the range 23.8-28.5°C. The analysis indicated that the mid-summer period (weeks 43 through to 12 in the Southern Hemisphere) was most suitable for sedentary outdoor activities (e.g. watching spectator sport), whereas the mid-winter period was more suitable for light activities such as walking. Sydney's winter was found to be a very suitable season for tourism in many respects because of (a) low rainfall months, like August, and (b) the ability to undertake light activities while remaining within the outdoor comfort zone. For high metabolic activities during the day, for example the mass participation Sydney City-to-Surf fun run, it was found that the threshold limit value for increased risk of heat stress (as defined by ISO 7243, 1989) is exceeded up to 50% of the time during the summer (weeks 50 through to 9 at 3 p.m.) at the 90th percentile probability level. The methods and results of this study should be relevant to end-users such as architects, engineers, outdoor-event planners and the tourism industry in general.

  3. Explaining ecological clusters of maternal depression in South Western Sydney

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to: 1) explain the observed clustering of postnatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney; and 2) identify group-level mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the social determinants of maternal depression. Methods Critical realism provided the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was four local government areas in South Western Sydney, Australia. Child and Family practitioners and mothers in naturally occurring mothers groups were interviewed. Results Using an open coding approach to maximise emergence of patterns and relationships we have identified seven theoretical concepts that might explain the observed spatial clustering of maternal depression. The theoretical concepts identified were: Community-level social networks; Social Capital and Social Cohesion; "Depressed community"; Access to services at the group level; Ethnic segregation and diversity; Supportive social policy; and Big business. Conclusions We postulate that these regional structural, economic, social and cultural mechanisms partially explain the pattern of maternal depression observed in families and communities within South Western Sydney. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situation. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their families within this adverse regional and global-economic context. PMID:24460690

  4. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami - an application of the revised Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) Model in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Dall'Osso, Fillippo; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.

    2010-05-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009a, b) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience. Last, we propose the wider application of the PTVA-3 Model as a tool for building vulnerability assessment. Dall'Osso, D., Gonella, M., Gabbianelli, G., Withycombe, G. and Dominey-Howes, D. (2009a). A revised (PTVA) model for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1557-1565. Dall'Osso, D

  5. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM. PMID:17360882

  6. How can investment in the landscape or the interface reduce the risk of house loss from wildfires? A comparative study between Sydney, Australia and California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Trent; Bradstock, Ross; Collins, Luke; Fotheringham, Cj; Keeley, Jon; Labiosa, Bill; Price, Owen; Syphard, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Wildfire can result in significant losses to people and property. Management agencies undertake a range of actions in the landscape and at the interface to reduce this risk. Data relating to the success of individual treatments varies, with some approaches well understood and others less so. Research has rarely attempted to consider the interactive effects of treatments in order to determine optimal management strategies that reduce the risk of loss. Bayesian Networks provide a statistical framework for undertaking such an analysis. Here we apply Bayesian Networks to examine the trade-offs in investment in preventative actions (e.g., fuel treatment, community education, development controls) and suppressive actions (e.g., initial attack, landscape suppression, property protection) in two fire prone regions -Sydney, Australia and California, USA. Investment in management actions at the interface resulted in the greatest reduction in the risk of house loss for both of the study regions. Landscape treatments had a limited ability to change the risk of house loss.

  7. Parasites of QX-resistant and wild-type Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) in Moreton Bay, SE Queensland, Australia: diversity and host response.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C; Chan, Janlin; Hénault, Olivier; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    Wild caught (WC) and QX resistant (QXR) Sydney rock oysters were introduced at North Stradbroke Island and Pimpama River, SE Queensland, Australia, and sampled monthly during 1 year. Three groups of parasites/diseases were identified by observation of histological sections: (1) Marteilia sydneyi (Queensland unknown (QX) disease) and Steinhausia sp. (Microsporidia) characterized by a high prevalence and deleterious impact on the host; (2) disseminated neoplasia and the trematode Proctoeces sp. characterized by low prevalence but deleterious effects on the host; (3) parasites or symbionts with no detectable effect on the host: trematodes, ciliates, turbellarians and metacestodes. Mortality rates were similar between both oyster lines but higher at Pimpama River (reaching around 90%) than Stradbroke Island, mostly because of QX disease and, to a lesser extent, to the unfavourable environmental conditions of the summer 2010-2011. Lower prevalences of QX disease at Stradbroke Island probably related to the relative lack of intermediate hosts of the parasite and to lower freshwater input. Surprisingly, no difference in prevalence of QX disease was observed between the two oyster lines. PMID:23274078

  8. The scientific legacy of Sydney Chapman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2011-08-01

    Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) was arguably one of the greatest scientists of the twentieth century. His comprehensive work on the kinetic theory of gases and solar-terrestrial physics, as well as on the mechanisms behind the formation of Earth's ozone layer, has inspired a wide swath of research spanning several generations [Van Allen, 1970]. Chapman, a member of the Royal Society, in London, and president of the International Geophysical Year (IGY), also was a recipient of AGU's William Bowie Medal. Young AGU members today may recognize Chapman from the topical conferences that carry his name. Although his biography has so far not been published, he gave three talks on his life: two at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., in 1965 and 1966, and one at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, in 1967 (see Figure 1). All three are transcribed and included in a book, Sydney Chapman, Eighty: From His Friends [Akasofu et al., 1968]. These talks, combined with other sources, shed light on this insightful and discerning scientist.

  9. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 4: Kerr, Shain, Higgins and the Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; George, Martin; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Between 1949 and 1952 the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics was a world leader in low frequency radio astronomy, through research conducted mainly by Alex Shain and Charlie Higgins at their Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney. In this paper we discuss the personnel, radio telescopes and research programs (mainly conducted at 9.15 and 18.3 MHz) associated with the Hornsby Valley site.

  10. Skin neoplasms of dogs in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, T L; Howlett, C R; Middleton, D J; Griffiths, D A; Duff, B C

    1987-06-01

    In a survey of dogs in Sydney, mastocytomas (16.1%) and histiocytomas (14.0%) were the most common in a total of 1,000 skin neoplasms. The basal cell and appendage group provided 25.5% of the neoplasms. The prevalence of the various neoplasms, the age of affected dogs, the proportion in the sexes, the common sites of occurrence and prevalence in the different breeds were broadly similar to findings in surveys in other countries, except that in the Syndeny dogs there was a greater prevalence of histiocytomas and haemangiopericytomas, a more common occurrence of histiocytomas in mature dogs, an occurrence of histiocytomas in similar numbers on the head, trunk and limbs, and a remarkably common development of squamous cell carcinomas in Dalmatians. PMID:3115242

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road-deposited sediments, water sediments, and soils in Sydney, Australia: Comparisons of concentration distribution, sources and potential toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Chung; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Slee, Danny; Stevenson, Gavin; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered as priority environmental pollutants were analysed in surface natural soils (NS), road-deposited sediments (RDS), and water sediments (WS) at Kogarah in Sydney, Australia. Comparisons were made of their concentration distributions, likely sources and potential toxicities. The concentrations (mg/kg) in NS, RDS, and WS ranged from 0.40 to 7.49 (mean 2.80), 1.65 to 4.00 (mean 2.91), and 0.49 to 5.19 (mean 1.76), respectively. PAHs were dominated by relatively high molecular weight compounds with more than three fused benzene rings, indicating that high temperature combustion processes were their predominant sources. The proportions of high molecular weight PAHs with five or six fused benzene rings were higher in NS than in RDS, whereas the low molecular weight PAHs were higher in RDS. Concentrations of all PAHs compounds were observed to be the lowest in WS. The concentrations of most of the high molecular weight PAHs significantly correlated with each other in RDS and WS. All PAHs (except naphthalene) were significantly correlated in NS suggesting a common PAH source. Ratios for individual diagnostic PAHs demonstrated that the primary source of PAHs in WS and NS was of pyrogenic origin (combustion of petroleum (vehicle exhaust), grass, and wood) while in RDS it was petrogenic (i.e. unburned or leaked fuel and oil, road asphalt, and tyre particles) as well as pyrogenic. The potential toxicities of PAHs calculated using a toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ) were all low but higher for NS compared to WS and RDS. PMID:24732030

  12. A comparison of the sports safety policies and practices of community sports clubs during training and competition in northern Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, A; Forero, R; Finch, C; Hill, T

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the safety policies and practices reported to be adopted during training and competition by community sports clubs in northern Sydney, Australia. Methods: This cross sectional study involved face to face interviews, using an 81 item extensively validated questionnaire, with representatives of 163 community netball, rugby league, rugby union, and soccer clubs (response rate 85%). The study was undertaken during the winter sports season of 2000. Two separate 14 item scales were developed to analyse the level of safety policy adoption and safety practice implementation during training and competition. The statistical analysis comprised descriptive and inferential analysis stratified by sport. Results: The reliability of the scales was good: Cronbach's α = 0.70 (competition scale) to 0.81 (training scale). Significant differences were found between the safety scores for training and competition for all clubs (mean difference 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.0 to 12.5) and for each of the four sports: netball (mean difference 14.9; 95% CI 12.6 to 17.2); rugby league (mean difference 10.3; 95% CI 7.1 to 13.6); rugby union (mean difference 9.4; 95% CI 7.1 to 11.7); and soccer (mean difference 8.4; 95% CI 6.5 to 10.3). Conclusions: The differences in the mean competition and training safety scores were significant for all sports. This indicates that safety policies were less often adopted and practices less often implemented during training than during competition. As injuries do occur at training, and sports participants often spend considerably more time training than competing, sporting bodies should consider whether the safety policies and practices adopted and implemented at training are adequate. PMID:14751948

  13. Tackling the Issues of Landscape Characterisation for Natural Resource Management in Urban and Peri-urban Western Sydney, Australia: Application of the Hydro-Geologic Landscapes Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. L.; Harvey, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dryland salinity is a natural resource management issue and a planning hazard in urban/peri-urban Western Sydney, where there is enormous development pressure. The level of detail available on local geological, hydrogeologic and soils maps commonly does not provide sufficient detail for sub-catchment scale urban development planning and natural resource management (NRM) decision-making. The dominant lithologies for the area are relatively thick (up to 300m), flat-lying, Triassic fluvial and shallow marine siliciclastic sediments of the Sydney Basin. Localised areas of Cainozoic gravels cover the palaeo-landscapes developed on older rocks, and modern fluvial processes along the Hawkesbury River and tributaries continue to modify the landscape. Salt is concentrated in this landscape through aeolian accession and deposition from oceanic aerosols, but almost never as fossil (connate) salts. The redistribution of salts by the process of aeolian accession typically takes place when the salts are coupled with windblown dust known as parna. For south-eastern NSW, this dust originates from areas which are more arid, such as the western regions of the NSW and Victorian states. Aerosols from the ocean can be responsible for the deposition of salts up to a few hundred kilometres from their source. This process is responsible for a significant contribution of salt in the Sydney area. Field observations have shown that salt outbreaks are more dominant on some Sydney Basin units, specifically the Wianamatta Group sediments, some Cainozoic units, and along many active drainage systems. The Wianamatta Group sediments comprise three sub-groups; the Bringelly Shale, Minchinbury Sandstone and Ashfield Shale. The Cainozoic sediments comprise at least three units; the Saint Mary's Formation, Rickaby's Creek Gravels and Londonderry Clay. In Western Sydney these successions form an east-west oriented, tear-drop-shaped sub-basin, the Cumberland Basin, that narrows and thins to the east. In

  14. Creating Effective Holocaust Education Programmes for Government Schools with Large Muslim Populations in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and…

  15. "A Reservoir of Learning": The Beginnings of Continuing Education at the University of Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl

    2009-01-01

    Adult education has often been on the margin of university offerings in Australia and elsewhere, sometimes regarded as "non-core" business or at least as a financial drain on the institution. At the University of Sydney, however, adult education has managed to survive in one form or other for over 140 years, currently through the Centre for…

  16. Tracing Discourses of Social Action: Inner-City Sydney Neighbourhood Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, John

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on my doctoral research around community organizations in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. The neighbourhood centres (NCs) provide a case study of sites where discourses of feminism, multiculturalism and urban environmentalism have been activated within a social justice framework. The research participants were activists…

  17. The Impact of Land Cover Change on a Simulated Storm Event in the Sydney Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, A. F.; Pitman, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was run at a 1-km grid spacing over the Sydney basin in Australia to assess the impact of land cover change on a simulated storm event. The simulated storm used NCEP NCAR reanalysis data, first with natural (i.e., pre-European settlement in 1788) land cover and then with satellite-derived land cover representing Sydney's current land use pattern. An intense convective storm develops in the model in close proximity to Sydney's dense urban central business district under current land cover. The storm is absent under natural land cover conditions. A detailed investigation of why the change in land cover generates a storm was performed using factorial analysis, which revealed the storm to be sensitive to the presence of agricultural land in the southwest of the domain. This area interacts with the sea breeze and affects the horizontal divergence and moisture convergence—the triggering mechanisms of the storm. The existence of the storm over the dense urban area of Sydney is therefore coincidental. The results herein support efforts to develop parameterization of urban surfaces in high-resolution simulations of Sydney's meteorological environment but also highlight the need to improve the parameterization of other types of land cover change at the periphery of the urban area, given that these types dominate the explanation of the results.

  18. Extreme Droughts In Sydney And Melbourne Since The 1850s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Selim

    2014-05-01

    Sydney and Melbourne are the two highly populated and very well known Australian cities. Population is over 4 million for each. These cities are subject to extreme droughts which affect regional water resources and cause substantial agricultural and economic losses. This study presents a drought analysis of Sydney and Melbourne for the period of 1850s to date by using Effective Drought Index (EDI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). EDI is a function of precipitation needed for return to normal conditions, the amount of precipitation necessary for recovery from the accumulated deficit since the beginning of a drought. SPI is the most popular and widely used drought index for the last decades. According to the results of EDI analysis; 8 different extreme drought events identified in Sydney, and 5 events in Melbourne since 1850s. The characterization of these extreme drought events were investigated in terms of magnitude, duration, intensity and interarrival time between previous drought event. EDI results were compared with the results of SPI and the similarities and differences were then discussed in more detail. The most severe drought event was identified for the period of July 1979 to February 1981 (lasted 19 months) for Sydney, while the most severe drought took longer in Melbourne for the period of March 2006 to February 2010 (47 months). This study focuses on the benefits of the use of EDI and SPI methods in order to monitor droughts beside presenting the extreme drought case study of Sydney and Melbourne.

  19. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Gonella, M.; Gabbianelli, G.; Withycombe, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009) to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk - something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly - an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures) are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures) are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  20. Future Training Issues in Australia's Industries. A Collection of the Papers Presented at the NCVER 1998 Conference: Industry Training Outlook '98 (Sydney, Australia, October 12-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This book contains 31 papers from a conference on future training issues in Australia's industries. The following papers are included: "Training Development in Australia" (Chris Ellison); "Meeting National and Employer Training Requirements" (Mark Paterson); "Meeting Employee Training Requirements" (Bill Mansfield); "Training Challenges in…

  1. Difference and Diversity at the University of Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Criss Jones

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood education does not exist in isolation from the broader world. The political, social and economic reality that shapes Australian life has a powerful influence on the ways in which curriculum, pedagogy and policy are constructed. At the University of Western Sydney, in accordance with the university's goals and commitments to equity…

  2. Engaging the Refugee Community of Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the community engagement program, "Refugee Action Support" (RAS) at the University of Western Sydney. RAS is a partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation, The NSW Department of Education and Training and the university. The Refugee Action Support program prepares pre-service teachers to teach…

  3. Doctoral Supervision at Sydney University, Hindrance or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, E. Z.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Some of the reasons for the unduly long time required to finish PhDs at the University of Sydney are examined, and two problem areas are noted: the imposition of excessive standards for ulterior motives, and inadequate supervision. Based on questionnaires, five specific reforms are suggested. (JSR)

  4. Circumcision and risk of sexually transmissible infections in a community-based cohort of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, DJ; Jin, F; Prestage, GP; Donovan, B; Imrie, JCG; Kippax, SC; Cunningham, PH; Kaldor, JM; Mindel, A; Cunningham, AL; Grulich, AE

    2009-01-01

    Background Circumcision status was examined as an independent risk factor for STIs in the HIM cohort of homosexual men in Sydney. Methods From 2001–2004, 1,427 initially HIV-negative men were enrolled and followed to mid-2007. All participants were offered annual STI testing. Past history of STIs was collected at baseline and information on sexual risk behaviors, every 6 months. At annual face-to-face visits, participants reported STI diagnoses made in the previous year. Results Circumcision was not associated with prevalent or incident HSV-1, HSV-2, or self-reported genital warts. There was also no independent association of circumcision with incident urethral gonorrhea or chlamydia. Being circumcised was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.84), but not prevalent (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.35–1.44) syphilis. The association was somewhat stronger among men who reported predominantly insertive unprotected anal intercourse (HR 0.10, 95% CI 0.01–0.82). Conclusions These are the first prospective data in homosexual men to assess circumcision status as a risk factor for STIs. Circumcised men were at reduced risk of incident syphilis but no other prevalent or incident STIs. Circumcision is unlikely to have a substantial public health impact in reducing acquisition of most STIs in homosexual men. PMID:19911990

  5. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services. PMID:23821904

  6. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jessica Veliscek; Hughes, Catherine E; Hoffmann, Emmy L

    2011-10-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater out falls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae,which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal out fall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STP's as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline out falls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively. PMID:22180886

  7. Unpacking Interpretation: De-Constructions from Australia, America and Reggio Emilia. Selected Conference Papers from the Unpacking Conference (6th, Sydney, Australia, July 16-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    This conference proceedings compiles a representative sample of the papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2001, one in a series of conferences examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on the interpretation of experiences and…

  8. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (<0.05 μg g(-1)), except during year 2 remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental

  9. Intensive sex partying amongst gay men in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael; Prestage, Garrett

    2009-08-01

    Intensive sex partying is a framework developed to analyse specific frequent behaviours amongst a small minority of gay men in Sydney, Australia. The behaviours included a higher frequency of dance party attendance, more frequent sex, more anal sex, multiple sex partners, more unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners and more frequent drug taking. These occur at a contextual intersection between a sub-group of sexually adventurous gay men and 'party boys'. The men appear to be involved in both high-risk, adventurous sex practices and a specific form of partying distinguishable from dance partying and 'clubbing'. Sex partying occurs on multiple sites (domestic spaces; within dance parties; sex parties; sex-on-premises venues) and appears to be geared to the maximisation of sexual pleasure. Intensive sex partying describes this coincidence of factors and locates them in relation to the multiple pleasures offered by sex partying. It emphasises the importance of 'intensity' in order to understand better the relations between sex, drug use, pleasure, care and risk in some gay men's lives. PMID:19499392

  10. Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin deep 3D structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB), one of the largest extensional rift sedimentary basins on the east coast of Australia, lack an understanding of the 3D upper crustal structure. Understanding of the subsurface structure is essential for many areas of resource exploration, development and management, as well as scientific research. Geological models provide a way to visualise and investigate the subsurface structure. The integrated regional scale gravity modelling approach, which uses boreholes and seismic data constraints, provides an understanding of the upper crustal structure and allows the development of a 3D geological model which can be used as the architectural framework for many different applications. This work presents a 3D geological model of the SGBB developed for application in high resolution thermal models. It is the culmination of geological surfaces derived from the interpolation of previous regional scale 2D gravity models and numerous borehole records. The model outlines the basement structure of the SGBB and provides information on depth to basement, depth to basal volcanics and thickness of overlying sediments. Through understanding the uncertainties, limitations, confidence and reliability of this model, the 3D geological model can provide the ideal framework for future research.

  11. Travel Mode and Physical Activity at Sydney University

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Mulley, Corinne; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    How staff and students travel to university can impact their physical activity level. An online survey of physical activity and travel behaviour was conducted in early November 2012 to inform planning of physical activity and active travel promotion programs at the University of Sydney, Australia as part of the “Sit Less, Move More” sub-committee of the Healthy University Initiative, and as baseline data for evaluation. There were 3,737 useable responses, 60% of which were from students. Four out of five respondents travelled to the University on the day of interest (Tuesday, November 30, 2012). The most frequently used travel modes were train (32%), car as driver (22%), bus (17%), walking (17%) and cycling (6%). Staff were twice as likely to drive as students, and also slightly more likely to use active transport, defined as walking and cycling (26% versus 22%). Overall, 41% of respondents were sufficiently active (defined by meeting physical activity recommendations of 150 min per week). Participants were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations if they travelled actively to the University. With a high proportion of respondents using active travel modes or public transport already, increasing the physical activity levels and increasing the use of sustainable travel modes would mean a mode shift from public transport to walking and cycling for students is needed and a mode shift from driving to public transport or active travel for University staff. Strategies to achieve this are discussed. PMID:23939390

  12. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydney Harbour Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Balaraju, Varunan; Carney, Richard; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio are a genus of marine bacteria that have substantial environmental and human health importance, and there is evidence that their impact may be increasing as a consequence of changing environmental conditions. We investigated the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community within the Sydney Harbour estuary, one of the most densely populated coastal areas in Australia, and a region currently experiencing rapidly changing environmental conditions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches we observed significant spatial and seasonal variation in the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community. Total Vibrio spp. abundance, derived from qPCR analysis, was higher during the late summer than winter and within locations with mid-range salinity (5–26 ppt). In addition we targeted three clinically important pathogens: Vibrio cholerae, V. Vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus. While toxigenic strains of V. cholerae were not detected in any samples, non-toxigenic strains were detected in 71% of samples, spanning a salinity range of 0–37 ppt and were observed during both late summer and winter. In contrast, pathogenic V. vulnificus was only detected in 14% of samples, with its occurrence restricted to the late summer and a salinity range of 5–26 ppt. V. parahaemolyticus was not observed at any site or time point. A Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach revealed clear shifts in Vibrio community composition across sites and between seasons, with several Vibrio operational taxonomic units (OTUs) displaying marked spatial patterns and seasonal trends. Shifts in the composition of the Vibrio community between seasons were primarily driven by changes in temperature, salinity and NO2, while a range of factors including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) explained the observed spatial variation. Our evidence for the presence of a spatiotemporally dynamic Vibrio community

  13. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydney Harbour Estuary.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Balaraju, Varunan; Carney, Richard; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio are a genus of marine bacteria that have substantial environmental and human health importance, and there is evidence that their impact may be increasing as a consequence of changing environmental conditions. We investigated the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community within the Sydney Harbour estuary, one of the most densely populated coastal areas in Australia, and a region currently experiencing rapidly changing environmental conditions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches we observed significant spatial and seasonal variation in the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community. Total Vibrio spp. abundance, derived from qPCR analysis, was higher during the late summer than winter and within locations with mid-range salinity (5-26 ppt). In addition we targeted three clinically important pathogens: Vibrio cholerae, V. Vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus. While toxigenic strains of V. cholerae were not detected in any samples, non-toxigenic strains were detected in 71% of samples, spanning a salinity range of 0-37 ppt and were observed during both late summer and winter. In contrast, pathogenic V. vulnificus was only detected in 14% of samples, with its occurrence restricted to the late summer and a salinity range of 5-26 ppt. V. parahaemolyticus was not observed at any site or time point. A Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach revealed clear shifts in Vibrio community composition across sites and between seasons, with several Vibrio operational taxonomic units (OTUs) displaying marked spatial patterns and seasonal trends. Shifts in the composition of the Vibrio community between seasons were primarily driven by changes in temperature, salinity and NO2, while a range of factors including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) explained the observed spatial variation. Our evidence for the presence of a spatiotemporally dynamic Vibrio community within

  14. What They Want: Inclusion of Blood and Marrow Transplanation Survivor Preference in the Development of Models of Care for Long-Term Health in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Gemma; Gilroy, Nicole; Brown, Louisa; Hogg, Megan; Brice, Lisa; Kabir, Masura; Greenwood, Matt; Larsen, Stephen R; Moore, John; Hertzberg, Mark; Kwan, John; Huang, Gillian; Tan, Jeff; Ward, Christopher; Kerridge, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Four hundred forty-one adult allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors participated in a cross-sectional survey to assess long-term follow-up (LTFU) model of care preference. Survey instruments included the Sydney Post BMT Survey, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-BMT, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, the Chronic GVHD Activity Assessment-Patient Self Report (Form B), the Lee Chronic GVHD Symptom Scale and the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. We found most BMT survivors (74%) would prefer LTFU with their transplantation physicians alone or in combination with transplantation center-linked services (satellite clinics or telemedicine) Over one-quarter indicated a preference for receiving comprehensive post-transplantation care in a "satellite" clinic staffed by their BMT team situated closer to their place of residence, with higher income, higher educational level, and sexual morbidity being significant social factors influencing this preference. Regular exercise was reported less often in those who preferred telemedicine, which may reflect reduced mobility. The factor most strongly associated with a preference for transplantation center follow-up was the severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Full- and part-time work were negatively associated with transplantation center follow-up, possibly implying decreased dependency on the center and some return to normalcy. This study is the first to explore the preferences of BMT survivors for long-term post-transplantation care. These data provides the basis for LTFU model of care development and health service reform consistent with the preferences of BMT survivors. PMID:26746819

  15. Summarising climate and air quality (ozone) data on self-organising maps: a Sydney case study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ningbo; Betts, Alan; Riley, Matt

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the classification and visualisation utility of the self-organising map (SOM) method in the context of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using gridded NCEP/NCAR geopotential height reanalysis for east Australia, together with multi-site meteorological and air quality data for Sydney from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Air Quality Monitoring Network. A twice-daily synoptic classification has been derived for east Australia for the period of 1958-2012. The classification has not only reproduced the typical synoptic patterns previously identified in the literature but also provided an opportunity to visualise the subtle, non-linear change in the eastward-migrating synoptic systems influencing NSW (including Sydney). The summarisation of long-term, multi-site air quality/meteorological data from the Sydney basin on the SOM plane has identified a set of typical air pollution/meteorological spatial patterns in the region. Importantly, the examination of these patterns in relation to synoptic weather types has provided important visual insights into how local and synoptic meteorological conditions interact with each other and affect the variability of air quality in tandem. The study illustrates that while synoptic circulation types are influential, the within-type variability in mesoscale flows plays a critical role in determining local ozone levels in Sydney. These results indicate that the SOM can be a useful tool for assessing the impact of weather and climatic conditions on air quality in the regional airshed. This study further promotes the use of the SOM method in environmental research. PMID:26787272

  16. Were jobs more important than health in Sydney?

    PubMed Central

    Robb, N

    1995-01-01

    Unusually high cancer rates in Sydney, NS, have finally prompted an epidemiologic study that will look at the interplay of occupational and environmental exposure, smoking and genetic predisposition. The study is part of a $3.6 million healthy communities project, and it may determine the effect of coke-oven emissions on steelworkers and residents. Images p920-a p921-a p921-b p922-a PMID:7697582

  17. Mission impossible: William Scott and the first Sydney Observatory directorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    1998-06-01

    The Reverend William Scott (1825-1917) was the founding Director of the Sydney Observatory, and succeeded in acquiring state-of-the art astronomical instruments, establishing a network of country meteorological stations, and conducting a range of astronomical observations. He also worked to promote popular interest in astronomy, and immersed himself in the scientific culture of New South Wales. This paper examines Scott's achievements in astronomy and meteorology, the reasons for his premature resignation in 1862, and the search for his successor.

  18. The Sydney System for classification of gastritis 20 years ago.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Price, Ashley B

    2011-01-01

    The roots of research into gastritis go back into the early decades of the 20th century. Modern aspects of its classification and knowledge of its biological course and consequences were relatively well known even at the time that Helicobcter pylori was discovered by Robin Warren and Barry Marshall in 1982. This discovery, however, significantly changed the field, establishing that the commonest form of gastritis is simply an infectious disease, a finding that raised enormous interest in the subject amongst gastroenterologists, microbiologists, pathologists and basic researchers. However, many of these "new" players in the field often had a limited knowledge of the morphological aspects of gastric inflammations and chronic gastritis. As a consequence in the late 1980's a Working Party was set up to review the biology and natural course of chronic gastritis, to propose a new classification for gastritis, and to provide simple guidelines for reporting the pathology of gastritis in endoscopic biopsies in an attempt to bring uniformity to the subject and facilitate comparative studies in what was to be an era of high research activity. These guidelines, The Sydney System: A New Classification of Gastritis was presented to the World Congress of Gastroenterology in Sydney in 1990, and was later published as six papers in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Now, twenty years on, this review looks back on the birth of Sydney System and why it is still important and successful. PMID:21199511

  19. Legacy contaminant bioaccumulation in rock crabs in Sydney Harbour during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin; Weaver, Peter

    2013-12-15

    Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, metals and lipids in hepatopancreas of rock crabs (Cancer irroratus) were measured in Sydney Harbour (SH) for one year prior to remediation and three years of remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP), Nova Scotia. Low level concentrations of PCBs and metals were measured, although PAHs were mostly undetected. Metal concentrations showed little spatio-temporal variability, although highest concentrations of As, Cd and Cu were measured at reference stations furthest from the STP remediation site. Mercury concentrations were at least an order of magnitude lower than Canadian guidelines. Moderately elevated PCB concentrations were detected in crabs near Muggah Creek, but these were generally not higher than those measured during baseline. Despite remediation activities, current contaminant burdens measured in crabs were much lower than previously reported in other studies of crabs and lobster in industrial harbours in eastern Canada, due in part to natural recovery of SH sediments. PMID:24119312

  20. PCR Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in Stool Samples from Sydney, Australia▿

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in stool samples from a patient population in Sydney, Australia. Stool samples were tested by microscopy and PCR. Five patients were found with E. histolytica infections, while E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were observed in 63 (70.8%) and 55 (61.8%) patients, respectively, by PCR. This is the first study in Australia using molecular techniques to determine the presence of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii. PMID:17229864

  1. Numeracy and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (24th, Sydney, Australia, June 30-July 4, 2001). Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobis, Janette, Ed.; Perry, Bob, Ed.; Mitchelmore, Michael, Ed.

    This document represents volumes 1 and 2 of the proceedings of the 24th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA) held at the University of Sydney, June 30-July 4, 2001. In volume 1, papers include: (1) "Connecting Mathematics Education Research to Practice" (Judith Sowder); (2) "Understanding, Assessing,…

  2. Sharing Todays Resources--Meeting Tomorrows Needs. Papers, Workshop Reports and Associated Material Presented at the Seminar on Resources Coordination and Librarians' Groups: An Information Exchange Day (Sydney, Australia, July 26, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne, Ed.

    This booklet brings together papers, reports, and associated material from the seminar on school library resource coordination and librarians' groups in New South Wales held at Summer Hill Public School in Sydney. The collection includes a general introduction to the scope and goals of the seminar; a list of seminar speakers; papers on cooperative…

  3. Watching the Games: public health surveillance for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, L; Thackway, S; Churches, T; Hills, M

    2003-01-01

    Design: Planning for the system took almost three years. Its major components included increased surveillance of communicable diseases; presentations to sentinel emergency departments; medical encounters at Olympic venues; cruise ship surveillance; environmental and food safety inspections; surveillance for bioterrorism; and global epidemic intelligence. A daily report integrated data from all sources. Setting: Sydney, Australia. Surveillance spanned the period 28 August to 4 October 2000. Participants: Residents of Sydney, athletes and officials, Australian and international visitors. Main results: No outbreaks of communicable diseases were detected. There were around 5% more presentations to Sydney emergency departments than in comparable periods in other years. Several incidents detected through surveillance, including injuries caused by broken glass, and a cluster of presentations related to the use of the drug ecstasy, prompted further action. Conclusions: Key elements in the success of public health surveillance for the Games included its careful planning, its comprehensive coverage of public health issues, and its timely reporting and communication processes. Future systems need to be flexible enough to detect the unexpected. PMID:12540684

  4. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay. PMID:24840280

  5. Sydney Observatory and astronomy teaching in the 90s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomb, N.

    1996-05-01

    Computers and the Internet have created a revolution in the way astronomy can be communicated to the public. At Sydney Observatory we make full use of these recent developments. In our lecture room a variety of sophisticated computer programs can show, with the help of a projection TV system, the appearance and motion of the sky at any place, date or time. The latest HST images obtained from the Internet can be shown, as can images taken through our own Meade 16 inch telescope. This recently installed computer-controlled telescope with its accurate pointing is an ideal instrument for a light-polluted site such as ours.

  6. The Emancipation Years: Sport in the Female Colleges at the University of Sydney 1892-1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jessica; Georgakis, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the development of sport in the two female residential colleges (Women's and Sancta Sophia) at the University of Sydney. While the University of Sydney male residential colleges established an intercollegiate sporting competition in 1907 (Rawson Cup), it was not until 1958 that the female residential colleges established an…

  7. Towards management of mosquitoes at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia. I. Seasonal activity and relative abundance of adults of Aedes vigilax, Culex sitiens, and other salt-marsh species, 1993-94 through 1997-98.

    PubMed

    Webb, C E; Russell, R C

    1999-06-01

    The mosquitoes associated with 2 saline wetlands at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia, were investigated over 5 consecutive seasons. Twenty-one species were collected in adult traps at the 2 sites but the saline wetlands supported larvae of only 4 species: Aedes alternans, Aedes camptorhynchus, Aedes vigilax, and Culex sitiens. Of these, Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens were the most common, and their peak abundances generally occurred during February and April, respectively. Both wetlands were influenced by tides and rainfall-runoff, and a lack of regular tidal exchange in the mangroves and inadequate drainage of the saltmarsh provided potential habitat. Populations of Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens at the Newington site were greater than those at the Bicentennial Park site, because of more extensive habitat at the former, but were diminished by irregular ground-based applications of temephos during the middle 3 years of the study. Populations at the Bicentennial Park site, not subjected to the larvicide, were typically smaller but more consistently related to influences of tide and rainfall through the 5 seasons. During the final season, populations of both species in both wetlands were enhanced by exceptional tide penetration and rainfall. Helicopter applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larvicide were employed at both sites and effectively suppressed populations of both pest species. For future management, provision of full tidal exchange and water recirculation to reduce the area of water impounded within the mangroves and retained in depressions on the marshes should significantly suppress the pest populations and relieve reliance on control agents. PMID:10412120

  8. Helicobacter pylori gastritis updated Sydney classification applied in our material.

    PubMed

    Manxhuka-Kerliu, S; Telaku, S; Devolli-Disha, E; Ahmetaj, H; Sahatciu-Meka, V; Kerliu, A; Loxha, S; Shahini, L; Gashi, G; Podrimaj, A

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). BACKGROUND. Hp inhabits the stomach of more than 50% of humans and is the most frequent cause of chronic gastritis worldwide. The purpose of this research has been to present the importance of combining topographical, morphological and etiological information of diagnostic evaluation on grading gastritis in our material according to the Updated Sydney Classification, as well as to represent the frequency and the evaluation of Hp gastritis after eradication in order to prevent the development of gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 154 cases of gastric mucosa (endoscopic biopsies) which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin were invwstigated. Tissue sections (5microm thick) were cut and stained with H&E, May Grunwald Giemsa and Silver stain. The biopsy cases were analysed in an attempt to assess the major histopathological features of gastritis. The histopathological major variables were graded on a scale of 3 (mild, moderate and severe). RESULTS. There were 36 (23.37%) cases positive for Hp (22.2%, 72.2%, 5.5%). Atrophy was positive in 23 (14.93%) cases with the scale (47.8%; 47.8%; 4.34%). Dysplasia was positive in 13 (8.44%) cases with the scale (84.6%; 7.6%; 7.6%). Intestinal metaplasia was positive in 25 (16.2%) with the scale (76%; 20%, 4%). There were 6 (3.8%) cases of MZL, which were treated appropriately. CONCLUSIONS. Our data indicate the importannce of early eradication of Helicobacter pylori in order to prevent the eventual development of gastric cancer. These findings should influence the treatment of gastric cancers. Key words: Updated Sydney System of Classification, Hp gastritis, morphology. PMID:19736530

  9. What Do We Expect of Education? Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education (24th, Sydney, Australia, May 15-20, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philps, R., Ed.; Shannon, A. G., Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on educational promise, performance, and expectations. Papers included in this volume are: (1) "Education in Australia: We Get What We Deserve" (S. Ball); (2) "The Size and Scale: What is Expected" (J. G. Owen); (3) "The Search for Educational Quality and Equality: A U. S. View" (A. Harry…

  10. Field evaluation of melolure, a formate analogue of cuelure and reassessment of fruit fly species trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly surveillance programmes rely on the use of chemical lures to monitor and control Tephritid fruit flies incursions. Significant economic advantages could be achieved by increasing the effectiveness of these chemical lures. In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure (CL...

  11. Research in Geographical Education--Volume 2. Papers Presented to the National Meeting of the Australian Geographical Research Association (2nd, Sydney, Australia, December 4-6, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John, Ed.; And Others

    This publication contains 14 papers, most of which were written by instructors of higher education in Australia and Great Britain. Following an introduction, the first five papers are "The Development of Children's Map Ability" (Simon Catling), "Published Guidance to Pupils on Atlas Mapwork Skills" (Herbert Sandford), "Tactual Mapping and the Bold…

  12. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG18) and 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney, Australia, July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-06-01

    At GRG17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GRG18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GRG conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GRG18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb

  13. The Prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis/mackerrasae Complex in Molluscs from the Sydney Region

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Lee, Rogan; Shea, Michael; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Malik, Richard; Jones, Malcolm; Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500) of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%)], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%)], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% ± 0.8% (CI 95%). Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney. PMID:26000568

  14. Comparative labor market performance of visaed and non-visaed migrants: Pacific islanders in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of Samoans who have migrated to Australia have done so without visas, compared to only 20% of Tongans who have arrived without visas. 22% of the Samoan community in Sydney is unemployed, compared to only 5% of Tongans in the city. Findings are reported from a study conducted to determine whether the effective absence of visa screening for Samoan non-visaed immigrants can explain their poorer labor market performance relative to their Tongan peers. Findings are based upon the analysis of 1994 survey data for 523 Tongan and 329 Samoan migrant household heads in Sydney. Univariate analysis suggests a positive association between unemployment and the unrestricted entry of Samoan non-visaed migrants from New Zealand. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment was also estimated with controls for human capital and demographic variables. While human capital endowments are important, existing visa restrictions have no significant effect upon either group's employability. Policy implications are discussed, highlighting the complementarities between host country immigration policies and foreign aid programs. PMID:12294153

  15. Dreamtime astronomy: development of a new indigenous program at Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Geoffrey; Stephenson, Toner; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    The Australian National Curriculum promotes Indigenous culture in school education programs. To foster a broader appreciation of cultural astronomy, to utilise the unique astronomical heritage of the site, and to develop an educational program within the framework of the National Curriculum, Sydney Observatory launched Dreamtime Astronomy - a program incorporating Australian Indigenous culture, astronomy, and Sydney's astronomical history and heritage. This paper reviews the development and implementation of this program and discusses modifications following an evaluation that was conducted by schools.

  16. Family formation patterns among migrant women in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, F; Siedlecky, S

    1996-01-01

    A demographic survey among a probability sample of 980 married migrant women was carried out in Sydney in 1988. The sample included 507 Lebanese, 250 Turkish and 223 Vietnamese women. The study revealed differences in family formation patterns within and between the three groups and between them and the general population. Family size had declined among all three groups compared with their family of origin, and it was clear that the younger women would not achieve the same family sizes as the older women. Migrant women tended to marry earlier than the general population and to start their families earlier. While they showed a strong preference for their children to marry within their own ethnic and religious group, nearly one-third said it was up to the choice of the individual. Overall, the future family size of younger migrant women is expected to converge towards the Australian norm. Migrant families are in a state of transition between two cultures which needs to be recognised by health and family planning service providers. PMID:8690746

  17. Improved intersection design and monitoring in the Sydney Coalfield

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, G.R.; Payne, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    The introduction of roof bolts to Phalen Colliery in the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia (annual output of 2Mt) has been successfully implemented in maingate and tailgate entries over the last four years. Monitoring of the roof bolted areas continues to be an integral part of the quality control program as the results are utilized to maintain safety and to aid in long-term design strategies. Although all gateroads in the Phalen Colliery have converted to roof bolts as their primary means of support, the majority of intersections which intersect the main slopes remain supported by large steel structures. Several intersections within the Phalen Colliery were monitored as they were created by the mining process. A comparison is made between intersections supported with only traditional 6.4 to 6.7 m steel structure and intersections supported by 2.44 m fully resin encapsulated roof bolts in conjunction with 7.6 m fully cement grouted cable bolts. Detailed monitoring was conducted using CANMET`s intrinsically safe sonic probe extensometers data logger which has the ability to read up to sixteen probes simultaneously at programmed intervals. The density of the data from the data logger has allowed a better understanding of the deformation of cable bolted intersections than was possible with manual monitoring. Test results have helped mine operators to design safer cable bolted intersections.

  18. Problems of Adolescents in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; Harper, Juliet F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the problems of 514 male and female adolescents of 14 and 15 years of age using an open-ended questionnaire. Boys reported more problems concerned with educational adjustments, girls more problems concerned with family adjustment. (Author/SDH)

  19. The Albion Street Centre database, Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gold, J

    1998-01-01

    The Albion Street Centre was established in 1985 as an HIV testing and early management center. More than 22,000 people have been screened for HIV and other blood-borne infections at the Centre, and approximately 3,600 people with HIV/AIDS have been managed there. Approximately 1,600 patients with various stages of HIV disease are currently managed at the Centre by a staff of 60 health care professionals and about 1,000 volunteers. The Albion Street Centre's computer database began recording selected demographic, epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics when the first patient presented in 1985. Since then, the complexity and utilization of the database has increased in parallel with improvement in the understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection. Over 100 peer-reviewed publications and presentations have been produced from the database and 45 clinical trials have used the database to identify potential subjects. All data are de-identified and are protected by multiple password codes. Approximately 700 variables are collected from each HIV-positive patient at the initial visit to the Centre and up to 200 variables are added at each subsequent routine clinic visit. The variables collected include the following: standard epidemiologic characteristics; transmission and behavioral parameters, clinical signs and symptoms; laboratory test results; treatments; nutritional history; body composition parameters; psychological assessment results; and management history, including neuropsychological testing. The overall number and characteristics of patients recorded in the database are reported monthly, and are used to plan services, for prevention and educational programs, and as an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to encourage HIV-positive people to attend clinics for early management. When these patients have been identified they are invited to participate in the study. Individual patient records are identified and accessed if they meet certain criteria for flagging. For example, patients who have lost more than 5% of their maximal weight are flagged and referred to the dietician for assessment. Further uses for the database are to identify cohorts of patients who are seroconverters and to follow their natural history-the Centre has over 250 patients for whom a documented HIV-positive test has been obtained within 12 months of a documented HIV-negative test; to investigate clinical observations that have been associated with particular drug therapy, e.g., investigation of the reported association between the use of valacyclovir and the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS)-like complex showed patients with terminal-stage AIDS demonstrated this syndrome independently of their therapy and probably as a consequence of multiorgan failure; and to document the relationship between nutritional intervention and survival, for which use of the database enabled an historical cohort that matched the cases under investigation to be selected. In conclusion, the database is a dynamic and integral part of the assessment, management, and research program of the Albion Street Centre, where it is used by all professional staff. PMID:9586650

  20. Evaluation of the first strategic plan for Aboriginal health in south western Sydney, 1993-98.

    PubMed

    Carriage, C; Harris, E; Kristensen, E

    2000-01-01

    The 1993-98 Aboriginal Health Strategic Plan for South Western Sydney represented the first partnership of its kind between an Area Health Service, local Aboriginal Health Workers and the local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in Australia. During 1998, an evaluation of the plan was undertaken as part of the preparation for the second Aboriginal Health Plan. Of the 45 strategies in the first plan, 38% had been fully implemented, 42% had been partly implemented, and 20% were not implemented at all. This paper discusses the importance of data collection and monitoring systems, the integration of Aboriginal health into mainstream services, the further development of Aboriginal health infrastructure, and continued leadership by senior managers. PMID:11186054

  1. B.M.A. Annual Meeting, Sydney, 10–16 August: Report of Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    1968-01-01

    The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the British Medical Association was held in Sydney from 10 to 16 August jointly with the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Australian Medical Association. Both meetings were associated with the Third Australian Medical Congress. It was the second Annual Meeting of the Association to be held in Australia, the previous one having been in Melbourne in 1935. Four plenary sessions were held on successive mornings, while meetings of various sections were held in the afternoons. An account of the first part of the Meeting is given below. The remainder will be reported next week. Imagesp485-ap486-ap487-ap487-bp489-ap491-a

  2. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG18) and 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney, Australia, July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-06-01

    At GRG17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GRG18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GRG conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GRG18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb

  3. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  4. The impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Physick, William; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    Coupled global, regional and chemical transport models are now being used with relative-risk functions to determine the impact of climate change on human health. Studies have been carried out for global and regional scales, and in our paper we examine the impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality at the local scale across an urban metropolis (Sydney, Australia). Using three coupled models, with a grid spacing of 3 km for the chemical transport model (CTM), and a mortality relative risk function of 1.0006 per 1 ppb increase in daily maximum 1-hour ozone concentration, we evaluated the change in ozone concentrations and mortality between decades 1996-2005 and 2051-2060. The global model was run with the A2 emissions scenario. As there is currently uncertainty regarding a threshold concentration below which ozone does not impact on mortality, we calculated mortality estimates for the three daily maximum 1-hr ozone concentration thresholds of 0, 25 and 40 ppb. The mortality increase for 2051-2060 ranges from 2.3% for a 0 ppb threshold to 27.3% for a 40 ppb threshold, although the numerical increases differ little. Our modeling approach is able to identify the variation in ozone-related mortality changes at a suburban scale, estimating that climate change could lead to an additional 55 to 65 deaths across Sydney in the decade 2051-2060. Interestingly, the largest increases do not correspond spatially to the largest ozone increases or the densest population centres. The distribution pattern of changes does not seem to vary with threshold value, while the magnitude only varies slightly. PMID:24419047

  5. The Impact of Climate Change on Ozone-Related Mortality in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Physick, William; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    Coupled global, regional and chemical transport models are now being used with relative-risk functions to determine the impact of climate change on human health. Studies have been carried out for global and regional scales, and in our paper we examine the impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality at the local scale across an urban metropolis (Sydney, Australia). Using three coupled models, with a grid spacing of 3 km for the chemical transport model (CTM), and a mortality relative risk function of 1.0006 per 1 ppb increase in daily maximum 1-hour ozone concentration, we evaluated the change in ozone concentrations and mortality between decades 1996–2005 and 2051–2060. The global model was run with the A2 emissions scenario. As there is currently uncertainty regarding a threshold concentration below which ozone does not impact on mortality, we calculated mortality estimates for the three daily maximum 1-hr ozone concentration thresholds of 0, 25 and 40 ppb. The mortality increase for 2051–2060 ranges from 2.3% for a 0 ppb threshold to 27.3% for a 40 ppb threshold, although the numerical increases differ little. Our modeling approach is able to identify the variation in ozone-related mortality changes at a suburban scale, estimating that climate change could lead to an additional 55 to 65 deaths across Sydney in the decade 2051–2060. Interestingly, the largest increases do not correspond spatially to the largest ozone increases or the densest population centres. The distribution pattern of changes does not seem to vary with threshold value, while the magnitude only varies slightly. PMID:24419047

  6. Measurement of the acoustic characteristics of the concert hall at the Sydney Opera House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, John; Cabrera, Densil

    2003-04-01

    The Sydney Opera House Trust is considering making changes to its Concert Hall. Prior to any alteration, the Acoustics group at the University of Sydney has sought to document the hall. The main measurements were made for 48 receiver locations and 6 source locations, using omnidirectional measurement microphones, B-format (Soundfield) microphones and dummy head microphones in every receiver position. The measurements included impulse responses, anechoic music recordings, and recordings of a calibrated sound power source. Results documented by previous practitioners and researchers are described and comparison is made with the recent results.

  7. Time-keeping in the antipodes: a critical comparison of the Sydney and Littelton time balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinns, Roger

    2009-07-01

    Maudslay, Sons & Field built the time ball apparatus for Sydney, New South Wales (NSW) in 1855, and to hoist the ball they used a rack and pinion that was developed from the mechanism found at Edinburgh and Deal. Sydney's time ball became operational in 1858, following completion of Sydney Observatory (which included a time ball tower). Henry Russell, the NSW Government Astronomer, modified this apparatus to a limited extent during the 1870s, but most principal features were retained. The apparatus for Lyttelton, New Zealand, was ordered in 1873 and shipped from London in 1874 by Siemens Brothers. lt, too, had to await completion of the necessary tower, and became operational in 1876. Both Antipodean time balls were still working in 2009. In this paper it is demonstrated that the apparatus at Lyttelton is a replica of the 1855 design used in Sydney, despite the long interval between their dates of supply. The only surviving note in Maudslays' records about an 1873 time ball indicates provision for the Cape of Good Hope and an association with Siemens. A time ball was installed at Alfred Docks in Cape Town during 1873, but available evidence indicates that it was unlikely to have been built by Maudslays. lt is suggested that Maudslays' 1873 apparatus was instead sold to Siemens Brothers who installed it at Lyttelton. No Siemens records showing the supply of time balls to other locations at this time have been found.

  8. University of Western Sydney Students at Risk: Profile and Opportunities for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid; Skaines, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have acknowledged a shift from elite to mass participation in Australian higher education over the last decade. As the diversity of the student intake rises there is a growing interest in the factors predicting their success or failure. This article identifies a set of variables predicting University of Western Sydney (UWS) student…

  9. "It Had No Voice to It": Sydney Pollack's Film Translation of Isak Dinesen's "Out of Africa."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Brenda; Descutner, David

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the rhetorical implications of Sydney Pollack's translation of Isak Dinesen's autobiographical texts. Argues that Pollack's film uses strategies of transference, redefinition, antithesis, and displacement to renarrate Dinesen's writings, resulting in a depoliticized romantic adventure. Finds that these strategies misrepresent Dinesen,…

  10. A Structuration Theory Analysis of the Refugee Action Support Program in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Gidden's structuration theory to analyse the Refugee Action Support program in Greater Western Sydney. The study shows that many refugee students in Australian high schools experience difficulty with academic transition in mainstream classrooms due to their previous experiences in war-torn countries. As a result of the trauma…

  11. Embedding an Indigenous Graduate Attribute into University of Western Sydney's Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anning, Berice

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on embedding an Indigenous graduate attribute into courses at the University of Western Sydney (UWS), providing the background to the development and implementation of a holistic and individual Indigenous graduate attribute. It details the approach taken by the Badanami Centre for Indigenous Education in advising the UWS staff on…

  12. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  13. It's Time--To Reveal the Whitlam Institute within the University of Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curach, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The Whitlam Institute within the University of Western Sydney is a centre for public dialogue and progress, with the Whitlam Prime Ministerial Collection inspiring its programs. The collection, both physical and virtual, was established in 2002, drawing upon primary source material made available or donated by the Hon E G Whitlam AC QC, and…

  14. Meeting Diverse Expectations: Department of Tutorial Classes, Sydney University, 1919 to 1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The University of Sydney has offered some form of organised adult education since the late 19th century. In 1914, that provision was formalised through the establishment of a Department of Tutorial Classes, the appointment of a Director, and a partnership with the Workers' Educational Association (WEA). Right from that time, however, there was…

  15. Monitoring effects of remediation on natural sediment recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; Macaskill, Devin; Rushton, Theresa; Thalheimer, Andrew; Weaver, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Chemical contaminants were assessed in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia during pre-remediation (baseline) and 3 years of remediation of a former coking and steel facility after nearly a century of operation and historical pollution into the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and inorganic parameters measured in sediments and total suspended solids in seawater indicate that the overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported due to natural sediment recovery, despite remediation activities. Measured sediment deposition rates in bottom-moored traps during baseline were low (0.4-0.8 cm year(-1)), but during dredging operations required for construction of new port facilities in the inner Sydney Harbour, sedimentation rates were equivalent to 26-128 cm year(-1). Measurements of sediment chemical contaminants confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, or in some cases, lower than originally predicted despite remediation activities at the STP site. Overall, most measured contaminants in sediments showed little temporal variability (4 years), except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations during the onset of remediation monitoring compared to baseline. This slight increase represents only a short-term interruption in the overall natural recovery of sediments in Sydney Harbour, which were enhanced due to the positive impacts of large-scale dredging of less contaminated outer harbor sediments which were discharged into a confined disposal area located in the inner harbor. PMID:23512488

  16. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary; Lobstein, Tim; Rigby, Neville; Baur, Louise A; Brownell, Kelly D; Gill, Tim; Seidell, Jaap; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2008-09-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on feedback received from a global consultation (November 2006 to April 2007) on the Principles. The Principles state that actions to reduce marketing to children should: (i) support the rights of children; (ii) afford substantial protection to children; (iii) be statutory in nature; (iv) take a wide definition of commercial promotions; (v) guarantee commercial-free childhood settings; (vi) include cross-border media; and (vii) be evaluated, monitored and enforced. The draft principles were widely disseminated and 220 responses were received from professional and scientific associations, consumer bodies, industry bodies, health professionals and others. There was virtually universal agreement on the need to have a set of principles to guide action in this contentious area of marketing to children. Apart from industry opposition to the third principle calling for a statutory approach and several comments about the implementation challenges, there was strong support for each of the Sydney Principles. Feedback on two specific issues of contention related to the age range to which restrictions should apply (most nominating age 16 or 18 years) and the types of products to be included (31% nominating all products, 24% all food and beverages, and 45% energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages). The Sydney Principles, which took a children's rights-based approach, should be used to benchmark action to reduce marketing to children. The age definition for a child and the types of products which should have marketing restrictions may better suit a risk-based approach at this stage. The Sydney Principles should guide the formation of an International Code on Food and Beverage

  17. Sudden temperature changes in the Sydney Basin: climatology and case studies during the Olympic months of September and October

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Bruce W.; Leslie, Lance M.

    2000-03-01

    The accurate prediction of sudden large changes in the maximum temperature from one day to the next remains one of the major challenges for operational forecasters. It is probably the meteorological parameter most commonly verified and used as a measure of the skill of a meteorological service and one that is immediately evident to the general public. Marked temperature changes over a short period of time have widespread social, economic, health and safety effects on the community. The first part of this paper describes a 40-year climatology for Sydney, Australia, of sudden temperature rises and falls, defined as maximum temperature changes of 5°C or more from one day to the next, for the months of September and October. The nature of the forecasting challenge during the period of the Olympic and Paralympic Games to be held in Sydney in the year 2000 will be described as a special application. The international importance of the accurate prediction of all types of significant weather phenomena during this period has been recognized by the World Meteorological Organisation's Commission for Atmospheric Science. The first World Weather Research Program forecast demonstration project is to be established in the Sydney Office of the Bureau of Meteorology over this period in order to test the ability of existing systems to predict such phenomena. The second part of this study investigates two case studies from the Olympic months in which there were both abrupt temperature rises and falls over a 4-day interval. Currently available high resolution numerical weather prediction systems are found to have significant skill several days ahead in predicting a large amount of the detail of these events, provided they are run at an appropriate resolution. The limitations of these systems are also discussed, with areas requiring further development being identified if the desired levels of accuracy of predictions are to be reliably delivered. Differences between the predictability

  18. Reproductive neuropeptides that stimulate spawning in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    In, Vu Van; Ntalamagka, Nikoleta; O'Connor, Wayne; Wang, Tianfang; Powell, Daniel; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction. Approximately 28 neuropeptide genes were identified, primarily within the visceral ganglia transcriptome, that encode precursor proteins containing numerous neuropeptides; some were confirmed through mass spectral peptidomics analysis of the visceral ganglia. Of those, 28 bioactive neuropeptides were synthesized, and then tested for their capacity to induce gonad development and spawning in S. glomerata. Egg laying hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, APGWamide, buccalin, CCAP and LFRFamide were neuropeptides found to trigger spawning in ripe animals. Additional testing of APGWa and buccalin demonstrated their capacity to advance conditioning and gonadal maturation. In summary, our analysis of S. glomerata has identified neuropeptides that can influence the reproductive cycle of this species, specifically by accelerating gonadal maturation and triggering spawning. Other molluscan neuropeptides identified in this study will enable further research into understanding the neuroendocrinology of oysters, which may benefit their cultivation. PMID:27328253

  19. Meeting report from the 7th International Melanoma Congress, Sydney, November, 2010.

    PubMed

    Hersey, P; Smalley, K S M; Weeraratna, A; Bosenberg, M; Zhang, X D; Haass, N K; Paton, E; Mann, G; Scolyer, R A; Tüting, T

    2011-02-01

    The 2010 7th International Melanoma Congress sponsored by the Society for Melanoma Research and held in Sydney, Australia, was held together with the International Melanoma and Skin Cancer Centers group and the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group. As a consequence, there were over 900 registrants that included a wide range of clinicians (surgeons, medical oncologists, dermatologists) specialising in the management of melanoma as well as scientists and students carrying out laboratory-based research in melanoma. There was a general consensus that this grouping of clinicians, pathologists and scientists was mutually advantageous and plans are afoot to continue this grouping in future meetings. The meeting was dominated by the advances being made in treatment of melanoma with selective BRAF inhibitors but interest in epithelial mesenchymal transition and phenotypic changes in melanoma was apparent in many of the talks. The authors have attempted to capture many of the new developments in melanoma research but apologize to those speakers and poster presenters who had equally important findings not captured in these summaries. PMID:21232023

  20. Fire effects on reservoir water quality: lessons from the 2013 Sydney wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Chafer, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Unseasonally, early and severe forest fires burnt ca 10,000 ha of dry sclerophyl eucalypt forest in Oct. 2013 near Sydney (NSW, Australia). The fire affected parts of the Nepean catchment, which contributes to the greater Sydney water supply system. The spatial extent and severe nature of the burn raised concerns about the risk of water contamination from post-fire erosion. An investigation was launched with the aim to determine (i) the total loads of ash and loose charred topsoil that are particular susceptible to erosion, (ii) their chemical composition regarding constituents relevant to water quality, and (iii) the potential impacts of post-fire erosion events transferring some of this material into the reservoir. Sampling was carried out at a ridge in the Nepean catchment with a relatively homogeneous vegetation species composition, fuel load and soil characteristics, but with a range of burn severities, resulting from wind-driven differences in fire behaviour. This allowed sampling of three replicate sites each, with 30 sampling points each, for extreme, moderate-severe, and low burn severities, including also soil and litter sampling at a long-unburned control site. Burn severity was determined using the differenced normalised burn ratio (dNBR) obtained from satellite images immediately before (1 day) and after (1 week) the fire, validated by on site determination of fuel consumption completeness. Between the fire and the sampling campaign, rainfall was very limited so that there had been no significant redistribution of ash and loose charred topsoil by water erosion. The ash and loose charred topsoil were consistently wettable and the underlying uncharred soil highly water repellent at all sites and sampling points irrespective of burn severity. The total loads of ash and loose charred topsoil increased substantially with burn severity and changed in composition from comprising mainly charred litter and charcoal at low severity sites to charred litter

  1. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal. PMID:26305815

  2. Prevailing Sydney like Norovirus GII.4 VLPs induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuqi; Wan, Xin; Ling, Tong; Wu, Jie; Wang, Zejun; Meng, Shengli; Shen, Shuo

    2015-12-01

    The newly emerged Norovirus (NoV) Sydney 2012 strain has been sweeping all over the world, causing acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in adults and children. Due to a lack of cell culture system, virus like particles (VLPs) has been assembled and used as vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical studies. Expression of the major capsid protein of NoVs using recombinant baculovirus expression system in Sf9 cells leads to formation of VLPs that are morphologically and antigenically similar to true virions. In this study, VLPs were successfully produced using the VP1 of Sydney-2012-like strain and its immunogenicity was evaluated by different routes and its capability in inducing mucosal immune responses in the presence and absence of adjuvants in BALB/c mice. Administration of NoV VLPs in the presence of Al(OH)3 or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL-A) led to high titers of VLP-specific IgG antibodies. Administration of VLPs orally in the presence of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) didn't enhance mucosal immune response as less fecal IgA positive mice were observed when compared with those given VLPs only. Our study represents the first immunogenicity study of VLPs derived from current pandemic Sydney 2012 strain and which might have implications in the development of NoVs vaccine in china. PMID:26375574

  3. Effects and Clinical Significance of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus, United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Wikswo, Mary; Barclay, Leslie; Brandt, Eric; Storm, William; Salehi, Ellen; DeSalvo, Traci; Davis, Tim; Saupe, Amy; Dobbins, Ginette; Booth, Hillary A.; Biggs, Christianne; Garman, Katie; Woron, Amy M.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Vinjé, Jan; Hall, Aron J.

    2013-01-01

    During 2012, global detection of a new norovirus (NoV) strain, GII.4 Sydney, raised concerns about its potential effect in the United States. We analyzed data from NoV outbreaks in 5 states and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in 1 state during the 2012–13 season and compared the data with those of previous seasons. During August 2012–April 2013, a total of 637 NoV outbreaks were reported compared with 536 and 432 in 2011–2012 and 2010–2011 during the same period. The proportion of outbreaks attributed to GII.4 Sydney increased from 8% in September 2012 to 82% in March 2013. The increase in emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness during the 2012–13 season was similar to that of previous seasons. GII.4 Sydney has become the predominant US NoV outbreak strain during the 2012–13 season, but its emergence did not cause outbreak activity to substantially increase from that of previous seasons. PMID:23886013

  4. "I'm Not a Dole-Bludger!" Attitudes of Yr 9 Sydney High School Students towards Work, Unemployment and the Dole. A Report of the Mount Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barltrop, Jenny

    A study investigated the view that the decline in the work ethic would be stronger in the Mount Druitt area west of Sydney, Australia, where unemployment is prominent in the community and the "dole-bludger" stereotype is correspondingly rife. (A "dole-bludger" cheats the system and is considered a parasite on the community.) The study described…

  5. The Educational Experience of Sydney High School Students. Report No. 1: A Comparative Study of Migrant Students of Non-English-Speaking Origin and Students Whose Parents Were Born in an English-Speaking Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean I.; Meade, Phil

    An overview of the preliminary findings of a large-scale longitudinal (1974-77) survey of the educational needs and social problems of immigrant students in Sydney, Australia, is presented in this report. Four findings are treated as most significant: (1) Differences among immigrants of different non-English-speaking background are so great that…

  6. Exposure to ultrafine particles and PM 2.5 in four Sydney transport modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knibbs, Luke D.; de Dear, Richard J.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of ultrafine (<0.1 μm) particles (UFPs) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm) were measured whilst commuting along a similar route by train, bus, ferry and automobile in Sydney, Australia. One trip on each transport mode was undertaken during both morning and evening peak hours throughout a working week, for a total of 40 trips. Analyses comprised one-way ANOVA to compare overall (i.e. all trips combined) geometric mean concentrations of both particle fractions measured across transport modes, and assessment of both the correlation between wind speed and individual trip means of UFPs and PM 2.5, and the correlation between the two particle fractions. Overall geometric mean concentrations of UFPs and PM 2.5 ranged from 2.8 (train) to 8.4 (bus) × 10 4 particles cm -3 and 22.6 (automobile) to 29.6 (bus) μg m -3, respectively, and a statistically significant difference ( p < 0.001) between modes was found for both particle fractions. Individual trip geometric mean concentrations were between 9.7 × 10 3 (train) and 2.2 × 10 5 (bus) particles cm -3 and 9.5 (train) to 78.7 (train) μg m -3. Estimated commuter exposures were variable, and the highest return trip mean PM 2.5 exposure occurred in the ferry mode, whilst the highest UFP exposure occurred during bus trips. The correlation between fractions was generally poor, and in keeping with the duality of particle mass and number emissions in vehicle-dominated urban areas. Wind speed was negatively correlated with, and a generally poor determinant of, UFP and PM 2.5 concentrations, suggesting a more significant role for other factors in determining commuter exposure.

  7. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-02-01

    This study analyzes data on all female sex workers who attended the Sydney Sexual Health Center for a first visit for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening during June 1, 1991, and May 31, 1993. International sex workers were identified as women who do not speak English at home and were born outside Australia. Diseases were confirmed clinically, by specimen or culture or by antibody or serological tests. Results apply to 91 local and 123 international prostitutes. 47% of international prostitutes and 34% of local prostitutes were aged 21-25 years. Most international sex workers spoke Thai or a Chinese dialect. 10% of local prostitutes were born in Asia. 90% of international prostitutes were born in Thailand, Malaysia, or China. Local prostitutes were better educated. 7% of the local prostitutes and none of the international sex workers had a history of injectable drug use. Local prostitutes tended to use condoms for birth control, and international prostitutes tended to use oral contraceptives. One international prostitute tested HIV positive. 1 in 7 international prostitutes had gonorrhea and the same proportion had chlamydia. Viral STDs (chronic hepatitis B, HIV infection, and genital warts) were more prevalent, but uncommon among international prostitutes. More international prostitutes had multiple STDs. 79 international sex workers and only 9 local sex workers had an STD. 47% of international sex workers and only 10% of local sex workers had worked overseas as a prostitute in the preceding 12 months. Over half of local sex workers and only 8% of international sex workers consistently used condoms. Failure to use condoms was associated with being an international sex worker. Inconsistent use of condoms among local prostitutes was related to increased age. PMID:8655167

  8. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  9. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    PubMed

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  10. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Smoothey, Amy F.; Gray, Charles A.; Kennelly, Steve J.; Masens, Oliver J.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Robinson, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks. PMID:26824349

  11. Childhood immunization 1979. Disturbing statistics for metropolitan Sydney.

    PubMed

    Menser, M A; Collins, E; Wu, S W; Hudson, J

    1980-08-01

    Twenty-seven per cent of children (24 out of 90) born consecutively in an inner-city hospital had not completed their primary courses of immunization at the end of the first year of life. Many of the parents of these children had no knowledge of how many doses of vaccine their children required. When 578 schoolchildren aged 12 years were studied, only 40% of these were found to be immune to all three poliovirus serotypes and 12% were not immune to diphtheria. The proportion of children who were not immune to diphtheria varied greatly, and was 24% in one school. The reasons for these low levels of immunity are discussed, and several recommendations are made. It is suggested that a standard immunization record card or book be adopted throughout Australia, and that this card be issued to the newborn child. It is also suggested that consideration be given to the introduction of laws which require that evidence of immunization (or certification of exemption from immunization) be presented at the time of school entry. In the meantime, mopping-up programmes should be conducted in schools where herd immunity is low and a poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin) booster should be recommended for all children at the age of 12 years. PMID:7421679

  12. Improving the public house in Britain, 1920-40: Sir Sydney Nevile and "social work".

    PubMed

    Mutch, Alistair

    2010-01-01

    The "improved public house" movement in the inter-war years was a central part of the shift towards retailing by the brewing industry. An important part of the reform movement was the alliance between certain brewers, notably Whitbread, and "social workers", particularly those associated with the University Settlement movement in London. Using the papers of Sydney Nevile, the importance of a particular social milieu is outlined, calling into question attempts to align the movement to improve public houses with transatlantic Progressivism. Rather, this alliance drew upon longstanding English traditions of public service and religious affiliation amongst a fraction of the gentry. PMID:20658777

  13. Estimates of costs by DRG in Sydney teaching hospitals: an application of the Yale cost model.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G; Aisbett, C; Fetter, R; Winchester, L; Reid, B; Rigby, E

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a first round of costing by DRG in seven major teaching hospital sites in Sydney using the Yale cost model. These results, when compared between the hospitals and with values of relative costs by DRG from the United States, indicate that the cost modelling procedure has produced credible and potentially useful estimates of casemix costs. The rationale and underlying theory of cost modelling is explained, and the need for further work to improve the method of allocating costs to DRGs, and to improve the cost centre definitions currently used by the hospitals, is emphasised. PMID:10117339

  14. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program: A community-based translational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in Australia with prevalence increasing in parallel with increasing obesity. Prevention is an essential component of strategies to reduce the diabetes burden. There is strong and consistent evidence from randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in at risk people. The current challenge is to translate this evidence into routine community settings, determine feasible and effective ways of delivering the intervention and providing on-going support to sustain successful behavioural changes. Methods/Design The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP) is a translational study which will be conducted in 1,550 participants aged 50-65 years (including 100 indigenous people aged 18 years and older) at high risk of future development of diabetes. Participants will be identified through a screening and recruitment program delivered through primary care and will be offered a community-based lifestyle modification intervention. The intervention comprises an initial individual session and three group sessions based on behaviour change principles and focuses on five goals: 5% weight loss, 210 min/week physical activity (aerobic and strength training exercise), limit dietary fat and saturated fat to less than 30% and 10% of energy intake respectively, and at least 15 g/1000 kcal dietary fibre. This is followed by 3-monthly contact with participants to review progress and offer ongoing lifestyle advice for 12 months. The effectiveness and costs of the program on diabetes-related risk factors will be evaluated. Main outcomes include changes in weight, physical activity, and dietary changes (fat, saturated fat and fibre intake). Secondary outcomes include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, lipids, quality of life, psychological well being

  15. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Corinne; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Lesi, Grazia; Bensoussan, Alan; Cardini, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna) to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296) and Bologna (n=1,106) to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women's choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness. PMID:24459531

  16. Supporting African Refugees in Greater Western Sydney: A Critical Ethnography of After-School Homework Tutoring Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Refugee Action Support Partnership Project between the University of Western Sydney, The Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the NSW-Department of Education and Training (DET). The critical ethnographic method is used to evaluate the after-school homework tutoring centres as a vehicle of literacy development…

  17. The Impact of a Pathway College on Reputation and Brand Awareness for Its Affiliated University in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ann; Zhao, Jingsong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect that a prospective pathway college affiliated to a large comprehensive university in Sydney may have on the university's reputation. In particular, the association of reputation with preference for a pathway college, brand awareness and the opinion of college brand are examined.…

  18. Forensic assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the former Sydney Tar Ponds and surrounding environment using fingerprint techniques.

    PubMed

    MacAskill, N Devin; Walker, Tony R; Oakes, Ken; Walsh, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed spatially and temporally within and adjacent to a former coking and steel manufacturing facility in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. Concentrations of PAHs were measured in surface soils, marine and estuary sediments prior to and during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs) site which was contaminated by nearly a century of coking and steel production. Previous studies identified PAHs in surficial marine sediments within Sydney Harbour, which were considered to be derived from STP discharges. Numerous PAH fingerprint techniques (diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis, quantitative and qualitative analysis) were applied to soil and sediment samples from the STPs and surrounding area to identify common source apportionment of PAHs. Results indicate coal combustion (from historical residential, commercial and industrial uses) and coal handling (from historic on-site stockpiling and current coal transfer and shipment facilities) are likely the principal source of PAHs found in urban soils and marine sediments, consistent with current and historical activities near these sites. However, PAH fingerprints associated with STP sediments correlated poorly with those of urban soils and marine sediments, but were similar to coal tar, historically consistent with by-products produced by the former coking operations. This study suggests PAH contamination of Sydney Harbour sediments and urban soils is largely unrelated to historic coking operations or recent remediation of the STPs site, but rather a legacy of extensive use of coal for a variety of activities. PMID:26845364

  19. Implementing a Program in Sustainability for Engineers at University of Technology, Sydney: A Story of Intersecting Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Paul; Johnston, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into an undergraduate engineering program at the University of Technology, Sydney has been a challenging project. The authors of this paper have been participant observers of the integration process. In this paper, they have attempted an analysis of that process, focussing on the dynamics of the network of people and…

  20. Infectious microbial diseases and host defense responses in Sydney rock oysters

    PubMed Central

    Raftos, David A.; Kuchel, Rhiannon; Aladaileh, Saleem; Butt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has long been seen as a sustainable solution to some of the world's growing food shortages. However, experience over the past 50 years indicates that infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes limit the productivity of aquaculture. In extreme cases, these types of infectious agents threaten the viability of entire aquaculture industries. This article describes the threats from infectious diseases in aquaculture and then focuses on one example (QX disease in Sydney rock oysters) as a case study. QX appears to be typical of many emerging diseases in aquaculture, particularly because environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in disease outbreaks. Evidence is presented that modulation of a generic subcellular stress response pathway in oysters is responsible for both resistance and susceptibility to infectious microbes. Understanding and being able to manipulate this pathway may be the key to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:24795701

  1. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in a Sydney Olympic gold medallist.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; Faggian, D; Scaroni, C; Plebani, M

    2002-04-01

    An Italian athlete who won a gold medal at the Sydney Olympic Games was studied. She was accused of doping after the finding of high levels of plasma growth hormone (GH) before the Games. She was studied firstly under stressed and then under unstressed conditions. In the first study, GH was measured every 20 minutes for one hour; it was above the normal range in all blood samples, whereas insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was normal. In the second study, GH progressively returned to accepted normal levels; IGF-I was again normal. It was concluded that the normal range for GH in athletes must be reconsidered for doping purposes, because athletes are subject to stress and thus to wide variations in GH levels. PMID:11916901

  2. Satisfaction with transport and enjoyment of the commute by commuting mode in inner Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris; Crane, Melanie; Wen, Li Ming; Greaves, Stephen; Standen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Travel satisfaction has become an increasingly popular construct for the assessment and monitoring of transport systems and services. However, satisfaction may not adequately assess emotion or mood towards walking and cycling, especially when infrastructure is biased towards motor vehicle modes. In this exploratory study we sought to examine the associations of both satisfaction with transport and enjoyment from the commute to work or study by commute mode in an Australian inner city context where transport mode choices are readily available. Methods As part of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, 675 baseline study participants (2013) were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September/October 2014 and 512 did so (76% response rate). Participants who did not travel to work were removed from analyses, giving complete data for 473. Participants provided data on usual travel mode to work or study, satisfaction with transport, enjoyment from their commute, and demographics and neighbourhood factors. Results The main mode of travel to work or study in this inner city sample was public transport (41%), followed by motor vehicle (27%), walking (21%) and cycling (10%). Most participants were satisfied with their transport (82%), with little variation by mode. Walkers (49%) and cyclists (52%) reported far higher levels of enjoyment from their commute than car drivers (14%) or public transport users (10%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.18 (95% confidence interval 3.10-12.29, P<0.001) for walking and an adjusted odds ratio of 6.15 (95% confidence interval 2.68-14.08, P<0.001) for cycling. Conclusions People who walked or cycled to work or study in inner Sydney reported higher levels of enjoyment from their commute compared with those who drove. This suggests enjoyment may be another benefit of active travel. So what? Focusing on 'enjoyment' associated with walking or cycling to work may be a positive motivator to encourage active travel. PMID

  3. Differential proteomic response of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to prolonged environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Melwani, A R; Thompson, E L; Raftos, D A

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to prolonged environmental stress can have impacts on the cellular homeostasis of aquatic organisms. The current study employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to test whether exposure to impaired water quality conditions in the Sydney Harbour estuary has significantly altered the proteomes of the resident Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). Adult S. glomerata were sampled from four bays in the estuary. Each bay consisted of a "high-impact" site adjacent to point sources of chemical contamination (e.g., storm drains/canals or legacy hotspots) and a "low-impact" site located ∼5km away from point sources. A mixture of environmental stressors differed significantly between high- and low-impact sites. Specifically, PAHs, PCBs, tributyltin, Pb, and Zn were significantly elevated in oyster tissues from high-impact sites, together with depleted dissolved oxygen and low pH in the water column. A 2-DE proteomics analysis subsequently identified 238 protein spots across 24 2-DE gels, of which 27-50 spots differed significantly in relative intensity between high- and low-impact sites per bay. Twenty-five percent of the differential spots were identified in more than one bay. The identities of 80 protein spots were determined by mass spectrometry. HSP 70, PPIB, and radixin were the three most highly expressed differential proteins. Despite the largely unique proteomes evident in each bay, functional annotations revealed that half of the differentially expressed proteins fell into just two subcellular functional categories-energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. These findings provide a framework to further investigate adaptation of cellular mechanisms to prolonged stress in S. glomerata. PMID:26844780

  4. Late HIV diagnosis of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in Sydney: the role of culture and community.

    PubMed

    Körner, H

    2007-02-01

    In Australia more than 85% of newly diagnosed HIV infections in 1999-2003 were homosexually acquired. In contrast, among people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, there is a much higher proportion of heterosexual exposure and many of the heterosexually acquired infections are diagnosed 'late', with people sometimes presenting with symptoms of AIDS. This paper reports on circumstances of late HIV diagnosis, meaning of an HIV-positive diagnosis and perceptions of risk among HIV-positive people from a variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds in Sydney. The focus was on commonalities across cultures and ethnicities. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with clients of the Multicultural HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C Service and a sexual health clinic. Regular HIV tests were the exception in this group. Testing was usually motivated by a serious health crisis. Participants interpreted their diagnosis in the context of their knowledge and experiences with HIV/AIDS in their country of birth and the perceptions of HIV/AIDS in their ethnic communities in Australia. Many were not aware of the relationship between HIV and AIDS. Risk was perceived in terms of 'risk group' membership not in terms of practices and behaviours. Late diagnosis cannot be explained solely by association with country of birth, race or ethnicity. Rather, it is located within complex sets of social and cultural relations: the values attributed to HIV/AIDS and those infected and the social and cultural relations of ethnic communities in Australia and the dominant culture. These are enacted in healthcare seeking behaviour, perceptions of people with HIV and perceptions of being 'at risk'. PMID:17364395

  5. Assessment of health, well-being and social connections: a survey of women living in Western Sydney.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Rhonda; Horsfall, Jan; Moore, Margo; Lane, Di; Kroon, Veronica; Langdon, Rachel

    2007-02-01

    Strengthening the physical and social environment has been shown to support health and strengthen community action for health. In an attempt to improve the social factors that influence the health of individuals and the community, community interventions increasingly include strategies to build networks and social capital and develop resilience. This study was undertaken to identify the most appropriate strategies to strengthen friendships and the social support networks for women aged 18-39 years living in Villawood, an area of high disadvantage in South Western Sydney, Australia. Although the majority reported positively on their health, one-third reported feeling isolated, experienced low energy levels and felt unhappy and anxious over the past month. Women who described themselves as unemployed felt more isolated than women in home duties. Women who were employed or engaged in home duties had more contact with neighbours, and had more in common with their neighbours. Those who reported more contact with their neighbours perceived their mental health level as being higher. These results indicate that community development initiatives should include consultation with the community and consider the needs of socially isolated groups and those with the poorest health status. PMID:17244240

  6. Elucidating the life cycle of Marteilia sydneyi, the aetiological agent of QX disease in the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Nolan, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Marteilia sydneyi (Phylum Paramyxea, Class Marteiliidea, Order Marteiliida) (the causative agent of QX disease) is recognised as the most severe parasite to infect Saccostrea glomerata, the Sydney rock oyster, on the east coast of Australia. Despite its potential impact on industry (>95% mortality), research towards lessening these effects has been hindered by the lack of an experimental laboratory model of infection as a consequence of our incomplete understanding of the life cycle of this parasite. Here, we explored the presence of this parasite in hosts other than a bivalve mollusc from two study sites on the Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, Australia. We employed PCR-based in situ hybridisation and sequence analysis of a portion of the first internal transcribed spacer of rDNA in an attempt to detect M. sydneyi DNA in 21 species of polychaete worm. Marteilia DNA was detected in 6% of 1247 samples examined by PCR; the analysis of all amplicons defined one distinct sequence type for first internal transcribed spacer, representing M. sydneyi. Of the polychaete operational taxonomic units test-positive in PCR, we examined 116 samples via in situ hybridisation DNA probe staining and identified M. sydneyi DNA in the epithelium of the intestine of two specimens of Nephtys australiensis. Two differing morphological forms were identified: a 'primordial' cell that contained a well-defined nucleus but had little differentiation in the cytoplasm, and a 'plasmodial' cell that showed an apparent syncytial structure. This finding represents the first known record of the identification of M. sydneyi being parasitic in an organism other than an oyster, and only the third record of any species of Marteilia identified from non-molluscan hosts. Future work aims at determining if N. australiensis and S. glomerata are the only hosts in the life cycle of this paramyxean, and the development of experimental models to aid the production of QX disease-resistant oysters. PMID:25765622

  7. Next generation sequence analysis of the transcriptome of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to a range of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Hook, Sharon E; Johnston, Emma L; Nair, Sham; Roach, Anthony C; Moncuquet, Philippe; Twine, Natalie A; Raftos, David A

    2014-12-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) were exposed to environmental stressors at contaminated field sites or in a controlled laboratory setting. RNA seq transcriptome data were generated for the gill and digestive gland using Roche's 454 pyrosequencing technology. 28,685 contigs were de novo assembled which encoded 11,671 different protein products. The data will act as a reference for future studies in ecology, immunology and environmental toxicology. PMID:25151890

  8. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Damascena; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; de Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  9. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa da; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  10. Histopathologic and histochemical biomarker responses of Baltic clam, Macoma balthica, to contaminated Sydney Harbour sediment, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Kok-Leng; Teh, Swee Joo; Doe, Ken; Lee, Ken; Jackman, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Sediments in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia, are highly contaminated by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. Histopathologic and histochemical evaluations were made on the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica, exposed to 11 Sydney Harbour sediment samples. Histologic lesions in digestive gland (tubular dilation or atrophy, macrophage aggregates, tubular cell necrosis, and tissue inflammation) and gonads (macrophage aggregates, supporting cell, germ cell, and ovarian cell necroses) were frequently detected in clams exposed to the most contaminated sediments from the harbor. Clams exposed to these contaminated sediments also had the highest acid phosphatase activity. The average scores of tubular dilation or atrophy, ovarian cell necrosis, and the sums of mean digestive gland lesions correlated significantly with sediment PCBs, and the activities of acid phosphatase correlated significantly with sediment heavy metals, PAHs, and PCBs. Among the lesions, digestive gland tubular dilation or atrophy, tubular cell, germ cell, and ovarian cell necroses, and the activity of acid phosphatase are the best sublethal effect indicators in Macoma exposed to Sydney Harbour sediments. Key words: biomarkers, chronic biologic effects, clams, histology, histochemistry, Macoma balthica, marine sediment, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:12611654

  11. Changing Water Depths in the Eastern Part of Sydney Harbour due to Human Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    Sydney Harbour has been significantly modified by human impacts from the start of the European settlement in 1788. Land clearing has accelerated soil erosion, resulting in increased sedimentation. Dredging has deepened many areas to accommodate ever-larger ships. In this paper a GIS method is used to map bathymetric changes in the eastern part of the harbour from 1903 to more recently. Dredged areas are apparent in the entrance and in wharfage areas, while sedimentation is most marked around the deepest section, which is well inside the harbour itself. In this latter region sediment has built up considerably, to over 3 m in some locations, and ship-induced motions appear to have had an impact. Despite these changes the overall depth of the eastern part of the harbour has changed little. This work is of interest to maritime archaeologists because it brings out the types of processes by which sediments can accumulate and be removed thus altering a harbour's seabed and potentially burying, exposing or erasing archaeological sites and artefacts.

  12. Dose-dependent effects of metals on gene expression in the sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daisy A; Nair, Sham V; Thompson, Emma L; Raftos, David A

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, we tested the effects of common environmental contaminants (the metals zinc and lead) on gene expression in Sydney rock oysters (Saccrostrea glomerata). Oysters were exposed to a range of metal concentrations under controlled laboratory conditions. The expression of 14 putative stress response genes was then measured using quantitative, real-time (q) PCR. The expression of all 14 genes was significantly affected (p < 0.05 vs. nonexposed controls) by at least one of the metals, and by at least one dose of metal. For 5 of the 14 target genes (actin, calmodulin, superoxide dismutase, topoisomerase I, and tubulin) the alteration of expression relative to controls was highest at intermediate (rather than high) doses of metals. Such responses may reflect adaptive (acclimation) reactions in gene expression at low to intermediate doses of contaminants, followed by a decline in expression resulting from exposure at higher doses. The data are discussed in terms of the intracellular pathways affected by metal contamination, and the relevance of such gene expression data to environmental biomonitoring. PMID:24615909

  13. Quantitative proteomics of heavy metal stress responses in Sydney rock oysters.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sridevi; Thompson, Emma; Raftos, David; Birch, Gavin; Haynes, Paul A

    2012-03-01

    Currently, there are few predictive biomarkers in key biomonitoring species, such as oysters, that can detect heavy metal pollution in coastal waterways. Several attributes make oysters superior to other organisms for positive biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. In particular, they are filter feeders with a high capacity for bioaccumulation. In this study, we used two proteomics approaches, namely label-free shotgun proteomics based on SDS-PAGE gel separation and gas phase fractionation, to investigate the heavy metal stress responses of Sydney rock oysters. Protein samples were prepared from haemolymph of oysters exposed to 100 μg/L of PbCl(2), CuCl(2), or ZnCl(2) for 4 days in closed aquaria. Peptides were identified using a Bivalvia protein sequence database, due to the unavailability of a complete oyster genome sequence. Statistical analysis revealed 56 potential biomarker proteins, as well as several protein biosynthetic pathways to be greatly impacted by metal stress. These have the potential to be incorporated into bioassays for prevention and monitoring of heavy metal pollution in Australian oyster beds. The study confirms that proteomic analysis of biomonitoring species is a promising approach for assessing the effects of environmental pollution, and our experiments have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying oyster stress responses. PMID:22539440

  14. Evaluation of AirXpanders for Breast Reconstruction: Early Experience from Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Two-staged prosthetic breast reconstruction has become a popular option involving a series of saline injections to expanders to create a pocket large enough for a permanent implant. This, however, requires frequent visits to the surgeon and numerous needle pricks with potential infection risk. A new form of tissue expander, the AirXpanders, has recently been trialed in Perth and the United States. It uses a remote-controlled release of compressed CO2 where needle punctures are avoided. Methodology: Prospective data were collected on the first 10 patients to have the AirXpanders implant inserted for breast reconstruction at Western Sydney. The implants were inserted subpectorally as the saline expanders, and patients were instructed how to use the remote 4 weeks postoperation. Results: Ten patients (4 immediate and 6 delayed) aged between 30 and 65 (mean, 48.3 years) underwent 14 AirXpanders insertions. One patient passed away due to metastatic malignancy. With the remaining patients, the average period of active expansion was 15.8 days (r, 6–21). The average size of final implant used was 451 g (r, 195–685). The only complications were 2 seromas. Conclusion: Our early results are consistent with the Perth trial. The new AirXpanders is safe to use and able to achieve satisfactory tissue expansion faster than saline expander. It also has the advantage of patient self-controlled without the need for multiple medical reviews and needle punctures. PMID:26495208

  15. Beyond hydrography: daily ichthyoplankton variability and short term oceanographic events on the Sydney continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, Tim; Gibbs, Mark T.; Rissik, David; Suthers, Iain M.

    1997-10-01

    Surface ichthyoplankton concentrations along a shore-normal transect across the Sydney continental shelf and upper slope changed between three replicate nights in January and April of 1994. Over 70 families of fish were recorded, which, during January, included: Myctophidae (49% of individuals), Carangidae (14%), Gonostomatidae (11%) and Pomacentridae (8%); and during April included: Gonorhynchidae (43%), Myctophidae (10%), Berycidae (11%) and Serranidae (6%). Multidimensional scaling analysis identified inshore and offshore communities, which nightly moved between the nearshore and mid-shelf stations. During January no distinct near-surface water masses could be identified from the temperature-salinity data, although the shelf waters were under the influence of forcing by the local wind stress and the East Australian Current. Good agreement between the cross-shore transport in the near-surface layer and the temporal variability of the icthyoplankton was nevertheless found. The sampling during April was performed during a period of relatively steady oceanographic conditions, and two water masses were identified from the hydrographic data. Temporal ichthyoplankton variability at any station was correspondingly less during the April period and stable inshore and offshore communities were identified, that shifted with characteristic water masses. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the large variance often associated with ichthyoplankton distribution within a similar water mass may be interpreted by the dynamics in cross-shelf flows, which has implications for the selection of control sites used when studying environmental impacts of coastal outfalls.

  16. Differential and spatial aspects of suicide mortality in New South Wales and Sydney, 1980 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Burnley, I H

    1994-09-01

    Occupational and marital status dimensions of suicide mortality in New South Wales were examined for the periods 1980 to 1985 and 1986 to 1989-90 respectively, and marital status and birthplace group mortality profiles were examined in relation to grouped occupations, with a view to identifying the relative influence of these differentiating factors on suicide mortality. Spatial analysis was undertaken for different ages, in major regions of New South Wales and statistical local areas in Sydney for the period 1985 to 1991, and associations with socioeconomic characteristics of geographic areas were investigated. Despite residential revitalisation in inner city areas, higher mortality in several inner city localities has persisted over time while levels have risen in some outer areas. Never-married and divorced men in manual work were most at risk of committing suicide and never-married and divorced women had elevated suicide levels. Male suicide levels were elevated among farmers and related workers, and youth and adult male suicide levels were elevated in inland regions of the state. Possible explanations for the variations are discussed. PMID:7841260

  17. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW, January-June 2011.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Sarah J; Sheppeard, Vicky K; Paterson, Jen M; Ralph, Anna P

    2012-09-01

    We undertook a study of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica enterica subtypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, presenting in residents of the Western Sydney Local Health District for the period January-June 2011. Twelve cases of S. Typhi and eight of S. Paratyphi A were notified. Patients were predominantly young adults (median age 26 years, 70% female) who had been visiting friends and relatives in India, Samoa, Bangladesh or Sri Lanka. No cases were associated with travel for less than 3 weeks; 17 (85%) required hospitalisation. None received pre-travel vaccination; reasons cited for this included pregnancy, expense, being too busy, or considering the disease too mild to warrant vaccination. Three S. Typhi isolates acquired at large social gatherings in Samoa had the same phage [corrected] type and susceptibility profiles; these results were communicated to Samoan public health personnel. There are opportunities to strengthen enteric fever prevention, including pre-travel health advice and S. Typhi vaccination for people visiting endemic areas for 3 or more weeks, especially those in the vulnerable 'visiting friends and relative' category. PMID:23043747

  18. Visual acuity testability and comparability in Australian preschool children: The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Leone, J F; Gole, G A; Mitchell, P; Kifley, A; Pai, A S-I; Rose, K A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To establish standardised protocols for vision screening, testability and comparability of three different vision tests were examined in a population-based, cross-sectional sample of preschool children (Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study). Methods Measurement of presenting monocular distance visual acuity (VA) using the Amblyopia Treatment Study (ATS) HOTV protocol, was attempted by all (1774) children aged≥24 months. In addition, in children aged≥60 months (576), VA was also tested using the logMAR retro-illuminated HOTV or Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) linear charts (CSV 1000). Children able to have both eyes tested monocularly were considered. Results Testability significantly increased with age for all VA tests. The ATS HOTV with an overall testability of 80% (females: 82%, males: 78%) was the most testable of the VA tests (P<0.0001). In children aged <3 years testability was low (≤47%) rising to≥80% in children aged≥3. In children≥60 months, testability was higher for the HOTV (94%) than the ETDRS (59%) chart. In those that did two VA tests, mean difference of the ATS HOTV compared with the HOTV(CSV) was −0.1, and compared with ETDRS was −0.12 (P<0.0001). Conclusions Children aged <3 years had poor VA testability, whereas those 3 years and above were highly testable using the ATS HOTV. The HOTV (CSV) retro-illuminated test was appropriate for children aged >5 years, and may be possible in younger children with early educational exposure. When comparing VA measures using these tests, the higher VA attained using the ATS HOTV, needs to be taken into account. PMID:22498798

  19. The Sydney West Knowledge Portal: Evaluating the Growth of a Knowledge Portal to Support Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Sydney West Translational Cancer Research Centre is an organization funded to build capacity for translational research in cancer. Translational research is essential for ensuring the integration of best available evidence into practice and for improving patient outcomes. However, there is a low level of awareness regarding what it is and how to conduct it optimally. One solution to addressing this gap is the design and deployment of web-based knowledge portals to disseminate new knowledge and engage with and connect dispersed networks of researchers. A knowledge portal is an web-based platform for increasing knowledge dissemination and management in a specialized area. Objective To measure the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal for increasing individual awareness of translational research and to build organizational capacity for the delivery of translational research projects in cancer. Methods An adaptive methodology was used to capture the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal in cancer. This involved stakeholder consultations to inform initial design of the portal. Once the portal was live, site analytics were reviewed to evaluate member usage of the portal and to measure growth in membership. Results Knowledge portal membership grew consistently for the first 18 months after deployment, before leveling out. Analysis of site metrics revealed members were most likely to visit portal pages with community-generated content, particularly pages with a focus on translational research. This was closely followed by pages that disseminated educational material about translational research. Conclusions Preliminary data from this study suggest that knowledge portals may be beneficial tools for translating new evidence and fostering an environment of communication and collaboration. PMID:27357641

  20. Non-methane exhaust composition in the sydney harbour tunnel: A focus on benzene and 1,3-butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Bronwyn L.; Nelson, Peter F.

    The concentrations of individual hydrocarbon species in the Sydney Harbour Tunnel were measured and used to estimate the average composition of emissions from moving motor vehicles in the Sydney urban area. The mean composition of non-methane hydrocarbons in the tunnel air on a weight basis was relatively constant. The mean concentrations for benzene and 1,3-butadiene were 45 and 13 ppbv, respectively, which in turn represented ˜ 5.2% w/w and ˜ 1.0% w/w of the total non-methane C 2C 10 hydrocarbons in the tunnel air. The unit risk factor and the maximum incremental reactivity factor for 1 1,3-butadiene are approximately 30 times higher and 25 times higher, respectively, than the corresponding values for benzene. The concentration (μg m -3) of benzene, however, is only about 5 times that of 1,3-butadiene. On this basis, the relative contribution to the risk associated with exposure to fresh motor vehicle emissions in Sydney would be about 6 times higher for 1,3-butadiene than for benzene. Similarly, the contribution made by 1,3-butadiene to the total hydrocarbon reactivity of the tunnel air will be about 5 times that of benzene. Samples of three different grades of petrol (leaded, unleaded and premium unleaded) from three different brands of fuel were also analysed on two separate occasions. Compositions of leaded and standard unleaded petrol averaged across the three different brands are quite similar. The average aromatic content (% w/w) of the 3 different commercial brands were ˜ 35 and 30% for leaded and unleaded petrol, respectively. However, premium unleaded petrol has a much higher aromatic content of ˜ 47% w/w. Comparison of the petrol and tunnel compositions demonstrated that benzene is enriched relative to other aromatics in exhaust compared to its proportion in the petrol.

  1. Seismic anisotropy in the upper 500 m of the Southern Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Urosevic, M.; Juhlin, C.

    1999-12-01

    An analysis of seismic anisotropy at a BHP mining site in the Southern Sydney Basin by combined use of crosshole and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data is presented. The upper 250 m in this area is highly heterogeneous and has a major impact on the analysis of P-wave travel times. It is shown that using P-wave information solely would not, at least in this case, lead to any reasonable estimate of the elastic constants, in particular C{sub 13}, even if the measurements contained a full range of incident angles. However, if the measurements of SV-waves are available, even over a small range of incident angles, then C{sub 13} is determined more accurately. P-wave velocities measured in the vertical and horizontal directions show that anisotropy is present in the area. Additional measurements, along different incident angles, indicate that the rock down to 500 m depth is predominantly transversely isotropic (TI) with a vertical axis of symmetry. The P-wave anisotropy can be approximated as elliptical. Using the elastic constants estimated from the data analyses, synthetic seismograms for heterogeneous TI media were generated. Comparison of the seismic modeling with real crosshole data shows that it is necessary to include both fault zones and gas accumulations in the model to qualitatively match the real data. By using SV-waves in the multioffset VSP data, reflectors are mapped more accurately than by using P-waves, even under the assumption of isotropy and in the presence of heterogeneity. Mapping of converted P-SV waves by a straight ray approach also produced better results than the corresponding isotropic P-wave mapping. Inclusion of elliptical anisotropy into Kirchhoff migration resulted in better P-wave images than using an isotopic migration code. The authors conclude that both P-wave VSP multioffset mapping and tomographic inversion methods need to account for anisotropy to be accurate in this area, while SV-waves may be handled using isotropic codes. The

  2. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  3. Mechanistic insights into induction of vitellogenin gene expression by estrogens in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh; MacFarlane, Geoff R; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; O'Connor, Wayne A; Yu, Richard Man Kit

    2016-05-01

    Marine molluscs, such as oysters, respond to estrogenic compounds with the induction of the egg yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vtg), availing a biomarker for estrogenic pollution. Despite this application, the precise molecular mechanism through which estrogens exert their action to induce molluscan vitellogenesis is unknown. As a first step to address this question, we cloned a gene encoding Vtg from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (sgVtg). Using primers designed from a partial sgVtg cDNA sequence available in Genbank, a full-length sgVtg cDNA of 8498bp was obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of sgVtg was determined to be 7980bp, which is substantially longer than the orthologs of other oyster species. Its deduced protein sequence shares the highest homology at the N- and C-terminal regions with other molluscan Vtgs. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of sgVtg was obtained by genomic PCR and genome walking targeting the gene body and flanking regions, respectively. The genomic sequence spans 20kb and consists of 30 exons and 29 introns. Computer analysis identified three closely spaced half-estrogen responsive elements (EREs) in the promoter region and a 210-bp CpG island 62bp downstream of the transcription start site. Upregulation of sgVtg mRNA expression was observed in the ovaries following in vitro (explants) and in vivo (tank) exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2). Notably, treatment with an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist in vitro abolished the upregulation, suggesting a requirement for an estrogen-dependent receptor for transcriptional activation. DNA methylation of the 5' CpG island was analysed using bisulfite genomic sequencing of the in vivo exposed ovaries. The CpG island was found to be hypomethylated (with 0-3% methylcytosines) in both control and E2-exposed oysters. However, no significant differential methylation or any correlation between methylation and sgVtg expression levels was observed. Overall, the

  4. A variability sample catalogue selected from the Sydney Observatory Galactic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresneau, A.; Osborn, W. H.

    2009-09-01

    Context: A set of 55×103 stars brighter than about B-magnitude 14 and having at least three observations are identified in the Sydney Observatory Galactic Survey, carried out over the years 1892-1932 along the galactic equator section lin[275°,335°] with galactic latitude bin[-7°,7°]. Short-term (30 min) and long-term (decades) magnitude variations in the data set are analyzed. Aims: Evidence is sought for a correlation between short-term and long-term variabilities which would identify stars in a non-quiescent phase. Methods: We use a reduced proper motion diagram to classify the stars in our sample into probable dwarfs, giants and other types. The validity of the kinematical classification is checked using objective-prism spectroscopic classification for 10× 103 early-type stars. A search is made for statistical correlations between our variability indicators and physical and kinematical stellar properties. Results: We find that suspected photospheric activity for giant and dwarf stellar candidates is correlated with the time to cross the galactic thin disk. We estimate a significant apparent B-magnitude variation of ±0.25 over the 40 years of photographic observations, and candidates for monitoring for possible photospheric activity at the present time are selected employing a statistical colour-diagram which uses the total proper motion component as a distance indicator. Conclusions: Follow up studies of our tentative findings are suggested. Toward this aim the derived data for the set of 55× 103 stars with variability information is archived as the variability Sample Catalogue. The data for a set of 2.4× 105 stars along the section of the galactic equator lin[275°,335°], mid b mid ≤ 7°, and a set of of 1.7× 105 stars along the section of the galactic meridian 330° ±5°, bin[-64°,-7°] is also archived as a quick-look facility for seeking long-term magnitude changes since the century-old photographic observations were obtained. Data files are

  5. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the

  6. Differential proteomic responses of selectively bred and wild-type Sydney rock oyster populations exposed to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E L; O'Connor, W; Parker, L; Ross, P; Raftos, D A

    2015-03-01

    Previous work suggests that larvae from Sydney rock oysters that have been selectively bred for fast growth and disease resistance are more resilient to the impacts of ocean acidification than nonselected, wild-type oysters. In this study, we used proteomics to investigate the molecular differences between oyster populations in adult Sydney rock oysters and to identify whether these form the basis for observations seen in larvae. Adult oysters from a selective breeding line (B2) and nonselected wild types (WT) were exposed for 4 weeks to elevated pCO2 (856 μatm) before their proteomes were compared to those of oysters held under ambient conditions (375 μatm pCO2 ). Exposure to elevated pCO2 resulted in substantial changes in the proteomes of oysters from both the selectively bred and wild-type populations. When biological functions were assigned, these differential proteins fell into five broad, potentially interrelated categories of subcellular functions, in both oyster populations. These functional categories were energy production, cellular stress responses, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and cell signalling. In the wild-type population, proteins were predominantly upregulated. However, unexpectedly, these cellular systems were downregulated in the selectively bred oyster population, indicating cellular dysfunction. We argue that this reflects a trade-off, whereby an adaptive capacity for enhanced mitochondrial energy production in the selectively bred population may help to protect larvae from the effects of elevated CO2 , whilst being deleterious to adult oysters. PMID:25689603

  7. Sampling of Total Mercury in Sand on Sydney Beaches and Assessment of Risk of Exposure to Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, D.; Tang, C.; Edwards, G. C.; Gan, T.; Tran, S.; Geremia, S.; Campbell, J.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial waste, sewage outfall and storm water run-off are potential anthropogenic sources of mercury to Sydney beaches. Children playing on these beaches are possibly at risk of exposure to mercury in beach sand through the ingestion pathway. As part of an investigation into this risk samples were collected from various locations along 7 of Sydney's beaches where children typically would be exposed. Samples were dried and the sand fraction (i.e. >63 µm and <2 mm) analysed for total mercury using a Direct Mercury Analyser (DMA-80) methodology. Risk of Exposure to mercury was assessed based on published estimates of daily ingestion of soil by children and Health Canada's guideline of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1 exposure threshold. For the beaches sampled concentrations of total mercury in beach sand ranged from 0.6 to 58 ppb. The maximum concentrations of total mercury in beach sand were observed on Beach 6, in the vicinity of five storm water runoff sources. Daily mercury intake values were determined for two commonly used published values for daily ingestion of soil by children of 0.2 g soil d-1 and 1.75 g soil d-1. Results to date show the maximum daily intake calculated using an average child weight of 13 kg to be 7.8 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1, well below the currently accepted daily intake threshold of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1.

  8. Age Variation in the Prevalence of "DSM-IV" Disorders in Cases of Suicide of Middle-Aged and Older Persons in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Wyder, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Data concerning 127 persons aged 35 years or above who died by suicide (as determined in consecutive cases by a Sydney coroner) were analyzed. Psychological autopsy (PA) interviews were conducted in 52 cases, and details were compared with the 75 cases where data were available only from coroner's files (CF). Most characteristics of the two groups…

  9. Research within a medical degree: the combined MB BS-PhD program at the University of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Power, Brian D; White, Andrew J; Sefton, Ann J

    Along with its new graduate-entry medical program, the University of Sydney has introduced the Combined Degree (Research) Program which allows students to graduate with an MB BS and PhD. The program includes 2-3 years of full-time research between Years 2 and 3 of the 4-year MB BS program. The program aims to produce clinician-scientists committed to continuing research that reflects their experience of clinical practice. Eight women and 23 men have enrolled since the program began in 1998, with the first cohort graduating in 2003. The students have been active in helping to develop the program and establishing a society and other student support networks. PMID:14636132

  10. Strategies for the municipal waste management system to take advantage of carbon trading under competing policies: The role of energy from waste in Sydney

    SciTech Connect

    El Hanandeh, Ali El-Zein, Abbas

    2009-07-15

    Climate change is a driving force behind some recent environmental legislation around the world. Greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in many industrialised countries. A change in current practices of almost all greenhouse-emitting industrial sectors is unavoidable, if the set targets is to be achieved. Although, waste disposal contributes around 3% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia (mainly due to fugitive methane emissions from landfills), the carbon credit and trading scheme set to start in 2010 presents significant challenges and opportunities to municipal solid waste practitioners. Technological advances in waste management, if adopted properly, allow the municipal solid waste sector to act as carbon sink, hence earning tradable carbon credits. However, due to the complexity of the system and its inherent uncertainties, optimizing it for carbon credits may worsen its performance under other criteria. We use an integrated, stochastic multi-criteria decision-making tool that we developed earlier to analyse the carbon credit potential of Sydney municipal solid waste under eleven possible future strategies. We find that the changing legislative environment is likely to make current practices highly non-optimal and increase pressures for a change of waste management strategy.

  11. Modelling the Spatial-temporal Variation of Urban/peri-urban Forests and Their Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of North-West Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeh, I. A.; Zou, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    In terms of total terrestrial sequestered carbon, the global soils and forests are recognized as the predominant C sinks. Even though urban forests stored a relatively small proportion of the total terrestrial C, they also provide other important ecosystem services such as improving air quality, cooling effect in buildings and aesthetics. Thus in view of these environmental services the quantification of urban tree is increasingly viewed as essential to the understanding of how these ecosystem services can be optimized. The aims of this paper are to: i) quantify the spatial-temporal distribution of urban forests in Northwest Sydney using remote sensing techniques; ii) determine the total urban C-storage over many decades; iii) apply UFORE model to estimate air pollutant removal ability of urban forest. The results revealed the estimated total trees in Northwest Sydney in 2011was approximately 2.3 million. These urban forests potentially store an estimated 1.3 million tons of carbon in various forms such as biomass, soil carbon, etc. The relative carbon sequestration rate of these trees was estimated to be about 20,500 tC/yr (equivalent to AUD 467,000/year). Furthermore, the results show that trees near buildings can potentially avoid AUD 12.9 million of energy cost every year and 70000 tons of carbon emission, the latter which is equivalent to additional savings of nearly AUD 1.6 million per year. We also estimated that urban forests in the study area could potentially remove about 44,600 tons of pollutants (mainly greenhouse gases) annually equivalent to a saving of about AUD 409 million per year. Thus the results reveal the spatial-temporal variation of urban vegetation in the last twenty year between 1991 and 2011. The study has showcased the importance and potential role of urban forests in preserving carbon and thus reducing GHG emissions into atmosphere. Furthermore, these results highlight the significant value of urban forests in term of pollutant removal

  12. The medical officer's journal: HMAS Sydney 1913-1922. An Australian Naval record of surgery and anaesthesia at the time of the outbreak of World War I.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J M; Todd, E M

    2014-07-01

    The Medical Officer's Journal of HMAS Sydney was a record kept by the ship's Surgeon, Leonard Darby, of the conditions on the ship and the health, diseases, injuries and treatment of the sailor's under his care. Records of anaesthesia and surgery indicate chloroform was mostly administered as was ether occasionally. There was some use of intravenous and subcutaneous fluids for resuscitation. The journal also provides an eyewitness account of the Sydney-Emden battle on 9 November 1914 which occurred off the Cocos Keeling Islands and was a famous first victory for the young Australian Navy, making headlines around the world. The treatment of the many injured, mostly Germans, is described; with the two Australian surgeons and the surviving German surgeon working together. PMID:25196953

  13. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. Results A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health

  14. Palaeomagnetic data for Permian and Triassic rocks from drill holes in the Southern Sydney Basin, New South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facer, R. A.

    1981-04-01

    A section 300 m thick across the Permian—Triassic boundary has been sampled in the Southern Coalfield of the Sydney Basin, New South Wales. 55 samples, mainly grey to drab sandstones, were collected from 9 diamond drill holes which penetrated the entire Narrabeen Group and the upper part of the conformably underlying Illawarra Coal Measures, as well as a sill emplaced into the coal measures. The samples included fully oriented cores. Additional reconnaissance samples from two further drill holes were also studied. Partial alternating field demagnetization and petrography indicate the magnetic remanence to be a stable DRM. Partial thermal demagnetization above 300°C or 400°C caused large increases in magnetic susceptibility. Partial chemical demagnetization did not cause significant changes in remanence directions. For the Coal Cliff Sandstone (basal Narrabeen Group, Triassic) the palaeomagnetic pole position (Normal) was calculated to be at 59°N 322°E (dp = 27°, dm = 29°), which agrees with previously published data. For the uppermost coal measures (Permian) the pole position was calculated as 58°N 340°E (dp = 09°, dm = 10°). Data for samples from the lower to middle coal measures yield a pole position which is between the new Permian—Triassic pole position and that for the underlying Middle Permian igneous rocks. The top of the Reversed "Kiaman Magnetic Interval" (Permian) may be near the Tongarra coal and Appin Formation boundary — (early) Late Permian.

  15. Gay Asian men in Sydney resist international trend: no change in rates of unprotected anal intercourse, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Van de Ven, Paul; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett

    2004-02-01

    Against a background of increasing unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the Sydney gay community (and internationally), complementary cross-sectional surveys of sexual practice were conducted among gay men of Asian background in 1999 (N = 319) and 2002 (N = 457). Self-complete questionnaires were used with recruitment at gay bars, gay social functions, and gay sex-on-premises venues. In 2002, self-report HIV status was 73.7% HIV-negative, 3.6% HIV-positive, and 22.8% unknown status (no significant change from 1999). Over time, the proportion of gay Asian men who reported any UAI with regular partners (in the previous 6 months) did not change significantly: 27.9% in 1999; 24.3% in 2002. Similarly, rates of any UAI with casual partners remained steady: 16.3% in 1999; 14.4% in 2002. Only one factor, more extensive engagement in esoteric practices (fisting, sadomasochism, group sex, rimming), was independently associated with sexual risk practice. This suggests that risk in this population of gay men, as in others, has more to do with the sexual cultures in which men are embedded rather than individual-level differences. PMID:15058706

  16. Combined exposure to pyrene and fluoranthene and their molecular effects on the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Nicole G; O'Connor, Wayne A; Brooks, Peter; Keats, Michael; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitously detected in the water column, associated with particulate matter or in the tissue of marine organisms such as molluscs. PAH exposure and their resultant bioaccumulation in molluscs can cause a range of serious physiological effects in the affected animals. To examine the molecular response of these xenobiotics in bivalves, Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) were exposed to pyrene and fluoranthene for seven days. Chemical analysis of the soft-tissue of PAH stressed S. glomerata confirmed that pyrene and fluoranthene could be bioaccumulated by these oysters. RNA-Seq analysis of PAH-exposed S. glomerata showed a total of 765 transcripts differentially expressed between control and PAH-stressed oysters. Closer examination of the transcripts revealed a range genes encoding enzymes involved in PAH detoxification (e.g. cytochrome P450), innate immune responses (e.g. pathogen recognition, phagocytosis) and protein synthesis. Overall, pyrene and fluoranthene exposure appears to have resulted in a suppression of pathogen recognition and some protein synthesis processes, whereas transcripts of genes encoding proteins involved in clearance of cell debris and some transcripts of genes involved in PAH detoxification were induced in response to the stressors. Pyrene and fluoranthene exposure thus invoked a complex molecular response in S. glomerata, with results suggesting that oysters focus on removing the stressors from their system and dealing with the downstream effects of PAH exposure, potentially at the exclusion of other, less immediate concerns (e.g. protection from infection). PMID:27286571

  17. Evidence of Carboniferous volcanic ash in Pictou Group (West-phalian D), Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.C.; Outerbridge, W.F. ); Hacquebard, P.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Until now, Carboniferous-altered volcanic ash in North America was known only from the Middle Pennsylvanian (upper Westphalian A to lower Westphalian D) of the Appalachian basin. Now, however, mineralogical analysis of thin claystones (8-24 mm thick) in mineable bituminous coal (Hub and Harbour seams) form the P-boreholes in the Donkin submarine areas of the Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, indicates the presence of trace amounts of minerals probably derived from a volcanic ash fall of late Westphalian D age. Water-clear to cloudy quartz splinters and euhedral zircon with sharp crystal faces and edges, and length-to-width ratios up to 6:1 - which are typical of Appalachian altered acidic volcanic ash deposits (tonsteins) - were with a dominantly detrital (fluvial ) mineral suite. Fifty to 90% water-laid silt- to sand-size detrital grains of quartz, tourmaline( ), zircon, white mica, and other minerals are found in the HF residum after the removal of the dominant components: clay minerals, pyrite, and coal particles (spores, secretinite, etc.). The fine size of the volcanic minerals and their low concentration indicate a very distant volcanic ash source, perhaps western Europe, where volcanic activity extended into the Stephanian.

  18. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  19. Developments in undergraduate teaching of small-animal soft-tissue surgical skills at the University of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Deepa; McGreevy, Paul D; Zuber, Richard M; Klupiec, Corinna; Baguley, John; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses recent developments in soft-tissue surgery teaching at the University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science. An integrated teaching program was developed for Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) students with the aim of providing them with optimal learning opportunities to meet "Day One" small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies. Didactic lectures and tutorials were introduced earlier into the curriculum to prepare students for live-animal surgery practical. In addition to existing clinics, additional spay/neuter clinics were established in collaboration with animal welfare organizations to increase student exposure to live-animal surgery. A silicon-based, life-like canine ovariohysterectomy model was developed with the assistance of a model-making and special effects company. The model features elastic ovarian pedicles and suspensory ligaments, which can be stretched and broken like those of an actual dog. To monitor the volume and type of student surgical experience, an E-portfolio resource was established. This resource allows for the tracking of numbers of live, student-performed desexing surgeries and incorporates competency-based assessments and reflective tasks to be completed by students. Student feedback on the integrated surgical soft-tissue teaching program was assessed. Respondents were assessed in the fourth year of the degree and will have further opportunities to develop Day One small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies in the fifth year. Ninety-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they were motivated to participate in all aspects of the program, while 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they received an adequate opportunity to develop their skills and confidence in ovariohysterectomy or castration procedures through the fourth-year curriculum. PMID:22430078

  20. The First World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Wever, Peter C; Hodges, A J

    2016-08-01

    Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet. PMID:27084843

  1. Ethnicity, health and medical care: towards a critical realist analysis of general practice in the Korean community in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Davies, Carmel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system. PMID:17060035

  2. An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium 108/170 at a privately catered barbeque at a Sydney sports club.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Andrew; Ressler, Kelly-Anne; Botham, Susan; Irwin, Melissa J; Shadbolt, Craig; Vally, Hassan; Ferson, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness was identified among attendees at a large community barbeque at a Sydney sports club on 30 January 2009. A retrospective cohort study was initiated, and attendees were identified through hospital emergency department gastroenteritis presentations, snowball recruitment through known cases, responders to linguistically specific press, and those returning to the venue the next week. A symptom and food history was collected from attendees, and stool samples were provided for microbiological investigation. An environmental investigation and trace back of implicated foods was also undertaken. Attendance estimates at the barbeque ranged from 100 to 180, and the food was prepared by a family that was not registered as a food business. Seventy one of the 87 attendees identified met the case definition. Thirty attendees (42%) had laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium phage-type 108/170, all with the same multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis typing. Burden of illness was high with 76% of cases seeking medical attention and 18% admitted to hospital. Microbiological evidence confirmed that a number of food items were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium 108/170, with the raw egg mayonnaise used in a Russian salad being the most likely primary food vehicle (adjusted odds ratio=10.3 [95% confidence interval 1.79-59.5]). Further, having Russian salad on the plate even if it was not consumed increased the relative risk of illness, thus suggesting that other food items may have been contaminated when they came into contact with it on the plate. This Salmonella outbreak highlighted the risks associated with the improper handling of food in private residences, which are then sold at a large public event. PMID:21790276

  3. IndoChinese women's breastfeeding practices following immigration to Sydney: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C; Ledwidge, H; Coulon, L

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, most IndoChinese women breastfeed their children for a prolonged period. Recent studies indicate that there is a reduction in the rate and duration of breastfeeding by IndoChinese women following immigration to Western countries. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare pre- and post-migration attitudes of 20 IndoChinese women towards infant feeding. Triangulated methodology was used for data collection and frequency distribution and measures of association were used to analyse the quantitative data. Content analysis identified patterns and themes in the qualitative results. Findings revealed that following migration to Australia the women experienced significant sociocultural problems. Recommendations include in-depth studies of ethnic groups and 'tailor-made' education to promote breastfeeding. PMID:8240763

  4. Barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with never testing among gay and bisexual men attending sexual health clinics in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P; Holt, Martin; Couldwell, Deborah L; Smith, Don E; Davies, Stephen C; McNulty, Anna; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Guy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men have increased over the past decade in Australia. HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) was introduced in Australia in 2011 as a strategy to increase HIV testing by making the testing process more convenient. We surveyed gay and bisexual men undergoing POCT to assess barriers to HIV testing and characteristics associated with not having previously tested for HIV (never testing). Methods During 2011 and 2012, gay and bisexual men who were undergoing POCT at four Sydney sexual health clinics self-completed questionnaires assessing testing history and psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and never testing. Results Of 1093 participants, 981 (89.9%) reported ever testing for HIV and 110 (10.1%) never testing. At least one barrier to testing was reported by 1046 men (95.7%), with only 47 men (4.3%) not reporting any barrier to testing. The most commonly reported barriers to testing were annoyance at having to return for results (30.2%), not having done anything risky (29.6%), stress in waiting for results (28.4%), being afraid of testing positive (27.5%) and having tested recently (23.2%). Never testing was independently associated with being non-gay-identified (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2), being aged less than 25 years (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6–3.8), living in a suburb with few gay couples (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0), being afraid of testing HIV-positive (AOR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4), not knowing where to test (AOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2) and reporting one or no sexual partners in the last six months (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.2). Conclusions Barriers to HIV testing were commonly reported among the clinic-based gay and bisexual men in this study. Our findings suggest further health promotion and prevention strategies are needed to address the

  5. Assessment of sediment quality in Avicennia marina-dominated embayments of Sydney Estuary: the potential use of pneumatophores (aerial roots) as a bio-indicator of trace metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2014-02-15

    Currently, coastal intertidal environments are under stress from increased contaminant loads due to urbanization and other anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove habitats are abundant in tropical and sub-topical intertidal zones and frequently act as a metal bio-filter in estuarine systems. Mangrove reforestation is often considered as one of the management options to protect estuarine-marine habitats. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the bio-indicator potential of Avicennia marina by determining heavy metal concentrations in pneumatophore (aerial root) tissues and ambient sediments from Sydney Estuary (Australia). We collected mangrove sediments and pneumatophores in fifteen locations covering five major embayments of the estuary for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Metal concentrations in sediment were mostly above Australian interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQG)-Low and in few instances above ISQG-High values. Enrichment factors (EFs >6, especially of Cu, Pb and Zn) suggest "very severe" modification of sediment in Sydney Estuary in all but one embayment which was mainly due to rapid changes in land use in connection with urbanization. High bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were observed for Cu and Ni in comparison with other metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb and Zn). A strong, positive relationship between metals in sediments and pneumatophores suggests potential use of these tissues as a bio-indicator of estuarine contamination and that metals are entering the biotic environment. The study further highlights a positive role of mangroves in sequestering metals from sediments and the water column and thus protecting estuarine environments from pollution. PMID:24345861

  6. Estrogen mediated effects in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, following field exposures to sewage effluent containing estrogenic compounds and activity.

    PubMed

    Andrew-Priestley, M N; O'Connor, W A; Dunstan, R H; Van Zwieten, L; Tyler, T; Kumar, A; MacFarlane, G R

    2012-09-15

    The Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, has been demonstrated as a useful biomonitor of estrogenic compounds following laboratory exposures, yet its utility in the assessment of estrogenic exposure and effects under field conditions requires investigation. To achieve this aim, S. glomerata were deployed in Newcastle, Australia in the effluent receiving marine waters of Burwood Beach WWTP (Burwood Beach "near", <50 m from outfall and Burwood Beach "far", 100-150 m from outfall) and reference locations (Redhead, Fingal Island 1 and Fingal Island 2) at depths of 4, 8 and 12 m for six weeks. Effluent receiving waters of Burwood Beach WWTP were found to be a suitable impact location, demonstrated via measurement of estrogenic compounds and activity throughout the deployment. Estrogenic compounds were detected (average of combined solids and liquid fractions) at average concentrations of: 1.42 ng/L for estrone, 0.69 ng/L for 17β estradiol, 3.83 ng/L for estriol (E3), 0.56 ng/L for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 64.2 ng/L for bisphenol A, 7.51 ng/L for 4-nonylphenol and 5.93 ng/L for 4-tert-octylphenol. Total estrogenic activity was estimated at 4.48 ng/L EEQ via the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES(®)) assay (average of combined solid and liquid fractions). Female vitellogenin gene expression was highest at Burwood Beach locations, yet no significant differences were detected among locations for either sex. Vitellogenin protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) in S. glomerata at Burwood Beach Near compared to reference locations for the 4 and 12 m depths. Increased proportions of females were found at Burwood Beach Near, at 4m depth (p<0.05). Both Burwood Beach locations had higher proportions of mature female gonadal development stages compared to reference locations (p<0.05). Oocyte area was highest at both Burwood Beach locations, but no significant differences were detected among locations. Findings provided further evidence that female S. glomerata may be a suitable

  7. The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocations in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney II: Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant

    2013-08-01

    The aim in this paper is to assess the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water in the political jurisdictions of the peri-urban South Creek catchment of Western Sydney. This catchment has been identified as the region in which the city of Sydney will grow into in the future, with a plan to move an extra one million people into the catchment in the next 25-30 years. In conjunction with this expansion, a plan exists to augment the existing water supply by treating waste water effluent, harvesting stormwater and improving irrigation efficiency, along with a strategy for saving water on farms. Water in this catchment is operated by and in the interests of society, where decisions on its allocation have a political perspective to them. However, the growth within this catchment and the water augmentation strategies are not split evenly amongst the political entities within this catchment, namely the Local Government Authorities. An integrated hydro-economic model segregated according to the political entities in the catchment is used in this study to address a range of water saving scenarios raised by stakeholders. The trade-offs inherent in all water allocation decisions on a regional basis are made transparent in this model and its political ramifications, defined as the impacts on different political regions, are identified. In analysing the measures designed to save water across the catchment, none resulted in a positive Net Present Value. Even just expanding the system to accommodate one million extra people resulted in significant economic losses. In addition, the impact of each measure in each political region was markedly different. The purpose of this study is to provide stakeholders in individual local government regions with evidence of the costs and impacts of rational decisions to change the management of water resources in South Creek catchment.

  8. Agglutinated foraminifera from the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia: Their use as indicators of sea-level changes in Carboniferous coal-bearing strata

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, W.G.; Scott, D.B.; Medioli, F.M.; Gibling, M.R. . Centre for Marine Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Agglutinated foraminifera and arcellaceans (the camoebians) were examined from Carboniferous (Late Westphalian-Stephanian) cyclothems in the Sydney Basin of Nova Scotia. Their presence confirms that the laterally extensive coal seams, limestones, mudstones and carbonaceous shales were deposited in a paralic setting. Four distinctive assemblages are documented from the coal-bearing strata, and these may be used as accurate paleo sea-level indicators on the basis of the modern distribution of similar assemblages. Mixed assemblages dominated by Ammobaculites characterize siltstones overlying the coal seams, an association typical of mineralic substrates within modern estuarine environments. Assemblages dominated by small, finely agglutinated specimens of Ammotium and Ammobaculites occur in organic rich strata between coal seam splits. Similar assemblages are found in modern salt marshes and upper estuarine settings. Trochammina dominated assemblages occur in mudstones underlying the coal seams. Such assemblages are typical of higher elevations in modern brackish and saline marshes. Monotypic assemblages of the arcellacean Difflugia are also found in the seat earths below coal seams. Similar associations occur today in mineralic substrates below modern freshwater floating marshes. The presence of a Trochammina assemblage has aided recognition of a maximum flooding (transgression) surface below the base of an incised paleovalley, interpreted as a type 1 sequence boundary, in the Bonar cyclothem of the Sydney Basin. The valley incision is attributed to glacioeustatic sea-level lowering. The upper 10m of the 25m thick valley fill contains assemblages of Difflugia, which are succeeded by Trochammina assemblages within the seat earth beneath the coal at the top of the cyclothem.

  9. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  10. Small-scale spatial structuring of interstitial invertebrates on three embayed beaches, Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Belinda C.; Goodwin, Ian D.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-10-01

    An understanding of ecological processes hinges upon an understanding of the spatial structuring of their key biotic components. Interstitial invertebrates are a ubiquitous and ecologically important component of sandy beach ecosystems. As many sandy beach taxa have limited dispersal, it may be expected that their populations exhibit a high degree of spatial structuring, yet the spatial scales across which they display baseline variability remain largely unknown. To assess (1) whether interstitial invertebrates display patchiness on embayed sandy beaches, (2) whether the size of patches they form is consistent across three geographically proximal beaches, (3) the key environmental correlates of this variation and (4) its taxonomic dependence, samples were collected at regular (0.5 m) intervals along 15 m long geomorphically similar stretches of three proximal intermediate beaches and analyses of spatial autocorrelation were conducted. On each of the three beaches, interstitial invertebrate communities formed patches of 2-4.5 m in diameter. Spatial structuring of invertebrate communities was driven by harpacticoid copepods and gastrotrichs, and corresponded to spatial structuring of sediments. Sediments, however, explained only 33% of spatial variation in faunal communities, indicating the importance of other abiotic and/or biotic factors. Our study highlights that even on seemingly homogeneous sandy beaches, faunal communities may display considerable small-scale spatial structuring. Examination of spatial structure may lead to a greater understanding of the ecological processes in this system.

  11. International Congress of Biological Psychiatry. 8-13 February 2004, Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Trevor R

    2004-03-01

    Approximately 1500 psychiatrists, psychologists and basic scientists attended the International Congress of Biological Psychiatry with a specialist interest in the biological aspects of psychiatry. There was relatively little information on new medications for the treatment of psychiatric disorders but the congress emphasized approaches to treatment based on medications and physical therapies, as well as advances in the understanding of the biological basis of psychiatric illnesses. Around 800 abstracts were presented in symposia, sponsored satellite sessions, free communications and poster sessions. The poster sessions were particularly well attended and provided many lively discussions. Of particular interest were sessions devoted to new antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia, management of mood and anxiety disorder, Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorder. This report describes information on the new antipsychotic drug aripiprazole, novel targets for the treatment of mood disorders and psychoses, GABAA receptors in the treatment of panic disorder, and poster presentations on bipolar disorder. PMID:15017455

  12. "It's Good to Have Wheels!" Perceptions of Cycling among Homeless Young People in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2012-01-01

    Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…

  13. Media Matters in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kell

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a teacher helped transform a K-12 Christian school near Sydney, Australia, from a book-bound media studies program into a hands-on learning experience for students. Various projects allow students to operate advanced equipment, evaluate their own and their peers' work, present research results to the class, and produce live media…

  14. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  15. The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns (SMILE) study: cluster randomised trial of humour therapy in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lee-Fay; Brodaty, Henry; Goodenough, Belinda; Spitzer, Peter; Bell, Jean-Paul; Fleming, Richard; Casey, Anne-Nicole; Liu, Zhixin; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether humour therapy reduces depression (primary outcome), agitation and behavioural disturbances and improves social engagement and quality-of-life in nursing home residents. Design The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns study was a single-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of humour therapy. Setting 35 Sydney nursing homes. Participants All eligible residents within geographically defined areas within each nursing home were invited to participate. Intervention Professional ‘ElderClowns’ provided 9–12 weekly humour therapy sessions, augmented by resident engagement by trained staff ‘LaughterBosses’. Controls received usual care. Measurements Depression scores on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, agitation scores on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, behavioural disturbance scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, social engagement scores on the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and self-rated and proxy-rated quality-of-life scores on a health-related quality-of-life tool for dementia, the DEMQOL. All outcomes were measured at the participant level by researchers blind to group assignment. Randomisation Sites were stratified by size and level of care then assigned to group using a random number generator. Results Seventeen nursing homes (189 residents) received the intervention and 18 homes (209 residents) received usual care. Groups did not differ significantly over time on the primary outcome of depression, or on behavioural disturbances other than agitation, social engagement and quality of life. The secondary outcome of agitation was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with controls over 26 weeks (time by group interaction adjusted for covariates: p=0.011). The mean difference in change from baseline to 26 weeks in Blom-transformed agitation scores after adjustment for covariates was 0.17 (95% CI 0

  16. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

  17. FTIR and py-GC-MS spectra of true-fern and seed-fern sphenopterids (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, Pennsylvanian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Sphenopterid specimens from the Late Pennsylvanian of Sydney Coalfield, Canada, are investigated by FTIR and py-GC-MS techniques as part of an on-going research project into the biochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Pennsylvanian-age pteridophylls. Included in the investigation are samples of the true-fern species Oligocarpia brongniartii and Zeilleria delicatula that are preserved as naturally macerated cuticles (NMC), and the seed-fern Eusphenopteris neuropteroides that is also preserved as a compression/impression. FTIR spectra of NMC seed-fern E. neuropteroides, and fern sphenopterid O. brongniartii are very similar, except that the latter does not have aromatic bands in the 700-900 cm-1 out-of-plane region, py-GC-MS show more aromatic compounds for the seed fern than for the two true-fern sphenopterids. Another difference between seed-fern and true-fern sphenopterids is a lower ratio of CH2 to CH3 in chemically treated specimens (CTC) for the seed fern. These observations suggest slightly higher aromaticity for the seed ferns, perhaps related to some chemotaxonomic differences. Comparison of FTIR and py-GC-MS characteristics of sphenopterids and other plant groups shows that these two techniques have potential to identifying chemotaxonomic signals from Carboniferous pteridophylls in general, although more data are needed to confirm this. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influenza Outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: The Utility of Laboratory Testing and Case Definitions on Mass Gathering Outbreak Containment

    PubMed Central

    van Hal, Sebastiaan J.; Foo, Hong; Blyth, Christopher C.; McPhie, Kenneth; Armstrong, Paul; Sintchenko, Vitali; Dwyer, Dominic E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a predefined clinical case definition. However, the utility of these clinical case definitions and laboratory testing in mass gathering outbreaks remains unknown. Methods and Results An influenza outbreak was identified during World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. From the data collected on pilgrims presenting to a single clinic, a Markov model was developed and validated against the actual epidemic curve. Simulations were performed to examine the utility of different clinical case definitions and laboratory testing strategies for containment of influenza outbreaks. Clinical case definitions were found to have the greatest impact on averting further cases with no added benefit when combined with any laboratory test. Although nucleic acid testing (NAT) demonstrated higher utility than indirect immunofluorescence antigen or on-site point-of-care testing, this effect was lost when laboratory NAT turnaround times was included. The main benefit of laboratory confirmation was limited to identification of true influenza cases amenable to interventions such as antiviral therapy. Conclusions Continuous re-evaluation of case definitions and laboratory testing strategies are essential for effective management of influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings. PMID:19727401

  19. Refugee Action Support: An Interventionist Pedagogy for Supporting Refugee Students' Learning in Greater Western Sydney Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of community, non-government organisations and universities in assisting secondary schools meet the needs of refugee students. On arrival in Australia, many African refugee communities experience high levels of stress particularly in adjusting to their new environment. The parents and students unfamiliarity with the…

  20. The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocation in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney I: Model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant

    2013-08-01

    In this paper an integrated model of the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water within the political divisions in the South Creek catchment of the ‘peri-urban’ region of Western Sydney is presented. This model enables an assessment of the hydrological and economic merits of different water allocation-substitution strategies, both over the whole catchment and in each political region and jurisdiction within it, to be undertaken. Not only are the differences in the water allocated to each region and use revealed, but also the net present values associated with each use within each region. In addition, it is possible to determine measures of equity in water distribution using this approach. It was found that over a period from 2008 to 2031 the South Creek catchment in total would on average use approximately 50,600 ML of potable water a year, the vast majority of this is used in the two urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown. Agricultural water use was also greatest in these two regions. Over this period the allocation system was estimated to have a small net present value of approximately A301 million and the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated to be 1.06. The urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown and the rural region of Hawkesbury were estimated to have returned a net positive benefit of A76 million, A246 million and A39 million (respectively), while water to Liverpool and Camden was delivered at a loss of A7 million and A52 million over the period assessed. It was found that across the catchment a fair degree of both physical and economic equity occurred between regions, with the exception of Liverpool, which was over endowed with water and paid a high cost for it.

  1. The Westphalian D fossil lepidodendrid forest at Table Head, Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia: Sedimentology, paleoecology and floral response to changing edaphic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calder, J.H.; Gibling, M.R.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; MacNeil, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Strata of Westphalian D age on the western coast of the Sydney Basin expose a fossil forest of approximately 30 lepidodendrid trees within one of several clastic splits of the Harbour Seam. A mutidisciplinary approach was employed to interpret the origins of the coal bed, the depositional history of the site and the response of the fossil forest to changing edaphic conditions. The megaspore and miospore records indicate that the mire vegetation was dominated by arboreous lycopsids, especially Paralycopodites, with subdominant tree ferns. Petrographic, palynological and geochemical evidence suggest that the Harbour coal bed at Table Head originated as a rheotrophic (cf. planar) mire (eutric histosol). The mire forest is interpreted to have been engulfed by prograding distributary-channel sediments; sparse protist assemblages are suggestive of a freshwater delta-plain lake environment occasionally in contact with brackish waters. Lepidodendrids persisted as site colonizers of clastic substrates even after burial of the rheotrophic peatland and influenced the morphology of deposited sediment, but apparently were unable to colonize distributary channels. Equivocal taxonomic data (compression fossils) show the fossil forest to have been composed of both monocarpic (Lepidodendron) and polycarpic (Diaphorodendron, Paralycopodites, ?Sigillaria) lycopsids, genera recorded in the palynology of the uppermost ply of the underlying coal bed. Comparatively rare within the clastic beds of the fossil forest, however, is the stem compression of Paralycopodites, whose dispersed megapores and miospores dominate the underlying coal bed. Tree diameter data recorded equivalent to breast height indicate a forest of mixed age. These data would appear to suggest that some lepidodendrids employing a polycarpic reproductive strategy were better able to cross the ecological barrier imposed between peat and clastic substrates. Foliar compressions indicate that an understory or stand of

  2. Risk Factors for Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Variation with Age and Sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. Methods Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70–90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. Results All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7–49.5%) for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. Discussion Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits. PMID:23799051

  3. Real-Time PCR detection and quantitation of Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin-resistant strains in archival material and correlation with Sydney classification

    PubMed Central

    Gazi, Sofia; Karameris, Andreas; Christoforou, Marios; Agnantis, Niki; Rokkas, Theodore; Stefanou, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), infects gastric mucosa causing gastritis. Treatment failure is mainly due to certain genetic changes in the peptidyltransferase loop of 23S rRNA of the microorganism. The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic changes in gastric biopsies of H. pylori (+) patients that lead to clarithromycin resistance and to correlate them with histology data. Methods A total of 150 H. pylori (+) gastric biopsies were studied, taken before and after eradication therapy from 75 dyspeptic patients divided in 2 groups: group A consisted of 25 H. pylori (+) triple-therapy resistant patients and group B consisted of 50 H. pylori (+) successfully treated patients. Histological classification of the H. pylori (+) gastritis was done according to the Sydney criteria. Genetic material was analyzed with the ClariRes™ RT-PCR bi-probe based assay for the determination of point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and with a Quantitative-RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) method for the quantitation of H. pylori. Results We showed that in 18/ 25 group A patients certain point mutations of 23S rRNA at sites A2142C, A2142G and A2143G had occurred. Nine of these 18 mutated cases (50%) were characterized as mixed infections. Mixed infections in 2/50 patients of group B were also observed. Using Q-RT-PCR, we found that gastric mucosal density of H. pylori correlates well with bacterial colonization. There was a statistically significant association (P<0.005) between the presence of the detected H. pylori genetic alterations and inflammation, activity and H. pylori density as histologically determined. Conclusion Certain point mutations in H. pylori genome that affect susceptibility to clarithromycin correlate with histological features of gastritis. PMID:24714278

  4. Making the Grade? Globalisation and the Training Market in Australia. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Buchanan, John; Bretherton, Tanya; van Barneveld, Kristin; Pickersgill, Richard

    This two-volume document reports on a study of globalization and Australia's training market. Volume 1 begins by examining debate on globalization and industry training in Australia. Discussed next is the study methodology, which involved field studies of the metals and engineering industry in South West Sydney and the Hunter and the information…

  5. Making Visible the First Women in Astronomy in Australia: The Measurers and Computers Employed for the Astrographic Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.

    In Australia a significant number of women were employed to measure and compute the position of stars for the Astrographic Catalogue at Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth Observatories. New archival research has provided evidence that the first women employed in astronomy in Australia were engaged due to this project.

  6. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  7. Working Knowledge: Productive Learning at Work. Proceedings [of the] International Conference (Sydney, Australia, December 10-13, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains 65 presentations and 3 colloquiums from a conference that dealt with knowledge at work and knowledge that works and with how education can be successfully integrated into work and work into education. The papers are "Reading the Contexts of Complex Incidents of Adult Education Practice" (Apte); "Models of Work…

  8. ACAL National Conference (Sydney, Australia, October 9-11, 1992). Conference Papers, Vol. 3, Workshops with a Local NSW Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy & Numeracy Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This third of three volumes of the 1992 Australian Council for Adult Literacy (ACAL) Conference Papers is a special edition of "Literacy and Numeracy Exchange." It includes nine papers from workshops with a more local New South Wales focus. "Literacy, Language, and Numeracy in the Workplace in the Context of Industry Restructuring" (Ursula…

  9. Women's Forum: Gender, Language and Critical Literacy (Manly, Sydney, Australia, April 7-9, 1994). Forum Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Univ., Sydney (Australia).

    These 12 papers reflect the range of issues and perspectives discussed at a forum that addressed three main topics: what a feminist critical literacy pedagogy is; a gender perspective of policy, organizations, and teachers' work; and concepts and practices of equity and inclusivity. The papers are as follows: "Questioning 'Progressive' Pedagogies"…

  10. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 1: The CSIRO Division of Radiophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; George, Martin; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s Australia was a world leader in the specialised field of low frequency radio astronomy, with two geographically-distinct areas of activity. One was in the Sydney region and the other in the island of Tasmania to the south of the Australian mainland. Research in the Sydney region began in 1949 through the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics, and initially was carried out at the Hornsby Valley field station before later transferring to the Fleurs field station. In this paper we summarise the low frequency radio telescopes and research programs associated with the historic Hornsby Valley and Fleurs sites.