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1

Using symbolic execution for verifying safety-critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety critical systems require to be highly reliable and thus special care is taken when verifying them in order to increase the confidence in their behavior. This paper addresses the problem of formal verification of safety critical systems by providing empirical evidence of the practical applicability of symbolic execution and of its usefulness for checking safety-related properties. In this paper,

Alberto Coen-Porisini; Giovanni Denaro; Carlo Ghezzi

2001-01-01

2

Engaging Latino farmworkers in the development of symbols to improve pesticide safety and health education and risk communication.  

PubMed

The working and living environments of farmworkers put them and their families at risk for pesticide exposure and, consequently, immediate and long-term health effects. In this study, visual materials for a pesticide toxicology safety and health curriculum were constructed by engaging farmworkers in various stages of symbol development. Twenty-seven farmworkers in two states participated in this descriptive case study through focused small group discussions and interviews. Our findings support the importance of vivid and realistic symbols, the effectiveness of a traffic-light symbol in communicating technical information to farmworkers, and the need to engage low-literacy end-users in the production of educational materials. This work informs the development of curricula for other vulnerable populations pertaining to a variety of health-related topics, as well as discussions surrounding regulatory proposals to revise the United States Worker Protection Standard. PMID:22833257

LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Blanchard, Margaret R; Asuaje, Cesar R; Cope, W Gregory

2013-10-01

3

Symbolic solutions for deadly dilemmas: An analysis of federal coal mine health and safety legislation  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies of coal mine laws have argued that the passage of all significant health and safety legislation can be attributed to a succession of catastrophic disasters which heightened awareness and propelled lawmakers into action. This paper takes issue with this ''disaster-law'' argument because it obscures the intricacies of law creation by focusing on a single factor. More accurately, mining disasters represent one dimension of a process aimed at resolving conflicts occurring within a specific social context. Historically, legislation has been utilized to avert economic crises by addressing the demands of protesting miners. Unfortunately, while the ''written law'' assured improvements, the ''law in action'' did not meet these guarantees and the deaths in the mines continued. A case study of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 demonstrates how a law with apparently progressive standards can fail to effect change because of its dualistic nature and incomplete implementation.

Curran, D.J.

1984-01-01

4

Symbolic Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

Podgor, Ellen S.

1976-01-01

5

Sixty Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever wondered about the symbols used by scientists? You're probably not alone, and this website created by a team at the University of Nottingham demystifies sixty prominent physics symbols via informative video segments. The videos are not necessarily meant to be lessons or lectures on the symbols, "The films are just fun chats with men and women who live their subject and know a lot about it!" The videos are quite fun, and the talk on "gamma" includes a discussion of cricket balls, while the "rho" video features paperclips in coffee cups. All of the videos can be accessed via the homepage, and visitors should plan on making several visits to check out all of the clips. At the bottom of the homepage, visitors can also view earlier videos created as part of the project, learn more about their scientists, and take a look at a list of other related sites.

6

Patriotic Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can click on a number of national symbols to get visual familiarity with them. Students who can read will be challenged with a limited amount of text. Children can x-out pictures on a worksheet to show they found each symbol. X-out the pictures on your worksheet as you find them on the computer. 1.Ben s Flag 2.Ben s St. of Lib 3.Ben s White House 4.Ben s Liberty Bell k-2 5.Ben s Independence Hall k-2 6.Bald Eagle k-2 7.Photo of Washington Monument 8. Photo-Back of White House 9. Photo of White House 10.Mt. Rushmore 11.Arlington Nat. Cemetary 12.Jefferson Memorial Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt, Lincoln: Some presidents of our country. 14.Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers 15.Color Ben s Flag ...

Anderson, J.

2007-02-09

7

Symbolicity Among Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the framework of "symbolicity" and "nativistic movement" the paper presents a "reasonably balanced and illustrative" examination of selected negative and positive trends in Native American symbolicity. Symbolicity is defined as the state, condition, and tendency of people to organize their perceptions and experience into symbols and symbol

Hill, L. Brooks; Lujan, Philip

8

Extending to Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students begin to use symbolic representations, they use variables as unknowns. To help their concept of symbolic representation to grow, they need to explore questions such as: What is an identity? and When are two symbolic representations equal? This activity engages students in work with an online algebraic balance. Questions as well as ideas for class discussion are included in the lesson plan.

Martin, Gary; Keller, Brian

2000-01-01

9

Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

2011-01-01

10

Mathematical Symbol Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the indexing and retrieval of mathematical symbols from digitized documents. The proposed approach exploits\\u000a Shape Contexts (SC) to describe the shape of mathematical symbols. Indexed symbols are represented with a vector space-based\\u000a method that is grounded on SC clustering. We explore the use of the Self Organizing Map (SOM) to perform the clustering and\\u000a we compare several

Simone Marinai; Beatrice Miotti; Giovanni Soda

2009-01-01

11

Artificial intelligence and symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of massive parallelism and the renewed interest in neural networks gives a new need to evaluate the relationship of symbolic processing and artificial intelligence. The physical symbol hypothesis has encountered many difficulties coping with human concepts and common sense. Expert systems are showing more promise for the early stages of learning than for real expertise. There is a

Chris Moss; Liu Feng

1989-01-01

12

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

13

Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

James, Mark

2006-01-01

14

Memoized Symbolic Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

2012-01-01

15

Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

2011-01-01

16

Multiple symbol differential detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

Divsalar, Dariush (inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (inventor)

1991-01-01

17

Symbolic computer vector analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

Stoutemyer, D. R.

1977-01-01

18

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A consistent provider of high-quality online resources, the US Geological Survey (USGS) does not disappoint with this site. This site, announced this week, is an online version of its popular guide to topographic map symbols. Although a bit brief, the guide will prove helpful to general users of topographic maps and beginning geography students. The guide offers charts explaining map symbols in six different categories. A very short introduction to reading topographic maps and a list of related links are also provided.

19

Mathematics and symbol manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I would like to present some ideas on what I believe symbol manipulation programs should look like. My comments are based on my experience using MACSYMA [6] for the past seven years. I am also somewhat familiar with REDUCE [3] and the new program, SMP [1]. Some of my comments come from difficulties I have encountered in using MACSYMA and

Stanly Steinberg

1982-01-01

20

Sign, Symbol and Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signs are such a commonplace sight in our everyday lives, that we can easily miss the artistic beauty and graphic harmony of the symbols used. Thoughtfully well designed and planned signs communicate with a simplicity and directness that signmakers and designers have adhered to for ages. Even contemporary signs still reflect their timelessness…

Ballinger, Louise Bowen; Ballinger, Raymond A.

21

Exploring Native American Symbolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

Dufrene, Phoebe

22

Symbolic Model Checking: 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifyingfinite state systems by examining state-graph models of systembehavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitlyrepresent the state space using a list or a table that grows inproportion to the number of states. We describe a general method thatrepresents the state space symbolically instead of explicitly. The generalityof our method

D. L. Dill; E. M. Clarke; J. R. Burch; K. L. Mcmillan; L. J. Hwang

1992-01-01

23

Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

Toro, Leonor

24

"Symbols and selectivity" revisited.  

PubMed

The author recalls how he came to do one of the first statistical analyses of native American medicinal plants, published in volume 1 of Journal of Ethnopharmacology. The background of that paper, "Symbols and Selectivity," involved a great deal of serendipity. PMID:16005172

Moerman, Daniel E

2005-08-22

25

Historic Symbols of Patriotism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are historical symbols of patriotism? 1. Open: (Teacher will give it to you) Graphic Organzer. Draw a picture in each circle of things you learn. 2. Look at the American Flag American Flag. Draw your own in a circle. 3. Now look at the Alabama Flag Alabama Flag. Let's draw this flag. 4. Watch this video The National Anthem being sung Draw you singing this song! 5. What is this? The Pledge of Allegiance. When do we say this ...

Murry, Ms.

2010-11-04

26

Phallic Symbols in Tibet  

E-print Network

pagoda roofiet (rgya-phibs) on the east side of the Jo-khang roof. The story of the bad ome~ and the magic to neutralize them is fami­ liar to readers of Tibetan historical works but it m,ay not be so well known that the symbols were actually placed... where old practices were ~low to die. The local name for the images is rendered phonetically by western travellers as "Tombe" or "Tembe". The Tibetan orthography does not seem to be known; but I wonder Whether it may be connected with Idem, Idem...

Richardson, Hugh Edward

1972-07-14

27

On single-symbol and double-symbol decodable STBCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A characterization of all single-symbol decodable designs (SSDD) (with or without full-diversity) is presented and a rate-one, double-symbol decodable, full-diversity coordinate-interleaved orthogonal design based on CIOD is given for eight transmit antennas.

M. Zafar Ali Khan; B. Sundar Rajan; Moon Ho Lee

2003-01-01

28

How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…

Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

2014-01-01

29

Symbol by symbol APP decoding with a generalized Viterbi decoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a symbol by symbol optimal a-posteriori probability (APP) decoding algorithm that only uses forward recursions. Originally, this algorithm was described for optimum soft-output detection for channels with ISI and is called the optimum soft-output algorithm (OSA). We have proven the convergence of the OSA and show that it is a generalization of the Viterbi algorithm

A. G. C. Koppelaar; M. van Dijk

1999-01-01

30

Research on Symbol Recognition for Mathematical Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of mathematical symbols is an important step in the mathematical expression recognition system. It consists of two stages: symbol segmentation and symbol recognition. Aiming at the fact that the commercial OCR systems cannot recognize expression symbols correctly because of the differences between mathematical symbols and ordinary characters, we do lots of research work on the recognition of printed

Xue-dong Tian; Hai-yan Li; Xin-fu Li; Li-ping Zhang

2006-01-01

31

The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.

Jensen, William B.

2005-01-01

32

The Origins of Symbolic Racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of symbolic racism places its origins in a blend of anti-Black affect and conservative values, particularly individualism. We clarify that hypothesis, test it directly, and report several findings consistent with it. Study 1 shows that racial prejudice and general political conservatism fall into 2 separate factors, with symbolic racism loading about equally on both. Study 2 found that

David O. Sears; P. J. Henry

2003-01-01

33

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

34

Symbols: Weapons of Math Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper is part of an ongoing investigation of how students use and understand mathematics in introductory physics. Our previous research [1] revealed that differences in score as large as 50% can be observed between numeric and symbolic versions of the same question. We have expanded our study of numeric and symbolic differences to include 10 pairs of questions on a calculus based introductory physics final exam. We find that not all physics problems exhibit such large differences and that in the cases where a large difference is observed that the largest difference occurs for the poorest students. With these 10 questions we have been able to develop phenomenological categories to characterize the properties of each of the questions. We will discuss what question properties are necessary to observe differences in score on the numeric and symbolic versions. We will also discuss what insights these categories give us about how students think about and use symbols in physics.

Torigoe, Eugene; Gladding, Gary

2009-06-24

35

Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction.  

PubMed

Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required. Here we report that young children, who have mastered verbal counting and are on the threshold of arithmetic instruction, can build on their nonsymbolic number system to perform symbolic addition and subtraction. Children across a broad socio-economic spectrum solved symbolic problems involving approximate addition or subtraction of large numbers, both in a laboratory test and in a school setting. Aspects of symbolic arithmetic therefore lie within the reach of children who have learned no algorithms for manipulating numerical symbols. Our findings help to delimit the sources of children's difficulties learning symbolic arithmetic, and they suggest ways to enhance children's engagement with formal mathematics. PMID:17538620

Gilmore, Camilla K; McCarthy, Shannon E; Spelke, Elizabeth S

2007-05-31

36

International assessment of judged symbol comprehensibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbols are widely used internationally to communicate to people with different languages, but the large number of symbols for any particular meaning or referent may cause confusion. Some international organizations attempt to prevent this confusion by recommending standard symbols, and in some cases base their recommendation on the results of assessing the comprehensibility of alternative symbol designs. In this study,

Jeremy J. Foster; M. R. Afzalnia

2005-01-01

37

On-line recognition handwritten mathematical symbol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims at online recognition of handwritten mathematical symbols. It analyses the structures of 94 opt used mathematical symbols and concludes that all of them consist of 10 basic elements. It proposes a new method of basic element ordering and reduces the number of standard symbols by extracting three primary features of mathematical symbols, namely, basic element vector, relative

Xuejun Zhao; Xinyu Liu; Shengling Zheng; Baochang Pan; Yuan Yan Tang

1997-01-01

38

Noncoherent DTTLs for Symbol Synchronization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noncoherent data-transition tracking loops (DTTLs) have been proposed for use as symbol synchronizers in digital communication receivers. [Communication- receiver subsystems that can perform their assigned functions in the absence of synchronization with the phases of their carrier signals ( carrier synchronization ) are denoted by the term noncoherent, while receiver subsystems that cannot function without carrier synchronization are said to be coherent. ] The proposal applies, more specifically, to receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signals generated by directly phase-modulating binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data streams onto carrier signals having known frequencies but unknown phases. The proposed noncoherent DTTLs would be modified versions of traditional DTTLs, which are coherent. The symbol-synchronization problem is essentially the problem of recovering symbol timing from a received signal. In the traditional, coherent approach to symbol synchronization, it is necessary to establish carrier synchronization in order to recover symbol timing. A traditional DTTL effects an iterative process in which it first generates an estimate of the carrier phase in the absence of symbol-synchronization information, then uses the carrier-phase estimate to obtain an estimate of the symbol-synchronization information, then feeds the symbol-synchronization estimate back to the carrier-phase-estimation subprocess. In a noncoherent symbol-synchronization process, there is no need for carrier synchronization and, hence, no need for iteration between carrier-synchronization and symbol- synchronization subprocesses. The proposed noncoherent symbolsynchronization process is justified theoretically by a mathematical derivation that starts from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method of estimation of symbol timing utilized in traditional, coherent DTTLs. In that MAP method, one chooses the value of a variable of interest (in this case, the offset in the estimated symbol timing) that causes a likelihood function of symbol estimates over some number of symbol periods to assume a maximum value. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified to fit within the space available for this article, it can be said that the mathematical derivation involves a modified interpretation of the likelihood function that lends itself to noncoherent DTTLs. The proposal encompasses both linear and nonlinear noncoherent DTTLs. The performances of both have been computationally simulated; for comparison, the performances of linear and nonlinear coherent DTTLs have also been computationally simulated. The results of these simulations show that, among other things, the expected mean-square timing errors of coherent and noncoherent DTTLs are relatively insensitive to window width. The results also show that at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), the performances of the noncoherent DTTLs approach those of their coherent counterparts at, while at low SNRs, the noncoherent DTTLs incur penalties of the order of 1.5 to 2 dB.

Simon, Marvin; Tkacenko, Andre

2007-01-01

39

Allegories and Symbols in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manuscript describes how counselors can facilitate self-awareness in clients and counselors-in-training through the use of metaphors. The use of metaphors and others symbols provide a creative, non-intrusive, and non-confrontational approach to counseling. Examples of stories and fables used during counseling sessions and instructional…

Alvarado, Victor I.; Cavazos, Lionel J.

2007-01-01

40

BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

2013-08-01

41

Disaster symbolism and social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the use of social media during disaster events has gained attention in recent years. Prior research paid attention to warnings, response activities and the dissemination of information through social media during times of crisis. This study focuses on the use of social media during crisis from different perspectives. In this paper, the implications of symbols that emerged in

Hiroko Wilensky

2012-01-01

42

Fractions--Concepts before Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning difficulties that students experience with fractions begin immediately when they are shown fraction symbols with one numeral written above the other and told that the "top number" is called the numerator and the "bottom number" is called the denominator. This introduction to fractions will usually include a few visual diagrams to help…

Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

43

Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

2010-01-01

44

Key to symbols Permit Parking  

E-print Network

Gottingen St. Legal Aid Services G100 Fenwick Place 5599 Fenwick St. Student residence, University Health AKey to symbols P PD i Permit Parking Metered Parking Parking for people with Disabilities Emergency for people with disabilities Emergency "Code Blue" Phone B120 B120B120 B120 E280E280 E200 C382C382 C640 D640

Keselj, Vlado

45

Key to symbols Permit Parking  

E-print Network

Key to symbols P PD Permit Parking Metered Parking Parking for people with Disabilities Emergency are labelled both by name and letter (which appears in brackets in the listings where appropriate). J500 M.M. O Sexton House (E) J250 Chemical Engineering (F) J280 G.H. Murray Building (G) J301-02 Ralph M. Medjuck

Beaumont, Christopher

46

Symbolic regression in multicollinearity problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the potential of GP-generated symbolic regression for alleviating multicollinearity problems in multiple regression is presented with a case study in an industrial setting. The main advantage of this approach is the potential to produce a simple and stable polynomial model in terms of the original variables.

Flor A. Castillo; Carlos M. Villa

2005-01-01

47

Laguna Symbolic Geography and Silko's "Ceremony."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Laguna (Pueblo) symbolic geography or world view as it is woven into Leslie Silko's novel "Ceremony." Explains the protagonist's spiritual journey toward health and harmony in terms of symbols and beliefs in Laguna mythology. Contains 21 references. (SV)

Swan, Edith

1988-01-01

48

Commodifying Fido: pets as status symbols  

E-print Network

and mental health, stress reduction, child surrogacy, loneliness reduction and more, there have been fewer investigations of pets as social status symbols. This thesis creates a more inclusive theoretical approach to commodities being used as status symbols...

Plemons, April

2009-05-15

49

On symbolic analysis of cryptographic protocols  

E-print Network

The universally composable symbolic analysis (UCSA) framework layers Dolev-Yao style symbolic analysis on top of the universally composable (UC) secure framework to construct computationally sound proofs of cryptographic ...

Patil, Akshay (Akshay R.)

2005-01-01

50

Functions of Symbolizing Activity: A Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I propose that attending how symbolizing activity functions for teachers and students helps to characterize student-teacher communication, and allows for an investigation of how symbolizing activity contributes to learning. I begin this discussion by articulating four ideas-schemes, symbolizing activity, communication, and learning. Then I propose…

Tillema, Erik

2010-01-01

51

Directed test generation using symbolic grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present CESE, a tool that combines exhaustive enumer- ation of test inputs from a structured domain with symbolic execution driven test generation. We target programs whose valid inputs are determined by some context free grammar. We abstract the concrete input syntax with symbolic gram- mars, where some original tokens are replaced with symbolic constants. This reduces the set of

Rupak Majumdar; Ru-gang Xu

2007-01-01

52

Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

2008-01-01

53

Symbolic Evaluation and the Analysis of Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic evaluation is a form of static program analysis in which symbolic expressions are used to denote the values of program variables and computations. It does not require the user to specify which path at a conditional branch to follow nor how many cycles of a loop to consider. Instead, a symbolic evaluator uses conditional expressions to represent the uncertainty

Glenn H. Holloway; Judy A. Townley

1979-01-01

54

7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

2010-01-01

55

7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

2012-01-01

56

7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

2011-01-01

57

7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

2013-01-01

58

Symbolic Execution Enhanced System Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a testing technique that uses information computed by symbolic execution of a program unit to guide the generation of inputs to the system containing the unit, in such a way that the unit's, and hence the system's, coverage is increased. The symbolic execution computes unit constraints at run-time, along program paths obtained by system simulations. We use machine learning techniques treatment learning and function fitting to approximate the system input constraints that will lead to the satisfaction of the unit constraints. Execution of system input predictions either uncovers new code regions in the unit under analysis or provides information that can be used to improve the approximation. We have implemented the technique and we have demonstrated its effectiveness on several examples, including one from the aerospace domain.

Davies, Misty D.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Raman, Vishwanath

2012-01-01

59

Mathematical symbols as epistemic actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental evidence from developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience indicates that humans are equipped with\\u000a unlearned elementary mathematical skills. However, formal mathematics has properties that cannot be reduced to these elementary\\u000a cognitive capacities. The question then arises how human beings cognitively deal with more advanced mathematical ideas. This\\u000a paper draws on the extended mind thesis to suggest that mathematical symbols

Helen De Cruz; Johan De Smedt

60

Symbolic, Cultural, and Social Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Citizens of Fayette made use of noneconomic capital (social, cultural, and symbolic capital) in fields of social production\\u000a at work, within households, in community organizations, and through the media. They participated in both hierarchical and\\u000a heterarchical power networks. Fayette residents attended church, participated in sports and bands, and hosted neighbors and\\u000a associates in their parlors and dining rooms. In doing

Sarah E. Cowie

61

A theory of developing competence with written mathematical symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops. The theory proposes a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence: (1) connecting individual symbols with referents; (2) developing symbol manipulation procedures; (3a) elaborating procedures for symbols; (3b) routinizing the procedures for manipulating symbols; and (4) using the symbols and rules as referents for building

James Hiebert

1988-01-01

62

Asymptotics of 10j symbols  

E-print Network

The Riemannian 10j symbols are spin networks that assign an amplitude to each 4-simplex in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity. This amplitude is a function of the areas of the 10 faces of the 4-simplex, and Barrett and Williams have shown that one contribution to its asymptotics comes from the Regge action for all non-degenerate 4-simplices with the specified face areas. However, we show numerically that the dominant contribution comes from degenerate 4-simplices. As a consequence, one can compute the asymptotics of the Riemannian 10j symbols by evaluating a `degenerate spin network', where the rotation group SO(4) is replaced by the Euclidean group of isometries of R^3. We conjecture formulas for the asymptotics of a large class of Riemannian and Lorentzian spin networks in terms of these degenerate spin networks, and check these formulas in some special cases. Among other things, this conjecture implies that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are asymptotic to 1/16 times the Riemannian ones.

John C. Baez; J. Daniel Christensen; Greg Egan

2002-08-05

63

Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols  

PubMed Central

Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols), not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications. PMID:15958172

Schijvenaars, Bob JA; Mons, Barend; Weeber, Marc; Schuemie, Martijn J; van Mulligen, Erik M; Wain, Hester M; Kors, Jan A

2005-01-01

64

Symbolic diagnosis for intelligent control  

E-print Network

I INTRODUCTION I 0-8186-2012--9!89/8888/0280$01 .OO 0 1989 IEEE 280 I I !5si I I I I Intelligent Control is loosely defined here as the use of symbolic processing for the purpose of controlling I c I I I I I Authorized licensed use... limited to: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 16:28:03 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. trol tactics which may not be compatible with an in- flexible, ?hard-wired,? direct encoding of algorithms in the numerical...

Painter, John H.; Jowers, S.

1988-08-24

65

Mathematical Symbol Indexing for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we describe our recent research for mathematical symbol indexing and its possible application in the Digital\\u000a Library domain. The proposed approach represents mathematical symbols by means of Shape Contexts (SC) description. Indexed\\u000a symbols are represented with a vector space-based method, but peculiar to our approach is the use of Self Organizing Maps\\u000a (SOM) to perform the clustering

Simone Marinai; Beatrice Miotti; Giovanni Soda

2010-01-01

66

Citizens’ use of policy symbols and frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that citizens are capable of developing and promoting complex policy symbols, and that these symbols include\\u000a supporting frames that explain and justify them. Based on a long-term study of education policies in Los Angeles, California,\\u000a the paper uses interpretive methods to reconstruct and analyze these frames. Citizens developed two specific policy symbols\\u000a while the district was engulfed

Ryane McAuliffe Straus

2011-01-01

67

Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality  

PubMed Central

Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

2014-01-01

68

[Symbolism on "natural" in food].  

PubMed

The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural. PMID:21180823

da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

2011-01-01

69

A legend-driven geographic symbol recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is presented that utilizes the symbolic knowledge found in the legend of the map to drive geographic symbol recognition. The geographic symbol layer(s) of the map are first scanned. The legend of the map is located and segmented. The geographic symbols are identified and their semantic meaning is attached to them. The geographical symbols in input maps are

Hanan Samet; Aya Soffer

1994-01-01

70

Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

2008-01-01

71

Symbol Grounding in Computational Systems: A Paradox of Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a paradoxical feature of computational systems that suggests that computationalism cannot explain symbol grounding. If the mind is a digital computer, as computationalism claims, then it can be comput- ing either over meaningful symbols or over meaningless symbols. If it is com- puting over meaningful symbols its functioning presupposes the existence of meaningful symbols in the system,

Vincent C. Müller

2008-01-01

72

7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

2010-01-01

73

Hazard symbol Hazard Description Risk phrases  

E-print Network

and even death R23, R24, R25, R39, R48 / R26, R27, R28, R39 #12;Hazard Group Hazard Symbol Hazard letterHazard Group Hazard symbol Hazard letter Description Risk phrases associated with this group H1 E

Siddharthan, Advaith

74

How human infants deal with symbol grounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking a distributed view of language, this paper naturalizes symbol grounding. Learning to talk is traced to - not categorizing speech sounds - but events that shape the rise of human-style autonomy. On the extended symbol hypothesis, this happens as babies integrate micro-activity with slow and deliberate adult action. As they discover social norms, intrinsic motive formation enables them to

Stephen J. Cowley

2007-01-01

75

Symbolic Test Selection Based on Approximate Analysis  

E-print Network

Symbolic Test Selection Based on Approximate Analysis Bertrand Jeannet, Thierry J´eron, Vlad Rusu}@irisa.fr Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of generating symbolic test cases for testing the conformance. The challenge we consider is the selection of test cases according to a test purpose, which is here a set

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Rethinking Symbolic Racism: Evidence of Attribution Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that cognitive tendencies related to political sophistication produce an attribution bias in the widely accepted symbolic racism scale. When this bias is controlled statistically, the effect of symbolic racism on racial policy attitudes is greatly diminished. Our theory posits that high sophisticates tend to make global\\/distal attributions, allowing them to associate racial inequality with broader sociopolitical causes.

Brad T. Gomez; J. Matthew Wilson

2006-01-01

77

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

2014-01-01

78

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

2012-01-01

79

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

2010-01-01

80

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

2013-01-01

81

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

2011-01-01

82

Verifying pipelined hardware using symbolic logic simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for automated verification of synchronous pipelined circuits, based on symbolic simulation and the well-known program verification concept of representation functions. The use of representation functions to allow straightforward formulation of readable and intuitive specifications is demonstrated, along with the use of a symbolic switch-level simulator to automatically prove that a circuit meets its specification. As an

Soumitra Bose; A. L. Fisher

1989-01-01

83

A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)

Hall, Charles E.

84

Evolutionary approach to quantum symbolic logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evolutionary approach to the quantum symbolic logic synthesis. We use a genetic algorithm to synthesize quantum circuits from examples, allowing to synthesize functions that are both completely and incompletely specified. The symbolic synthesis is implemented in the GA so as to verify our approach. The Occam Razor principle, fundamental to inductive learning as well

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski

2008-01-01

85

THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

LAFFAL, JULIUS

86

Native American Symbolism in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how a discipline-based approach to multicultural art augments multicultural education. Focuses on Native American arts. Illustrates how symbols, colors, natural materials, and methods differ among tribes. Suggests teaching activities, including focusing on a particular artist to raise specific questions about specific symbols. Profiles…

Wardle, Barbra L.

1990-01-01

87

Symbolic estrangement: evidence against a strong association between numerical symbols and the quantities they represent.  

PubMed

Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 shows that this effect cannot be attributed to differences in perceptual processing streams. Experiment 3 shows that there is no additional cost of mixing 2 formats that are both symbolic; that is, the decrement in mixing formats is specific to mixing symbolic and nonsymbolic representations. In sum, we show that accessing a sense of how much a numerical symbol actually represents is a surprisingly difficult and nontrivial process. Our data are consistent with the view that numerical symbols operate primarily as an associative system in which relations between symbols come to overshadow those between symbols and their quantity referents. PMID:22329752

Lyons, Ian M; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L

2012-11-01

88

Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

Pelto, E. V.

1967-01-01

89

Drug Saf . Author manuscript Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects  

E-print Network

Drug Saf . Author manuscript Page /1 5 Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical.fainzang@orange.fr > Abstract Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Operator method for calculating Q symbols and their relation to weyl-wigner symbols and symplectic tomogram symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for calculating Husimi symbols of operators. In contrast to the standard method, it does not require using the anti-normal-ordering procedure. According to this method, the coordinate and momentum operators and are assigned other operators and satisfying the same commutation relations. We then find the result of acting with the and operators and also polynomials in these operators on the Husimi function. After the obtained expression is integrated over the phase space coordinates, the integrand becomes a Husimi function times the symbol of the operator chosen to act on that function. We explicitly evaluate the Husimi symbols for operators that are powers of or.

Andreev, V. A.; Davidovi?, L. D.; Davidovi?, Milena D.; Davidovi?, Miloš D.; Manko, V. I.; Manko, M. A.

2014-05-01

91

Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality  

PubMed Central

Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

2011-01-01

92

Aboriginal spirituality: symbolic healing in Canadian prisons.  

PubMed

Symbolic healing is a complex phenomenon that is still relatively poorly understood. This paper documents a process of symbolic healing which is occurring in Canadian penitentiaries, and which involves Aboriginal offenders in cultural awareness and educational programs. The situation is compounded, however, by the existence of offenders from diverse Aboriginal cultural backgrounds with differing degrees of orientation to Aboriginal and Euro-Canadian cultures. Participants must first receive the necessary education to allow them to identify with the healing symbols so that healing may ensue, and both the healers and the patients must engage in a process of redefining their cultures in search of a common cultural base. PMID:8269714

Waldram, J B

1993-09-01

93

Intrinsic representation : bootstrapping symbols from experience  

E-print Network

If we are to understand human-level intelligence, we need to understand how meanings can be learned without explicit instruction. I take a step toward that understanding by focusing on the symbol-grounding problem, showing ...

Larson, Stephen David, 1980-

2003-01-01

94

From polygons and symbols to polylogarithmic functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of the symbol map, a mathematical tool introduced by Goncharov and used by him and collaborators in the context of {N} = 4 SYM for simplifying expressions among multiple polylogarithms, and we recall its main properties. A recipe is given for how to obtain the symbol of a multiple polylogarithm in terms of the combinatorial properties of an associated rooted decorated polygon, and it is indicated how that recipe relates to a similar explicit formula for it previously given by Goncharov. We also outline a systematic approach to constructing a function corresponding to a given symbol, and illustrate it in the particular case of harmonic polylogarithms up to weight four. Furthermore, part of the ambiguity of this process is highlighted by exhibiting a family of non-trivial elements in the kernel of the symbol map for arbitrary weight.

Duhr, Claude; Gangl, Herbert; Rhodes, John R.

2012-10-01

95

50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols...Restoration Act and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on...

2010-10-01

96

List of symbols and abbreviations 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Volume 9 `Electrochemistry', Subvolume A, of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It contains a list of symbols and abbreviations that are used throughout the volume.

Holze, R.

97

[Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]? bound.  

PubMed

In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]? error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]?-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]?-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ? error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]?-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]? error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]? metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]? error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates. PMID:24144660

Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

2013-12-01

98

Confidence Measures in Recognizing Handwritten Mathematical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on computer recognition of handwritten mathematical symbols has reached the state where geometric analysis of\\u000a isolated characters can correctly identify individual characters about 96% of the time. This paper presents confidence measures\\u000a for two classification methods applied to the recognition of handwritten mathematical symbols. We show how the distance to\\u000a the nearest convex hull of nearest neighbors relates

Oleg Golubitsky; Stephen M. Watt

2009-01-01

99

Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

2007-01-01

100

Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate regressions predicting children's use of video and pictures for information in experimental tasks,

Georgene L. Troseth; Amy M. Casey; Kelly A. Lawver; Joan M. T. Walker; David A. Cole

2007-01-01

101

Symbol Grounding in Computational Systems: A Paradox of Intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a paradoxical feature of computational systems that suggests that computationalism cannot explain symbol\\u000a grounding. If the mind is a digital computer, as computationalism claims, then it can be computing either over meaningful\\u000a symbols or over meaningless symbols. If it is computing over meaningful symbols its functioning presupposes the existence\\u000a of meaningful symbols in the system, i.e. it

Vincent C. Müller

2009-01-01

102

REVIEW OF ATOMIC TERM SYMBOLS I. The Meaning of an Atomic Term Symbol  

E-print Network

I REVIEW OF ATOMIC TERM SYMBOLS I. The Meaning of an Atomic Term Symbol Becausethe operators t2, 82, j2 = (L + 8)2, and jz all commute with the atomic Hamiltonian, ii, and with each other in the limit the eigenfunction in question. If we neglect MJ, we can summarizethesegood quantumnumbers for an atomic

Morse, Michael D.

103

Symbol Grounding or the Emergence of Symbols? Vocabulary Growth in Children and a Connectionist Net  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Symbolic Grounding Problem is viewed as a by-product of the classical cognitivist approach to studying the mind. In contrast, an epigenetic interpretation of connectionist approaches to studying the mind is shown to offer an account of symbolic skills as an emergent, developmental phenomenon. We describe a connectionist model of concept formation and vocabulary growth that auto-associates image representations and

KIM PLUNKETT; CHRIS SINHA; MARTIN F. MØLLER; OLE STRANDSBY

1992-01-01

104

Comparison of the BER performance of symbol-by-symbol and multiple-symbol differential detection OFDM system in multipath fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multipath channels, for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system, the bit error rate (BER) of symbol-by-symbol differential detection (SSDD) is analyzed, the comparison of BER performance of SSDD and multi-symbol differential detection (MSDD) is obtained by simulation, the results indicate that when the whole bandwidth of the symbols used to MSDD is much less than the coherent bandwidth of

Lijun Song; Youxi Tang; Shaoqian Li

2004-01-01

105

The spread of fear: symbolic generalization mediates graded threat-avoidance in specific phobia.  

PubMed

Overgeneralization of fear and threat-avoidance represents a formidable barrier to successful clinical treatment of anxiety disorders. While stimulus generalization along quantifiable physical dimensions has been studied extensively, less consideration has been given to symbolic generalization, in which stimuli are indirectly and arbitrarily related. The present study examined whether the magnitude and extent of symbolic generalization of threat-avoidance and threat-beliefs differed between spider-phobic and nonphobic individuals. Initially, participants learned two sets of stimulus equivalence relations (A1?=?B1?=?C1; A2?=?B2?=?C2). Next, one cue (B1) was established as a conditioned stimulus (CS?+?; threat) that signalled onset of spider images and prompted avoidance, and another cue (B2) was established as a CS- (safety cue) that signalled the absence of such images. Subsequent testing showed that phobics compared to nonphobics exhibited greater symbolic generalization of threat-avoidance to threat cues A1 and C1 (indirect CS+ threat cues related via symmetry and equivalence, respectively), while all individuals showed nonavoidance to indirect safety cues A2 and C2. The enhanced symbolic generalization of threat-beliefs and avoidance behaviour observed in spider phobics warrants further investigation. PMID:23701662

Dymond, Simon; Schlund, Michael W; Roche, Bryan; Whelan, Robert

2014-02-01

106

Symbolic-numeric interface: A review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

Ng, E. W.

1980-01-01

107

Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration  

SciTech Connect

Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.

Carlson, B.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

1997-12-31

108

IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 12/8/2010 p 1/1 IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 6/10/2010 p 1/1  

E-print Network

IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 12/8/2010 p 1/1 IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 6/10/2010 p 1/1 The following symbols include all of the primary Petroleum Well Symbols used by the Indiana of the Petroleum Symbol Set. Trenton well; only available information is an uncertain location Symbol Modifiers

Polly, David

109

2558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 1999 Symbol-by-Symbol APP Decoding of the Golay Code and  

E-print Network

2558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 1999 Symbol-by-Symbol APP, and Kwan L. Yeung, Member, IEEE Abstract-- An efficient coset based symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP decoding, turbo codes, turbo decoding. I. INTRODUCTION The symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP (a

Ping, Li

110

Asymptotics and 6j-symbols  

E-print Network

Recent interest in the Kashaev-Murakami-Murakami hyperbolic volume conjecture has made it seem important to be able to understand the asymptotic behaviour of certain special functions arising from representation theory -- for example, of the quantum 6j-symbols for SU(2). In 1998 I worked out the asymptotic behaviour of the classical 6j-symbols, proving a formula involving the geometry of a Euclidean tetrahedron which was conjectured by Ponzano and Regge in 1968. In this note I will try to explain the methods and philosophy behind this calculation, and speculate on how similar techniques might be useful in studying the quantum case.

Justin Roberts

2002-01-18

111

Online Tester for a Symbol Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 95 percent of faults detected. Programable instrument periodically checks for failures in system that generates alphanumerical and other symbol voltages for cathode-ray-tube displays. Symbol-generator tester compares gated test-point voltages with predetermined voltage limits while circuit under test performs commanded operation. A go/no-go indication given, depending on whether test voltage is or is not within its specification. Tester in plug-in modular form, temporarily wired to generator test points, or permanently wired to these points.

Juday, D.; Mcconaugy, K.

1985-01-01

112

A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications  

E-print Network

A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

Gregory M. Smith

2000-06-28

113

Comparison of the BER performance of symbol-by-symbol and multiple-symbol differential detection OFDM system in multipath fading channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multipath channels, for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system, the bit error rate (BER) of symbol-by-symbol differential detection (SSDD) is analyzed, the comparison of BER performance of SSDD and multi-symbol differential detection (MSDD) is obtained by simulation, the results indicate that when the whole bandwidth of the symbols used to MSDD is much less than the coherent bandwidth of the channel, the BER performance of MSDD is better than that of SSDD; when the whole bandwidth of the symbols used to the MSDD is closed to the coherent bandwidth of the channel, the BER performance of SSDD is better than that of MSDD.

Song, Lijun; Tang, Youxi; Li, Shaoqian

2004-04-01

114

Two Pieces of Wood: Symbols of Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 2 years, at least 2 days a week were spent by a researcher in observing, through the actions of the principal, the dynamics of cultural and ideologic conflict and the process of social control in an elementary school. This personal account analyzes the principal's use of corporal punishment, symbolized by the paddle, and positive…

Lee, Sharon Shockley; McKerrow, K. Kelly

115

Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

2007-01-01

116

Mathematics for Chemistry with Symbolic Computation  

E-print Network

Mathematics for Chemistry with Symbolic Computation J. F. Ogilvie @ 2013 February 8 The software to explain their purposes and effects, but particularly to introduce mathematical concepts and principles and to implement the mathematical operations. These assignments and commands are generally intended to be executed

117

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds,

H. Qin; W. M. Tang; G. Rewoldt

1997-01-01

118

Support Vector Machines for Mathematical Symbol Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical formulas challenge an OCR system with a range of similar-looking characters whose bold, calligraphic, and italic varieties must be recognized distinctly, though the fonts to be used in an article are not known in advance. We describe the use of support vector machines (SVM) to learn and predict about 300 classes of styled characters and symbols.

Christopher Malon; Seiichi Uchida; Masakazu Suzuki

2006-01-01

119

Origin of it Mathematical Symbol for Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a contribution to the history of algebraic notation it may be worth while to point out that the symbol ~ for variation was introduced by William Emerson. In his ``Doctrine of Fluxions,'' third edition, London, 1768(first edition, 1749), he says on p. 4:-``To the common Algebraic Characters already receiv'd I add this ~, which signifies a general Proportion; thus,

Florian Cajori

1915-01-01

120

Mathematical Processes and Symbols in the Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will consider the nature of human thinking processes to see how symbolism is utilised in mathematical thinking and to consider how technology is best integrated into the education process. In particular it will look at what kind of thinking a good mathematician performs which seems to make the mathematics so much easier than that faced by the average,

David Tall

121

AUTOMAST: automatic mathematical analysis and symbolic translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for numerically solving systems of ordinary differential equations is shown to also generate symbolic solutions. The procedure is based on a finite Taylor series expansion that includes an estimate of the error in the final result. A computer program is described that reads in a system of such equations and then generates the expansions for all of the

William E. Ball; Robert I. Berns

1966-01-01

122

The Mathematical Foundation fo Symbolic Trajectory Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In this paper we elucidate the mathematical foundation underlyingboth the basic and the extended forms of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE),with emphasis on the latter. In addition, we make three contributions to the theoryof STE which, we believe, are new. First, we provide a satisfactory answerto the question: what does it mean for a circuit to satisfy a trajectory assertion?Second,

Ching-tsun Chou

1999-01-01

123

Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

124

7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign...particular side or characteristic of the tobacco. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, the combination symbols are XL—lug side,...

2010-01-01

125

7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959, as amended at 35 FR 10490, June 27, 1970. Redesignated at 49 FR 16757, Apr. 20,...

2010-01-01

126

From Prehistoric to Postmodern Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic model checking, which enables the automatic verification of large sys- tems, proceeds by calculating with expressions that represent state sets. Traditionally, sym- bolic model-checking tools are based on backward state traversal; their basic operation is the function , which given a set of states, returns the set of all predecessor states. This is because specifiers usually employ formalisms with

Thomas A. Henzinger; Orna Kupferman; Shaz Qadeer

1998-01-01

127

Symbolic MT With Statistical NLP Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports provides an overview of the findings and software that have evolved from the 'Symbolic MT with Statistical NLP Components' project over the last year. We present the major goals that have been achieved and discuss some of the open issues that...

B. J. Dorr, C. Monz, N. Y. Habash

2004-01-01

128

Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results: We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the

Bob J. A. Schijvenaars; Barend Mons; Marc Weeber; Martijn J. Schuemie; Erik M. Van Mulligen; Hester M. Wain; Jan A. Kors

2005-01-01

129

Symbolically Muslim: Media, Hijab, and the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines newspaper reporting to question how the media represented the ideological interests of Western nations concerning symbolic representations of Islam in public following 11 September 2001. Critical discourse analysis is used to examine 72 stories that were published in the New York Times and Washington Post between 2004 and 2006. The stories covered the ban on hijab in

Michelle D. Byng

2010-01-01

130

Manipulation of Matrices Symbolically Richard Fateman  

E-print Network

of California, Berkeley June 18, 2001 Abstract Traditionally, matrix algebra in computer algebra systems is "implemented" in three ways: Numeric explicit computation, symbolic explicit computation, and implicit matrix, and generation of programs. We describe some efforts to design and implement tools for this mode of thinking

Fateman, Richard J.

131

Hierarchical symbolic piecewise-linear circuit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hierarchical transient analysis method for piecewise-linear (PWL) circuits suitable for early stage verification of analog and mixed-signal circuits. The new method is based on a novel parameterized modeling of PWL devices, which results in very compact circuit matrices compared to existing PWL simulation algorithms based on ideal diode models. The new PWL symbolic analysis features exact

Junjie Yang; S. X.-D. Tan; Z. Qi; M. Gawecki

2005-01-01

132

Automatic Classification of Graphs by Symbolic Histograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic classification system coping with graph patterns with node and edge labels belonging to continuous vector spaces is proposed. An algorithm based on inexact matching techniques is used to discover recurrent subgraphs in the original patterns, the synthesized prototypes of which are called symbols. Each original graph is then represented by a vector signature describing it in terms of

Guido Del Vescovo; Antonello Rizzi

2007-01-01

133

Symbolic Diagnosis and its Formalisation Peter Lucas  

E-print Network

Symbolic Diagnosis and its Formalisation #3; Peter Lucas Department of Computer Science, Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands (e-mail: lucas@cs.ruu.nl) Abstract Diagnosis of diagnosis, often referred to as model-based diagnosis. Typically, such models embody knowledge of the normal

Utrecht, Universiteit

134

Symbolic finite state transducers: algorithms and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite automata and finite transducers are used in a wide range of applications in software engineering, from regular expressions to specification languages. We extend these classic objects with symbolic alphabets represented as parametric theories. Admitting potentially infinite alphabets makes this representation strictly more general and succinct than classical finite transducers and automata over strings. Despite this, the main operations, including

Margus Veanes; Pieter Hooimeijer; Benjamin Livshits; David Molnar; Nikolaj Bjorner

2012-01-01

135

Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

2010-01-01

136

Syntax of symbolic logic and transformational grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the language of symbolic logic a sentence or, as the logicians call it, a well-formed formula is constructed according to recursive rules. The idea that the rules of syntax of a language must be formulated recursively has been taken over by Chomsky and other transformational grammarians of natural languages. There is, accordingly, a kind of similarity between the procedure

Erik Stenius

1973-01-01

137

Towards a Symbolic Modal Logic for LOTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a version of HML (7), adapted to allow description of properties of Full LOTOS (8) specifications using symbolic values and conditions in modal formulae as well as concrete data values. In modifying HML we especially consider the features of LOTOS which distinguish it from other process algebras and discuss how these alter the requirements of the logic, and

Carron Kirkwood; Muffy Thomas

1996-01-01

138

Introducing physics students to symbolic computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two projects are described that employ the REDUCE language for symbolic computation. In the first a program is produced which gives the correct 'product of powers' form of a 'target' physical quantity in terms of other relevant physical quantities and which detects dimensionless groups. The other yields programs to verify the closure under commutation of sets of operators which are

N. MacDonald

1991-01-01

139

Symbolic execution of oating-point computations?  

E-print Network

Symbolic execution of oating-point computations? Bernard Botellaa , Arnaud Gotliebb; , Claude of the extracted path conditions as well as to derive test data. Whenever path conditions contain oating can compromise correctness: a path can be labelled as in- feasible although there exists oating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

2013-09-01

141

Automated Non-Alphanumeric Symbol Resolution in Clinical Texts  

PubMed Central

Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols (‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’) were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for ‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’ were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems. PMID:22195157

Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B.

2011-01-01

142

Comparison of digit symbol and symbol digit modalities tests for assessing neurotoxic exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WAIS-R Digit Symbol subtest and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) scores are compared on 157 former micro-electronics workers with organic solvent exposure and 113 nonexposed comparison subjects. The majority of both groups were Hispanic females (88% and 91%) with similar educational levels (M 11.6 and 12.1 years) and age (M 44.7 and 43.8 years). Both the SDMT and

R. Bowler; S. Sudia; D. Mergler; R. Harrison; J. Cone

1992-01-01

143

Performance Of The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents analysis of performance of Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) algorithm. Designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio of radio signal modulated by binary data pulses of period T and received in presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Incoming signal and noise first filtered, then sampled Ns - T/Ts times per symbol period. This study focuses on performance of SSME in case in which frequency width limited by digital filter and inter-symbol interference is thereby generated.

Shah, Biren N.; Hinedi, Sami M.

1993-01-01

144

Symbolic Mathematics Engines in Teaching Chemistry: A Symposium Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Symbolic Mathematics Engines (SMEs) in chemical education as a part of the Division of Computers in Chemistry was discussed by a panel of educators at the Symbolic Calculation in Chemistry symposium in Philadelphia in 2004. The panelists agreed that many more topics in chemistry are amenable to SME's exploration and that symbolic

Ellison, Mark

2004-01-01

145

Contextual Typesetting of Mathematical Symbols Taking Care of Optical Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typesetting of mathematical formulae has conflicting requi rements: on the one hand, optical scaling is a need for large symbols; in the o ther hand, large symbols are made of composite items that are neither easily nor nicel y put together. In this paper it is shown that such large symbols should be computed at print time so that they

Jacques Andre; Irene Vatton

146

Prototype Pruning by Feature Extraction for Handwritten Mathematical Symbol Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful mathematical handwriting recognition will require recognizers for large sets of handwritten symbols. This paper presents a recognition system for such hand- written mathematical symbols. The recognizer can provide a component of a hand- written interface for computer algebra systems such as Maple. Large sets of similar symbols present new challenges in the area of handwriting recognition, and we address

Stephen M. Watt; Xiaofang Xie

147

Tame symbols and reciprocity laws on arithmetic surfaces  

E-print Network

We define and study tame symbols for two-dimensional local fields, which are closely related to Kato's residue homomorphisms in Milnor $K$-theory and also explicitly related to Contou-Carrere symbols. As applications we establish several reciprocity laws for tame symbols on arithmetic surfaces.

Liu, Dongwen

2012-01-01

148

Symbolic Foods: Pregnancy Cravings and the Envious Female  

Microsoft Academic Search

In my article I intend to show that the pregnancy cravings by Sri Lankan women constitute a system of personal symbols that must be understood in relation to the female role and the psychological problems engendered by it. I define personal symbols as those operating simultaneously at the level of both personality and culture. Through the notion of personal symbols,

Gananath Obeyesekere

1985-01-01

149

Transfer by Very Young Children in the Symbolic Retrieval Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cumulative experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been hypothesized as a source of young children's increasing sensitivity to new symbol-referent relations. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from transfer studies showing that experience with a relatively easy symbolic retrieval task improves performance on a more difficult task.…

DeLoache, Judy S.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Marzolf, Donald P.

2004-01-01

150

Combining Symbolic and Connectionist Models in Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

are performed on symobls that create other symbols, and symbols cause actions. When a new concept is learned contradicts the other model. In this paper I will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of both models. I and applied to produce the necessary behavior. Symbolic processing has a rich history stretching back at least

Huyck, Chris

151

Media and Symbol Systems as Related to Cognition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The failure of research on media to deal with media's symbol systems is discussed. Nature of symbol systems is described and related to cognition and learning. Symbolic elements used by media can facilitate the cultivation of mental skills in interaction with individual differences and depth of processing. (Author/RD)

Salomon, Gavriel

1979-01-01

152

A HIERARCHICAL GENETIC SYSTEM FOR SYMBOLIC FUNCTION IDENTIFICATION  

E-print Network

A HIERARCHICAL GENETIC SYSTEM FOR SYMBOLIC FUNCTION IDENTIFICATION Mingda Jiang (cs the data. This paper describes a system for solution of symbolic function identification problems. The function identification problem is to find a functional model of an experimental system, in symbolic form

Wright, Alden H.

153

Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

2008-01-01

154

Face Recognition Technique Using Symbolic Linear Discriminant Analysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques that can introduce low dimensional feature representation with enhanced discriminatory power are important in face recognition systems. This paper presents one of the symbolic factor analysis method i.e., symbolic Linear Discriminant Analysis (symbolic LDA) method for face representation and recognition. Classical factor analysis methods extract features, which are single valued in nature to represent face images. These single valued

P. S. Hiremath; C. J. Prabhakar

2006-01-01

155

Symbolic Nearest Mean Classifiers Piew Datta and Dennis Kibler  

E-print Network

Symbolic Nearest Mean Classifiers Piew Datta and Dennis Kibler Department of Information with symbolic attributes, weigh attributes, and learn more than a single prototype for each class. The proposed solutions to these problems include defining the mean for symbolic attributes, providing a weight­ ing

Kibler, Dennis F.

156

Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

2012-01-01

157

Building Symbol Libraries with Autodesk MapGuide Enterprise  

E-print Network

libraries of dynamic, expression-driven symbols for everything from highway shields to utility network for labeling, e.g. highway shields, utility symbols, etc. A more consistent and accurate way to define cased of enhancements to the Layer Definition resource type as shown in the following diagram. The Simple Symbol

Ahmad, Sajjad

158

Grounded discovery of symbols as concept–language pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human designer usage, symbols have a rich semantics, grounded on experience, which permits flexible usage — e.g. design ideation is improved by meanings triggered by contrastive words. In computational usage however, symbols are syntactic tokens whose semantics is mostly left to the implementation, resulting in brittle failures in many knowledge-based systems. Here we ask if one may define symbols

Amitabha Mukerjee; Madan Mohan Dabbeeru

159

Symbolic Racism: Problems of Motive Attribution in Political Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are serious shortcomings in the arguments that researchers have advanced to support the symbolic racism thesis. The following aspects are critically discussed: (1) concepts of symbolic racism; (2) methods used to measure symbolic racism; (3) the statement that traditional racism is a spent form; (4) the theorist's disregard of current…

Sniderman, Paul M.; Tetlock, Philip E.

1986-01-01

160

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

Klass, Dennis

1981-01-01

161

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

1997-10-09

162

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

1997-10-01

163

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations;\\u000athemselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems,;\\u000aGeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted

H. Qin; G. Rewoldt; W. M. Tang

1997-01-01

164

Symbolic vector analysis in plasma physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the underlying coordinate systems. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify

H. Qin; W. M. Tang; G. Rewoldt

1999-01-01

165

Mathematical symbol recognition with support vector machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-character recognition of mathematical symbols poses challenges from its two-dimensional pattern, the variety of similar sym- bols that must be recognized distinctly, the imbalance and paucity of training data available, and the impossibility of final verification through spell check. We investigate the use of support vector machines to improve the classification of InftyReader, a free system for the OCR of

Christopher Malon; Seiichi Uchida; Masakazu Suzuki

2008-01-01

166

Theory of adaptation: application of symbolic logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of adaptation takes up, first, completely symbolized expressions in which the basic element is the dyadic term Axy, x is adapted to y. When this is combined with a monadic term such as Ey, y is a moist environment, in (y)(Axy?Ey), validity can be achieved by reversal and denial (transposition): (y)(Axy?Ey)?(y)(?Ey??Axy). This provides a full and complete description

Edward M. Hulburt

1998-01-01

167

Symbolic code approach to GTD ray tracing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-level artificial intelligence language with symbolic/logical manipulation capabilities, together with a simple ansatz based on the properties of the Fresnel ellipsoid, is used to implement an efficient computer algorithm for automatic ray-tracing. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) ray-tracing solution for the radio-line path-loss evaluation over piecewise-linear two-dimensional terrain profiles is presented.

Bisceglia, Bruno; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Savarese, Catello

1988-10-01

168

Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power  

SciTech Connect

I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race.

Vogt, E.

1985-10-01

169

Symbolic Regression of Conditional Target Expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter examines techniques for improving symbolic regression systems in cases where the target expression contains conditionals. In three previous papers we experimentedwith combining high performance techniques fromthe literature to produce a large scale, industrial strength, symbolic regression-classification system. Performance metrics across multiple problems show deterioration in accuracy for problems where the target expression contains conditionals. The techniques described herein are shown to improve accuracy on such conditional problems. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in accuracy. A previously published regression system combining standard genetic programming with abstract expression grammars, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution, context aware crossover and age-layered populations is tested on the nine base test cases. The regression system is enhanced with these additional techniques: pessimal vertical slicing, splicing of uncorrelated champions via abstract conditional expressions, and abstract mutation and crossover. The enhanced symbolic regression system is applied to the nine base test cases and an improvement in accuracy is observed.

Korns, Michael F.

170

Orthology relations, symbolic ultrametrics, and cographs.  

PubMed

Orthology detection is an important problem in comparative and evolutionary genomics and, consequently, a variety of orthology detection methods have been devised in recent years. Although many of these methods are dependent on generating gene and/or species trees, it has been shown that orthology can be estimated at acceptable levels of accuracy without having to infer gene trees and/or reconciling gene trees with species trees. Thus, it is of interest to understand how much information about the gene tree, the species tree, and their reconciliation is already contained in the orthology relation on the underlying set of genes. Here we shall show that a result by Böcker and Dress concerning symbolic ultrametrics, and subsequent algorithmic results by Semple and Steel for processing these structures can throw a considerable amount of light on this problem. More specifically, building upon these authors' results, we present some new characterizations for symbolic ultrametrics and new algorithms for recovering the associated trees, with an emphasis on how these algorithms could be potentially extended to deal with arbitrary orthology relations. In so doing we shall also show that, somewhat surprisingly, symbolic ultrametrics are very closely related to cographs, graphs that do not contain an induced path on any subset of four vertices. We conclude with a discussion on how our results might be applied in practice to orthology detection. PMID:22456957

Hellmuth, Marc; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Stadler, Peter F; Wieseke, Nicolas

2013-01-01

171

Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

James, Mark

2007-01-01

172

Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.  

PubMed

Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field. PMID:12197200

Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

2002-07-01

173

Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

1989-01-01

174

Using Technology to Analyze and Illustrate Symbolism in Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What images symbolize hatred, peace, freedom, or confinement? What feelings do these images evoke in the viewer? What power do images have? These and many other questions provide the framework for students to use technology to explore symbolism in Elie Wiesel's Night. Students begin with a discussion of everyday symbols, such as street signs and hand gestures, to help them come up with their own definition for symbolism. Students then choose and analyze a passage from Night that uses darkness as a symbol, and then brainstorm how they might reinterpret their selected passage as an image. After learning about symbolism and discussing its use in the book, students create visual representations using an interactive tool. Students then express their response to the symbolism in the book by creating a photo montage using images from multiple websites about the Holocaust, text from survivor stories, articles about hate crimes, and Night.

Thomason, Catherine

2012-07-26

175

Estimation of chaotic coupled map lattices using symbolic vector dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In [K. Wang, W.J. Pei, Z.Y. He, Y.M. Cheung, Phys. Lett. A 367 (2007) 316], an original symbolic vector dynamics based method has been proposed for initial condition estimation in additive white Gaussian noisy environment. The estimation precision of this estimation method is determined by symbolic errors of the symbolic vector sequence gotten by symbolizing the received signal. This Letter further develops the symbolic vector dynamical estimation method. We correct symbolic errors with backward vector and the estimated values by using different symbols, and thus the estimation precision can be improved. Both theoretical and experimental results show that this algorithm enables us to recover initial condition of coupled map lattice exactly in both noisy and noise free cases. Therefore, we provide novel analytical techniques for understanding turbulences in coupled map lattice.

Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Cheung, Yiu-ming; Shen, Yi; He, Zhenya

2010-01-01

176

Symbolic versus non-symbolic magnitude estimations among children and adults.  

PubMed

The ability of children and adults to generate symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude estimations was examined in the light of their familiarity with numbers. Children (6-year-old kindergartners, 7-year-old first graders, and 9-year-old third graders) and adults made symbolic estimations either by saying number words that matched numbers of dots (i.e., perception task) or by generating numbers of dots that matched given number words (i.e., production task). In the non-symbolic estimation task, participants generated the corresponding numbers of dots they had seen previously (i.e., reproduction task). In line with the bidirectional mapping hypothesis, children and adults made underestimations in the perception task, overestimations in the production task, and intermediate estimations in the reproduction task. However, the performance of kindergartners and first graders showed significant deviations from the predictions of the bidirectional mapping hypothesis. Their performance in the production task lagged significantly behind that in the perception task, implying that these tasks are not mirrored processes among young children. In addition, they made systematic overestimations in the non-symbolic reproduction task, suggesting that biased mapping occurs here as well. The results are discussed with regard to children's familiarity with numbers and potential estimation strategies. PMID:25077407

Ebersbach, Mirjam; Erz, Petra

2014-12-01

177

Left parietal TMS disturbs priming between symbolic and non-symbolic number representations.  

PubMed

An amodal number representation activated by all types of numerical input, irrespective of the input notation, has often been proposed to be located in the left or right intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Two cross-notational priming experiments were carried out to test the existence of a notation-independent magnitude representation in the left or right parietal lobes. In Experiment 1, stimuli were Arabic digits and number words. Results revealed no significant effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left or right IPS during prime presentation. In contrast, in Experiment 2, digits and dot patterns were intermixed and here the priming distance effect (PDE) was reduced in the right TMS condition and absent for stimulation over left IPS. These findings suggest: (1) that TMS over left but not right IPS disrupts processes that are crucial for priming when symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli are intermixed, and (2) that disruption of the left IPS on its own is not sufficient to disrupt cross-notational priming when purely symbolic number notations are used. Our results point towards a crucial role of the left hemisphere for the mapping between small symbolic and non-symbolic numerosities. PMID:23665379

Sasanguie, Delphine; Göbel, Silke M; Reynvoet, Bert

2013-07-01

178

Fire Safety Fire Safety  

E-print Network

Fire Safety Guidelines Fire Safety Guidelines Department of Environmental Health and Safety 2809;#12;3 The mission of Environmental Health and Safety's (EH&S) fire safety program is to provide a proactive fire, staff and visitors. This mis- sion is addressed through a comprehensive effort of fire safety education

Lin, Zhiqun

179

epic Grass - symbolic calculations with anticommuting variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

epicGrass is a specialised symbolic manipulation utility for handling complicated (matrix) expressions involving commuting and anticommuting (Grassmann) variables. Its chief strength is its speed, achieved by "hardwiring" the Grassmann algebra using a table. User-friendly features include: a number of built-in functions to simplify the manipulation of matrices and expressions, an on-line help facility, sophisticated error messages and several output formats. The program has been extensively tested and a complete record of these tests is available. Extension to other related algebraic structures arising in theoretical physics is straightforward.

Hartmann, U.; Davis, E. D.

1989-06-01

180

Networks of Motifs from Sequences of Symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method to convert an ensemble of sequences of symbols into a weighted directed network whose nodes are motifs, while the directed links and their weights are defined from statistically significant co-occurences of two motifs in the same sequence. The analysis of communities of networks of motifs is shown to be able to correlate sequences with functions in the human proteome database, to detect hot topics from online social dialogs, to characterize trajectories of dynamical systems, and it might find other useful applications to process large amounts of data in various fields.

Sinatra, Roberta; Condorelli, Daniele; Latora, Vito

2010-10-01

181

A Neural Network Model for Online Handwritten Mathematical Symbol Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a new handwritten mathematical symbol recognition system that is flexible enough to let the users write\\u000a the symbols in their own ways. They do not have to learn a completely new way of writing symbols. The proposed approach involves\\u000a two main stages: online and offline. During the online stage, the input is classified into one of the

Arit Thammano; Sukhumal Rugkunchon

2006-01-01

182

Symbol shaping for Barker spread Wi-Fi communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the progressive development of symbol shaping for Barker spread IEEE 802.11 modulation used in wireless fidelity communications. Symbol shaping is used to satisfy the spectral mask requirements of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) with minimal output filtering and inter-symbol interference. Logarithmic, sinusoidal, and sine-function shaping is investigated using analytic, simulation, and experimental methods. Power spectral densities are

Tanim M. Taher; Matthew J. Misurac; Donald R. Ucci; Joseph L. LoCicero

2007-01-01

183

The rise and fall of single-letter ticker symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-letter stock ticker symbol is a limited resource – only 26 possibilities are available in a stock universe of over 475,000 possible one-, two-, three- or four-letter ticker symbols. These symbols were first allocated based on trading volume therefore some of the most important companies at the time were initially placed into this group. This paper examines the history

David Michayluk

2008-01-01

184

Reduced complexity symbol detectors with parallel structure for ISI channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of practical realization of the optimal fixed-delay symbol-by-symbol detection algorithm, which is optimum in the sense of minimizing the symbol error probability, given a delay constraint D, is investigated. A fully-parallel structure is developed, and through systematic reformulations of the algorithm, the computational requirements are reduced considerably. In addition, the problems associated with a large dynamic range such

Javan Erfanian; Subbarayan Pasupathy; Glenn Gulak

1994-01-01

185

Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.  

PubMed

This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine. PMID:20039773

Nayernouri, Touraj

2010-01-01

186

Symbolic derivation of material property matrices in finite element analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principles and operation of MMAX, a symbolic-computation program which automates the process of generating property matrices for structural materials, are briefly described and illustrated with sample analyses of a rubberlike material and an elastoplastic material. MMAX is written in LISP under the symbolic finite-element generator FINGER and the general symbolic manipulator MACSYMA; it first derives the formulas required by mathematical manipulation, and then translates the formulas into FORTRAN code, adapted to the particular type of machine to be used for the numerical calculations. This approach is shown to combine efficiently the advantages of symbolic and numerical computation for engineering applications.

Tan, H. Q.

1988-01-01

187

Two-year-olds' understanding of self-symbols.  

PubMed

This study investigated 48 2.5-year-olds' ability to map from their own body to a two-dimensional self-representation and also examined relations between parents' talk about body representations and their children's understanding of self-symbols. Children participated in two dual-representation tasks in which they were asked to match body parts between a symbol and its referent. In one task, they used a self-symbol and in the other they used a symbol for a doll. Participants were also read a book about body parts by a parent. As a group, children found the self-symbol task more difficult than the doll-task; however, those whose parents explicitly pointed out the relation between their children's bodies and the symbols in the book performed better on the self-symbol task. The findings demonstrate that 2-year-old children have difficulty comprehending a self-symbol, even when it is two-dimensional and approximately the same size as them, and suggest that parents' talk about self-symbols may facilitate their understanding. PMID:24588085

Herold, Katherine; Akhtar, Nameera

2014-09-01

188

Symbolic logic analysis of congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

In identifying the primary, genetic or environmental event in human cardiac malformations, it is desirable to separate out the apparently secondary lesions. We have employed the general principle that multiple cardiac lesions within a single patient may often represent a pathogenetic process in which one primary event gives rise to a sequence of secondary lesions. The mechanical paradigm of cardiogenesis suggests that abnormal primary lesions may give rise to secondary lesions through altered blood flow or pressure relations, if the secondary structure normally appears later and represents a reasonable tissue response to altered mechanics. Symbolic logic is a mathematical method in which descriptive statements are placed in formal relation to one another and their logical consequences are deduced. Using the mechanical paradigm as a technique of hypothesis generation and symbolic logic as a technique of hypothesis testing, we have analyzed the following malformation complexes in large series of autopsied patients: coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, arterious malformation, interrupted aortic arch, and semilunar valve malformations. PMID:7279779

Moore, G W; Hutchins, G M

1981-03-01

189

Performance of the split-symbol moments SNR estimator in the presence of inter-symbol interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) is an algorithm that is designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The performance of the SSME algorithm in band-limited channels is examined. The effects of the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI) are quantified. All results obtained are in closed form and can be easily evaluated numerically for performance prediction purposes. Furthermore, they are validated through digital simulations.

Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

1989-01-01

190

Linear Temporal Logic Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are seeing an increased push in the use of formal verification techniques in safety-critical software and hardware in practice. Formal verification has been successfully used to verify systems such as air traffic control, airplane separation assurance, autopilot, CPU designs, life-support systems, medical equipment (such as devices which administer radiation), and many other systems which ensure human safety. This survey

Kristin Y. Rozier

2011-01-01

191

Symbolic feature detection for image understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

2014-03-01

192

On a Symbolic Version of Multivariate Lévy Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the classical umbral calculus, we propose a symbolic expression of multivariate Lévy processes. Compared with the classical one, the advantage of this approach relies in relaxing many of usual hypothesis necessary to deal with stochastic processes. As example, we recover the symbolic representation of multivariate Brownian motion and multivariate compound Poisson process. Open problems are also addressed.

Di Nardo, E.; Oliva, I.

2011-09-01

193

The Interpretation of Symbol Schemes in a Computational Medium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the variation of meaning that may be assigned by students to instructional symbol systems. Toward this end, student interpretations of symbols employed to represent free fall in Boxer, a computational environment designed for innovative instructional activities in math and science, were analyzed. Four classes of…

Ford, Michael; Frederickson, Ann; Martin, Lori

194

Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt  

E-print Network

Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt Abstract This paper is a step to bring closer" and the view of "computer algebra." Symbolic computation may be seen as working with expression trees representing math- ematical formulae and applying various rules to transform them. Computer algebra may be seen

Watt, Stephen M.

195

Understanding Fraternity Hazing: Insights from Symbolic Interactionist Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on an analysis through a symbolic interactionist perspective that indicates that hazing occurs because fraternities view it as a necessary component of their initiation rites. Posits that fraternities use systematic manipulation of symbols, social relations, and definitions of situations while reshaping the pledge's "self." Suggests…

Sweet, Stephen

1999-01-01

196

ENHANCEMENT OF STUDENT PROBLEM SOLVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM BY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern of the study was to examine the impact of mathematical symbolism on students' problem solving performance. The researchers report the findings of the effects of an instructional strategy using mathematical symbolism on students' problem solving skills in college algebra when taught at the beginning and throughout a mathematical course. The students' performance indicator is their problem solving achievement

Charita A. Luna

197

Hybrid Mathematical Symbol Recognition Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of mathematical symbols is a challenging task, with a large set with many similar symbols. We present a support vector machine based hybrid recognition system that uses both online and offline information for classification. Probabilistic outputs from the two support vector machine based multi-class classifiers running in parallel are combined by taking a weighted sum. Results from the experiments

Birendra Keshari; Stephen M. Watt

2007-01-01

198

Symbolic computing of nonlinear observable and observer formsq  

E-print Network

Symbolic computing of nonlinear observable and observer formsq Harry G. Kwatny *, Bor-Chin Chang to observable or observer form is a useful first step to observer design. We describe and illustrate symbolic). Applied Mathematics and Computation xxx (2005) xxx­xxx www.elsevier.com/locate/amc ARTICLE IN PRESS #12

Kwatny, Harry G.

199

Hybrid Mathematical Symbol Recognition Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of mathematical symbols is a challenging task, with a large set with many similar symbols. We present a support vector machine based hybrid recognition system that uses both online and offline information for classifica- tion. Probabilistic outputs from the two support vector ma- chine based multi-class classifiers running in parallel are combined by taking a weighted sum. Results from

Birendra Keshari; Stephen M. Watt

2007-01-01

200

Statistical Classification of Spatial Relationships among Mathematical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a statistical decision method for automatic classification of spatial relationships between each adjacent pair is proposed. Each pair is composed of mathematical symbols and\\/or alphabetical characters. Special treatment of mathematical symbols with variable size is important. This classification is important to recognize an accurate structure analysis module of math OCR. Experimental re- sults on a very large

Walaa Aly; Seiichi Uchida; Akio Fujiyoshi; Masakazu Suzuki

2009-01-01

201

Comparing Several Techniques for Offline Recognition of Printed Mathematical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic recognition of printed mathematical symbols is a fundamental problem for recognition of mathematical expressions. Several classification techniques has been previously used, but there are very few works that compare different classification techniques on the same database and with the same experimental conditions. In this work we have tested classical and novelty classification techniques for mathematical symbol recognition on two

Francisco Alvaro; Joan-Andreu Sánchez

2010-01-01

202

Mathematical Symbol Indexing Using Topologically Ordered Clusters of Shape Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the indexing and retrieval of math- ematical symbols from digitized documents. The proposed approach exploits Shape Contexts (SC) to describe the shape of mathematical symbols. Starting from the vector spacemethod, thatis basedon SCclustering, we explore the use of topological ordered clusters to improve the retrieval performance. The clustering is computed by means of Self- Organizing Maps that

Simone Marinai; Beatrice Miotti; Giovanni Soda

2009-01-01

203

Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

Lorantas, Raymond

204

QUARTZ OSCILLATORS: DERIVING OSCILLATION CONDITION BY SYMBOLIC CALCULUS  

E-print Network

QUARTZ OSCILLATORS: DERIVING OSCILLATION CONDITION BY SYMBOLIC CALCULUS N. Ratier, R. Brendel, P to derive the oscillation condition by using symbolic calculus. The program is based on the full nonlinear Barkhausen criterion method. The behaviour of an oscillator is described by a complex polynomial called

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Transparency and Recall of Symbols among Intellectually Handicapped Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation examined the transparency and recall of symbols representing three parts of speech (nouns, verbs, and descriptors) from three different graphic symbol systems (Blissymbols, Picture Communication System, and Picsyms) among adults with intellectual handicaps. Results suggested that Blissymbols were the least transparent and hardest…

Mizuko, Mark; Reichle, Joe

1989-01-01

206

On Norm Residue Symbols and Conductors Romyar T. Sharifi  

E-print Network

symbol and a reciprocity law of Artin-Hasse, we determine the conductors of Kummer extensions of the form n. We are able to do this without more recent and general reciprocity laws, which were needed, · )pn,K(n). Using a complete explicit reciprocity law of Coleman's [1], the conductors of these symbols

Sharifi, Romyar

207

Is Distributed Connectionism Compatible with the Physical Symbol System Hypothesis?  

E-print Network

that cognition is computation, artificial intelligence researchers are investigating computational models. The connectionist approach to artificial intelligence is founded on the conviction that the structure of the brain to exhibit general intelligence must not resort to simulating a non-symbolic system. #12;1 1Physical symbol

Derthick, Mark

208

Multiple symbol decoding of differential space-time codes  

E-print Network

computational complexity is exponential in N . A fast algorithm for implementing the MD-STDC in block-fading channels with complexity O(N 4) is developed. Its performance in both block-fading and symbol-by-symbol fading channels is demonstrated through...

Singhal, Rohit

2004-09-30

209

Extended Resolution Proofs for Symbolic SAT Solving with Quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic SAT solving is an approach where the clauses of a CNF formula are represented using BDDs. These BDDs are then conjoined, and finally checking satisfiabil- ity is reduced to the question of whether the final BDD is identical to false. We present a method combining symbolic SAT solving with BDD quantification (variable elimination) and generation of extended resolution proofs.

Toni Jussila; Carsten Sinz; Armin Biere

2006-01-01

210

A SAT-based algorithm for reparameterization in symbolic simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric representations used for symbolic simulation of circuits usually use BDDs. After a few steps of symbolic simulation, state set representation is converted from one parametric representation to another smaller representation, in a process called reparameterization. For large circuits, the reparametrization step often results in a blowup of BDDs and is expensive due to a large number of quantifications of

Pankaj Chauhan; Edmund M. Clarke; Daniel Kroening

2004-01-01

211

Myths, Symbols, Stereotypes: The Artist and the Mass Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every form of communication involves the use of myths, symbols, or stereotypes. Symbols have been used as instruments to measure artistic works, from film to painting, from high literature to television programs. Stereotypes are communication short-cuts which allow communication to engender images without the use of full description by the artist.…

Busby, Linda J.

212

17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232.306...Electronic Submissions § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All...and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by...

2011-04-01

213

Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind Shayan G. Srinivasa  

E-print Network

Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind an art Shayan G. Srinivasa Department of Electronic@math.iisc.ernet.in Abstract--Music signals comprise of atomic notes drawn from a musical scale. The creation of musical patterns. We develop an approach for music signal representation based on symbolic dynamics by translating

214

Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

2013-01-01

215

Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as Medical Symbols Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the

Touraj Nayernouri

216

The EU Race Directive: Its Symbolic Value — Its Only Value?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation against racial discrimination makes, it is argued, a clear statement against racism in all its forms and hence has symbolic value. This is expressed in different ways, for example: a declaration of firm opposition to racism; the sending out of a clear political signal regarding the commitment to the fight against racism; a powerful symbol and a statement of

Erica Howard

2004-01-01

217

"La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and…

Back, Michele

2013-01-01

218

On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

Krupski, Vladimir N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-05-31

219

Pitch Histograms in Audio and Symbolic Music Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to represent musical content, pitch and timing information is utilized in the majority of existing work in Symbolic Music Information Retrieval (MIR). Symbolic representations such as MIDI allow the easy calculation of such information and its manipulation. In contrast, most of the existing work in Audio MIR uses timbral and beat information, which can be calculated using automatic

George Tzanetakis; Andrey Ermolinskiy; Perry R. Cook

2002-01-01

220

Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their mutual relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their mutual relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their mutual relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.

Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui

2006-10-01

221

The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

Helgeland, John

1985-01-01

222

Symbolic analysis methods for averaged modeling of switching power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic analysis methods for the averaged modeling of switching power converters are presented in this paper. A general averaging method suitable for computer-aided modeling is discussed first. Then, a symbolic analysis package that uses this averaging method to automatically generate an analytical averaged model for a switching power converter is described. The package is implemented using the computer algebra system

Jian Sun; Horst Grotstollen

1997-01-01

223

Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains recommendations on chemical nomenclature, guidance on symbols, and terminology and units for physiochemical quantities. This report, intended to provide guidance to science teachers, consists of eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) introduction to symbols, terminology, and units for physiochemical quantities; (3)…

Smith, C. G.; And Others

224

Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

225

Symbolic processing methods for 3D visual processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a theory that defines an open method for solving 3D visual data processing and artificial intelligence problems that is independent of hardware or software implementation. The goal of the theory is to generalize and abstract the process of 3D visual processing so that the method can be applied to a wide variety of 3D visual processing problems. Once the theory is described a heuristic derivation is given. Symbolic processing methods can be generalized into an abstract model composed of eight basic components. The symbolic processing model components are: input data; input data interface; symbolic data library; symbolic data environment space; relationship matrix; symbolic logic driver; output data interface and output data. An obstacle detection and avoidance experiment was constructed to demonstrate the symbolic processing method. The results of the robot obstacle avoidance experiment demonstrated that the mobile robot could successfully navigate the obstacle course using symbolic processing methods for the control software. The significance of the symbolic processing approach is that the method arrived at a solution by using a more formal quantifiable process. Some of the practical applications for this theory are: 3D object recognition, obstacle avoidance, and intelligent robot control.

Tedder, Maurice; Hall, Ernest L.

2001-10-01

226

The Role of Symbolic Logic in a Student's Mathematical Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between logic and mathematics is examined. Four basic concepts inherent in symbolic logic that are typically included in ninth- and tenth-grade mathematics programs are reviewed. Symbolic logic is advocated for all students who will study algebra and/or geometry. (MP)

Sharlow, John F.

1981-01-01

227

THEJOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 55, Number I, March 1990  

E-print Network

THEJOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 55, Number I, March 1990 REACHABILITY IS HARDER FOR DIRECTED of Computer Science, pp. 358-367. 0 1990,Association for SymbolicLogic 0022-48I2/90/550I -0009/$04.80 113 #12

Fagin, Ron

228

The impact of symbolic and substantive actions on environmental legitimacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on institutional theory and insights from stakeholder theory and impression management, we empirically analyze the impact of both environmental symbolic polices (participation in voluntary environmental programs, green trademarks, environmental-dedicated board committees, environmental pay policies and community communication) and substantive actions (environmental patents and pollution prevention practices) on environmental legitimacy. We show that 1) symbolic actions have a weaker positive

Pascual Berrone; Liliana Gelabert; Andrea Fosfuri

2009-01-01

229

Degree Reduction for NURBS Symbolic Computation on Curves Xianming Chen  

E-print Network

Degree Reduction for NURBS Symbolic Computation on Curves Xianming Chen , Richard F. Riesenfeld nontrivial symbolic computation, especially when rational B-splines are in- volved, would typically result in B-splines with high de- grees. In this paper we develop degree reduction strate- gies for NURBS

Utah, University of

230

Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

2009-01-01

231

Symbolic interactionist and neurophysiological models of action towards an integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposal introduces an integrated study of action and human conduct from the perspectives of symbolic interaction and neurophysiology. Because of their traditionally disparate subject matter, the fields of sociological social psychology and the neurosciences seldom meet; however, I have found significant common ground to justify an integrated approach to the study of action. Symbolic interactionists study human group

David Spencer Fearon

1989-01-01

232

Parsing and Disambiguation of Symbolic Mathematics in the Naproche System  

E-print Network

Parsing and Disambiguation of Symbolic Mathematics in the Naproche System Marcos Cramer, Peter the difficulties that a program for parsing and disambiguating symbolic mathematics must face and present how formulae, Naproche, formula parsing. 1 Introduction In recent years, formal mathematics has seen remarkable

Koepke, Peter

233

Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the

Lawrence Bobo

1983-01-01

234

Two subroutines for symbol manipulation with an algebraic compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current University of North Carolina version of the IT Compiler [1, 2], as well as the GAT Compiler of Arden and Graham of the University of Michigan [3], have special “alphabetic read” and “alphabetic type” statements. On the UNIVAC 1105 these features allow the direct input or output of six-symbol words, each symbol being either an alphanumeric or special

John W. Carr III; James W. Hanson

1961-01-01

235

Interview: Charlene Teters on Native American Symbols as Mascots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interview with Charlene Teters, Native American artist and activist, focuses on her role as leader of the national campaign to eliminate Native American symbols as college sports mascots, and especially on her experience as a University of Illinois graduate student, where the Native American symbol and mascot continues to be used despite a faculty…

Johns, Rebecca

2000-01-01

236

The symbolism of salt in paintings.  

PubMed

Many artists have used the symbol of salt in both religious and profane works, yet very few studies have explored the symbolism of salt as used in works of art. In this study, Panofsky's method has been adopted to evaluate works of art through an organic process articulated into three stages: (1) pre-iconographic, (2) iconographic and (3) iconological. The method was used for (a) religious paintings of the Old and New Testaments and (b) mythological and profane themes. Various salt-cellars were also studied. In particular, the paper examines the following themes: Isaac blessing Jacob, the return of Esau, Samuel consecrating David, the Last Supper, the suppers at Emmaus and at the house of Simon, the birth of St. John the Baptist, the Baptism of Constantine, the prodigal son, Bacchus-Apollo, the nuptial banquet of Love and Psyche, the death of the Cavalier of Celano, the king drinks, the landlord's visit, 'Phitopolis faisant servir des mets en or au roi Pithès', certain still life paintings and various salt-cellars including those of Cellini and Giulio Romano. The paper discusses the works of many artists including Raphael, Leonardo and his school (Boltraffio, Giampietrino, d'Oggiono, Solario), Hendricksz, Corenzio, Jean-Baptiste and Philippe de Champaigne, Damaskinos, Tintoretto, Titian, Romanino, Rubens, Bellini, Bloemaert, Veronese, Sustris, Just of Ghent, Jan Van Hemessen, Poussin, Loir, Giotto, Jordaens, Brueghel and Mimmo Paladino with his enchanted mountain. From the data examined it emerged that salt is a primary iconological presence in various works of art. PMID:9189253

Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; De Santo, D; Bellini, L; De Santo, N G

1997-01-01

237

Mental symbols and genetic symbols: Analogies between theoretical perspectives in biology and cognitive science.  

PubMed

A striking parallel may be drawn between the historical succession of explanatory theories of life and explanatory theories of cognitive phenomena. In both domains independently, approaches to understanding the problem of adaptation spawned the concept of formal representation: in biology the representation of hereditary characters by genes, and in psychology the symbolic representation of mental contents by computational states. Molecular biology and classical cognitivism now share the same problem of the origin of language (genetic code and language of thought) and the assignment of content to manipulated symbols. Such isomorphism of the problems and their modes of resolution could provide grounds for criticism of the naive way in which biology is used to solve the difficulties encountered in psychology, as in the teleological approach to intentionality. On the other hand, acceptance of the analogy implies that any solution or major revision in one domain should be able to inspire equivalent solutions or revisions in the other. PMID:24896036

Lenay, C

1995-12-01

238

Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding.  

PubMed

Weber's law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0-25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

Livingstone, Margaret S; Pettine, Warren W; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A; Lee, Daeyeol

2014-05-01

239

Prefrontal cortex and the evolution of symbolic reference.  

PubMed

Symbol systems such as numbers and language are of paramount importance to human cognition. In number theory, numbers are symbolic signs embedded in a system of higher-order sign-sign relations. During ontogeny, numerical competence passes through different referential sign relations with increasing complexity, from an iconic to an indexical and finally symbolic stage. Animals such as nonhuman primates are constrained to indexical reference. However, because symbolic reference emerges from indexical reference, behavioral and neuronal representations of semantic sign-numerosity associations in animals can elucidate the precursors of symbol systems. A neurobiological explanation of how numerical signs take their meaning is proposed by suggesting that neurons in the granular prefrontal cortex, a novel brain structure evolved in primates, enable high-order associations and establish links between nonsymbolic numerosities and arbitrary signs. PMID:19447604

Nieder, Andreas

2009-02-01

240

Encoding information in chemical chaos by controlling symbolic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a technique of encoding and then decoding symbol sequences containing information into chaotic oscillations of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The encoding technique is based on controlling the chaotic oscillations by applying small parameter perturbations and on learning the grammar of corresponding symbol dynamics produced by the free-running chaotic system. The use of small parameter perturbations requires that we respect the grammar of the symbol dynamics which represents the physical dynamical system. We present a method for learning the grammar of a symbol dynamics in terms of allowed transitions between the bins defined by the symbol generating partition. The encoding technique can be easily utilized for targeting and stabilization of any unstable periodic orbit.

Bollt, Erik M.; Dolnik, Milos

1997-06-01

241

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

242

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Shoes  

E-print Network

NOT 1 Shoes, safety (men's high top) A-A-1890 NOT 1 Shoes, electrical hazard protective (men's safety) A, electrical hazard productive men's safety Links: Occupational Safety and Health Administration wwwSafety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Shoes and Boots Safety Tip #21 Don't let your day

Minnesota, University of

243

Analysing the “field” of patient safety employing Bourdieusian technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the development of patient safety as a field within which patients are peripheral stakeholders. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors examined the patient safety movement from the perspective of a field in which agents struggle for control over various forms of capital, including economic, social, cultural and symbolic capital. In order to undertake this analysis

Joanne F. Travaglia; Jeffrey Braithwaite

2009-01-01

244

Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations. PMID:20729173

Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

2011-04-01

245

Quantifying heart rate dynamics using different approaches of symbolic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series is able to retrieve information about dynamical properties of the underlying system that cannot be gained with standard methods like e.g. spectral analysis. Different approaches for the transformation of the original time series to the symbolic time series have been proposed. Yet the differences between the approaches are unknown. In this study three different transformation methods are investigated: (1) symbolization according to the deviation from the average time series, (2) symbolization according to several equidistant levels between the minimum and maximum of the time series, (3) binary symbolization of the first derivative of the time series. Furthermore, permutation entropy was used to quantify the symbolic series. Each method was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RR i and its difference ? RR I of 17 healthy subjects obtained during head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics of each method is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences ("words") of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), words with one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis showed that for method 1 0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle. For method 2 0V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle and method 3 showed changes for 0V% and 1V%. Furthermore, also the permutation entropy decreased with increasing tilt angle. In conclusion, all methods are capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during head-up tilt. All methods show that even the analysis of very short symbolic sequences is capable of tracking changes of the cardiac autonomic regulation during head-up tilt testing.

Cysarz, D.; Porta, A.; Montano, N.; Leeuwen, P. V.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

2013-06-01

246

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-print Network

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING Manager (951) 827-2964 beiwei.tu@ucr.edu (vacant) Emergency Management Specialist (951) 827-2609 Xavier

247

Safety: Amc Safety Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual, in its several sections, sets forth established Ordnance Corps safety rules and regulations. Information concerning the hazards of explosives and ammunition is also included. The safety rules and regulations set forth in this manual prescribe...

1964-01-01

248

Computerized symbolic manipulation in structural mechanics Progress and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Status and recent applications of computerized symbolic manipulation to structural mechanics problems are summarized. The applications discussed include; (1) generation of characteristic arrays of finite elements; (2) evaluation of effective stiffness and mass coefficients of continuum models for repetitive lattice structures; and (3) application of Rayleigh-Ritz technique to free vibration analysis of laminated composite elliptic plates. The major advantages of using computerized symbolic manipulation in each of these applications are outlined. A number of problem areas which limit the realization of the full potential of computerized symbolic manipulation in structural mechanics are examined and some of the means of alleviating them are discussed.

Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

1978-01-01

249

An efficient algorithm for the Riemannian 10j symbols  

E-print Network

The 10j symbol is a spin network that appears in the partition function for the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity. Elementary methods of calculating the 10j symbol require order(j^9) or more operations and order(j^2) or more space, where j is the average spin. We present an algorithm that computes the 10j symbol using order(j^5) operations and order(j^2) space, and a variant that uses order(j^6) operations and a constant amount of space. An implementation has been made available on the web.

J. Daniel Christensen; Greg Egan

2001-10-09

250

Characterization of noisy symbolic time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 0-1 test for chaos is a recently developed time series characterization algorithm that can determine whether a system is chaotic or nonchaotic. While the 0-1 test was designed for deterministic series, in real-world measurement situations, noise levels may not be known and the 0-1 test may have difficulty distinguishing between chaos and randomness. In this paper, we couple the 0-1 test for chaos with a test for determinism and apply these tests to noisy symbolic series generated from various model systems. We find that the pairing of the 0-1 test with a test for determinism improves the ability to correctly distinguish between chaos and randomness from a noisy series. Furthermore, we explore the modes of failure for the 0-1 test and the test for determinism so that we can better understand the effectiveness of the two tests to handle various levels of noise. We find that while the tests can handle low noise and high noise situations, moderate levels of noise can lead to inconclusive results from the two tests.

Kulp, Christopher W.; Smith, Suzanne

2011-02-01

251

[Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].  

PubMed

The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225

Suaud, Charles

2014-03-01

252

[Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].  

PubMed

Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor. PMID:17585707

Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer

2007-01-01

253

Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing.  

PubMed

Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. 'Groups' is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org. PMID:24037025

Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A; Karp, Peter D

2013-01-01

254

Modeling Manic-Depression with Symbolic Logic  

PubMed Central

We characterize manic-depression in terms of symbolic logic and dynamical systems, and describe a computer simulation used to develop our theory. A formal theory of cognitive deficit has four parts. (1) For a normal representation we use the concept of sound and complete “self-axioms.” (2) Normal processing occurs when changes in our personal environment trigger a search for a new set of sound and complete self-axioms. (3) Deficits can lead to unsound judgement in mania and incomplete judgement in depression. (4) Adaptation may consist of attempts to suppress or use the changes in reasoning style. Since manic-depression involves changes in the temporal organization of mood and judgement, it can be classified as a dynamical disease. Nonlinear dynamical systems exhibit transitions between steady state, periodic, and chaotic behavior. We illustrate our approach with a computer simulation that searches through a small set of “self-axioms” while exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior. In conclusion we conjecture that manic-depression may represent a bifurcation from the chaotic dynamics of normal emotional lability to the pathological periodicity of affective illness.

Webster, Charles; Banks, Gordon

1989-01-01

255

Symbols for the General British English Vowel Sounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the critique of Hans G. Hoffmann saying that the new phonetic symbols contained in A. S. Hornby's "Advanced Learner's Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London, 1974) are harder to learn than the older system of transcription. (IFS/WGA)

Lewis, J. Windsor

1975-01-01

256

FREDHOLM REALIZATIONS OF ELLIPTIC SYMBOLS ON MANIFOLDS WITH BOUNDARY  

E-print Network

FREDHOLM REALIZATIONS OF ELLIPTIC SYMBOLS ON MANIFOLDS WITH BOUNDARY PIERRE ALBIN AND RICHARD to scattering and zero calculi 24 6.5. Di#erential operators 25 References 27 1 #12; 2 PIERRE ALBIN AND RICHARD

Melrose, Richard

257

Symbolic Representations and Analysis of Large Probabilistic Systems  

E-print Network

Symbolic Representations and Analysis of Large Probabilistic Systems Andrew Miner 1? and David into a number of areas, and we cover each one separately in this paper. In Section 2, we consider the storage

Oxford, University of

258

Dynamics analysis on neural firing patterns by symbolic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neural firing patterns are investigated by using symbolic dynamics. Bifurcation behaviour of the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuronal model is simulated with the external stimuli gradually decreasing, and various firing activities with different topological structures are orderly numbered. Through constructing first-return maps of interspike intervals, all firing patterns are described and identified by symbolic expressions. On the basis of ordering rules of symbolic sequences, the corresponding relation between parameters and firing patterns is established, which will be helpful for encoding neural information. Moreover, using the operation rule of * product, generation mechanisms and intrinsic configurations of periodic patterns can be distinguished in detail. Results show that the symbolic approach is a powerful tool to study neural firing activities. In particular, such a coarse-grained way can be generalized in neural electrophysiological experiments to extract much valuable information from complicated experimental data.

Gao, Zhi-Ying; Lu, Qi-Shao

2007-08-01

259

The Utility of Symbolic Logic for Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the advantages of using symbolic logic in political analyses. It can be used (1) as a tool in conceptual refinement, (2) to determine if arguments are consistent and valid, and (3) as a tool for theory development. (SR)

Simowitz, Roslyn L.

1982-01-01

260

A symbolic representation of the real Mobius group  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe symbolic representations of the extended real line based on the dynamical systems consisting of Mobius transformations. The representations can be extended to the group of real Mobius transformations.

Petr Kû

261

Multiple-symbol differential detection of GMSK for mobile communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multiple differential detection (MDD) sequence estimator is described which uses a decision feedback for the demodulation of a GMSK signal. This technique is based upon a maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than on a symbol-by-symbol detection. An upper and a lower bound on the bit error probability of the described detector in the case of

Andrea Abrardo; Giuliano Benelli; Gianfranco R. Cau

1995-01-01

262

A Ground-Truthed Mathematical Character and Symbol Image Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications for our ground-truthed mathematical character and symbol image database, called InftyCDB-1. The ground-truth of each character is composed of type, font, quality (touched\\/broken) and link (relative position), etc. The database includes all the characters and symbols of 467 pages of 30 articles on mathematics, and is organized so that it can be used as word

Masakazu Suzuki; Seiichi Uchida; Akihiro Nomura

2005-01-01

263

Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum\\u000a disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity\\u000a of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother–child interactions during free play and doll play.\\u000a We hypothesized that children with secure attachments

Inbal Marcu; David Oppenheim; Nina Koren-Karie; Smadar Dolev; Nurit Yirmiya

2009-01-01

264

Rapunzel: the symbolism of the cutting of hair.  

PubMed

I have adduced data to demonstrate that the act of cutting of hair is a symbol. The criterion of proof used is the traditional one in psychoanalysis: the idea carries constant meanings in separate areas of human experience and behavior. Such constant meanings are shown in a folk tale, the mental lives of patients, clinical studies by other authors, and certain practices of other cultures. The cutting of hair symbolizes separation from a mothering object, castration, and reparation. PMID:6155393

Andresen, J J

1980-01-01

265

Symbolic Execution and Program Testing [1] Christoph Reiter  

E-print Network

: 1 def procedure(a, b, c): # a=a1 , b=a2 , c=a3 2 x = a + b # x = a1 + a2 3 y = b + c # y = a2 + a3 4 z = x + y - b # z = (a1 + a2) + (a2 + a3) - a2 5 return z # return (a1 + a2 + a3) Symbols: A, B, CAK-SWT Symbolic Execution and Program Testing [1] Christoph Reiter November 25, 2013 Reiter

266

Asymptotics for Toeplitz determinants: perturbation of symbols with a gap  

E-print Network

We study determinants of Toeplitz matrices as the size of the matrices tends to infinity, in the particular case where the symbol has two jump discontinuities and tends to zero on an arc of the unit circle at a sufficiently fast rate. We generalize an asymptotic expansion by Widom [22], which was known for symbols supported on an arc. We highlight applications of our results in the Circular Unitary Ensemble and in the study of Fredholm determinants associated to the sine kernel.

Christophe Charlier; Tom Claeys

2014-09-01

267

Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.

O'Dell, Linda Kay

268

Symbols of Diaspora Jewish identity: An international survey and multi-dimensional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbols are important in representing religious and ethnic identity, particularly in the postmodern age. Using a case study of Jewish adolescents, this article explores the use of symbols in expressing identity. A structural typology of symbols is developed, based on responses to a list of 20 symbols of Jewish identity by over 40,000 Jewish youth from around the world, who

Erik H. Cohen

2008-01-01

269

Using symbolic computer algebra for subexpression factorization and subexpression decomposition in high level synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high level synthesis, signals can usually be regarded as symbols. With modern symbolic computer algebra, behavioral-level circuit descriptions consisting of symbols can be transformed into more efficient codes for hardware implementation. In this paper, two high level transformation techniques, subexpression factorization and subexpression decomposition, which are based on modern symbolic computer algebra, are proposed to optimize both area and

Xianwu Xing; Ching-chuen Jong

2005-01-01

270

VLSI architecture for dynamic time-warp recognition of handwritten symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of dynamic time warping is a well-established technique for time alignment and comparison of speech and image patterns. It has found extensive application in speech recognition and related areas of pattern matching. Comparing the handwritten symbol to the set of training symbols (called reference symbols), we can recognize the input handwritten symbol by computing the distances among the

Heng-Da Cheng; King-Sun Fu

1986-01-01

271

Efficient blind symbol rate estimation and data symbol detection algorithms for linearly modulated signals  

E-print Network

with the known cycles fk. If y(n) has a nonzero mean, then cyclic mean can be estimated as ^U(fk) = 1 M M?1X m=0 y(m)e?j2?fkm: (3.5) If the set of cycles is flnite, we also estimate the time-varying mean as ^?(m) = X fk ^U(fk)ej2?fkm: (3.6) Similarly, for zero...-mean CS processes, cyclic correlations and time-varying correla- tions are estimated, respectively, via ^C(fk;?) = 1 M M?1X m=0 y(m)y(m+?)e?j2?fkm; (3.7) ^c(m;?) = X fk2Fc ^C(fk;?)ej2?fkm: (3.8) C. Cyclic Correlation Based Symbol Rate Estimators Cyclic...

Park, Sang Woo

2009-05-15

272

Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

Martin, James P.

1991-12-01

273

Cross-linguistic sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondence: Evidence from fMRI and DTI.  

PubMed

Non-arbitrary correspondences between spoken words and categories of meanings exist in natural language, with mounting evidence that listeners are sensitive to this sound symbolic information. Native English speakers were asked to choose the meaning of spoken foreign words from one of four corresponding antonym pairs selected from a previously developed multi-language stimulus set containing both sound symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli. In behavioral (n=9) and fMRI (n=15) experiments, participants showed reliable sensitivity to the sound symbolic properties of the stimulus set, selecting the consistent meaning for the sound symbolic words at above chances rates. There was increased activation for sound symbolic relative to non-symbolic words in left superior parietal cortex, and a cluster in left superior longitudinal fasciculus showed a positive correlation between fractional anisotropy (FA) and an individual's sensitivity to sound symbolism. These findings support the idea that crossmodal correspondences underlie sound symbolism in spoken language. PMID:24316238

Revill, Kate Pirog; Namy, Laura L; DeFife, Lauren Clepper; Nygaard, Lynne C

2014-01-01

274

Combining Automated Theorem Provers with Symbolic Algebraic Systems: Position Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to pure mathematical applications where automated theorem provers (ATPs) are quite capable, proof tasks arising form real-world applications from the area of Software Engineering show quite different characteristics: they usually do not only contain much arithmetic (albeit often quite simple one), but they also often contain reasoning about specific structures (e.g. graphics, sets). Thus, an ATP must be capable of performing reasoning together with a fair amount of simplification, calculation and solving. Therefore, powerful simplifiers and other (symbolic and semi-symbolic) algorithms seem to be ideally suited to augment ATPs. In the following we shortly describe two major points of interest in combining SASs (symbolic algebraic systems) with top-down automated theorem provers (here: SETHEO [Let92, GLMS94]).

Schumann, Johann; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

275

Classical 6j-symbols and the tetrahedron  

E-print Network

A classical 6j-symbol is a real number which can be associated to a labelling of the six edges of a tetrahedron by irreducible representations of SU(2). This abstract association is traditionally used simply to express the symmetry of the 6j-symbol, which is a purely algebraic object; however, it has a deeper geometric significance. Ponzano and Regge, expanding on work of Wigner, gave a striking (but unproved) asymptotic formula relating the value of the 6j-symbol, when the dimensions of the representations are large, to the volume of an honest Euclidean tetrahedron whose edge lengths are these dimensions. The goal of this paper is to prove and explain this formula by using geometric quantization. A surprising spin-off is that a generic Euclidean tetrahedron gives rise to a family of twelve scissors-congruent but non-congruent tetrahedra.

Justin Roberts

1998-12-15

276

Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals  

PubMed Central

In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?100–60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60–40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique

2012-01-01

277

Multiple layer identification label using stacked identification symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

278

Multiple Layer Identification Label Using Stacked Identification Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

279

Symbolic interactionism and critical perspective: divergent or synergistic?  

PubMed

Throughout their history, symbolic interactionism and critical perspective have been viewed as divergent theoretical perspectives with different philosophical underpinnings. A review of their historical and philosophical origins reveals both points of divergence and areas of convergence. Their underlying philosophies of science and views of human freedom are different as is their level of focus with symbolic interactionism having a micro perspective and critical perspective using a macro perspective. This micro/macro difference is reflected in the divergence of their major concepts, goals and basic tenets. While their underlying philosophies are different, however, they are not necessarily contradictory and areas of convergence may include the concepts of reference groups and looking glass self within symbolic interactionism and ideological hegemony within critical perspective. By using a pragmatic approach and combining symbolic interactionism and critical perspectives, both micro and macro levels come into focus and strategies for change across individual and societal levels can be developed and applied. Application of both symbolic interactionism and critical perspective to nursing research and scholarship offers exciting new opportunities for theory development and research methodologies. In nursing education, these two perspectives can give students added insight into patients' and families' problems at the micro level while, at the same time, giving them a lens to see and tools to apply to problems at the macro level in health care. In nursing practice, a combined symbolic interactionism/critical perspective approach assists nurses to give high-quality care at the individual level while also working at the macro level to address the manufacturers of illness. New research questions emerge from this combination of perspectives with new possibilities for theory development, a transformation in nursing education, and the potential for new practice strategies that can address individual client and larger system problems through empowerment of clients and nurses. PMID:20017881

Burbank, Patricia M; Martins, Diane C

2010-01-01

280

New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.

Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.

2012-01-01

281

New Symbolic Tools for Differential Geometry, Gravitation, and Field Theory  

E-print Network

DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors and other tensorial invariants, algebraic classification of curvature, and symmetry reduction of field equations.

I. M. Anderson; C. G. Torre

2011-03-08

282

Detecting Recurrence Domains of Dynamical Systems by Symbolic Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an algorithm for the detection of recurrence domains of complex dynamical systems from time series. Our approach exploits the characteristic checkerboard texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots. In phase space, recurrence plots yield intersecting balls around sampling points that could be merged into cells of a phase space partition. We construct this partition by a rewriting grammar applied to the symbolic dynamics of time indices. A maximum entropy principle defines the optimal size of intersecting balls. The final application to high-dimensional brain signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal.

Graben, Peter beim; Hutt, Axel

2013-04-01

283

Detecting recurrence domains of dynamical systems by symbolic dynamics.  

PubMed

We propose an algorithm for the detection of recurrence domains of complex dynamical systems from time series. Our approach exploits the characteristic checkerboard texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots. In phase space, recurrence plots yield intersecting balls around sampling points that could be merged into cells of a phase space partition. We construct this partition by a rewriting grammar applied to the symbolic dynamics of time indices. A maximum entropy principle defines the optimal size of intersecting balls. The final application to high-dimensional brain signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal. PMID:25167271

beim Graben, Peter; Hutt, Axel

2013-04-12

284

Symbolic Dynamics and Unpredictability Defined by Right Adjointness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a category-theoretic definition of chaotic system applies not only to the Smale horseshoe, a prototypical example, but also to Conway's "Life." Symbolic dynamics of the "Dining Philosophers" relational system is computed. A category composed of stochastic matrices is defined and its elementary properties are studied. A categorical variant of symbolic dynamics is applied to a finite stochastic process. Using point-wise Kan extension formulas, conditions ensuring existence of certain representations between categories of dynamic systems are proved.

Wojtowicz, Ralph L.

2004-08-01

285

Symbolic models for nonlinear control systems without stability assumptions  

E-print Network

Finite-state models of control systems were proposed by several researchers as a convenient mechanism to synthesize controllers enforcing complex specifications. Existing techniques for the construction of such symbolic models have so far relied on certain stability or stabilizability assumptions. In this paper, we show that these assumptions can be relaxed and prove that large classes of unstable systems admit symbolic models. The effectiveness of the proposed results is illustrated by synthesizing a controller for an inverted pendulum subject to a schedulability constraint.

Zamani, Majid; Mazo, Manuel; Tabuada, Paulo

2010-01-01

286

Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for reading symbols on highly reflective surfaces. By use of beam splitters, the visible and infrared collimated lights are introduced along the optical path of the telecentric lens, so that the target is illuminated and viewed from the same direction.

Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.

2006-01-01

287

From symbolizing to non-symbolizing within the scope of a link: from dreams to shouts of terror caused by an absent presence.  

PubMed

This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552

Levy, Ruggero

2012-08-01

288

The benefit of symbols: monkeys show linear, human-like, accuracy when using symbols to represent scalar value.  

PubMed

When humans and animals estimate numbers of items, their error rate is proportional to the number. To date, however, only humans show the capacity to represent large numbers symbolically, which endows them with increased precision, especially for large numbers, and with tools for manipulating numbers. This ability depends critically on our capacity to acquire and represent explicit symbols. Here we show that when rhesus monkeys are trained to use an explicit symbol system, they too show more precise, and linear, scaling than they do using a one-to-one corresponding numerosity representation. We also found that when taught two different types of representations for reward amount, the monkeys systematically undervalued the less precise representation. The results indicate that monkeys, like humans, can learn alternative mechanisms for representing a single value scale and that performance variability and relative value depend on the distinguishability of each representation. PMID:20443126

Livingstone, Margaret S; Srihasam, Krishna; Morocz, Istvan A

2010-09-01

289

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always General site safety  

E-print Network

.400 Electrical cords Links: Occupational Health and Safety Administration www.osha.gov #12;Safety First Safety Last Safety Always General site safety During the course of construction fall to eliminate the hazard of impalement. Electrical cords Check your cords every day to make sure

Minnesota, University of

290

SYMBOLS, STIMULUS EQUIVALENCE AND THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in the origins of language, within the strongly cognitive field of Evolutionary Psychology, has predominantly focused upon the origins of syntax (cf. Hurford, Knight, & Studdert-Kennedy, 1998). However, Ullin Place's (2000a) theory of the gestural origins of language also addresses the more fundamental issue of the antecedents of symbols, and does so from a behaviorist perspective, stressing the

Thomas E. Dickins; David W. Dickins

2001-01-01

291

Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining state-graph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolically instead of

Jerry R. Burch; Edmund Melson Clarke; Kenneth L. McMillan; L. J. Hwang

1990-01-01

292

Symbolic Graphs: Linear Solutions to Connectivity Related Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of symbolic data structures such as Ordered Binary De- cision Diagrams (OBDD) is rapidly growing in many areas of Computer Science where the large dimensions of the input models is a challenging feature: OBDD based graph representations allowed to define truly new standards in the achievable dimensions for the Model Checking verification technique. However, OBDD repre- sentations pose

Raffaella Gentilini; Carla Piazza; Alberto Policriti

2008-01-01

293

Time reversal, symbolic series and irreversibility of human heartbeat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the time reversal properties of time series by means of a ternary coding of the differentiated series. For the symbolic series obtained in this way we show that suitable pairs of ternary words have the same probability if the time series is reversible. This provides tests in which time reversibility is rejected if the estimated probabilities are significantly

Camillo Cammarota; Enrico Rogora

2007-01-01

294

Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…

Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

2011-01-01

295

Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,…

Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

2013-01-01

296

MuSimp/MuMath-80: A Symbolic Mathematics System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the latest version of "muSimp/muMath-80," discussing the muSimp language and muMath applications. The package comes with a variety of muMath source files (including lessons, five teaching features of ARITH and ALGEBRA files and five teaching the muSimp language) and is capable of handling a wide variety of symbolic mathematics problems.…

Shochat, David D.

1982-01-01

297

Student Activism within Christian College Cultures: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their…

Cole, Brian E.

2014-01-01

298

Applying decision trees to the recognition of musical symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an experimental study on the recognition of printed musical scores. The first part of the study focuses on data preparation. Bitmaps containing musical symbols are converted to feature vectors using various methods. The vectors created in such a way are used to train classifiers which are the essential part of the study. Several decision tree classifiers are

A. Kolakowska

2008-01-01

299

A Perspective on Symbolic Mathematical Computing and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The nature and history of the research area common to artificialintelligence and symbolic mathematical computation are examined,with particular reference to the topics having the greatest currentamount of activity or potential for further development: mathematicalknowledge-based computing environments, autonomous agents andmulti-agent systems, transformation of problem descriptions in logicsinto algebraic forms, exploitation of machine learning, qualitative reasoning,and...

Jacques Calmet; John A. Campbell

1997-01-01

300

The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich…

Tracy, Rita

2012-01-01

301

Non-Symbolic Arithmetic in Adults and Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated whether adults and preschool children can perform simple arithmetic calculations on non-symbolic numerosities. Previous research has demonstrated that human adults, human infants, and non-human animals can process numerical quantities through approximate representations of their magnitudes. Here we consider whether…

Barth, Hilary; La Mont, Kristen; Lipton, Jennifer; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Spelke, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

302

SCIL --Symbolic Constraints in Integer Linear Programming \\Lambda Ernst Althaus  

E-print Network

for a wide range of problems including the TSP [ABCC99, Nad02], maximum­cut­problems [SDJ + 96], cutting­stock introduces symbolic constraints into branch­and­cut­and­price algorithms for integer linear programs for integer linear programming (ILP) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) based on a branch­and­cut

Mehlhorn, Kurt

303

Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications

Andreas Pommert; Rainer Schubert; Martin Riemer; Thomas Schiemann; Ulf Tiede; Karl H. Hoehne

1994-01-01

304

Recognition for Large Sets of Handwritten Mathematical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and convenient mathematical handwriting recogni- tion requires recognizers for large sets of handwritten sym- bols. This paper presents a recognition system for such handwritten mathematical symbols. We use a pre-classification strategy, in combination with elastic matching, to improve recognition speed. Elastic matching is a model-based method that involves computation proportional to the set of candi- date models. To solve

Stephen M. Watt; Xiaofang Xie

2005-01-01

305

f-symbols in Robertson-Walker space-times  

E-print Network

In a Robertson-Walker space-time a spinning particle model is investigated and we show that in a stationary case, there exists a class of new structures called f-symbols which can generate reducible Killing tensors and supersymmetry algebras.

Florian Catalin Popa; Ovidiu Tintareanu-Mircea

2004-12-16

306

Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…

Moriarty, M. Wyn

2009-01-01

307

Symbolic Mining of Temporal Specifications Mark Gabel Zhendong Su  

E-print Network

Symbolic Mining of Temporal Specifications Mark Gabel Zhendong Su Department of Computer Science and Reasoning about Programs This research was supported in part by NSF CAREER Grant No. 0546844, NSF Cyber of the Government and no official endorsement should be inferred. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all

California at Davis, University of

308

Capitalism, cities, and the production of symbolic forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A striking characteristic of contemporary capitalism is the increasing importance (in terms of growth, employment, revenue, etc.) of sectors whose outputs are imbued with significant cultural or symbolic content. Sectors of these sorts are predominantly, though not exclusively, located in large cities. I describe how these cities function as creative fields generating streams of both cultural and technological innovations. Post-Fordist

Allen J. Scott

2001-01-01

309

Health Monitoring of Electronic Products Using Symbolic Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a symbolic time series analysis methodology using to detect anomalies and predict the future health of electronic products. Due to the complexity of the system under analysis, a multivariate Mahalanobis Distance approach is used to reduce the dimensionality of the problem as well as to capture correlations between monitored performance parameters. A non-linear dynamic Markov model is

Sachin Kumar; Michael Pecht

310

Covering and communication: The symbolism of dress among Muslim women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of clothing as a means of nonverbal, symbolic communication within Islamic societies plays a significant part in defining social roles and controlling space in the public domain. The current situations in specific countries such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt document various attempts by young women to carve out a legitimate public space, to protect themselves from abuse,

Debra Reece

1996-01-01

311

17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...foreign currency symbols that the EDGAR Filer Manual specifies. The limitations of this paragraph do not apply to unofficial PDF copies submitted in accordance with Rule 104 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.104). [58 FR 14670, Mar. 18, 1993; 58...

2010-04-01

312

Toward Good Elimination Orders for Symbolic SAT Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamentally different from DPLL, a new approach to SAT has recently emerged that abandons search and en- lists BDDs to symbolically represent clauses of the CNF. These BDDs are conjoined according to a schedule where some variables may be eliminated by quantification at each step to reduce the size of the intermediate BDDs. SAT solv- ing then reduces to checking

Jinbo Huang; Adnan Darwiche

2004-01-01

313

Detecting recurrence domains of dynamical systems by symbolic dynamics  

E-print Network

texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots (RP). In phase space, RPs yield intersecting signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal. PACS plot (RP) method for visualizing Poincar´e's recurrences. The proposed method is numerically less time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Probabilistic Construction of Semantic Symbols in Building Automation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the automatic discrimination of sensor and system behavior and construction of symbols with semantic meaning in a building automation system is introduced - SCRS (semantic concept recognition system). The automated method is based on statistical modelling of sensor behavior. A model of a sensor's value sequences is automatically constructed. The model's structure and parameters are optimized using

Dietmar Bruckner; Brian Sallans; Gerhard Russ

2006-01-01

315

7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are as follows: FL—tannish buff, FR—tannish red, VF—greenish tan, VR—greenish red, GF—green tan, and GR—green red. (See rules 17 and 18.) [51 FR 40407, Nov. 7,...

2010-01-01

316

Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

Anderson, John R.

2005-01-01

317

Symbol tales: Paths towards the creation of a saint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In “Symbol Tales: Paths Towards the Creation of a Saint”, I discuss Catholic Pueblo women's devotion to Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha, a seventeenth century Mohawk convert turned folk saint. Between 1996 and 1998, I conducted extensive ethnographic fieldwork in the Pueblos of New Mexico, including Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Acoma, and San Juan, as well as in Mescalero, on the Navajo Nation,

Paula Elizabeth Holmes

2000-01-01

318

The rod and the serpent: history's ultimate healing symbol.  

PubMed

The snake has served as a medical emblem for more than 2400 years, since its association with the ancient Greek god of medicine and healing, Asclepius, in the 4th century BC. Its symbolic background can be traced further back to the worship of gods of earth's blossom in ancient Egypt and earth-related deities of the archaic period of Greek antiquity. It is featured entwined around a staff of knowledge and wisdom in most anaglyphs depicting Asclepius. The snake was impressed in the Old and the New Testament as well as in the Christian tradition as a symbol of sin, rejuvenation, death, resurrection, asthenia, and therapy. It is postulated that the double-snake motif was reintroduced by Renaissance philosophers as a medical emblem due to the symbolic connections of Hermes with deliverance and redemption. However, its use during the last two centuries seems to lack substantial historical background. The historical, mythological, and traditional retrospection of the snake's symbolism validates its appropriateness in the health-care field. PMID:20556606

Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Learney, Robert; Granderath, Frank A; Antoniou, Athanasios I

2011-01-01

319

Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

2008-01-01

320

Transforming ourselves\\/transforming curriculum: spiritual education and Tarot symbolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual ‘lessons’ derived from collective human experiences across times, places, and cultures. For Dewey, to call somebody spiritual

Inna Semetsky

2009-01-01

321

Symbol Shaping for Barker Spread Wi-Fi Communications  

E-print Network

Symbol Shaping for Barker Spread Wi-Fi Communications Tanim M. Taher, Graduate Student Member, IEEE, and experimental methods. Power spectral densities are compared to the FCC mask to determine the effectiveness. A complete experimental system has been implemented as a test bed for this research. I. INTRODUCTION Digital

322

1989 / II -127Guidelines Audiometric Symbols Committee on Audiologic Evaluation  

E-print Network

1989 / II - 127Guidelines � Audiometric Symbols Committee on Audiologic Evaluation The revised) Committee on Audiologic Evaluation, and adopted by the ASHA Legislative Council (LC 19-89) in November 1989. Introduction These guidelines were developed by the Commit- tee on Audiologic Evaluation under the direction

Allen, Jont

323

Learning to Ground Fact Symbols in Behavior-Based Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robot running a hybrid control system (its architecture comprising a deliberative and a reactive part) must permanently up- date its symbolic situation model to allow its ongoing deliberation to operate. Previous work has shown that this update can be improved by using, possibly among other sources, the robot's sensor informa- tion as filtered through recent activation value histories of

Joachim Hertzberg; Herbert Jaeger; Frank Schönherr

2002-01-01

324

Online Social Shopping: The Functions and Symbols of Design Artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results from a study investigating online shoppers' perceptions and evaluations of online social shopping design artifacts. To do so, we use the framework developed by Markus and Silver (2008) for studying information technology artifacts and their effects. Hence, we examine the functional affordances, i.e., the potential uses, and the symbolic expressions, i.e., the underlying message guiding use,

Camille Grange; Izak Benbasat

2010-01-01

325

Rona's Story and the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a method for teaching the theory of symbolic interactionism in a high-school course--Introduction to Sociology. The role-playing game used as a method for teaching the theory is grounded on a philosophy of education whose principles call for meaningful and relevant learning, based on experiential activity and investigation of…

Naveh, Nissan

2010-01-01

326

Automated behaviour recognition in mobile robots using symbolic dynamic filtering  

E-print Network

Automated behaviour recognition in mobile robots using symbolic dynamic filtering G Mallapragada, I-driven method for signature detection in mobile robots. The core concept of the paper is built upon dynamical systems. The objective here is to identify the robot behaviour in real time as accurately

Ray, Asok

327

Symbols and Formulas for a Few Bibliometric Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbols for bibliometric concepts like "half life,""impact factor,""normalized impact factor," and "immediacy index" are proposed and formulas for the determination of their values are provided. The features of the bibliometric concepts are also highlighted. (Author/AEF)

Sen, B. K.

1999-01-01

328

Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

2014-01-01

329

The Puer and the Symbolism of the Sword  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I examine the symbolism of the sword from the perspective of the knights of the romantic period, in particular, the depictions in Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. My contention is that such figures provide an extremely detailed and enlightening depiction of the male puer, the eternal male child figure who has problems relating to the world in very

Philip L. Kime

2010-01-01

330

Symbolic Functioning and Language Development in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding the relationship between preverbal skills and language development has important implications for identifying communication delay/disorders and for early childhood intervention. In the case of children with Down syndrome, it is well established that symbolic play is associated with the emergence of language. However, the…

O'toole, Ciara; Chiat, Shula

2006-01-01

331

Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

2003-01-01

332

Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

2008-01-01

333

A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from exampleshave worked best in domains in which all features had numericvalues. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points anddistance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains,a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. Weintroduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning in domains withsymbolic features. Our

Steven Salzberg

1993-01-01

334

Symbolic loss in American adolescents: mourning in teenage cinema.  

PubMed

I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre. PMID:22843337

Kramp, Joseph M

2014-04-01

335

An effort at studying Rorschach content symbolism: The frog response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conception was advanced that a frog response on the Rorschach Test constituted a symbolic representation of unconscious cloacal birth and oral impregnation fantasies. It was hypothesized that a group of frog responders would display more eating disturbances than would a comparison group. A group of 31 psychiatric patients, giving frog responses in their Rorschach protocols, was compared with a

Allan Sapolsky

1964-01-01

336

3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

van Veenendaal, Michel

2011-01-01

337

Symbolic Play in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between symbolic play and other domains, such as degree of autistic symptomatology, nonverbal cognitive ability, receptive language, expressive language, and social development, was investigated. The assessment files of 101 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were studied. Nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive language…

Stanley, Gillian C.; Konstantareas, M. Mary

2007-01-01

338

Symbolism and Psychological Realism in "The Red Badge of Courage."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "The Red Badge of Courage," Stephen Crane overcomes serious artistic difficulties to depict a complicated psychological change in his protagonist, Henry Fleming, an unsophisticated and inarticulate farm boy. To embody the development of this protagonist, Crane uses a series of thematically-related incidents and a set of thematic symbols which…

McDermott, John J.

1968-01-01

339

A Funeral Liturgy: Death Rituals as Symbolic Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This performative ethnography pulls together ethnography, autoethnography, and interview accounts to explore and exemplify the liturgical and narrative symbolism inherent in funerals. Funerals are the ultimate in final stories. This article looks at funerals as a communicative event and addresses questions of the performative nature of funerals and the meaning and reality constructed by funerals. The author concludes with an

Christine S. Davis

2008-01-01

340

SYMBOLIC AND NEURAL LEARNING OF NAMED-ENTITY RECOGNITION AND  

E-print Network

SYMBOLIC AND NEURAL LEARNING OF NAMED-ENTITY RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS IN TWO}@iit.demokritos.gr Abstract This paper compares two alternative approaches to the problem of acquir- ing named-entity of named-entity recognition and classification is an important subtask in most language engineering

Paliouras, George

341

Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…

Masiki, Trent

2011-01-01

342

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

...grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling... GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM Lt SP 12 Strict Middling Light Spotted...SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM...

2014-01-01

343

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling... GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM Lt SP 12 Strict Middling Light Spotted...SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM...

2013-01-01

344

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling... GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM Lt SP 12 Strict Middling Light Spotted...SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM...

2012-01-01

345

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling... GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM Lt SP 12 Strict Middling Light Spotted...SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM...

2011-01-01

346

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling... GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM Lt SP 12 Strict Middling Light Spotted...SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM...

2010-01-01

347

Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

James, Mark

2009-01-01

348

AMAT'TA YAPI VE SMGELER Structure And Symbols In \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bases Of Research : Amat, one of the most noticeable recent Works of Turkish novel, relates to time and human relations with respect to structure and symbol. Purpose Of The Research : It is seen that the novel including philosophy and fantastic relation has found a world beyond the straight truth and carries a literary level and experience that exclude

Ertan ÖRGEN

349

The Choice of Names and Symbols for Quantities in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the issues which were considered when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry revised its guide to notation in physical chemistry. Included are the choice between SI and non-SI units and choosing sensible names and symbols for quantities. (CW)

Mills, Ian M.

1989-01-01

350

A Method of Vector Processing for Shared Symbolic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kanada, Y., A method of vector processing for shared symbolic data, Parallel Computing, X (1993) XXX-XXX. Conventional processing techniques for pipelined vector processors such as the Cray-XMP, or data- parallel computers, such as the Connection Machines, are generally applied only to independent multiple data processing. This paper describes a vector processing method for multiple processings including parallel rewriting of dynamic

Yasusi Kanada

1993-01-01

351

Symbolic analysis and design of control systems using Mathematica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary computer tools can generate a tremendous amount of numerical data so the user might easily lose insight into the phenomenon being investigated. Those who use powerful computer algebra systems must thoroughly understand the assumptions that underlie the software. In this paper, the role and importance of symbolic computation in control engineering and signal processing is exemplified. Real-life application examples

M. D. Lutovac; D. V. Toši?

2006-01-01

352

A Sub-Symbolic Artificial Chemistry Adam Faulconbridge1  

E-print Network

RBN-World A Sub-Symbolic Artificial Chemistry Adam Faulconbridge1 , Susan Stepney2 , Julian F). However, real-world atoms have internal structure (e.g. electron shells) that is not incorporated higher-level structures (e.g. the breakage of bonds where catalysts separate from their products

Stepney, Susan

353

Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing  

E-print Network

Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing Mark A and antibiotic concentrations of an industrial fermentation process. The models are developed using both for predicting the biomass and antibiotic concentrations of a fermentation process, which is based on Simulated

Fernandez, Thomas

354

Beyond Being There: The Symbolic Role of Communication and  

E-print Network

, but by people's sense of shared identity and by their use of (mostly synchronous) communication media, and compare how perceived proximity and objective distance relate to relationship outcomes between relationships. Indeed, it is the symbolic meaning of proximity and not physical proximity itself that affects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Efficient Symbol-Level Transmission in Error-Prone  

E-print Network

and control messages Error-prone wireless links Provide reliability ARQ Hybrid-ARQ Erasure codes Fountain codes (rateless codes) #12;4444 Introduction Errors in packets Not binary Numeric data Like;12121212 Multiple Packets- with Network Coding We first find the optimal We code all of the i-th symbols of the k

Wu, Jie

356

Application of Symbolic Mathematics to Mathematics A. M. Odlyzko  

E-print Network

to mathematics. It is not a general survey of this very wide subject, but rather a small selection from my own in formulating and testing hypothesis. My experience with symbolic mathematics goes back over ten years. Most or with the help of a table of integrals, or else they were so hard that even the algorithms in MACSYMA failed

Odlyzko, Andrew M.

357

Mathematics and Symbolic Logics: Some Notes on an Uneasy Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic logics tend to be too mathematical for the philosophers and too philosophical for the mathematicians; and their history is too historical for most mathematicians, philosophers and logicians. This paper reflects upon these professional demarcations as they have developed during the century.

I. Grattan-Guinness

1999-01-01

358

Computational Templates, Neural Network Dynamics, and Symbolic Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the relationship between subsymbolic neural networks and symbolic logical systems from a philosophy of science perspective. More specifically, the point of view is that of Paul Humphreys' philosophical account of the organization of scientific knowledge (Humphreys, Paul. Extending Ourselves - Computational Science, Empiricism and the Scientific Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.) Humphreys considers the units

Otto Lappi

2007-01-01

359

Verification of Synchronous Sequential Machines Based on Symbolic Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an original method to compare two synchronous sequential machines. The method consists in a breadth first traversal of the product machine during which symbolic expressions of its observable behaviour are computed. The method uses formal manipulations on boolean functions to avoid the state enumeration and diagram construction. For this purpose, new algorithms on boolean functions represented by

Olivier Coudert; Christian Berthet; Jean Christophe Madre

1989-01-01

360

COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17, 49-59 (1993) Situativity and Symbols  

E-print Network

of the concept of symbol. In our view, the emerging scientific practices, empirical findings, and theory that we for reprints should be sent to James G. Greeno, School of Education, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305- ity of some processes is not crucial for their scientific analysis. The question, then, seems

Coulson, Seana

361

Approximating the probability distribution of OFDM symbol errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given an N subcarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system transmitting over a slow fading Rayleigh channel, the distribution of b, the number of received symbol errors, is Poisson binomial. Hence, (bN) terms are required to calculate each probability for b = 0, 1....,N. When N is large, as in most OFDM systems, the Poisson binomial distribution is often approximated

Alan Clark; Peter Smith; Desmond Taylor

2005-01-01

362

Symbol Grounding and the Origin of Language Alexandre Blondin Masse  

E-print Network

school 2010 1 / 3 #12;Dictionary, Kernel, Core and Hierarchy apple bad banana color dark edible fruitSymbol Grounding and Language ISC Summer school 2010 2 / 3 #12;Dictionary, Kernel, Core and Hierarchy apple bad;Dictionary, Kernel, Core and Hierarchy apple bad banana color dark edible fruit good light no not red tomato

Harnad, Stevan

363

Frame synchronization methods based on channel symbol measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current DSN frame synchronization procedure is based on monitoring the decoded bit stream for the appearance of a sync marker sequence that is transmitted once every data frame. The possibility of obtaining frame synchronization by processing the raw received channel symbols rather than the decoded bits is explored. Performance results are derived for three channel symbol sync methods, and these are compared with results for decoded bit sync methods reported elsewhere. It is shown that each class of methods has advantages or disadvantages under different assumptions on the frame length, the global acquisition strategy, and the desired measure of acquisition timeliness. It is shown that the sync statistics based on decoded bits are superior to the statistics based on channel symbols, if the desired operating region utilizes a probability of miss many orders of magnitude higher than the probability of false alarm. This operating point is applicable for very large frame lengths and minimal frame-to-frame verification strategy. On the other hand, the statistics based on channel symbols are superior if the desired operating point has a miss probability only a few orders of magnitude greater than the false alarm probability. This happens for small frames or when frame-to-frame verifications are required.

Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.

1989-01-01

364

Animal Symbols in the Art of the Hodensaunee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of the main animal symbols incorporated into the social, cultural, artistic, and spiritual fabric of the Hodenosaunee (the People of the Longhouse) also known as the Six Nations Iroquois: the eagle, turtle, bear, wolf, hawk, heron, snipe, eel, deer, beaver, moose, snake, and serpent. (NEC)

Hill, Richard

1987-01-01

365

A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from examples have worked best in domains in which all features had numeric values. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points and distance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains, a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. We introduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning

Steven Salzberg

1993-01-01

366

On the Use of Symbolic Computation in Undergraduate Microeconomics Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analysis and instruction, at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, continue to employ more and more sophisticated mathematical methods, yet the technology typically used by students to solve economics problems ana - lytically has not ad vanced much beyond pencil and paper. In the last decade or so, powerful software programs, generally called symbolic processors or com - puter

David W. Boyd

1998-01-01

367

Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an…

McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

2013-01-01

368

Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…

Nigam, Ravi

2001-01-01

369

SYMBOLIC TECHNIQUES FOR LOW ORDER LFT-MODELLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic preprocessing techniques are very useful to obtain low order LFT-representations for parametric models. In this paper we give an overview about existing preprocessing methods and we present new techniques and en- hancements of existing methods. All methods are implemented in the new version 2 of the LFR-toolbox and their capabilities are illustrated by a challenging aircraft parametric uncertainty modelling

Simon Hecker; Andras Varga

370

Sport, Gender and Ethnicity: Practises of Symbolic Inclusion/exclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper symbolic inclusion/exclusion processes in sport with respect to gender and ethnicity among adolescents (n = 1025) are analyzed from a social-critical perspective. It was found that sport participation preferences of young people are still influenced by dominant normative gendered and racial/ethnic images. Sport can serve not only as…

Elling, Agnes; Knoppers, Annelies

2005-01-01

371

Formal Verification of Digital Circuits Using Symbolic Ternary System Models  

E-print Network

Formal Verification of Digital Circuits Using Symbolic Ternary System Models Randal E. Bryant. By making this extension, we can model a wider range of circuit phenomena. We can also efficiently verify a ternary system model. The desired behavior of the circuit is expressed as assertions in a notation using

Bryant, Randal E.

372

Musical instruments of Brazilian capoeira: Historical roots, symbolism, and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the historical roots, symbolism, and uses of musical instruments in capoeira. A martial art form of Afro-Brazilian origin, capoeira is rhythmically performed to music in a roda (i.e., circle). Capoeira is at times defined as a martial art form disguised as dance because it is rooted in the struggles of African slaves. Elements of music, dance, fight,

Beatriz Ilari

2002-01-01

373

The Symbol of a Nation: The Bald Eagle  

E-print Network

The Symbol of a Nation: The Bald Eagle Contact the Center for Wildlife Education If you you insure that Georgia Southern University's flight- ed Bald Eagle "Freedom" and other native on having a diverse array of wildlife, but perhaps the most iconic is the American Bald Eagle. Once

Hutcheon, James M.

374

Symbolic timing verification of timing diagrams using Presburger formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel set of tools for performing symbolic timing verificationof timing diagrams. The tools are multi-purpose with usesin verification, derivation of synthesis constraints, and design evaluation.Our methodology is based on using techniques for manipulatingPresburger formulas. We demonstrate using several interestingexamples that the method is efficient in practice and should beconsidered for inclusion in commercial tools.

Tod Amon; Gaetano Borriello; Taokuan Hu; Jiwen Liu

1997-01-01

375

Using Symbolic Regression to Infer Strategies from Experimental Data  

E-print Network

and may be depicted in a decision tree format that facilitates their interpretation as individual decision making experiments. We begin by describing symbolic regression and our implemen- tation of this technique using genetic programming. We provide a brief overview of how our algorithm works and how it can

Fernandez, Thomas

376

Using Symbolic Regression to Infer Strategies from Experimental Data  

E-print Network

in a pop­ ulation and may be depicted in a decision tree format that facilitates their interpretation--symbolic regression--as a method for inferring the strategies that are being played by subjects in economic decision using genetic programming. We provide a brief overview of how our algorithm works and how it can be used

Fernandez, Thomas

377

The Share 709 System: Machine Implementation of Symbolic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As emphasized in the preceding paper, a fundamental requirement for effective utilization of high speed computing devices such as the 709 is a man-machine communication link that is at once rapid and unambiguous. Use of symbolic languages with conventional conversion techniques has resulted in reasonable initial specification of computational problems, but excess input handling has made such procedures uneconomical for

E. M. Boehm; Thomas B. Steel Jr.

1959-01-01

378

Bicycle safety  

MedlinePLUS

... And-Facts.aspx. Accessed August 27, 2013. National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration. Bicycles. Available at: http:// ... nhtsa.gov/Bicycles. Accessed August 27, 2013. National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration. Kids and bicycle safety. ...

379

Intermittent chaos and sliding window symbol sequence statistics-based early fault diagnosis for hydraulic pump on hydraulic tube tester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure the safety, continuity of production, make a reasonable maintenance plan, save the cost of maintenance for hydraulic tube tester, it is needed to quickly identify an assignable cause of a fault. This paper is concerned with early fault diagnosis of hydraulic pump which are the heart of hydraulic tube tester. Considering that the signal of the hydraulic pump early fault is a periodic weak signal, an intermittent chaos, sliding window symbol sequence statistics-based method is proposed to detect the early fault of one single piston loose shoes of hydraulic pump on a hydraulic tube tester. The approach presented is based on the insight that the phase transition of chaos oscillator, for example, the Duffing oscillator, is very sensitive to a periodic weak signal having little angular frequency difference with the referential signal of the oscillator. While observing the intermittent chaos phenomenon through figure is not easy for computer, a sliding window symbol sequence statistics is developed to realize real-time computer observation of this phenomenon. Rather more, this paper takes a trick to decreasing the computational complexity of the sliding window symbol sequence statistics method, also analyzes the influences of different window size, depths of the symbol tree on the information entropy. At last, a control limit is introduced to realize automatic early fault alarm. The resultant approach is experimented with data simulated from an AMESim model of hydraulic tube tester. The results indicate that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the signal of hydraulic pump early fault on hydraulic tube tester.

Zhao, Zhen; Jia, Mingxing; Wang, Fuli; Wang, Shu

2009-07-01

380

Teaching the Perceptual Structure of Algebraic Expressions: Preliminary Findings from the Pushing Symbols Intervention  

E-print Network

manipulating and interacting with concrete and virtual symbolic systems that enforce rules through constraints to group symbols into perceptual chunks and use these groups, rather than just calculation rules, to perfor

Goldstone, Robert

381

Free Classification of Canadian and American Emergency Management Map Symbol Standards  

E-print Network

Free Classification of Canadian and American Emergency Management Map Symbol Standards Raechel A ABSTRACT Emergency management in transnational contexts can be a challenging endeavor. Cultural communication efficiency. This paper evaluates how the design of two national emergency management map symbol

Klippel, Alexander

382

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 8, Number 2, June 2002  

E-print Network

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 8, Number 2, June 2002 TYPES IN LOGIC AND MATHEMATICS BEFORE type systems found in [3]. c 2002, Association for Symbolic Logic 1079-8986/02/0802-0001/$7.10 185 #12

Kamareddine, Fairouz

383

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 4, Number 4, December 2011  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 4, Number 4, December 2011 ARROW UPDATE LOGIC BARTELD KOOI is pictured on the left in Figure 1. Received: August 2, 2011. c Association for Symbolic Logic, 2011 536 doi

Renne, Bryan

384

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 6, Number 1, March 2013  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 6, Number 1, March 2013 FOUNDATIONS OF UNLIMITED CATEGORY for Symbolic Logic, 2012 6 doi:10.1017/S1755020312000111 #12;FOUNDATIONS OF UNLIMITED CATEGORY THEORY: WHAT

Feferman, Solomon

385

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 5, Number 1, March 2012  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 5, Number 1, March 2012 PREFERENCE BASED ON REASONS DANIEL Received: September 17, 2011. c Association for Symbolic Logic, 2011 122 doi:10.1017/S1755020311000244 #12

Osherson, Daniel

386

THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 59, Number 1. March 1994  

E-print Network

THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 59, Number 1. March 1994 A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MODAL to the variables and to the Received February 3, 1993;revised July 16, 1993 01994.Associationfor SymbolicLogic 0022

Fagin, Ron

387

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 2, Number 2, June 2009  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 2, Number 2, June 2009 CONSERVATIVITY OF HEYTING IMPLICATION not mean that A B is a theorem. c 2009 Association for Symbolic Logic 310 doi:10.1017/S1755020309090194

Goldblatt, Rob

388

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 1, Number 1, June 2008  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 1, Number 1, June 2008 16 HOW APPLIED MATHEMATICS BECAME PURE.g., Silverman (2003). c 2008 Association for Symbolic Logic doi:10.1017/S1755020308080027 #12;HOW APPLIED

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

389

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000  

E-print Network

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000 ON COUNTABLE CHAINS HAVING DECIDABLE, Association for Symbolic Logic 0022-4812/00/0000-0000/$00.00 1 #12;2 ALEXIS B `ES AND ALEXANDER RABINOVICH

Rabinovich, Alexander

390

THEJ O ~ N A LOF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 41. Number I, March 1976  

E-print Network

THEJ O ~ N A LOF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 41. Number I, March 1976 PROBABILITIES ON FINITE MODELS improved readability. 50 Q 1976, Association for Symbolic Logic #12;PROBABILITIESON FINITE MODELS 51 Let p

Fagin, Ron

391

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 19, Number 4, Dec. 2013  

E-print Network

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 19, Number 4, Dec. 2013 LOGIC IN THE 1930s: TYPE THEORY on Tarski's early contributions. c 2013, Association for Symbolic Logic 1079-8986/13/1904-0001/$5.00 DOI:10

Reck, Erich H.

392

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000  

E-print Network

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000 ON CANONICITY AND COMPLETIONS OF WEAKLY, Association for Symbolic Logic 0022-4812/00/0000-0000/$00.00 1 #12;A relation algebra is said to be weakly

Mikulas, Szabolcs

393

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000  

E-print Network

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000 CLASSIFYING BOREL AUTOMORPHISMS JOHN D for Symbolic Logic 0022-4812/00/0000-0000/$00.00 1 #12;2 JOHN D. CLEMENS relation. In particular, this shows

Clemens, John D.

394

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 18,Number 1,March2012  

E-print Network

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 18,Number 1,March2012 IN PRAISE OF REPLACEMENT AKIHIRO://cs.nyu.edu/pipermail/fom/2007-August/ drew out some skeptical attitudes. c 2012, Association for Symbolic Logic 1079

Kanamori, Akihiro

395

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 1, Number 1, June 2008  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 1, Number 1, June 2008 1 RECOGNIZING STRONG RANDOM REALS DANIEL to von Mises (1919), is discussed in Lieb et al. (2006). c 2008 Association for Symbolic Logic doi:10

Osherson, Daniel

396

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 73, Number 4, Dec. 2008  

E-print Network

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 73, Number 4, Dec. 2008 ON THE SINGULAR CARDINALS JAMES, Association for Symbolic Logic 0022-4812/08/7304-0013/$1.80 1307 #12;1308 JAMES CUMMINGS AND SY-DAVID FRIEDMAN

397

THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 64, Number 1, March 1999  

E-print Network

THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 64, Number 1, March 1999 CARTESIAN ISOMORPHISMS ARE SYMMETRIC. ? 1999. Association for Symbolic Logic 0022-4812/99/6401-001 6/$2.60 227 #12;228 KOSTA DOSEN AND ZORAN

Dosen, Kosta

398

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 3, Number 2, June 2010  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 3, Number 2, June 2010 A BISIMULATION CHARACTERIZATION THEOREM: September 16, 2008 AMS 2000 subject classification: 03B45. c Association for Symbolic Logic, 2010 247 doi:10

Hodkinson, Ian

399

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 3, Number 3, September 2010  

E-print Network

THE REVIEW OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 3, Number 3, September 2010 LOGICS AND ALGEBRAS FOR MULTIPLE for Symbolic Logic, 2010 485 doi:10.1017/S1755020310000079 #12;486 LOES OLDE LOOHUIS AND YDE VENEMA have been

Venema, Yde

400

Toolbox Safety Talk Excavation Safety  

E-print Network

Toolbox Safety Talk Excavation Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Excavations are recognized as one of the most hazardous operations in the construction industry. Excavation cave-ins can cause serious and often fatal injuries

Pawlowski, Wojtek

401

UNBC SAFETY CHECKLIST SAFETY CHECKLIST  

E-print Network

-45 and Criminal Code section 217.1, WorkSafeBC Occupational Health & Safety Regulations (OHSR): 31 UNBC SAFETY CHECKLIST SAFETY CHECKLIST INSTRUCTIONS PAGE Please use the following table below needs, contact the Risk & Safety Department at 250-960- (5530) for further instructions. This safety

Northern British Columbia, University of

402

Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, it is common to put the condition of "safety" around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, "Safety for whom?" A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on…

Leonardo, Zeus; Porter, Ronald K.

2010-01-01

403

Pedagogy of fear: toward a Fanonian theory of ‘safety’ in race dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In education, it is common to put the condition of ‘safety’ around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, ‘Safety for whom?’ A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on race, which must

Zeus Leonardo; Ronald K. Porter

2010-01-01

404

Persuasion, Symbols, and Alfajores: A Qualitative Study of Unique Advertising Approaches in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of how symbols are used in Argentine advertising and how Argentines interpret these symbols. Expanding on past research, the researcher took a deeper look at how identification is achieved with the use of symbols. The researcher investigated a particularly popular brand of dessert products called Havanna alfajores. Because of the immense

Gina Lessard

2009-01-01

405

A Multiple-Classifier System for Recognition of Printed Mathematical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with recognition of printed mathematical symbols. A group of classifiers arranged hierarchically is used to achieve robust recognition of the large number of symbols appearing in expressions. The classifier used at the top level employs stroke-based classification technique to recognize some of the frequently occurring symbols. The second level uses three classifiers to recognize the rest of

Utpal Garain; B. B. Chaudhuri; R. P. Ghosh

2004-01-01

406

The Research of ISOETRP Clustering Algorithm on Optical Mathematical Symbols Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical symbol recognition approach based on ISOETRP Clustering Algorithm is proposed in this paper. Mathematical symbol is one kind of special image symbols, different from ordinary text character in several aspects. For this point, firstly, one special features extraction algorithm is proposed, then two kinds of Classifier are used, one is Minimum Distance Classifier, another is Tree Classifier based

Lihua Li; Rong Wang; Jintao Li; Ge Wang

2009-01-01

407

A novel speech-like symbol design for data transmission through GSM voice channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new approach to design speech-like (SL) symbols in order to transmit digital data through global system for mobile communications (GSM) voice channel. Using these symbols leads to design a GSM voice channel data modem to modulate and demodulate data on enhanced full rate voice codec. Designing a set of time-symbols is an offline procedure with the

Ali Shahbazi; Amir Hossein Rezaie; Abolghasem Sayadiyan; Saeed Mosayyebpour

2009-01-01

408

Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

2014-01-01

409

Symbol timing synchronization for ISDB-T system in multipath fading channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a symbol timing synchronization method for Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting Terresterial (ISDB-T) system. In order to estimate symbol timing, we employ correlation based synchronization in time domain by exploiting periodical pattern, that is introduced by Cyclic Prefix of ISDB- T OFDM frame structure. This periodical pattern induces higher correlation result in the beginning of each symbol, which

Nico Surantha; Tatsumi Uwai; Yuhei Nagao; Masayuki Kurosaki; Hiroshi Ochi

2011-01-01

410

An improved combined symbol and sampling clock synchronization method for OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a delay-locked loop (DLL) technique for performing a combined symbol and sampling clock synchronization in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. In addition, we propose a symbol timing acquisition algorithm for the DLL. It is shown that by using this combined scheme, we can achieve symbol timing recovery and sampling clock adjustment simultaneously. In particular,

Baoguo Yang; K. B. Letaief; Roger S. Cheng; Zhigang Cao

1999-01-01

411

Session 17 Psychology and Artificial Intelligence THE SYMBOLIC NATURE OF VISUAL IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue is whether human visual imagery can be represented by symbolic structures and processes. Protocols of the task of imagining a path in space were analyzed using a production system interpreter. A detailed simulation of the subject's behavior within the confines of a symbolic short-term memory (STM) demonstrates that symbol structures are sufficient to explain imaging behavior. The experience

Thomas P. Moran

412

Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesic, I. M. Y. Mareels,  

E-print Network

Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesi´c, I. M. Y. Mareels of this article is to highlight the effectiveness of symbolic computation software, or the so called computer algebra, in the analysis and design of control systems. Symbolic computation software should

Nesic, Dragan

413

EXE: A System for Automatically Generating Inputs of Death Using Symbolic Execution  

E-print Network

EXE: A System for Automatically Generating Inputs of Death Using Symbolic Execution Cristian Cadar, a system designed to automatically find bugs in such code using symbolic execution. At a high level, rather than running the code on manually-constructed concrete input, EXE instead runs it on symbolic input

Stanford University

414

Emergence of symbolic behavior from brain like memory with dynamic attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no

Takashi Omori; Akiko Mochizuki; Kentaro Mizutani; M. Nishizaki

1999-01-01

415

Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…

Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

2006-01-01

416

The Path to Symbolism. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language involves the use of symbols in the form of words or signs that allow people to communicate their thoughts, ideas, and needs. Even without formal language, many children who are deaf-blind learn to communicate with gestures and object or picture symbols. Symbolic expression makes it possible to express thoughts and feelings about the…

Malloy, Peggy

2008-01-01

417

Symbol Grounding and Meaning: A Comparison of High-Dimensional and Embodied Theories of Meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent Semantic Analysis (Landauer & Dumais, 1997) and Hyperspace Analogue to Language (Burgess & Lund, 1997) model meaning as the relations among abstract symbols that are arbitrarily related to what they signify. These symbols are ungrounded in that they are not tied to perceptual experience or action. Because the symbols are ungrounded, they cannot, in principle, capture the meaning of

Arthur M. Glenberg; David A. Robertson

2000-01-01

418

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 14, Number 3, Sept. 2008  

E-print Network

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 14, Number 3, Sept. 2008 COHEN AND SET THEORY AKIHIRO meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic held at Irvine in March 2008. My thanks to Juliet Floyd, and Scott. c 2008, Association for Symbolic Logic 1079-8986/08/1403-0003/$3.80 351 #12;352 AKIHIRO KANAMORI

Kanamori, Akihiro

419

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000  

E-print Network

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000 BERNAYS AND SET THEORY AKIHIRO address given at the 2008 European meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic held at Bern, Switzerland´e Fuchino (Springer-Verlag Tokyo, 1993). 2 See [18]. c 0000, Association for Symbolic Logic 1079

Kanamori, Akihiro

420

THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000  

E-print Network

THE JOURNAL OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000 THE DETERMINACY OF CONTEXT-FREE GAMES, Association for Symbolic Logic 0022-4812/00/0000-0000/$00.00 1 hal-00916865,version1-10Dec2013 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Symbolic Logic 78, 4 (2013) 1115-1134" #12;2 OLIVIER FINKEL -language

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000  

E-print Network

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000 G ¨ODEL AND SET THEORY AKIHIRO of the Association for Symbolic Logic held at Montreal in May 2006. The author expresses his gratitude to Juliet Floyd and John Dawson for helpful comments and suggestions. c 0000, Association for Symbolic Logic 1079

Kanamori, Akihiro

422

Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

2013-01-01

423

THE CASE OF THE ZIA: LOOKING BEYOND TRADEMARK LAW TO PROTECT SACRED SYMBOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article tells the story of a tribe’s fight, over the past two decades, to reclaim its sacred symbol. Members of the Zia tribe, a Native American group located near Albuquerque, New Mexico, have been using their sacred sun symbol in religious ceremonies since 1200 C.E. Today, the symbol appears on the New Mexico state flag, letterhead, and license plate,

Stephanie B Turner

2012-01-01

424

Symbolic play connects to language through visual object recognition.  

PubMed

Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object recognition: 18- to 30-month old children (n = 63) substitute objects in play after they have developed the adult-like ability to recognize common objects from sparse models of their geometric structure. These developmental changes in object recognition are a better predictor of object substitutions than language or age. A developmental pathway connecting visual object recognition, object name learning, and symbolic play is proposed in which object substitutions are like the canary in the coal mine: they are not causally related to language delay, but their absence is an easily detected signal of a problem in language acquisition. PMID:21884329

Smith, Linda B; Jones, Susan S

2011-09-01

425

The symbolic constitution of addiction: language, alienation, ambivalence.  

PubMed

The author offers an articulation of addiction, via existential-phenomenology and Lacanian psychoanalysis, where it is argued that the addicted subject is constituted via a symbolic structuring evolving from societal practices, laws and the effects of language. Language carries a heritage, which bears on the knowledge and practices of designated subjects and practitioners of that discourse. Addiction, as one particular form of embodied existence and knowledgeable practice, finds expression through the speech and habits of the addict. Addiction, it is argued, is symbolically saturated with ambivalence and alienation. Also the addict is described as the complete modern technocratic subject, consumed by the ideology of consumption. The clinical implications are briefly explored where it is noted that two major approaches to addiction, namely 12-step fellowships and motivational interviewing, both attend to language as a critical component of their treatment approach. PMID:22199180

Kemp, Ryan

2012-07-01

426

Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.  

PubMed

We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

2012-05-01

427

ALHEP symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics  

E-print Network

ALHEP is the symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics. It deals with amplitudes calculation, matrix element squaring, Wick theorem, dimensional regularization, tensor reduction of loop integrals and simplification of final expressions. The program output includes: Fortran code for differential cross section, Mathematica files to view results and intermediate steps and TeX source for Feynman diagrams. The PYTHIA interface is available. The project website http://www.hep.by/alhep contains up-to-date executables, manual and script examples.

V. Makarenko

2007-04-13

428

A perspective on symbolic mathematical computing and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and history of the research area common to artificial intelligence and symbolic mathematical computation are examined,\\u000a with particular reference to the topics having the greatest current amount of activity or potential for further development:\\u000a mathematical knowledge-based computing environments, autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, transformation of problem\\u000a descriptions in logics into algebraic forms, exploitation of machine learning, qualitative reasoning,

J. Calmet; J. A. Campbell

1997-01-01

429

Automatic Labeling of Handwritten Mathematical Symbols via Expression Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mathematical expression recognition is one of the challenging problems in the field of handwritten recognition. Public datasets\\u000a are often used to evaluate and compare different computer solutions for recognition problems in several domains of applications.\\u000a However, existing public datasets for handwritten mathematical expressions and symbols are still scarce both in number and\\u000a in variety. Such scarcity makes large scale assessment

Nina S. T. Hirataand; Willian Y. Honda

2011-01-01

430

Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications in our 3D anatomical atlas are presented and discussed.

Pommert, Andreas; Schubert, Rainer; Riemer, Martin; Schiemann, Thomas; Tiede, Ulf; Hoehne, Karl H.

1994-09-01

431

Symbolic Scheduling Techniques 1 Ivan Radivojevi c, Forrest Brewer  

E-print Network

@aurora.ece.ucsb.edu, forrest@ece.ucsb.edu Phone: (805) 893-8043 Fax: (805) 893-3262 Index terms: Computer Hardware and Design Mentor Graphics Corp. and UC-MICRO under project No.92-019. #12;I. Radivojevic , F. Brewer, "Symbolic in a speculative fashion (i.e. pre-executed). Transformation of a CDFG with conditional branches into one without

Brewer, Forrest D.

432

Efficient Symbolic State-Space Construction for Asynchronous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many techniques for the verification of reactive systems rely on the analysis of their reachable state spaces. In this paper,\\u000a a new algorithm for the symbolic generation of the state spaces of asynchronous system models, such as Petri nets, is developed. The algorithm is based on previous work that employs Multi-valued Decision Diagrams for efficiently storing sets of reachable states.

Gianfranco Ciardo; Gerald Lüttgen; Radu Siminiceanu

433

The devil in high heels: drugs, symbolism and Kate Moss  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to critical voices on the issue of organisational responses to employee drug use. It does so by exploring symbolic readings of organisations’ relations with drugs and drug?taking. Our focus is recent coverage of, and organisational responses to, the UK tabloid media’s exposé of fashion supermodel Kate Moss’s alleged cocaine use. We consider that the celebrity endorsement in

Beatriz Acevedo; Samantha Warren

2009-01-01

434

Symbolic description of periodic orbits for the quadratic Zeeman effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization of the periodic orbits of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field is studied. It is shown that the dynamics is qualitatively different from that for weak fields and negative energies. The orbits can be mapped one-to-one onto a ternary symbolic tree, an organization which turns out to be applicable for all values of energy and field strength. The results indicate that the field-free hydrogen atom has a purely chaotic limit for positive energies.

Eckhardt, Bruno; Wintgen, Dieter

1990-01-01

435

Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored

Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani

2001-01-01

436

Anomaly Detection in Nuclear Power Plants via Symbolic Dynamic Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools of sensor-data-driven anomaly detection facil- itate condition monitoring of dynamical systems especially if the physics-based models are either inadequate or unavailable. Along this line, symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF) has been reported in lit- eratureasareal-timedata-driventooloffeatureextractionforpat- tern identification from sensor time series. However, an inherent difficulty for a data-driven tool is that the quality of detection may drastically suffer in the

Xin Jin; Yin Guo; Soumik Sarkar; Asok Ray; Robert M. Edwards

2011-01-01

437

A Symbolic Execution Framework for JavaScript  

Microsoft Academic Search

As AJAX applications gain popularity, client-side JavaScript code is becoming increasingly complex. However, few automated vulnerability analysis tools for JavaScript exist. In this paper, we describe the first system for exploring the execution space of JavaScript code using symbolic execution. To handle JavaScript code’s complex use of string operations, we design a new language of string constraints and implement a

Prateek Saxena; Devdatta Akhawe; Steve Hanna; Feng Mao; Stephen McCamant; Dawn Song

2010-01-01

438

Verification of Java Programs Using Symbolic Execution and Invariant Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

pcorinaaemail. arc .nasa. gov wisserQemail.arc.nasa.gov Abstract. Softm-are verification is recognized as an important and dif- ficult problem. We present a norel framework, based on symbolic ese- cution, for the automated verification of software. The framework uses annotations in the form of method specifications an3 loop invariants. We present a novel iterative technique that uses invariant strengthening and approximation for discovering

Corina S. Pasareanu; Willem Visser

2004-01-01

439

Feature Extraction of Handwritten Symbols Using Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Feature extraction is a process whereby the input data is transformed into a set of features which characterise the input,\\u000a and which can therefore be used to classify the input. This paper presents a new technique for feature extraction from handwritten\\u000a symbols. We present a two-phase process. Firstly a pre-processing phase generates a chord vector for each handwritten stroke,\\u000a thereby

John A. Fitzgerald; Franz Geiselbrechtinger; M. Tahar Kechadi

2004-01-01

440

Symbolic Manipulation of Bspline Basis Functions with Mathematica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bspline curves and surfaces are the most common and most important geometric entities in many fields, such as computer design\\u000a and manufacturing (CAD\\/CAM) and computer graphics. However, up to our knowledge no computer algebra package includes especialized\\u000a symbolic routines for dealing with Bsplines so far. In this paper, we describe a new Mathematica program to compute the Bspline basis functions

Andrés Iglesias; R. Ipanaqué; R. T. Urbina

2007-01-01

441

NUMINOSITY, SYMBOL AND RITUAL IN THE SESAME APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermes, god Of crossed sticks, Crossed existence, protect these feetI offer. Imagination is the wonder of the real, and I am sore afflicted withthe devil's troubles, the two's, of this half-life, this twilight.Robert Creeley ‘Prayer to Hermes’ (1980:60)‘Life is too rational, there is no symbolic experience in which I am something else, in which I am fulfilling my role, my

Richard Hougham

2006-01-01

442

The symbolic distance effect in monkeys ( Cebus apella )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In making comparative judgments about pairs of stimuli that are linearly ordered, human subjects usually respond faster the\\u000a greater the separation between-the-items of a test pair—the symbolic distance effect. A similar result has been obtained for\\u000a associatively related items, such as the alphabet. We report evidence for a distance effect in monkeys tested with pairs of\\u000a items drawn from a

M. R. D’Amato; M. Colombo

1990-01-01

443

Crime control in the 2000 presidential election: A symbolic issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presidential candidates regularly use crime issues to help win electoral support. Contrary to conventional wisdom, crime control\\u000a also became an issue in the 2000 presidential campaign. Despite decreasing crime rates, the debate was driven by public opinion.\\u000a Because the crime debate was fueled by perception rather than reality, it is argued that the symbolic nature of the debate\\u000a became important

Nancy E. Marion; Rick Farmer

2003-01-01

444

Capital Architecture: Situating symbolism parallel to architectural methods and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capital Architecture is a symbol of a nation's global presence and the cultural and social focal point of its inhabitants. Since the advent of High-Modernism in Western cities, and subsequently decolonised capitals, civic architecture no longer seems to be strictly grounded in the philosophy that national buildings shape the legacy of government and the way a nation is regarded through its built environment. Amidst an exceedingly globalized architectural practice and with the growing concern of key heritage foundations over the shortcomings of international modernism in representing its immediate socio-cultural context, the contextualization of public architecture within its sociological, cultural and economic framework in capital cities became the key denominator of this thesis. Civic architecture in capital cities is essential to confront the challenges of symbolizing a nation and demonstrating the legitimacy of the government'. In today's dominantly secular Western societies, governmental architecture, especially where the seat of political power lies, is the ultimate form of architectural expression in conveying a sense of identity and underlining a nation's status. Departing with these convictions, this thesis investigates the embodied symbolic power, the representative capacity, and the inherent permanence in contemporary architecture, and in its modes of production. Through a vast study on Modern architectural ideals and heritage -- in parallel to methodologies -- the thesis stimulates the future of large scale governmental building practices and aims to identify and index the key constituents that may respond to the lack representation in civic architecture in capital cities.

Daoud, Bassam

445

Symbolic Invariant Verification for Systems with Dynamic Structural Adaptation  

E-print Network

will be characterized by complex coordination and structural adaptation at run-time. Crucial safety properties have to be guaranteed for all potential structural configurations. Test- ing cannot provide safety guarantees, while by exploiting the local character of structural safety proper- ties. The system state is modeled as a graph

Beyer, Dirk

446

The Symbols of 4-H As 4-H has grown and expanded, symbols have been developed which express the spirit and  

E-print Network

The Symbols of 4-H As 4-H has grown and expanded, symbols have been developed which express the spirit and rich tradition of 4-H. The Four H's The four H's stand for Head, Heart, Hands and Health, representing the four-fold training and development that 4-H members receive. "Head, heart, and hands

Tullos, Desiree

447

Pedestrian Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the statistics reported in 1994 by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Alcohol involvement - for driver or ... for this fact sheet came from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the National Safe Kids Campaign ...

448

Food safety  

MedlinePLUS

Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food handling and inadequate food safety can cause infection ... include stomach problems. Foodborne illness may be severe and ...

449

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This makes ... That's why it's important to follow the recommended food safety guidelines. Keep food safe to eat by following ...

450

Tractor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... and severe injuries. To avoid them, follow safe management principles and implement a tractor safety program on your farm. • Develop a "safety first" attitude. Follow safe work practices all the time and set a good example ...

451

A Survey of New Trends in Symbolic Execution for Software Testing and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Symbolic execution is a well-known program analysis technique which represents values of program inputs with symbolic values instead of concrete (initialized) data and executes the program by manipulating program expressions involving the symbolic values. Symbolic execution has been proposed over three decades ago but recently it has found renewed interest in the research community, due in part to the progress in decision procedures, availability of powerful computers and new algorithmic developments. We provide a survey of some of the new research trends in symbolic execution, with particular emphasis on applications to test generation and program analysis. We first describe an approach that handles complex programming constructs such as input data structures, arrays, as well as multi-threading. We follow with a discussion of abstraction techniques that can be used to limit the (possibly infinite) number of symbolic configurations that need to be analyzed for the symbolic execution of looping programs. Furthermore, we describe recent hybrid techniques that combine concrete and symbolic execution to overcome some of the inherent limitations of symbolic execution, such as handling native code or availability of decision procedures for the application domain. Finally, we give a short survey of interesting new applications, such as predictive testing, invariant inference, program repair, analysis of parallel numerical programs and differential symbolic execution.

Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem

2009-01-01

452

Benchmarking safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of general industry in the United States, represented by the participants in the IEEE\\/IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee Technical Conference (PCIC), is regulated by the federal government to have an electrical safety program. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) documents that drive the electrical safety of employees in the workplace is written in performance

L. B. McClung

2003-01-01

453

Public Safety Public Safety Center  

E-print Network

of people following you after you disembark or exit the bus, train, or an ATM machine. Keep your purse, bags and bring someone with you or visit a grocery store or gas station. Personal Safety Precautions Safety

454

Kneadings, Symbolic Dynamics and Painting Lorenz Chaos. A Tutorial  

E-print Network

A new computational technique based on the symbolic description utilizing kneading invariants is proposed and verified for explorations of dynamical and parametric chaos in a few exemplary systems with the Lorenz attractor. The technique allows for uncovering the stunning complexity and universality of bi-parametric structures and detect their organizing centers - codimension-two T-points and separating saddles in the kneading-based scans of the iconic Lorenz equation from hydrodynamics, a normal model from mathematics, and a laser model from nonlinear optics.

Roberto Barrio; Andrey Shilnikov; Leonid Shilnikov

2012-04-15

455

Discovering Application-Level Insider Attacks Using Symbolic Execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a technique to systematically discover insider attacks in applications. An attack model where the insider is in the same address space as the process and can corrupt arbitrary data is assumed. A formal technique based on symbolic execution and model-checking is developed to comprehensively enumerate all possible insider attacks corresponding to a given attack goal. The main advantage of the technique is that it operates directly on the program code in assembly language and no manual effort is necessary to translate the program into a formal model. We apply the technique to security-critical segments of the OpenSSH application.

Pattabiraman, Karthik; Nakka, Nithin; Kalbarczyk, Zbigniew; Iyer, Ravishankar

456

Learning fuzzy information in a hybrid connectionist, symbolic model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instance-based learning system is presented. SC-net is a fuzzy hybrid connectionist, symbolic learning system. It remembers some examples and makes groups of examples into exemplars. All real-valued attributes are represented as fuzzy sets. The network representation and learning method is described. To illustrate this approach to learning in fuzzy domains, an example of segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain is discussed. Clearly, the boundaries between human tissues are ill-defined or fuzzy. Example fuzzy rules for recognition are generated. Segmentations are presented that provide results that radiologists find useful.

Romaniuk, Steve G.; Hall, Lawrence O.

1993-01-01

457

Weighted symbolic analysis of human behavior for event detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic video analysis and understanding has become a high interest research topic, with applications to video browsing, content-based video indexing, and visual surveillance. However, the automation of this process is still a challenging task, due to clutters produced by low-level processing operations. This common problem can be solved by embedding signi cant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between actual sequences and models. In this context we propose a novel framework that employs a symbolic representation of complex activities through sequences of atomic actions based on a weighted Context-Free Grammar.

Rosani, A.; Boato, G.; De Natale, F. G. B.

2013-03-01

458

Concurrency in a System for Symbolic and Algebraic Computations  

E-print Network

these properties from the program?s tree itself, which is expensive computationally (see Rabhi and Gorlatch (2002)). 4 These annotations ideally will provide the missing information required to make trivial parallelizations of the code. For example, for x in 1.....5 repeat b.x := gcd(a.x,poly) is trivially parallelized if we can be certain that the function gcd has no externally visible side effects. Spad provides an ideal testbed for these operations as its feet are firmly planted in symbolic computation and its...

Mai, Stefan

2009-06-09

459

Symbolic landforms created by ancient earthworks near Lake Titicaca  

E-print Network

Interesting landforms created by an ancient network of earthworks are shown, using Google satellite imagery enhanced by an image processing. This network covers a large part of the land near the Titicaca Lake. Satellite images clearly display the slopes of hills criss-crossed with terrace walls and the surfaces of the plains covered with raised fields, indicating that this was once a highly productive agricultural place for the south central Andes. Some of the landforms are rather remarkable, having a clear symbolic function. Among them, there are structures which seem to represent birds, where ponds are their eyes.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2010-01-01

460

Quantum gravity asymptotics from the SU(2) 15j symbol  

E-print Network

The asymptotics of the SU(2) 15j symbol are obtained using coherent states for the boundary data. The geometry of all non-suppressed boundary data is given. For some boundary data, the resulting formula is interpreted in terms of the Regge action of the geometry of a 4-simplex in 4-dimensional Euclidean space. This asymptotic formula can be used to derive and extend the asymptotics of the spin foam amplitudes for quantum gravity models. The relation of the SU(2) Ooguri model to these quantum gravity models and their continuum Lagrangians is discussed.

John W. Barrett; Winston J. Fairbairn; Frank Hellmann

2009-12-24

461

[Symbol-based communication in non-human primates: a C. S. Peirce's semiotic analysis].  

PubMed

Are (or were) there any other symbolic species? This question has been addressed by researchers from many different fields and is responsible for a historical controversy on the existence of a threshold between "symbolic creatures" vs "simple forms of language creatures". According to the mainstream ethology and comparative psychology only the Homo sapiens is cognitively equiped to produce and interpret symbols. Here, I introduce an empirically testable model of symbolic semiosis ("symbolic action of sign") supported by C.S.Peirce logical-phenomenological theory of categories. I suggest that a specific sign-user pattern of behavior, observed in non-human primate communication, indicate a transition from indexical to symbolic semiosis. PMID:14978578

Queiroz, João

2003-12-01

462

Semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 9j symbol with small and large angular momenta  

SciTech Connect

We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j symbol, in the limit of one small and eight large angular momenta, using a gauge-invariant factorization for the asymptotic solution of a set of coupled wave equations. Our factorization eliminates the geometric phases completely, using gauge-invariant noncanonical coordinates, parallel transports of spinors, and quantum rotation matrices. Our derivation generalizes to higher 3nj symbols. We display without proof some asymptotic formulas for the 12j symbol and the 15j symbol in the Appendices. This work contributes an asymptotic formula of the Wigner 9j symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum and serves as an example of a general method for deriving asymptotic formulas for 3nj symbols.

Yu Liang; Littlejohn, Robert G. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-05-15

463

Symbolic Models for Nonlinear Time-Varying Time-Delay Systems via Alternating Approximate Bisimulation  

E-print Network

Time-delay systems are an important class of dynamical systems that provide a solid mathematical framework to deal with many application domains of interest. In this paper we focus on nonlinear control systems with unknown and time-varying delay signals and we propose one approach to the control design of such systems, which is based on the construction of symbolic models. Symbolic models are abstract descriptions of dynamical systems in which one symbolic state and one symbolic input correspond to an aggregate of states and an aggregate of inputs. We first introduce the notion of incremental input-delay-to-state stability and characterize it by means of Liapunov-Krasovskii functionals. We then derive sufficient conditions for the existence of symbolic models that are shown to be alternating approximately bisimilar to the original system. Further results are also derived which prove the computability of the proposed symbolic models in a finite number of steps.

Pola, Giordano; Di Benedetto, Maria Domenica

2010-01-01

464

Safety Verification of a Fault Tolerant Reconfigurable Autonomous Goal-Based Robotic Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System (MDS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbolic model checkers. An example task is simulated in MDS and successfully verified using HyTech, a symbolic model checking software for linear hybrid systems.

Braman, Julia M. B.; Murray, Richard M; Wagner, David A.

2007-01-01

465

KLOVER: A Symbolic Execution and Automatic Test Generation Tool for C++ Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present the first symbolic execution and automatic test generation tool for C++ programs. First we describe our effort\\u000a in extending an existing symbolic execution tool for C programs to handle C++ programs. We then show how we made this tool\\u000a generic, efficient and usable to handle real-life industrial applications. Novel features include extended symbolic virtual\\u000a machine, library optimization for

Guodong Li; Indradeep Ghosh; Sreeranga P. Rajan

466

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000  

E-print Network

The Journal of Symbolic Logic Volume 00, Number 0, XXX 0000 -CALCULUS AND B ¨OHM'S THEOREM REN ´E by a -reduction. c 0000, Association for Symbolic Logic 0022-4812/00/0000-0000/$00.00 1 hal-00384701,version1-15May2009 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Symbolic Logic 66. 1 (2001) p 407-413" #12;2 REN

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

467

Symbolic manipulation techniques for low order LFT-based parametric uncertainty modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic techniques are very useful in obtaining low order LFT-representations of linear parametric models. The main role of symbolic manipulations is to find, via suitable pre-processing steps, equivalent representations of rationally dependent parametric matrices, which automatically lead to lower order LFT-representations. In this paper we give an overview of symbolic processing methods and we propose some new techniques and several

S. Hecker; A. Varga

2006-01-01

468

Computer generation of symbolic network functions - A new theory and implementation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is presented for obtaining network functions in which some, none, or all of the network elements are represented by symbolic parameters (i.e., symbolic network functions). Unlike the topological tree enumeration or signal flow graph methods generally used to derive symbolic network functions, the proposed procedure employs fast, efficient, numerical-type algorithms to determine the contribution of those network branches that are not represented by symbolic parameters. A computer program called NAPPE (for Network Analysis Program using Parameter Extractions) and incorporating all of the concepts discussed has been written. Several examples illustrating the usefulness and efficiency of NAPPE are presented.

Alderson, G. E.; Lin, P.-M.

1972-01-01

469

An application of symbolic dynamics for FHRV assessment.  

PubMed

Fetal heart rate variability is surely one of the most important parameters to monitor fetal wellbeing. Linear studies, widely employed to study fetal heart variability and its correlations with the development of the autonomous nervous system, have shown some limitations in highlight dynamics potentially relevant. During the last decades, therefore, nonlinear analysis methods have gained a growing interest to analyze the chaotic nature of cardiac activity. Techniques investigating nonlinear dynamics have been already successfully employed in adults, to analyze different physiological and pathological states. Concerning fetal monitoring, instead, a smaller number of papers is available in the literature; even if symbolic dynamics was recently employed to quantify fetal heart rate regularity, demonstrating that the use of this technique may lead to a better and more differentiated understanding of normal fetal physiological development. In this work, we applied the symbolic dynamics to analyze fetal heart rate variability in healthy fetuses at the end of a physiological pregnancy. Our results confirmed the potentiality of the technique to highlight differences between signals characterized by more or less variability. PMID:22874165

Cesarelli, Mario; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Improta, Gianni; D'Addio, Gianni

2012-01-01

470

The heart: a symbol from ancient times to current biomedics.  

PubMed

The heart is an essential and central organ in human beings. The heart is a muscular pump which contracts approximately a hundred thousand times a day for a life time, and in the last few decades it has been scientifically documented that it also produces hormones. The symbolic role of the heart has been established from time immemorial; more recently, and intriguingly, modern biomedical evidence has proved that historical knowledge and common language expressions referring to the heart are, in many cases, correct. In this perspective it is interesting to consider that already in the remote past the heart was "at the heart" of the attention of great western and eastern civilizations. From the brief panorama presented in this paper, connections between popular historical knowledge and current biomedical evidence emerge, proving the relevance of the symbolic role of the heart and of its perceived functions from pre-Christian to contemporary times, and documenting how the heart continues to remain strategically central, and epistemologically and linguistically crucial in the physical, psychological and social context of human life. PMID:23099984

Conti, A A

2012-01-01

471

Symbolic hate: intention to intimidate, political ideology, and group association.  

PubMed

In Virginia v. Black (123 S.Ct. 1536, 2003), the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment did not bar statutes that prohibit cross burnings in which defendants acted with intention to intimidate others. Using a variety of symbols including cross burnings, swastikas, confederate flags, and skin fists, the current research tested how mock jurors used alternative actor intentions to judge culpability in symbolic hate speech cases. Only partially validating the Court's assumptions, participants rated guilt certainty highest when they believed the speakers conveyed direct threats, sometimes regardless of whether defendants intended to intimidate others. Further, results showed the level of perceived intimidation only partially mediated the relationship between type of fact pattern and guilt certainty ratings. While alternative intentions did produce different levels of intention to intimidate, path analysis showed that the participants' ratings of the defendant's intention to convey a direct threat influenced guilt certainty ratings in all cases. Perceived intimidation levels predicted culpability in only some of the cases and not for cross burning on private property. PMID:18030607

Wiener, Richard L; Richter, Erin

2008-12-01

472

Lower bounds for symbolic complexity of iceberg dynamical systems  

E-print Network

The symbolic complexity of an infinite word $W$ is the function $p_W(l)$ counting the number of different subwords in $W$ of length $l$. In this paper our main purpose is to study the complexity for a class of topological dynamical systems, called iceberg systems, given by the following symbolic procedure. Starting from a given finite word $w_1$ we construct a sequence of words $w_{n+1} = w_n \\rho_{a_n(1)}(w_n)...\\rho_{a_n(q_n-1)}(w_n)$, where $\\rho_a(u)$ is the cyclic rotations of the word $u$ by $a$ positions, and consider an infinite word $W$ extending each $w_n$ to the right. It is shown that for iceberg systems given by the randomized parameters $a_n(j)$ the complexity function almost surely satisfies the estimate $p_W(l) > l^{3-\\epsilon}$ for any $\\epsilon > 0$ and $l \\ge l_0(\\epsilon)$, and at the same time it is observed that this estimate represents up to a small correction the optimal lower bound for the complexity function, namely, $p_{w_{n+1}}(l_n) \\le l_n^3$ along the subsequence $l_n = |w_n|+1$.

Prikhod'ko, A A

2012-01-01

473

A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.  

PubMed

Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support. PMID:14700328

Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

2003-12-01

474

Non-symbolic halving in an Amazonian indigene group  

PubMed Central

Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an intuition of a more complex calculation, division, exists in an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, whose language includes no words for large numbers. Mundurucu children were presented with a video event depicting a division transformation of halving, in which pairs of objects turned into single objects, reducing the array's numerical magnitude. Then they were tested on their ability to calculate the outcome of this division transformation with other large-number arrays. The Mundurucu children effected this transformation even when non-numerical variables were controlled, performed above chance levels on the very first set of test trials, and exhibited performance similar to urban children who had access to precise number words and a surrounding symbolic culture. We conclude that a halving calculation is part of the suite of intuitive operations supported by the ANS. PMID:23587042

McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

2014-01-01

475

Parameter Unit Name Unit Symbol Capacitance (C) Farad F  

E-print Network

Interference ESD Electrostatic Discharge ESO Electrical Safety Officer FPN Fine Print Note FR Flame Resistant Electrical Manufacturer's Association NESC National Electrical Safety Code NFPA National Fire Protection Direct Current DOE U. S. Department Of Energy EEWP Energized Electrical Work Permit EMI Electromagnetic

476

Children's Mapping between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Numerical Magnitudes and Its Association with Timed and Untimed Tests of Mathematics Achievement  

PubMed Central

The ability to map between non-symbolic numerical magnitudes and Arabic numerals has been put forward as a key factor in children’s mathematical development. This mapping ability has been mainly examined indirectly by looking at children’s performance on a symbolic magnitude comparison task. The present study investigated mapping in a more direct way by using a task in which children had to choose which of two choice quantities (Arabic digits or dot arrays) matched the target quantity (dot array or Arabic digit), thereby focusing on small quantities ranging from 1 to 9. We aimed to determine the development of mapping over time and its relation to mathematics achievement. Participants were 36 first graders (M?=?6 years 8 months) and 46 third graders (M?=?8 years 8 months) who all completed mapping tasks, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and standardized timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement. Findings revealed that children are able to map between non-symbolic and symbolic representations and that this mapping ability develops over time. Moreover, we found that children’s mapping ability is related to timed and untimed measures of mathematics achievement, over and above the variance accounted for by their numerical magnitude comparison skills. PMID:24699664

Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

2014-01-01

477

Safety Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

Halligan, Tom

2009-01-01

478

Safety First  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

Taft, Darryl

2011-01-01

479

Safety issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA safety review process is to make sure that any system hazards that can endanger the manned flight system are precluded. The systems that address manned flight in a payload safety review process are discussed. The types of basic hazards that are normally addressed on any of the payloads are: contamination, electrical shock, explosions, radiation, and temperature extremes.

Rohal, R.

1991-01-01

480

General purpose symbolic simulation tools for electric networks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents research results on the use of computers to solve simulation problems in a way closer to human thinking. With the aid of techniques in AI (Artificial Intelligence), DB (Data Base Systems), and Computer Graphics, a set of general purpose LISP and PASCAL based simulation tools have been developed. Each of these tools solves a specific problem in some stage of simulation. Rule-based and object-oriented symbolic manipulations are extensively used. The tools provide more powerful and accurate modelling capability for complex objects, and permit simplicity and flexibility in implementation. The tools are used to study electrical transient problems, optimal load flow problems, linear control systems, and other simulation problems.

Alvarado, F.L.; Lui, Y.

1988-05-01

481

[Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].  

PubMed

The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760

Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

2011-01-01

482

``Energy Theater'': Using The Body Symbolically To Understand Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In what we call ``embodied learning activities,'' instructors deliberately arrange for human bodies, or parts of the body, to stand in for entities in the description or explanation of a phenomenon. Embodied learning activities (ELAs) are intended to promote and externalize conceptual understanding in physics, for the benefit of the learner, the instructor, and the researcher. We describe an example of an embodied learning activity called ``Energy Theater,'' in which each participant identifies as a unit of energy that has one and only one form. Objects in the scenario correspond to regions on the floor, and as energy moves and changes form in the scenario, participants move to different locations on the floor. This representation models energy as a substance-like quantity, a model that promotes concepts of conservation, storage, transfer, and flow. The activity becomes a richly featured disciplined symbolic workspace, supporting future studies for both description and analysis.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Close, Eleanor W.

2010-10-01

483

Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

2012-01-01

484

Africa adorned: body image and symbols of physical beauty.  

PubMed

African concepts of beauty and adornments of the body reflect a celebration of life in the face of death. They are derived from ancient times and the sense of man as a biological animal, within the context of life with other beasts. Among these, man is the only one who is born naked without nature's protections and adornment, such as fur, stripes, or feathers. The body is therefore an asset which must be guarded and covered and yet be expressive of strength as well as sexual desire, so as to attract a mate. Beauty, as a source of self-regard in African cultures is also often achieved through empathic identification with animals. Primordial African attitudes to life and death and symbols of beauty apparently influenced Freud's fourth instinct theory conceptions of Eros and Thanotos, as well as Erich Fromm's ideas about life-loving and death-loving societies, as illustrated in selected quotations from their writings. PMID:20528138

Davidson, Leah

2010-01-01

485

Toward Accurate Student Performance Evaluation: Symbol for Unofficial Withdrawal. Adopted Spring 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the California Community Colleges' (CCC's) current grading policy, a symbol of W is permitted to designate that a student withdrew from a course before a locally determined drop deadline. There is no allowance for a symbol, however, that accurately denotes that students have ceased to participate at a point in the term beyond which they are…

Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Sacramento.

486

AAAI Spring Symposium 2002, Sketch Understanding. Recognizing Multi-Stroke Symbols  

E-print Network

AAAI Spring Symposium 2002, Sketch Understanding. Recognizing Multi-Stroke Symbols Chris Calhoun for multi-stroke symbols. The learned definitions are described in terms of the constituent geometric can be drawn in the same pen stroke. Pen speed and curvature are used to segment a stroke into its con

Kara, Levent Burak

487

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics H. Qin, W. M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt  

E-print Network

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics H. Qin, W. M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08543­451 Many problems in plasma physics involve to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given

488

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics H. Qin, W. M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt  

E-print Network

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics H. Qin, W. M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08543-451 Many problems in plasma physics involve to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given

489

Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.

Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru

1993-01-01

490

The Contribution of Symbolic Skills to the Development of an Explicit Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists have speculated about the symbolic underpinnings of theory of mind (ToM), but no study has examined them across the main developmental span of ToM. Here, the onset of symbolic understandings in three domains (pretend play, language, and understanding representations) and ToM was examined. Fifty-eight children were tested on batteries of…

Lillard, Angeline S.; Kavanaugh, Robert D.

2014-01-01

491

Automatic Classification of Spatial Relationships among Mathematical Symbols Using Geometric Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine recognition of mathematical expressions on printed documents is not trivial even when all the individual characters and symbols in an expression can be recognized correctly. In this paper, an automatic classification method of spatial relationships between the adjacent symbols in a pair is presented. This classification is important to realize an accurate structure analysis module of math OCR. Experimental

Walaa Aly; Seiichi Uchida; Masakazu Suzuki

2009-01-01

492

John BernardAn essay on perception and understanding of mathematical symbolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay is a call for applying research efforts in mathematics education to perception and understanding of mathematical symbolism. Some related work in reading research is cited along with items of psychological and psychophysical knowledge which might be used as a basis for work in this area. The author reports briefly on a study for algebraic symbolism that indicates promising

John Bernard

1983-01-01

493

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL EMBODIMENT AND MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM: THE CONCEPT OF VECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the relationship between the perceptual world of embodiment and the conceptual world of mathematical symbolism with particular reference to the concept of vector. We show that the embodied world has a variety of different meanings dependent on the context in which the concept occurs and consider the way in which these are linked to mathematical symbolism. The

Panayotis Spyrou; David Tall

494

The Influence of Religious Symbols on the Digit Span Performance of Roman Catholic Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested parochial school students with an examiner who wore a moderately proportioned gold cross, a gold Star of David, or no symbol. Results indicated scores varied as a function of the presence and type of symbol that was displayed. Discusses implications for practioners. (Author/JAC)

Saigh, Philip A.

1981-01-01

495

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY On Residue Symbols and Kummer's Reciprocity Law of Degree Seven  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY On Residue Symbols and Kummer's Reciprocity Law of Degree Seven by Perlas C C. Caranay 2009 #12;Abstract Reciprocity laws and their residue symbols have applications not only, by formulating explicit forms of the complementaries to Kummer's 7th degree reciprocity law, and by using

de Leon, Alex R.

496

Dams as Symbols of Modernization: The Urbanization of Nature Between Geographical Imagination and Materiality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article offers an analysis of the iconography and symbolism of dam constructions at three levels: first, as embodiments of the dialectics between geographical imaginations and material practices in the process of modernization; second, as symbols of modernity's quest to conquer and urbanize nature; and third, as the catalysts for reconfiguring the relationship between nature and the city. The article

Maria Kaika

2006-01-01

497

On the Symbolic Computation of the Hardest Configurations of the RUSH HOUR Game  

E-print Network

is a sliding block game where blocks represent cars stuck in a traffic jam on a 6 Ã? 6 board. The goal that shows some limits of symbolic model-checking methods for board games. This result explains why some natural modeling of board games leads to the explosion of the size of symbolic data-structures. 1

Collette. Sébastien

498

Toward Good Elimination Orders for Symbolic SAT Solving Jinbo Huang and Adnan Darwiche  

E-print Network

Toward Good Elimination Orders for Symbolic SAT Solving Jinbo Huang and Adnan Darwiche Computer]. A fundamentally different approach to SAT has recently emerged [1, 23, 30], which eliminates search by symboli for the BDD-based alternative. For symbolic SAT solving to be practical, variables are eliminated

Huang, Jinbo

499

Computers and Chemical Engineering 24 (2000) 24052416 Symbolic solutions for boundary value problems using Maple  

E-print Network

Computers and Chemical Engineering 24 (2000) 2405­2416 Symbolic solutions for boundary value, Department of Chemical Engineering, Uni6ersity of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA Received 7 July on finite differences is presented for obtaining symbolic solutions for boundary value problems (BVPs

500

ON THE DESIGN OF TURBO TRELLIS CODED MODULATION SCHEMES USING SYMBOL-BASED EXIT CHARTS  

E-print Network

ON THE DESIGN OF TURBO TRELLIS CODED MODULATION SCHEMES USING SYMBOL-BASED EXIT CHARTS S. X. Ng1 Information Transfer (EXIT) charts. The tra- ditional method used of generating EXIT charts is based-complexity technique was em- ployed in this paper for computing the symbol-based EXIT charts. Capacity-approaching TTCM

Kliewer, Joerg