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1

Engaging Latino farmworkers in the development of symbols to improve pesticide safety and health education and risk communication.  

PubMed

The working and living environments of farmworkers put them and their families at risk for pesticide exposure and, consequently, immediate and long-term health effects. In this study, visual materials for a pesticide toxicology safety and health curriculum were constructed by engaging farmworkers in various stages of symbol development. Twenty-seven farmworkers in two states participated in this descriptive case study through focused small group discussions and interviews. Our findings support the importance of vivid and realistic symbols, the effectiveness of a traffic-light symbol in communicating technical information to farmworkers, and the need to engage low-literacy end-users in the production of educational materials. This work informs the development of curricula for other vulnerable populations pertaining to a variety of health-related topics, as well as discussions surrounding regulatory proposals to revise the United States Worker Protection Standard. PMID:22833257

LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Blanchard, Margaret R; Asuaje, Cesar R; Cope, W Gregory

2013-10-01

2

Sound Symbolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

3

Sixty Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever wondered about the symbols used by scientists? You're probably not alone, and this website created by a team at the University of Nottingham demystifies sixty prominent physics symbols via informative video segments. The videos are not necessarily meant to be lessons or lectures on the symbols, "The films are just fun chats with men and women who live their subject and know a lot about it!" The videos are quite fun, and the talk on "gamma" includes a discussion of cricket balls, while the "rho" video features paperclips in coffee cups. All of the videos can be accessed via the homepage, and visitors should plan on making several visits to check out all of the clips. At the bottom of the homepage, visitors can also view earlier videos created as part of the project, learn more about their scientists, and take a look at a list of other related sites.

4

Becoming symbol-minded  

Microsoft Academic Search

No facet of human development is more crucial than becoming symbol-minded. To participate fully in any society, children have to master the symbol systems that are important in that society. Children today must learn to use more varieties of symbolic media than ever before, so it is even more important to understand the processes involved in symbolic development. Recent research

Judy S. DeLoache

2004-01-01

5

Earliest Math Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, maintained by a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Fla., reviews the Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. Listed here are the names and information for the first individuals to use some common mathematical symbols, including symbols of operation, grouping symbols, symbols of relation, and symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus, probability, number theory, and logic. The main source used for the information provided is a book by Florian Cajori entitled A History of Mathematical Notations. Links to other pages on topics in mathematics history are also provided.

6

Reconstructing Physical Symbol Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article we have tried to make clear what "non-symbolic" means,thereby restoring the force of the Physical Symbol System Hypothesis.How much of intelligent behavior can be implemented by non-symbolic means? The PSSH tells usthat not all the processing in a generally intelligent agent can be non-symbolic. SA theorists argue---unconvincingly, we feel---that "not all" will turn out to be "quite a

David S. Touretzky; Dean A. Pomerleau

1994-01-01

7

Extending to Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students begin to use symbolic representations, they use variables as unknowns. To help their concept of symbolic representation to grow, they need to explore questions such as: What is an identity? and When are two symbolic representations equal? This activity engages students in work with an online algebraic balance. Questions as well as ideas for class discussion are included in the lesson plan.

Martin, Gary; Keller, Brian

2000-01-01

8

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

9

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

10

Artificial intelligence and symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of massive parallelism and the renewed interest in neural networks gives a new need to evaluate the relationship of symbolic processing and artificial intelligence. The physical symbol hypothesis has encountered many difficulties coping with human concepts and common sense. Expert systems are showing more promise for the early stages of learning than for real expertise. There is a

Chris Moss; Liu Feng

1989-01-01

11

Symbol Ranking Text Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his work on the information content of English text in 1951, Shannon described a method of recoding the input text, a technique which has apparently lain dormant for the ensuing 45 years. Whereas traditional compressors exploit symbol frequencies and symbol contexts, Shannon's method adds the concept of \\

Peter Fenwick

1996-01-01

12

Akan Cultural Symbols Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Akan are an ethnolinguistic group of peoples who inhabit Ghana and La Cote d'Ivoire on the Guinea Coast of Africa. Throughout their rich cultural history, the Akan have "incorporated [their] ideographic and pictographic writing systems in their arts," and the Akan Cultural Symbols Project is an initiative designed to explore the "relationships between Akan visual arts and Akan verbal genres." The project Website provides numerous symbolic images and detailed information about Akan symbols related to cosmology, economics, views on knowledge, and political beliefs, and explains how the symbols are used in Akan architecture, cloth, wood carvings, and metal casting. The site also includes a comprehensive Akan art bibliography. This project was developed at Marshall University by Dr. George F. Kojo Arthur, Associate Professor of Education, and Robert E. Rowe, Professor of Art.

13

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what a topographic map is, how to read them, and what the symbols shown on maps and their legends mean. Contour lines, intervals, depth curves, and color meanings are discussed. There is also a legend showing examples of each symbol by category: elevation, boundaries, land surface features (mines, vegetation), water features (reefs, channels), buildings and related features (airports, schools), and roads, railroads and others (pipelines, bridges).

14

Symbolic Transfer Entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.

Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

2008-04-01

15

The physical symbol grounding problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to solve the symbol grounding problem within the framework of embodiedcognitive science. It will be argued that symbolic structures can be used within the paradigm of embodiedcognitive science by adopting an alternative denition of a symbol. In this alternative denition, the symbol maybe viewed as a structural coupling between an agent's sensorimotor activations and its

Paul Vogt

2002-01-01

16

Symbolism in the Feature Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

Bakony, Edward

17

Symbols: historic and current uses.  

PubMed

From hieroglyphs to barcodes, symbols have been used throughout history. Symbols can be observed on traffic signs, warning signs that are affixed to building fronts, doors of public restrooms to show gender-specific usage, and caution signs on caustic or poisonous chemicals; even Braille, a system of writing and printing for the blind, is a symbol form. This article includes a brief discussion on the psychology of symbols, history of symbols, symbols used by alchemists and pharmacists, and the current use of symbols. PMID:23969927

Bailey, Emilee

18

Combining unit-level symbolic execution and system-level concrete execution for testing NASA software  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to testing complex safety critical software that combines unit-level symbolic execution and system-level concrete execution for generating test cases that satisfy user-specified testing criteria. We have developed Symbolic Java PathFinder, a symbolic execution framework that implements a non-standard bytecode interpreter on top of the Java PathFinder model checking tool. The framework propagates the symbolic information via

Corina S. Pasareanu; Peter C. Mehlitz; David H. Bushnell; Karen Gundy-burlet; Michael R. Lowry; Suzette Person; Mark Pape

2008-01-01

19

Dressed symbolic dynamics.  

PubMed

A strange attractor (SA) with symmetry group G can be mapped down to an image strange attractor SA without symmetry by a smooth mapping with singularities. The image SA can be lifted to many distinct structurally stable strange attractors, each equivariant under G, all with the same image SA. If the symbolic dynamics of the image SA requires s symbols sigma(1),sigma(2), em leader,sigma(s), then |G|s symbols are required for symbolic dynamics in the covers, and there are |G|(s) distinct equivariant covers. The covers are distinguished by an index. The index is an assignment of a group operator to each symbol sigma(i):sigma(i)-->g(alpha(i)). The subgroup H subset G generated by the group operators g(alpha(i)) in the index determines how many disconnected components (|G|/|H|) each equivariant cover has. The components are labeled by coset representatives from G/H. The structure of each connected component is determined by H. A simple algorithm is presented for determining the number and the period of orbits in an equivariant attractor that cover an orbit of period p in the image attractor. Modifications of these results for structurally unstable covers are summarized by an adjacency diagram. PMID:12689151

Gilmore, Robert; Letellier, Christophe

2003-03-24

20

Beowulf and Typological Symbolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the prevalence of Christianity in England throughout what we can consider the age of the Beowulf poet, an exploration of the influence of typological symbolism would seem to be especially useful in the study of Beowulf. In the Old English period any Christian influence on a poem would perforce be of a patristic and typological nature. I

Willem Helder

1971-01-01

21

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Topographic map examples illustrate symbols commonly used on maps for cultural and natural features, such as boundaries, buildings, caves and mines, coastal features, contour lines and elevations, dams, railroads, rivers, trails, bogs, pipelines, vegetation types, surficial material, and modifications for navigation. Each item links to a map that is enlarged and clearly marked for easy identification.

Slaymaker, Susan

22

THE CASE FOR SOUND SYMBOLISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The proposal that linguistic sounds such as phonemes, features, syllables, or tones can be meaningful, or sound-symbolic, contradicts the principles of arbitrariness and double articulation that are axiomatic to structural linguistics. Nevertheless, a considerable body of research that supports principles of sound symbolism has accumulated. This review discusses the most widely attested forms of sound symbolism and the research

Janis B. Nuckolls

1999-01-01

23

Presenting Proofs Using Logicographic Symbols?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics has a rich tradition in creating symbols and notation that is soundly integrated into the syntax of the underlying formal language and, at the same time, conveys the intuition behind the concepts described by the symbols and notation. Continuing this idea, in the Theorema system, with the new feature of logicographic symbols, we now provide a means to invent

Koji Nakagawa; Bruno Buchberger

2001-01-01

24

Historic Symbols of Patriotism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are historical symbols of patriotism? 1. Open: (Teacher will give it to you) Graphic Organzer. Draw a picture in each circle of things you learn. 2. Look at the American Flag American Flag. Draw your own in a circle. 3. Now look at the Alabama Flag Alabama Flag. Let's draw this flag. 4. Watch this video The National Anthem being sung Draw you singing this song! 5. What is this? The Pledge of Allegiance. When do we say this ...

Murry, Ms.

2010-11-04

25

Optical symbolic computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results of the work on optical symbolic computing that was performed on grant AFOSR-86-0189 during the second year of the three year program. The detail of the research is in the appended papers. This section of the report is to summarize the motivation for the work, the reasons for the approach taken, and the results. First, a rationale is given for the use of optics in A.I., and then the approach taken is described. The results of the research are then given.

Cathey, W. T.; Schmidt, Rodney A.

1988-04-01

26

Cast data matrix symbols performance characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data matrix symbols are used as a robust means of unique part identification in many industries. Research of cast data matrix symbols has been limited and expected symbol performance unknown. To develop knowledge of cast data matrix symbol performance, the investigation initially focused on feasibility of casting data matrix symbol. Results of a feasibility experiment led to further investigation of

Greg Carl Saveraid

2010-01-01

27

Media Ecology and Symbolic Interactionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Mead's role in media ecological studies and will explore his relationship to media ecology from an interpersonal communication perspective. Included in this discussion are Mead's concepts of self, symbolic interactionism, and the relationship between symbolic interactionism and media ecology. Examples from Internet research are used to illustrate how media ecology can be applied to interpersonal mediated communication

Susan B. Barnes

28

Symbolic Gesturing in Language Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous development of symbolic gestures in a normal infant of hearing parents is described. From 12.5 to 17.5 months of age, 13 gestures depicting objects, events, and qualities were developed, the majority in the context of structured routines involving adults. 16 additional symbolic gestures were purposefully taught to the infant by adults. All 29 gestures occurred frequently and were

Linda P. Acredolo; Susan W. Goodwyn

1985-01-01

29

English as a Cultural Symbol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English acts as a linguistic and symbolic resource for the countries using it. In the Swiss advertisements analyzed, English evokes connotations of professionalism and international appeal. The appropriation of English as a symbol of Swiss national identity allows the Swiss to lay claim to a social identity not available to them through their own…

Cheshire, J.; Moser, L.-M.

1994-01-01

30

The Origins of Symbolic Racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of symbolic racism places its origins in a blend of anti-Black affect and conservative values, particularly individualism. We clarify that hypothesis, test it directly, and report several findings consistent with it. Study 1 shows that racial prejudice and general political conservatism fall into 2 separate factors, with symbolic racism loading about equally on both. Study 2 found that

David O. Sears; P. J. Henry

2003-01-01

31

Fostering Symbolic Interpretation during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although by 11 years children demonstrate impressive performance on various tasks that assess symbolic thinking in language development, research suggests that few young adolescents demonstrate evidence of symbolic processing when reading literature. This study investigated whether the difficulty might be due to a lack of adequate exposure to…

Peskin, Joan; Wells-Jopling, Rebecca

2012-01-01

32

Symbolic Mediation in Cognitive Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article used two studies to investigate sign and symbol mediation in children aged 8-11 years. In role play, children exist at one at the same time in objective reality and their representation of reality. We cannot observe their mental representation directly, but the issue of whether signs or symbols mediate early role play is an important…

Veraksa, Alexander N.

2011-01-01

33

Electrical Units, Abbreviations, and Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this animated and interactive object, students read an introduction to electrical quantities, units, and symbols and test their knowledge in a matching exercise.Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students

Hoppe, Patrick

2009-10-07

34

Symbolic Representation of Hyperspectral Data,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A symbolic representation of hyperspectral data is developed using the scale space techniques of Witkin. A scale space image of hyperspectral data is created from convolution with Gaussian masks and then a fingerprint that extracts individual features fro...

M. A. Piech K. R. Piech

1987-01-01

35

Symbolization and the good object.  

PubMed

Some patients struggle with the acceptance of, connection to, or identification with a good object who provides a containment-symbolization function. This is manifested as a standoff, a resistance, and a denial of the good object and, therefore, of the symbolization process that is part of healthy development. This is usually due to troubled family histories and a destructive projective identification process. The ego defensively blocks acknowledgment of any symbolizing capacity within the self and within the maternal object out of envy, fear of rejection, and dread of persecution. Destruction of symbolization and the experience of goodness within the self or in the object provides an artificial respite from the threat of annihilation, yet quickly brings on even greater levels of internal chaos and anxiety. Case material is used to illustrate these points. PMID:15899757

Waska, Robert

2005-01-01

36

Symbol nomenclature for glycan representation  

PubMed Central

The glycan symbol nomenclature proposed by Harvey et al. in these pages has relative advantages and disadvantages. The use of symbols to depict glycans originated from Kornfeld in 1978, was systematized in the First Edition of “Essentials of Glycobiology” and updated for the second edition, with input from relevant organizations such as the Consortium for Functional Glycomics. We also note that >200 illustrations in the second edition have already been published using our nomenclature and are available for download at PubMed.

Varki, Ajit; Cummings, Richard D.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Stanley, Pamela; Marth, Jamey D.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Hart, Gerald W.; Etzler, Marilynn E.

2010-01-01

37

Learning at the Symbolic Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symbolic language of chemistry is extensive, and is used ubiquitously in teaching and learning the subject at\\u000a secondary level and beyond. This chapter considers how this ‘language’, which acts as such a powerful facilitator of communication\\u000a for the expert, may often impede effective communication for novice learners. Symbolic representations become second nature\\u000a to the teacher, being highly integrated with

Keith S. Taber

38

Symbol grounding problems and sensor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

By Newell and Simon's (NS81) definition, the semantics and pragmatics of a Physical Symbol System (PSS) are measured ecologically. To fund intelligence, then, some symbols within a PSS must refer to environmental features. To ground these symbols, a PSS must use sensors that gather environmental information for translation into symbolic form. When attempting to divine a PSS's purpose, the engineer

Simon Shurville

1993-01-01

39

Symbolic Time Series Analysis in Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I describe and apply the methods of Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) to an experimental framework. The idea behind Symbolic Time Series Analysis is simple: the values of a given time series data are transformed into a finite set of symbols obtaining a finite string. Then, we can process the symbolic sequence using tools from information theory

Juan Gabriel Brida

2000-01-01

40

Symbol-by-symbol maximum likelihood (ML) detection with reduced complexity over multicarrier systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A symbol-by-symbol maximum likelihood (ML) detection scheme for multicarrier (MC) systems is proposed in this work. When the number of subchannels is sufficiently large, the received symbols across all subchannels are approximately uncorrelated. Then, the proposed symbol-by-symbol ML detection, which is obtained by minimizing the symbol error probability, is nearly optimal. Furthermore, we will show how to reduce the complexity of the symbol-by-symbol ML detection when the constellation size is large. Simulation results show that the proposed symbol-by-symbol ML detection scheme outperforms the symbol-by-symbol minimum distance (MD) detection scheme by up to 2 dB in a noisy environment with crosstalk such as the DMT-ADSL system.

Tsai, Shang-Ho; Yu, Xiaoli; Kuo, C.-C. J.

2004-08-01

41

Linguistic characteristics of topographic map symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of linguistic model in spatial information has been an important topic discussed in relevant theoretical domain in recent years. On the basis of analyzing the geometrical composition of large-scale topographic map symbols and the geometric and semantic relationships among symbols, system of topographic map symbols was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language and methods and theories of the linguistics were applied in cartographic language. The characteristics of topographic map symbols were analyzed, the internal structure and constructional rule of topographic map symbols were researched, and the phonetic and semantic structures of topographic map symbols were discussed.

Su, Li; Zhou, Dan-hui

2008-11-01

42

Symbolic treatment of geometric degeneracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many descriptions of algorithms in computational geometry exclude degeneracies by fiat. Practitioners are left to their own devices for dealing with degeneracies when implementing such algorithms. Since degeneracies tend to be numerous and hard to enumerate exhaustively, this is often a reason for not implementing theoretical algorithms. This paper proposes a powerful symbolic scheme for treating degeneracies. Our method is

Chee-Keng Yap

43

Allegories and Symbols in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manuscript describes how counselors can facilitate self-awareness in clients and counselors-in-training through the use of metaphors. The use of metaphors and others symbols provide a creative, non-intrusive, and non-confrontational approach to counseling. Examples of stories and fables used during counseling sessions and instructional…

Alvarado, Victor I.; Cavazos, Lionel J.

2007-01-01

44

Compositional Proofs with Symbolic Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proof method is described which combines compositional proofs of inter- leaved parallel programs with the intuitive and highly automatic strategy of symbolic execution. As logic we use an extended variant of Interval Temporal Logic that al- lows to formulate programs directly in the Simple Programming Language (SPL). The notation includes a complex interleaving operator. The interactive proof method we

Simon Bäumler; Florian Nafz; Michael Balser; Wolfgang Reif

2008-01-01

45

A Formal Description of SYMBOL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the work is to develop a formal description of the SYMBOL system using the Vienna Definition Language. The three major research goals are (1) to demonstrate that a programming language can be defined by using an abstract machine which clo...

C. W. Cheng

1973-01-01

46

Symbolic Power, Robotting, and Surveilling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical…

Skovsmose, Ole

2012-01-01

47

The Value of Symbolic Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard generative linguistic theory, which uses discrete symbolic models of cogni- tion, has some strengths and weaknesses. It is strong on providing a network of out- posts that make scientific travel in the jungles of natural language feasible. It is weak in that it currently depends on the elaborate and unformalized use of intuition to de- velop critical supporting assumptions

Whitney Tabor

2002-01-01

48

A Web of Symbolic Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates how a new technological-writing practice, World Wide Web publishing, meshes and clashes with what academics have meant by plagiarism. Applies psychologist Pierre Bourdieu's theories of capital and symbolic violence to examine some ways Web publishing challenges and complicates scholars' taken-for-granted ways of controlling and…

Kitalong, Karla Saari

1998-01-01

49

Combining Symbolic and Neural Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connectionist machine learning has proven to be a fruitful approach, and it makes sense to investigate systems that combine the strengths of the symbolic and connectionist approaches to AI. Over the past few years, researchers have successfully developed a number of such systems. This article summarizes one view of this endeavor, a framework that encompasses the approaches of several different

Jude W. Shavlik

1994-01-01

50

Physical Complexity of Symbolic Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical measure for the complexity of sequences of symbols (``strings'') is introduced that is rooted in automata theory but avoids the problems of Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity. This physical complexity can be estimated for ensembles of sequences, for which it reverts to the difference between the maximal entropy of the ensemble and the actual entropy given the specific environment within which

C. Adami; N. J. Cerf

1996-01-01

51

Physical complexity of symbolic sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical measure for the complexity of sequences of symbols (“strings”) is introduced that is rooted in automata theory but avoids the problems of Kolmogorov–Chaitin complexity. This physical complexity can be estimated for ensembles of sequences, for which it reverts to the difference between the maximal entropy of the ensemble and the actual entropy given the specific environment within which

C. Adami; N. J. Cerf

2000-01-01

52

Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

2010-01-01

53

The Symbolic Meaning of Childbearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines explanations for lower fertility rates including direct and opportunity costs. Considers things one forgoes to have children, including earnings, work and nonwork time, and type of job. Argues that women limit their fertility or remain childless for the symbolic significance of childbearing and their lifestyles, reflecting their view of…

Nock, Steven L.

1987-01-01

54

LEGAL FORM AND CULTURAL SYMBOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writers in information and communication studies often assume the stability of objects under investigation: network nodes, databases, information. Legal writers in the intellectual property tradition often assume that cultural artefacts exist as objects prior to being governed by copyright law. Both assumptions are fallacious. This introduction conceptualizes the relationship of legal form and cultural symbol. Starting from an understanding of

Martin Kretschmer; Andy C. Pratt

2009-01-01

55

Symbolic representation of text documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method of representing a text document by the use of interval valued symbolic features. A method of classification of text documents based on the proposed representation is also presented. The newly proposed model significantly reduces the dimension of feature vectors and also the time taken to classify a given document. Further, extensive experimentations are conducted

D. S. Guru; B. S. Harish; S. Manjunath

2010-01-01

56

Disaster symbolism and social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the use of social media during disaster events has gained attention in recent years. Prior research paid attention to warnings, response activities and the dissemination of information through social media during times of crisis. This study focuses on the use of social media during crisis from different perspectives. In this paper, the implications of symbols that emerged in

Hiroko Wilensky

2012-01-01

57

Folklore and Symbolism of Green  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour is not a quality of an object, but a perception. As such, it can symbolise anything we want it to symbolise. This paper reports the results of a survey of the use of colour in folklore and tradition supported by the Folklore Society and the Colour Group (GB). Drawing attention to the diversity of colour symbolism worldwide, it posits

John Hutchings

1997-01-01

58

Size–sound symbolism revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do we perceive bass voices as “thick”? Owing to a “mediated association” with “thick people and animals [who] are usually loud and resonant”, or owing to some “subtle inter-sensory quality” found in thick things and bass voices? The present paper rejects the former possibility and endorses the latter. As to speech-sound symbolism, I account for it with reference to

Reuven Tsur

2006-01-01

59

Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular

Joachim Diederich; Susan Wright

2000-01-01

60

Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)|

Merriam, Allen H.

1975-01-01

61

Symbolic Magnifying Lens Abstraction in Markov Decision Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we combine abstraction-refinement and symbol ic techniques to fight the state-space explosion problem whe n model checking Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). The abstr act-refinement technique, called magnifying-lens abstraction (MLA), partitions the state-space into regions and compute s upper and lower bounds for reachability and safety propert ies on the regions, rather than states. To compute such bounds,

Pritam Roy; David Parker; Gethin Norman; Luca De Alfaro

2008-01-01

62

Functions of Symbolizing Activity: A Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I propose that attending how symbolizing activity functions for teachers and students helps to characterize student-teacher communication, and allows for an investigation of how symbolizing activity contributes to learning. I begin this discussion by articulating four ideas-schemes, symbolizing activity, communication, and learning. Then I…

Tillema, Erik

2010-01-01

63

Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

Auty, Geoff

2012-01-01

64

7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: Lâlight brown,...

2013-01-01

65

7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: Lâlight brown,...

2009-01-01

66

Ancient Chinese Sex Symbols in Dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine how often Chinese people dream ancestral sex symbols and to examine the association between dreaming sexual experiences and the Chinese sex symbols. The modified Typical Dreams Questionnaire with 10 additional items about the Chinese sex symbols was administered to a sample of 107 male and 241 female university students in Hong Kong. Both the prevalence

Calvin Kai-Ching Yu

2008-01-01

67

Symbolic interactionism and the study of sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I examine the symbolic interactionist approach to the study of sexuality. The philosophical roots of symbolic interactionism are examined beginning with a review of the themes emphasized by the social philosophy of the Scottish Enlightenment as well as American pragmatism. The situational, structural, and biographical?historical approaches to contemporary symbolic interactionism are compared in terms of methodological orientations,

Monica A. Longmore

1998-01-01

68

Recognition of characteristic symbols in engineering drawings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm to recognize characteristic symbols in engineering drawings is presented. Characteristic symbols help in the classification of dimensioning text into one of the following four classes: linear, angular, diametric, and radial. Recognition of characteristic symbols is an important tool for the extraction of dimension-sets in a machine drawing understanding system. Text in drawings is used to provide dimensioning and

Chan P. Lai; Rangachar Kasturi

1992-01-01

69

Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

2008-01-01

70

Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

Parault, Susan J.

2006-01-01

71

Maximizing the guessability of symbolic input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guessability is essential for symbolic input, in which users enter gestures or keywords to indicate characters or commands, or rely on labels or icons to access features. We present a unified approach to both maximizing and evaluating the guessability of symbolic input. This approach can be used by anyone wishing to design a symbol set with high guessability, or to

Jacob O. Wobbrock; Htet Htet Aung; Brandon Rothrock; Brad A. Myers

2005-01-01

72

An intellectual placement of Chinese phonetic symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continuing development of mobile telecommunications, a mobile phone usually contains multiple functions and features, such as e-mail sending capabilities, text messaging, notebooks, electronic dictionaries, and so on. We concern with the placement of Chinese phonetic symbols for an intellectual Chinese phonetic symbol input system in mobile phones. A good placement of Chinese phonetic symbols can efficiently reduce the

Chin-Chen Chang; Kai-Jung Shih; Iuon-Chang Lin

2003-01-01

73

Symbolic clustering using a new similarity measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical, agglomerative, symbolic clustering methodology based on a similarity measure that takes into consideration the position, span, and content of symbolic objects is proposed. The similarity measure used is of a new type in the sense that it is not just another aspect of dissimilarity. The clustering methodology forms composite symbolic objects using a Cartesian join operator when two

K. Chidananda Gowda; E. Diday

1992-01-01

74

Symbolic consumption in teenagers' clothing choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the symbolic properties of goods has been explored in depth among adult consumers, but there has been less attention given to the symbolic consumption of young people. This study explores the subject of symbolic consumption with specific reference to clothing in the teenage market. Thirty-eight young people were interviewed, and age, sex and social position variations were

Maria Piacentini; Greig Mailer

2004-01-01

75

Digit Symbol Rotation: A More g-Loaded Version of the Traditional Digit Symbol Subtest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Created an adaptation of the Digit Symbol subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Digit Symbol Rotation test, and evaluated its "g" loading with 54 adults. Results suggest the Digit Symbol Rotation test has more factorial validity than Digit Symbol, but remains equally easy to administer and score. (SLD)|

Gignac, Gilles; Vernon, Philip A.

2003-01-01

76

From complexity to simplicity: nature and symbols.  

PubMed

This paper reviews Pattee's ideas about the symbolic domain as a phenomenon related to the self-simplifying processes of certain hierarchical systems, such as the living. We distinguish the concepts of constraint, record, and symbol to explain how the Semantic Closure Principle, that is to say, the view that symbols are self-interpreted by the cell, emerges. Related to this, the notion of complementarity is discussed both as an epistemological and as an ontological principle. In the final discussion we consider whether autonomous systems can exist in which constraints are not symbolically preserved, and if biological symbols can be considered to have a descriptive nature. PMID:11325509

Etxeberria, A; Moreno, A

77

Symbolizing quantitative differences on color CRTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the use of brightness to encode ordinal differences between symbols on CRT screens. The symbols were either U.S. states on a choropleth map or simple rectangles. The effects of background color and brightness were also measured. These results were related to the conventional practice with printed maps. Subjects compared pairs of symbols with different brightnesses, displayed on three background colors each of which had three brightnesses, and chose as quickly as possible which of the pair of symbols indicated more. On both the maps and the rectangles, subject responses indicated that the darker symbols meant more. These CRT results are consistent with the convention used with printed maps.

McGranaghan, Matthew

1988-04-01

78

Old Coins with Astronomical Symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present, or simply describe, some interesting coins, where various astronomical symbols like the sun, a star, the zodiac etc. are shown. The coins come mainly from different cities of the ancient Greece, as well as from their colonies, (in Italy, Sicily, Asia Minor, or Pontus). Moreover, information concerning the place they were found, and the Museum they are kept are given together with the estimated time they were issued.

Rovithis-Livaniou, E.; Rovithis, F.

2010-09-01

79

The symbolic consumption of music  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between music, the self\\/identity, and consumption is significant and widely acknowledged, yet it remains under-researched. To further our understanding of the symbolic consumption of music, this study evaluates the usefulness of Larsen, Lawson, and Todd's (2009) conceptual framework of the consumption of music as self-representation, and presents a revised framework. Twenty-two individuals provided data, including in-depth interviews and

Gretchen Larsen; Rob Lawson; Sarah Todd

2010-01-01

80

Rex: Symbolic Regular Expression Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Constraints in form,regular expressions over strings are ubiquitous. They occur often in programming languages like Perl and C#, in SQL in form of LIKE expres- sions, and in web applications. Providing support for regular expression constraints in program,analysis and,testing has several useful applications. We introduce a method and a tool called Rex, for symbolically expressing and analyzing regular expression constraints.

Margus Veanes; Peli de Halleux; Nikolai Tillmann

2010-01-01

81

Symbolic analysis of linear polyhedra  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns several analytical problems related to linear polyhedra in euclidean three-dimensional-space. Symbolic formulas for line, surface, and volume integration are given, and it is shown that domain integrals are computable in polynomial time. In particular, it is shown that mass, first and second moments, and products of inertia are computable inO(E) time, whereE is the number of edges

Carlo Cattani; Alberto Paoluzzi

1990-01-01

82

Prioritization in Parallel Symbolic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that scheduling is an important determinant of performance for many parallel symbolic computations, in addition\\u000a to the issues of dynamic load balancing and grain size control. We propose associating unbounded levels of priorities with\\u000a tasks and messages as the mechanism of choice for specifying scheduling strategies. We demonstrate how priorities can be used\\u000a in parallelizing computations in

Laxmikant V. Kalé; Balkrishna Ramkumar; Vikram A. Saletore; Amitabh Sinha

1992-01-01

83

Asymptotics of 10j symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Riemannian 10j symbols are spin networks that assign an amplitude to each 4-simplex in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity. This amplitude is a function of the areas of the ten faces of the 4-simplex, and Barrett and Williams have shown that one contribution to its asymptotics comes from the Regge action for all non-degenerate 4-simplices with the specified face areas. However, we show numerically that the dominant contribution comes from degenerate 4-simplices. As a consequence, one can compute the asymptotics of the Riemannian 10j symbols by evaluating a 'degenerate spin network', where the rotation group SO(4) is replaced by the Euclidean group of isometries of Bbb R3. We conjecture formulae for the asymptotics of a large class of Riemannian and Lorentzian spin networks in terms of these degenerate spin networks, and check these formulae in some special cases. Among other things, this conjecture implies that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are asymptotic to 1/16 times the Riemannian ones.

Baez, John C.; Christensen, J. Daniel; Egan, Greg

2002-12-01

84

Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

85

Citizens’ use of policy symbols and frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that citizens are capable of developing and promoting complex policy symbols, and that these symbols include\\u000a supporting frames that explain and justify them. Based on a long-term study of education policies in Los Angeles, California,\\u000a the paper uses interpretive methods to reconstruct and analyze these frames. Citizens developed two specific policy symbols\\u000a while the district was engulfed

Ryane McAuliffe Straus

2011-01-01

86

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective and Identity Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Symbolic interactionist perspectives or frames underlie most sociological interest in identity. We focus first on the presentation\\u000a of these perspectives, beginning with the eighteenth-century Scottish moral philosophers and the later work of the philosopher-psychologist\\u000a George Herbert Mead, tracing their influence on current sociological thinking about social psychology and identity. Two important\\u000a variants in symbolic interactionist thinking, “traditional symbolic interactionism” and

Richard T. Serpe; Sheldon Stryker

87

Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

Morrison, J. L.

1984-01-01

88

SYMBOLIC INFERENCE OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM  

PubMed Central

We present a new symbolic computational approach to elucidate the biochemical networks of living systems de novo and we apply it to an important biomedical problem: xenobiotic metabolism. A crucial issue in analyzing and modeling a living organism is understanding its biochemical network beyond what is already known. Our objective is to use the available metabolic information in a representational framework that enables the inference of novel biochemical knowledge and whose results can be validated experimentally. We describe a symbolic computational approach consisting of two parts. First, biotransformation rules are inferred from the molecular graphs of compounds in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Second, these rules are recursively applied to different compounds to generate novel metabolic networks, containing new biotransformations and new metabolites. Using data for 456 generic reactions and 825 generic compounds from KEGG we were able to extract 110 biotransformation rules, which generalize a subset of known biocatalytic functions. We tested our approach by applying these rules to ethanol, a common substance of abuse and to furfuryl alcohol, a xenobiotic organic solvent, which is absent in metabolic databases. In both cases our predictions on the fate of ethanol and furfuryl alcohol are consistent with the literature on the metabolism of these compounds.

MCSHAN, D.C.; UPDADHAYAYA, M.; SHAH, I.

2009-01-01

89

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

2006-01-01

90

Assessment of the knowledge of graphical symbols labelled on malaria rapid diagnostic tests in four international settings  

PubMed Central

Background Graphical symbols on in vitro diagnostics (IVD symbols) replace the need for text in different languages and are used on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) marketed worldwide. The present study assessed the comprehension of IVD symbols labelled on malaria RDT kits among laboratory staff in four different countries. Methods Participants (n = 293) in Belgium (n = 96), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, n = 87), Cambodia (n = 59) and Cuba (n = 51) were presented with an anonymous questionnaire with IVD symbols extracted from ISO 15223 and EN 980 presented as stand-alone symbols (n = 18) and in context (affixed on RDT packages, n = 16). Responses were open-ended and scored for correctness by local professionals. Results Presented as stand-alone, three and five IVD symbols were correctly scored for comprehension by 67% and 50% of participants; when contextually presented, five and seven symbols reached the 67% and 50% correct score respectively. 'Batch code' scored best (correctly scored by 71.3% of participants when presented as stand-alone), 'Authorized representative in the European Community' scored worst (1.4% correct). Another six IVD symbols were scored correctly by less than 10% of participants: 'Do not reuse', 'In vitro diagnostic medical device', 'Sufficient for', 'Date of manufacture', 'Authorised representative in EC', and 'Do not use if package is damaged'. Participants in Belgium and Cuba both scored six symbols above the 67% criterion, participants from DRC and Cambodia scored only two and one symbols above this criterion. Low correct scores were observed for safety-related IVD symbols, such as for 'Biological Risk' (42.7%) and 'Do not reuse' (10.9%). Conclusion Comprehension of IVD symbols on RDTs among laboratory staff in four international settings was unsatisfactory. Administrative and outreach procedures should be undertaken to assure their acquaintance by end-users.

2011-01-01

91

Interpretations of a teratogen warning symbol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Warning symbols are used on terato- genic medications to communicate the message that women should (1) not take that medication if they may already be pregnant, and (2) not get pregnant while taking that medication. Communications research indi- cates that people interpret symbols or pictures in dif- ferent ways. Other studies have shown that patients do not always receive

Katherine Lyon Daniel; Karen Denard Goldman; Sue Lachenmayr; J. David Erickson; Cynthia Moore

2001-01-01

92

Symbolic comparisons of objects on color attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated symbolic comparisons of object brightness and color in 2 experiments using words and outline drawings as stimuli. 87 college students participated. Both experiments yielded orderly symbolic distance effects. Contrary to prediction, no reliable picture advantages emerged. For color comparison, individual differences in word fluency and color memory predicted decision time with word stimuli. These results contrast sharply with those

Allan Paivio; John te Linde

1980-01-01

93

Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

Feasley, Florence G.

94

Symbolism and connectionism of artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of simulating human intelligence is discussed from different aspects: (1) physical symbol system hypotheses proposed by symbolism scientists based on the theory of Turing machines; (2) another computational model neural network- proposed by connectionism scientists; and (3) quantum computation. We also try to show that human intelligence is not totally computable and so new scientific explanation for consciousness

Zhang Wei; Chunyu Wu; Lei Chen

2000-01-01

95

Situated action, symbol systems and universal computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vera & Simon (1993a) have argued that the theories and methods known as “situated action” or “situativity theory” are compatible with the assumptions and methodology of the physical symbol systems hypothesis and do not require a new approach to the study of cognition. When the central criterion of computational universality is added to the loose definition of a symbol system

Andrew Wells

1996-01-01

96

Play and the Acquisition of Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the interrelationship between children's acquisition and use of symbols and the development of imaginative play. The paper focuses on the use of pretend play as an expression of the child's capacity for symbolic functioning and as an index of intellectual development. The first section of the paper reviews developmental…

Fein, Greta G.

97

Decoding the Symbols in The Color Purple  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly analyzes and decodes the symbols in The Color Purple from the feminist point of view. Decoding the symbols enables us to have a more profound understanding of the feminine thoughts Alice Walker put into the novel and the theme of the novel.

Zhenhua Lv

98

Connections and symbols: closing the gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ling and Marinov (L & M) have constructed an interesting symbolic alternative to current connectionist models of language acquisition. The kind of detailed comparison of connectionist and symbolic models that they are pursuing works to clarify and solidify the basis of modelling as a research tool in cognitive science. Work such as that of Shavlik, Mooney, and Towell (1991) shows

Brian MacWhinney

1993-01-01

99

Evolutionary approach to quantum symbolic logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evolutionary approach to the quantum symbolic logic synthesis. We use a genetic algorithm to synthesize quantum circuits from examples, allowing to synthesize functions that are both completely and incompletely specified. The symbolic synthesis is implemented in the GA so as to verify our approach. The Occam Razor principle, fundamental to inductive learning as well

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski

2008-01-01

100

The Ceremonies and Symbols of Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of Virginia takes great care in being thoughtful, consistent, and clear about its messages regarding citizenship. While many other institutions hold rituals and distribute symbols to help students achieve desired learning outcomes, all colleges and universities may not be fully realizing the potential of these rituals and symbols.…

Thornton, Courtney H.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

2007-01-01

101

Intentions and Other Symbolic Contributions to Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of human social behavior in modern societies entails symbolic contributions. According to the concept introduced here, symbolic contributions serve a substitute function, allowing individuals to continue to be accepted by society even when they are incapable of direct, or so-called \\

Robert A. Wicklund; Jostein Rise

2008-01-01

102

Symbol Ranking Text Compression with Shannon Recodings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his work on the information content of English text in 1951, Shannon described a method of recoding the input text, a technique which has apparently lain dormant for the ensuing 45 years. Whereas traditional compressors exploit symbol frequencies and symbol contexts, Shannon's method adds the concept of \\

Peter M. Fenwick

1997-01-01

103

Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

Feasley, Florence G.

104

Symbolic Methods for VTB Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Symbolic computation is not just helpful, it is very nearly a prerequisite for building models of complex objects that will be used in dynamic system simulators such as the virtual test bed (VTB). The reason that symbolic computation is so necessary is that, for reasons of compuatational speed, the code of any VTB model having natural

R. A. Dougal; A. Monti

2006-01-01

105

Symbolic play in autism: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research into the symbolic play of autistic children is reviewed in an attempt to outline the nature of their deficit in this area. While many studies can be criticized on methodological grounds, there is good evidence for an impairment in the spontaneous symbolic play of autistic children, an impairment that appears to extend to cover spontaneous functional play also.

Christopher Jarrold; Jill Boucher; Peter Smith

1993-01-01

106

Myths and Symbols of Information Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts and symbols of the language of information techology are examined, including the concept of a technological revolution, a literacy crisis, the presumption of a moral and ethical dilemma, orientation toward the future, the promise of productivity, the image of an elite using an unintelligible language, and the symbol of the infallible…

Talbert, Roy, Jr.

1984-01-01

107

Improved Symbolic Verification Using Partitioning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient method to avoid memory explosion in symbolic model checking through the use of partitioning techniques. Dynamic repartitioning of Partitioned OBDDs (POBDDs) is investigated to enhance the efficiency of symbolic verification techniques. New and improved algorithms are presented for reachability based in- variant checking and for model checking a fraction of CTL that is found to

Subramanian K. Iyer; Debashis Sahoo; Christian Stangier; Amit Narayan; Jawahar Jain

2003-01-01

108

Rethinking Symbolic Racism: Evidence of Attribution Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that cognitive tendencies related to political sophistication produce an attribution bias in the widely accepted symbolic racism scale. When this bias is controlled statistically, the effect of symbolic racism on racial policy attitudes is greatly diminished. Our theory posits that high sophisticates tend to make global\\/distal attributions, allowing them to associate racial inequality with broader sociopolitical causes.

Brad T. Gomez; J. Matthew Wilson

2006-01-01

109

Symbols and dynamics in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of physicist and theoretical biologist Howard Pattee has focused on the roles that symbols and dynamics play in biological systems. Symbols, as discrete functional switching-states, are seen at the heart of all biological systems in the form of genetic codes, and at the core of all neural systems in the form of informational mechanisms that switch behavior. They

Peter Cariani

2001-01-01

110

Recognition of characteristic symbols in engineering drawings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm to recognize characteristic symbols in engineering drawings is presented. Characteristic symbols help in the classification of dimensioning text into one of the following four classes: linear, angular, diametric, and radial. Recognition of characteristic symbols is an important tool for the extraction of dimension-sets in a machine drawing understanding system. Text in drawings is used to provide dimensioning and tolerance information, and to describe part details such as material, finish, etc. A text/graphics separation algorithm followed by a post-processing step is used to separate potential dimensioning text from graphics. The characteristic symbol in each dimensioning text block is recognized by the algorithm described here. This algorithm includes extraction of end points and critical points for each character/symbol in the text block, and a rule-based recognition system based on simple heuristics. Experimental results are presented.

Lai, Chan P.; Kasturi, Rangachar

1992-08-01

111

Connecting symbolic difficulties with failure in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find that symbolic physics questions are significantly more difficult than their analogous numerical versions. Very few of the errors are due to manipulation errors of the symbolic equations. Instead, most errors are due to confusions of symbolic meaning. We also find that performance on symbolic questions is more highly correlated with the overall performance than performance on numeric questions. We devised a coding scheme that distinguishes questions based only on the mathematical structure of the solutions. The coding scheme can be used to identify both difficult and discriminating physics questions. The questions identified by this coding scheme require an algebraic representation and discourage problem solving strategies that do not require an understanding of symbolic equations. Our results suggest that an inability to interpret physics equations may be a major contributor to student failure in introductory physics.

Torigoe, Eugene T.; Gladding, Gary E.

2011-01-01

112

Distraction of Symbolic Behavior in Regular Classrooms  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students’ abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student’s capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students’ shifts from the use of “non-symbolic” to “symbolic” behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11–13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?symbolic behavior in relation to contextual factors in regular classroom. The main conclusion to be drawn from the results is that the observational procedure used in this study seems to have a potential to be used to explore the interaction between contextual factors and more complex student behavior such as cognition and the pragmatic use of language in regular classroom.

Billinger, Stefan

2012-01-01

113

Symbolic estrangement: evidence against a strong association between numerical symbols and the quantities they represent.  

PubMed

Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 shows that this effect cannot be attributed to differences in perceptual processing streams. Experiment 3 shows that there is no additional cost of mixing 2 formats that are both symbolic; that is, the decrement in mixing formats is specific to mixing symbolic and nonsymbolic representations. In sum, we show that accessing a sense of how much a numerical symbol actually represents is a surprisingly difficult and nontrivial process. Our data are consistent with the view that numerical symbols operate primarily as an associative system in which relations between symbols come to overshadow those between symbols and their quantity referents. PMID:22329752

Lyons, Ian M; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L

2012-02-13

114

Binary Disassembly Block Coverage by Symbolic Execution vs. Recursive Descent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research determines how appropriate symbolic execution is (given its current implementation) for binary analysis by measuring how much of an executable symbolic execution allows an analyst to reason about. Using the S2E Selective Symbolic Execution E...

J. D. Miller

2012-01-01

115

Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality  

PubMed Central

Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research.

2011-01-01

116

From polygons and symbols to polylogarithmic functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of the symbol map, a mathematical tool introduced by Goncharov and used by him and collaborators in the context of {N} = 4 SYM for simplifying expressions among multiple polylogarithms, and we recall its main properties. A recipe is given for how to obtain the symbol of a multiple polylogarithm in terms of the combinatorial properties of an associated rooted decorated polygon, and it is indicated how that recipe relates to a similar explicit formula for it previously given by Goncharov. We also outline a systematic approach to constructing a function corresponding to a given symbol, and illustrate it in the particular case of harmonic polylogarithms up to weight four. Furthermore, part of the ambiguity of this process is highlighted by exhibiting a family of non-trivial elements in the kernel of the symbol map for arbitrary weight.

Duhr, Claude; Gangl, Herbert; Rhodes, John R.

2012-10-01

117

Mastering Word and Symbol Language in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggested are sight word activities which will help students recognize both language and mathematical symbols in reading materials. Activities described include context clues, structural analysis, phonic cues, and dictionary skills. (DS)

Ciani, Alfred J.

1981-01-01

118

Matter and symbols of the artificial  

SciTech Connect

The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

Rocha, L.M.

1998-08-01

119

Using MAPLE for symbolic computations in robotics  

SciTech Connect

Programs are presented for deriving forward kinematics, Jacobians and dynamic equations of robotic manipulators in symbolic closed forms by using the algebraic manipulation software MAPLE. Examples are given. Efficiency of these computations are discussed. 7 refs.

Kwong, Man Kam; Wang, Rongdong (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Woo, Peng-Yung (Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1990-01-01

120

7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...particular side or characteristic of the tobacco. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, the combination symbols are XLâlug side, POâoxidized primings, XOâoxidized lugs or cutters, BOâoxidized leaf or smoking leaf, GLâthin-bodied nondescript,...

2013-01-01

121

50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80...Restoration Act and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items...symbol pertaining to the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act is...

2009-10-01

122

50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80...Restoration Act and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items...symbol pertaining to the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act is...

2010-10-01

123

7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are Lâlemon, Fâorange, FRâorange red, Râred, V...GGâgray green, KLâvariegated lemon, KFâvariegated orange, KVâvariegated...variegated dark red, and LLâwhitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

2013-01-01

124

SELECT: A Symbol and Pattern Searching Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SELECT provides a very simple means of interactively searching and printing entries in an ASCII disk file which contains up to five user-selected symbols and/or patterns. 3 figures. (ERA citation 02:015636)

D. Lai

1976-01-01

125

Bravais Classes, Voronoie Cells, Delone Symbols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We give the most refined intrinsic classification of three dimensional Euclidean lattices by combining the 14 Bravais classes, the 5 combinatorial types of Voronoi cells and the 24 Delone symbols. After recalling the fundamental concepts of group actions,...

L. Michel

1994-01-01

126

Learning Symbolic Rules Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinct advantage of symbolic learningalgorithms over artificial neural networks isthat typically the concept representationsthey form are more easily understood by humans.One approach to understanding therepresentations formed by neural networks isto extract symbolic rules from trained networks.In this paper we describe and investigatean approach for extracting rules fromnetworks that uses (1) the NofM extractionalgorithm, and (2) the network trainingmethod of

Mark Craven; Jude W. Shavlik

1993-01-01

127

The grounding and sharing of symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double function of language, as a social\\/communicative means, and as an individual\\/cognitive capability, derives from its fundamental property that allows us to internally re-represent the world we live in. This is possible through the mechanism of symbol grounding, i.e. the ability to associate entities and states in the external and internal world with internal categorical representations. The symbol grounding

Angelo Cangelosi

2006-01-01

128

Abductive reasoning in neural-symbolic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abduction is or subsumes a process of inference. It entertains possible hypotheses and it chooses hypotheses for further scrutiny.\\u000a There is a large literature on various aspects of non-symbolic, subconscious abduction. There is also a very active research\\u000a community working on the symbolic (logical) characterisation of abduction, which typically treats it as a form of hypothetico-deductive\\u000a reasoning. In this paper

Artur S. d’Avila Garcez; Dov M. Gabbay; Oliver Ray; John Woods

2007-01-01

129

Parallelising Symbolic State-Space Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic state-space generators are notoriously hard to par- allelise, largely due to the irregular nature of the task. Parallel languages such as Cilk, tailored to irregular problems, have been shown to offer ef- ficient scheduling and load balancing. This paper explores whether Cilk can be used to efficiently parallelise a symbolic state-space generatoron a shared-memory architecture. We parallelise the Saturation

Jonathan Ezekiel; Gerald Lüttgen; Gianfranco Ciardo

2007-01-01

130

Visualizing Symbolic Data by Closed Shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the framework of Factorial Data Analysis on Symbolic Objects (SO’s), we propose new kinds of SO’s visualizations on factorial\\u000a planes alternative to rectangular shapes (Minimum Covering Area Rectangle MCAR). MCAR were mainly proposed in PCA on SO’s to represent in reduced bi-dimensional subspace symbolic data described by\\u000a interval variables and represented by hypercubes. The new representations of SO’s are

Antonio Irpino; Carlo Lauro; Rosanna Verde

131

Efficient symbol retrieval by building a symbol index from a collection of line drawings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbol retrieval is important for content-based search in digital libraries and for automatic interpretation of line drawings. In this work, we present a complete symbol retrieval system. The proposed system has an off-line content-analysis stage, where the contents of a database of line drawings are represented as a symbol index, which is a compact indexable representation of the database. Such representation allows efficient on-line query retrieval. Within the retrieval system, three methods are presented. First, a feature grouping method for identifying local regions of interest (ROIs) in the drawings. The found ROIs represent symbols' parts. Second, a clustering method based on geometric matching, is used to cluster the similar parts from all the drawings together. A symbol index is then constructed from the clusters' representatives. Finally, the ROIs of a query symbol are matched to the clusters' representatives. The matching symbols' parts are retrieved from the clusters, and spatial verification is performed on the matching parts. By using the symbol index we are able to achieve a query look-up time that is independent of the database size, and dependent on the size of the symbol index. The retrieval system achieves higher recall and precision than state-of-the-art methods.

Nayef, Nibal; Breuel, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

132

Media Symbolism; Media Richness; and Media Choice in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses symbolic interactionism to understand media choice processes during managerial communications--studying communication incidents involving face-to-face, telephone, electronic mail, and written media. Suggests that managers' choices are influenced by (1) ambiguity of the message content and richness of the communication medium, (2) symbolic

Trevino, Linda Klebe; And Others

1987-01-01

133

The development of automated access to symbolic and non-symbolic number knowledge in children: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Infants can visually detect changes in numerosity, which suggests that a (non-symbolic) numerosity system is already present early in life. This non-symbolic system is hypothesized to serve as the basis for the later acquired symbolic system. Little is known about the processes underlying the transition from the non-symbolic to symbolic code. In the current study we investigated the development of automatization of symbolic number processing in children from second (6.0 years) and fourth grade (8.0 years) and adults using a symbolic and non-symbolic size congruency task and event-related potentials (ERPs) as a measure. The comparison between symbolic and non-symbolic size congruency effects (SCEs) allowed us to disentangle processes necessary to perform the task from processes specific to numerosity notation. In contrast to previous studies, second graders already revealed a behavioral symbolic SCE similar to that of adults. In addition, the behavioral SCE increased for symbolic and decreased for non-symbolic notation with increasing age. For all age groups, the ERP data showed that the two magnitudes interfered at a level before selective activation of the response system, for both notations. However, only for the second graders distinct processes were recruited to perform the symbolic size comparison task. This shift in recruited processes for the symbolic task only might reflect the functional specialization of the parietal cortex. PMID:19912334

Gebuis, Titia; Herfs, Inkeri K; Kenemans, J Leon; de Haan, Edward H F; van der Smagt, Maarten J

2009-11-11

134

Symbolic conceptions: the idea of the third.  

PubMed

The idea of the third which appears in Jung's concepts of the transcendent function and the coniunctio also occurs in several psychoanalytic theories concerning the emergence of reflective and symbolic thought in childhood development (defined here as the development of 'imaginal capacity'). Noting the way this process is often conceived in terms of the metaphor of sexual intercourse leading to 'conception', this paper suggests that such images need to be understood as symbolic conceptions of the meaning-making functions of the human mind. This leads to a different view of psychoanalytic theories that attempt to account for the development of imaginal capacity in terms of the Oedipus complex. It is suggested that a) these functions must be operative in the mind before the Oedipal situation can become meaningful and b) that psychoanalytic theories are themselves symbolic conceptions which, like mythological narratives, seek to communicate and comprehend psychic reality through imaginal forms. PMID:17970937

Colman, Warren

2007-11-01

135

Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration  

SciTech Connect

Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.

Carlson, B.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

1997-12-31

136

Sixty Symbols, by The University of Nottingham  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faculty at the University of Nottingham are continuing to develop short (5-10 minutes long) insightful video-streamed vignettes for the web. Their earlier sites: Test Tube: Behind the World of Science and the widely known Periodic Table of Videos (a video on each element in the periodic table featured in WebSights last semester) have been joined by a new effort from the faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Engineering-Sixty Symbols: Videos about the Symbols of Physics and Astronomy. I liked the vignette on chi myself.

MacIsaac, Dan

2009-11-01

137

PRACTICE OF OPERATOR RELATIONSHIPS IN SYMBOLICAL CALCULUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new operator relationships and special operators are pre- sented in this paper. The use of this theory in symbolical calculus appears to be a successful extension of numerical and approximation methods for solv- ing of dierential equations. In applying an operator method, the sought-for solutions are represented as operator series. Practical applicability of the operator relationships and some examples

Liepa Bikulcien; Zenonas Navickas

138

Embodied cognition, perceptual symbols, and situation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to see how current models of discourse comprehension can be “scaled up” to account for the rich situation models that may be constructed during naturalistic language comprehension, as when readers are immersed in the story world. Recent proposals about embodied cognition and perceptual symbols, such as those put forth by Glenberg and Robertson and by Roth might

Rolf A. Zwaan

1999-01-01

139

Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results: We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the

Bob J. A. Schijvenaars; Barend Mons; Marc Weeber; Martijn J. Schuemie; Erik M. Van Mulligen; Hester M. Wain; Jan A. Kors

2005-01-01

140

Introducing physics students to symbolic computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two projects are described that employ the REDUCE language for symbolic computation. In the first a program is produced which gives the correct 'product of powers' form of a 'target' physical quantity in terms of other relevant physical quantities and which detects dimensionless groups. The other yields programs to verify the closure under commutation of sets of operators which are

N. MacDonald

1991-01-01

141

Syntax of symbolic logic and transformational grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the language of symbolic logic a sentence or, as the logicians call it, a well-formed formula is constructed according to recursive rules. The idea that the rules of syntax of a language must be formulated recursively has been taken over by Chomsky and other transformational grammarians of natural languages. There is, accordingly, a kind of similarity between the procedure

Erik Stenius

1973-01-01

142

Towards a Symbolic Modal Logic for LOTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a version of HML (7), adapted to allow description of properties of Full LOTOS (8) specifications using symbolic values and conditions in modal formulae as well as concrete data values. In modifying HML we especially consider the features of LOTOS which distinguish it from other process algebras and discuss how these alter the requirements of the logic, and

Carron Kirkwood; Muffy Thomas

1996-01-01

143

Phonetic symbolism and children's brand name preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Children are bombarded by branded communication every day. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role that particular linguistic devices play in communication, and whether this process differs between children and adults. One such device is phonetic symbolism, which has been shown to lead adults to prefer brand names whose phonetic attributes match product and\\/or brand

Stacey Baxter; Tina M. Lowrey

2011-01-01

144

Phonetic Symbolism and Brand Name Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the effects of phonetic symbolism on brand name preference. Participants indicated preference for fictitious brand names for particular products (or for products with particular attributes) from word pairs that differed only on vowel sound (e.g., front vs. back vowels, or vowel sounds associated with positive vs. negative concepts). Participants preferred brand names more when the attributes connoted

2007-01-01

145

VAX DEBUG: An interactive, symbolic, multilingual debugger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX-11 Debugger, usually called VAX DEBUG or simply DEBUG, is an interactive, symbolic, and multilingual debugger which runs on the VAX-11 series of computers under the VMS operating system. The following gives an overview of VAX DEBUG and examines how it solves some of the problems inherent in the design of any such debugger. Particular attention is

Bert Beander

1983-01-01

146

Television and Children: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that the effect of television can best be understood as part of the overall attempts by social scientists to understand the effects of the mass media. Argues that symbolic interactionism is the most viable theory for bringing together the pure and the applied aspects of this issue. (LLL)

Dunn, Thomas P.; Cardwell, Jerry D.

1984-01-01

147

Maygen: A Symbolic Debugger Generation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the development of high-level languages for new computer architectures comes the need for appropriate debugging tools as well. One method for meeting this need would be to develop, from scratch, a symbolic debugger with the introduction of each new l...

C. L. Tsien

1993-01-01

148

Symbols as Substance in National Civics Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes the national civics standards for emphasizing shared political values over political participation, oversimplifying the relationships among U.S. political values, and relying upon elite statements to identify those values. Characterizes the proposed standards as a symbolic ritual for reinforcing cultural hegemony. (MJP)

Merelman, Richard M.

1996-01-01

149

Design Constraints in Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-consuming and error-prone activity in symbolic model-checking is the construction of environments. We present a technique for modeling environmental constraints that avoids the need for explicit construction of environments. Moreover, our approach supports an assume\\/guarantee style of reasoning that also supports simulation monitors. We give examples of the use of constraints in PowerPCTMverification.

Matt Kaufmann; Andrew Martin; Carl Pixley

1998-01-01

150

A symbolic method for k-statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trough the classical umbral calculus, we provide new, compact and easy to handle expressions of k-statistics, and more in general of U-statistics. In addition such a symbolic method can be naturally extended to multivariate case and to generalized k-statistics.

E. Di Nardo; D. Senato

2005-01-01

151

7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

2013-01-01

152

Presentational Symbolism and the Production of Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Susanne Langer's concepts of presentational and discursive symbolism, constructs a theory of text production that describes presentation and discourse and relations between them as major components in the evolution of text from thought to written language. Concludes by examining the implications of this theory for understanding students'…

Collins, James L.

1986-01-01

153

Symbolic MT With Statistical NLP Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports provides an overview of the findings and software that have evolved from the 'Symbolic MT with Statistical NLP Components' project over the last year. We present the major goals that have been achieved and discuss some of the open issues that...

B. J. Dorr C. Monz N. Y. Habash

2004-01-01

154

The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

Hardy, Donna Dee

155

Symbols and dynamics in the brain.  

PubMed

The work of physicist and theoretical biologist Howard Pattee has focused on the roles that symbols and dynamics play in biological systems. Symbols, as discrete functional switching-states, are seen at the heart of all biological systems in the form of genetic codes, and at the core of all neural systems in the form of informational mechanisms that switch behavior. They also appear in one form or another in all epistemic systems, from informational processes embedded in primitive organisms to individual human beings to public scientific models. Over its course, Pattee's work has explored (1) the physical basis of informational functions (dynamical vs. rule-based descriptions, switching mechanisms, memory, symbols), (2) the functional organization of the observer (measurement, computation), (3) the means by which information can be embedded in biological organisms for purposes of self-construction and representation (as codes, modeling relations, memory, symbols), and (4) the processes by which new structures and functions can emerge over time. We discuss how these concepts can be applied to a high-level understanding of the brain. Biological organisms constantly reproduce themselves as well as their relations with their environs. The brain similarly can be seen as a self-producing, self-regenerating neural signaling system and as an adaptive informational system that interacts with its surrounds in order to steer behavior. PMID:11325504

Cariani, P

156

Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

2007-01-01

157

Automated Non-Alphanumeric Symbol Resolution in Clinical Texts  

PubMed Central

Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols (‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’) were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for ‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’ were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems.

Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B.

2011-01-01

158

Automated non-alphanumeric symbol resolution in clinical texts.  

PubMed

Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols ('+', '-', '/', and '#') were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for '+', '-', '/', and '#' were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems. PMID:22195157

Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B

2011-10-22

159

Stability Analysis of a Finite Difference Scheme Using Symbolic Computation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer aided symbolic manipulation has previously been used in studies of weakly nonlinear behavior in plasmas. The application of such symbolic manipulation techniques to the study of the stability of a specific finite difference scheme is investigated...

A. Reiman A. Bers

1975-01-01

160

NSL a Neuro-Symbolic Language for a Neuro-Symbolic Processor (NSP).  

PubMed

A Neuro-Symbolic Language for monotonic and non-monotonic parallel logical inference by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. Both the language and its compiler have been designed and implemented in order to translate the neural representation of a given problem into a VHDL software, which in turn can set devices such as FPGA. The result of this operation leads to an electronic circuit that we call NSP (Neuro-Symbolic Processor). PMID:12923922

Burattini, Ernesto; De Francesco, Antonio; De Gregorio, Massimo

2003-04-01

161

Language and symbolic play in infancy: Independent or related abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated 3 hypotheses: that language and symbolic play are positively related in infancy, that the 2 are unrelated, and that early symbolic play predicts later language ability. 25 infants were observed in 2 free play sessions, at 12–14 mo (Session 1) and 20–22 mo (Session 2). Three symbolic play and object use measures were significantly and positively interrelated. Three language

Cristine L. Russell; R. N. Russnaik

1981-01-01

162

Integration and Application Network: Conceptual Diagram Symbol Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IAN symbol libraries contain over 1500 custom made symbols (in 32 categories) designed specifically for enhancing science communication skills. The aim of the IAN is to make these symbols a standard resource for scientists, resource managers, community groups and environmentalists worldwide. Site provides information on the Network, publications, and a wealth of additional project and informational resources.

163

Symbolic Exchange in the Field of Architectural Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bourdieu repeatedly emphasises the presence of the symbolic dimension in all human social interaction. Architecture's potential for symbolic representation and the symbolic capital accruing to patrons of architecture as a result of their possession of a work of architecture, has been the historical justification of the existence of a separate field of architectural production since its emergence in the Italian

D. Evans

164

Comprehension and production of symbols in infancy: An experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now considerable evidence in support of the Piagetian-Wernerian hypothesis that early language emerges out of a more general symbolic capacity, one that also includes the use of gestural symbolic schemes in play. The present study examined the same hypothesis, but in a situation with more controls over the eliciting conditions for different aspects of early symbolization. The processes

Ing Bretherton

1981-01-01

165

Optimum harmonic spacing for MT-MFSK synchronization symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronization of multitone M-ary frequency-shift keying (MT-MFSK) symbols can be achieved by examining the relationship between phase and harmonic number of a received symbol. The authors identify two alternative estimation strategies to determine the received symbol's optimum harmonic spacing.

Evans, M. J.; Yates, K. W.

1994-03-01

166

Grounded discovery of symbols as concept–language pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human designer usage, symbols have a rich semantics, grounded on experience, which permits flexible usage — e.g. design ideation is improved by meanings triggered by contrastive words. In computational usage however, symbols are syntactic tokens whose semantics is mostly left to the implementation, resulting in brittle failures in many knowledge-based systems. Here we ask if one may define symbols

Amitabha Mukerjee; Madan Mohan Dabbeeru

167

The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

Henry, Mary E.

168

The Physical Symbol System Hypothesis: Status and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

I analyze some of the attacks against the Physical Symbol System Hypothesis—attacks based on the presumed need for symbol-grounding\\u000a and non-symbolic processing for intelligent behavior and on the supposed non-computational and “mindless” aspects of brains.

Nils J. Nilsson

2006-01-01

169

Neurons, glia and the borderline between subsymbolic and symbolic processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is the exploration of the nature and development of the functional borderline between non or subsymbolic processing and symbolic processing. Newell attributes the existence of a physical symbol system to the fundamental restriction imposed on the amount of information represented and processed in a local neural area by the limited energy available. Symbol tokens overcome the restriction by

J. Wallace; K. Bluff

170

Symbol manipulation and rule learning in spiking neuronal networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that the productivity, systematicity and compositionality of human language and thought necessitate the existence of a physical symbol system (PSS) in the brain. Recent discoveries about temporal coding suggest a novel type of neuronal implementation of a physical symbol system. Furthermore, learning classifier systems provide a plausible algorithmic basis by which symbol re-write rules could be

Chrisantha Fernando

2011-01-01

171

3. Symbols as a language of organizational relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

We view physical symbols as a rich, potent, non-verbal language that is uniquely suited for enacting relationship issues within organizations. Like verbal language, physical symbols have accepted elements and structure (e.g. grammar), and both influence and are influenced by social construction processes. We apply this ‘physical symbols as language’ perspective to modern organizations, and argue that recent trends, such as

Michael G. Pratt; Anat Rafaeli

2001-01-01

172

Knot symbols: A tool to describe and simplify knot diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A convenient representation of knot diagrams by abstract symbols is introduced. A set of simple moves, which are convenient combinations of the classic Reidemeister moves, is also introduced. These moves can be applied directly to the symbols to obtain simplified symbols (and therefore simplified diagrams) for the knot.

Bruschi, M. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)

1996-04-01

173

Symbols, Signals, and Social Norms in Politics and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a signaling model to explain the role of symbols in people's behavior and beliefs, with special attention to legal manipulation of symbols. It is argued that certain actions become symbolic because they have the proper cost structure and because they are, for historical or psychological reasons, focal. The government can in theory use standard legal instruments (which

Eric A. Posner

1998-01-01

174

Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

2012-01-01

175

Symbols: Sites of Creation and Contest in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbols provide the material through which communities, groups, nations, and states attempt to “imagine” themselves. Since 2001, we have conducted research, funded by the United Kingdom’s Economic and Social Research Council, into the changes in the use of rituals and symbols in Northern Ireland. We wanted to see whether the new political dispensation led to the creation of new symbols

Dominic Bryan; Gillian McIntosh

2005-01-01

176

Symbols, Themes and Liking: A Study of Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertisers use various strategies to make an advertisement effective. The use of symbols and themes is one of these strategies. This is a qualitative study aiming to understand whether the presence of some symbols and particular themes in an advertisement affects the liking for that advertisement. 48 subjects were given 20 advertisements to analyze in terms of the symbols present.

Kaushal Geetika

177

Symbolic document image compression based on pattern matching techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel compression algorithm for Chinese document images is proposed. Initially, documents are segmented into readable components such as characters and punctuation marks. Similar patterns within the text are found by shape context matching and grouped to form a set of prototype symbols. Text redundancies can be removed by replacing repeated symbols by their corresponding prototype symbols.

Chwan-Yi Shiah; Yun-Sheng Yen

2011-01-01

178

Applications of symbolic machine learning to ecological modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic machine learning methods induce explicitly represented symbolic models from data. The models can thus be inspected, modified, used and verified by human experts and have the potential to become part of the knowledge in the respective application domain. Applications of symbolic machine learning methods to ecological modelling problems are numerous and varied, ranging from modelling algal growth in lagoons

Sas ÿo Dz ÿeroski

2001-01-01

179

Symbol-by-symbol APP decoding of the Golay code and iterative decoding of concatenated Golay codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient coset based symbol-by-symbol soft in\\/soft-out a posteriori probability (APP) decoding algorithm is presented for the Golay code. Its application in the iterative decoding of concatenated Golay codes is examined

Li Ping; Kwan Lawrence Yeung

1999-01-01

180

Asymptotics of the Wigner 9j-Symbol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j-symbol, valid when all quantum numbers are large. The formula is a generalization of the well known asymptotic formula of Ponzano and Regge (1968) for the Wigner 6j-symbol that has played a central role in discrete approaches to 3D quantum gravity. Analysis of the classically allowed region of the 9j-symbol reveals a geometrically rich structure. We conclude with a discussion of the extension of our methods to higher 3nj-symbols. Asymptotic formulas for the higher 3nj-symbols will clarify the semiclassical limit of spinfoam approaches to quantum gravity. )

Haggard, Hal; Littlejohn, Robert

2010-02-01

181

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

1997-10-01

182

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

1997-10-09

183

Parallelizing Algorithms for Symbolic Computation using ||MAPLE||  

Microsoft Academic Search

kMAPLEk (speak: parallel Maple) is a portable system forparallel symbolic computation. The system is built as aninterface between the parallel declarative programming languageStrand and the sequential computer algebra systemMaple, thus providing the elegance of Strand and the powerof the existing sequential algorithms in Maple.The implementation of different parallel programmingparadigms shows that it is fairly easy to parallelize evencomplex algebraic algorithms

Kurt Siegl

1993-01-01

184

Symbolic code approach to GTD ray tracing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-level artificial intelligence language with symbolic/logical manipulation capabilities, together with a simple ansatz based on the properties of the Fresnel ellipsoid, is used to implement an efficient computer algorithm for automatic ray-tracing. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) ray-tracing solution for the radio-line path-loss evaluation over piecewise-linear two-dimensional terrain profiles is presented.

Bisceglia, Bruno; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Savarese, Catello

1988-10-01

185

Theory of adaptation: application of symbolic logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of adaptation takes up, first, completely symbolized expressions in which the basic element is the dyadic term Axy, x is adapted to y. When this is combined with a monadic term such as Ey, y is a moist environment, in (y)(Axy?Ey), validity can be achieved by reversal and denial (transposition): (y)(Axy?Ey)?(y)(?Ey??Axy). This provides a full and complete description

Edward M. Hulburt

1998-01-01

186

Moving target tracking using symbolic registration.  

PubMed

This correspondence describes a moving target tracking (MTT) algorithm that performs image registration and motion analysis between pairs of images from a passive sensor. Unlike previously reported moving target indicators that operate at the signal level, the registration and motion analysis in the MTT is totally performed at a symbolic level. The operation of the MTT is demonstrated by simulation results obtained from applications of the algorithm to infrared images. PMID:21869071

Ayala, I L; Orton, D A; Larson, J B; Elliott, D F

1982-05-01

187

A symbolic method for k-statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trough the classical umbral calculus, we provide new, compact and easy to handle expressions of k-statistics, and more in general of U-statistics. In addition such a symbolic method can be naturally extended to multivariate case and to generalized k-statistics. In 1929, Fisher (4) introduced the k-statistics as new symmetric functions of the random sample. The aim of Fisher was to

Elvira Di Nardo; Domenico Senato

2006-01-01

188

Key political symbols: the dissociation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key political symbols are an important but neglected topic in the policy sciences. As instruments of policy, they are used\\u000a to fashion consensus and misused for purposes of exploitation. Scientific inquiry into the possibilities for maximizing consent\\u000a and minimizing exploitation has been frustrated for lack of systematic, empirical methods - despite a rich theoretical tradition\\u000a that has been available for

Ronald D. Brunner

1987-01-01

189

The language of symbols in prehistoric Anatolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual and ritual background of symbolism in the prehistoric art of Anatolia should be investigated within the socio-economic background of the pertinent Neolithic and Chalcoli- thic societies. Since the adoption of farming did not totally replace the more traditional modes of sub- sistence, it is doubtful that the supernatural world-order envisaged by earlier hunter-gatherers would have been entirely altered

Jak Yakar

190

The Virtual, the Symbolic, and the Actual in Bergsonian Philosophy and Durkheimian Sociology  

Microsoft Academic Search

?Today, we have a problem with the symbolic. Psychoanalysts explain “abnormal” acts as violations of a symbolic order inscribed in the unconscious by culture, and cognitivists conceive “normal” minds as computational machines manipulating natural symbols through logical inference. Yet we still don’t know what is a symbolic rule or a symbolic norm or symbolic efficacy, and we still need a

Frédéric Keck

2006-01-01

191

Symbolic attitude and reverie: problems of symbolization in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

In comparison to the 1970s and 1980s, we now treat more children and adolescents who, because they have had traumatic experiences of violence, child abuse, deprivation or chronic physical illness, are not able to adequately use their symbolizing function. The question is which qualities and which analytical attitude we should and can offer in analysis to help a child regain his or her capacity to symbolize, irrespective of how poorly developed or blocked this capacity may be. In contrast to Jung and some Jungians, the author argues that although the transcendent function is a 'natural process' and hence archetypally grounded as Jung maintained, the transcendent function does not work spontaneously. Rather it requires a matrix based on the child's earliest relationship, which can later be re-enacted in treatment. Jung's general concept of a 'symbolic attitude' can be complemented and focused in a specific way through the use of Bion's concept of 'reverie', which contributes in a fundamental way to symbol formation within the transference/countertransference. This idea is illustrated by clinical material from a nine-year-old boy who suffered from a severe congenital intestinal disease and was blocked in his capacity to symbolize. From the perspective of treatment technique, the author shows how the drawing of 'comic book' narratives in a reciprocal exchange was brought into the treatment. The drawings evolved in a way that he understood as a modified form of active imagination with children. The drawing process helped the boy gradually to develop a symbolic space in the therapy and to contain a psychic space in his mind. PMID:12025497

Bovensiepen, Gustav

2002-04-01

192

The New Algorithm for Symbolic Network Analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and highly efficient tree identification algorithm is derived here for obtaining the determinant and the cofactors of a circuit's node admittance matrix, and hence, for obtaining various symbolic network functions for one-port and two-port reciprocal and nonreciprocal networks, with the network's topological description as its input. The algorithm is so devised that it is practically memory-storage free, and it is simple enough that even a microcomputer can obtain symbolic network functions for a fairly large circuit in a reasonably short time. It is worth noting that the algorithm can handle topological branches with infinite admittance values. Making use of this special feature, we have derived a simple topological model for the ideal operational amplifier, hence providing the ability to obtain various topological formulas of operational amplifier circuits in a reasonable time. By choosing appropriate symbolic network functions, along with some measured transfer function data, the circuit's nominal element values, and a nonlinear-equation solving subroutine, we have constructed a computer program to perform analog circuit fault diagnosis. This program can identify which of a circuit's elements are faulty or out of design tolerances. In the course of this research we have also identified an application to a biological problem, one in which the resistor values of an electrical model of the guinea-pig cochlea can easily be deduced even when some nodes are inaccessible for measurements. All these features have been implemented on a very modest microcomputer, the Apple II. Obviously, a larger computer will not only accomplish the same result faster but also it will be capable of analyzing much larger circuits.

Chow, John Tsai-Chiang

193

Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-05-01

194

The role of sound symbolism in language learning.  

PubMed

Certain correspondences between the sound and meaning of words can be observed in subsets of the vocabulary. These sound-symbolic relationships have been suggested to result in easier language acquisition, but previous studies have explicitly tested effects of sound symbolism on learning category distinctions but not on word learning. In 2 word learning experiments, we varied the extent to which phonological properties related to a rounded-angular shape distinction and we distinguished learning of categories from learning of individual words. We found that sound symbolism resulted in an advantage for learning categories of sound-shape mappings but did not assist in learning individual word meanings. These results are consistent with the limited presence of sound symbolism in natural language. The results also provide a reinterpretation of the role of sound symbolism in language learning and language origins and a greater specification of the conditions under which sound symbolism proves advantageous for learning. PMID:22468804

Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Walker, Peter

2012-04-02

195

Media Symbolism, Media Richness, and Media Choice in OrganizationsA Symbolic Interactionist Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic interactionism is presented as a theoretical approach for understanding media choice processes during managerial communications. In an exploratory study, 65 managers from 11 organizations were interviewed about communication incidents involving face-to-face, telephone, electronic mail, and written media. Managers were asked the reasons they chose the particular medium. A content analysis of the reasons suggests that three factors influenced managers'

LINDA KLEBE TREVINO; ROBERT H. LENGEL; RICHARD L. DAFT

1987-01-01

196

MATLAB LANGUAGE AS TOOL FOR SYMBOLIC, SEMI-SYMBOLIC AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the application of MATLAB mathematical language (2) for simulation of electrical and electronic networks. A library of about 40 m-files (scripts and functions) is described that solves the following problem: automatic formulation of network equations in matrix form (both symbolic and numerical); evaluation of numerator and denominator polynomials for network functions; calculation of polynomial coefficients, zeros

Juraj Valsa

197

Symbolic Analysis and Simulation for Power System Dynamic Performance Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel contribution presents an integrated approach that combines symbolic and numeric computations to investigate dynamic analysis and simulation issues in power systems. Power system studies including load flow and local bifurcation analysis, require the numerical solution of non-linear equations using the Newton-Raphson-Seydel technique. This algorithm requires the computation of higher order Jacobian matrices, preferably in symbolic form. Symbolic programming

S. Ayasun; C. Dafis; C. O. Nwankpa; H. Kwatny

2006-01-01

198

Determining an Optimal Visualization of Physically Realizable Symbol Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proportional symbol maps are an often used tool to aid cartographers and geo-science professionals to visualize data associated with events (e.g., earthquakes) or geo-positioned statistical data (e.g., population). At specific locations, symbols are placed and scaled so that their areas become proportional to the magnitudes of the events or data. Recent work approaches the problem of drawing these symbols algorithmically

Guilherme Kunigami; Pedro J. de Rezende; Cid C. de Souza; Tallys Yunes

2011-01-01

199

Perturbations of Pseudodifferential Operators with Negative Definite Symbol  

SciTech Connect

Pseudodifferential operators with negative definite symbols appear as generators of jump-type Markov processes. The purpose of this paper is to treat the large jumps of the process by a perturbation approach for the generator. This is of particular interest since in this way the generators are made accessible to a symbolic calculus of pseudodifferential operators. The main auxiliary result consists of a characterization of tightness of the jump measures in terms of the symbol.

Hoh, W. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)], E-mail: hoh@mathematik.uni-bielefeld.de

2002-06-05

200

The physics of symbols: bridging the epistemic cut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution requires the genotype–phenotype distinction, a primeval epistemic cut that separates energy-degenerate, rate-independent genetic symbols from the rate-dependent dynamics of construction that they control. This symbol–matter or subject–object distinction occurs at all higher levels where symbols are related to a referent by an arbitrary code. The converse of control is measurement in which a rate-dependent dynamical state is coded into

Howard H. Pattee

2001-01-01

201

The physics of symbols: bridging the epistemic cut.  

PubMed

Evolution requires the genotype-phenotype distinction, a primeval epistemic cut that separates energy-degenerate, rate-independent genetic symbols from the rate-dependent dynamics of construction that they control. This symbol-matter or subject-object distinction occurs at all higher levels where symbols are related to a referent by an arbitrary code. The converse of control is measurement in which a rate-dependent dynamical state is coded into quiescent symbols. Non-integrable constraints are one necessary condition for bridging the epistemic cut by measurement, control, and coding. Additional properties of heteropolymer constraints are necessary for biological evolution. PMID:11325500

Pattee, H H

202

Symbolic logic analysis of congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

In identifying the primary, genetic or environmental event in human cardiac malformations, it is desirable to separate out the apparently secondary lesions. We have employed the general principle that multiple cardiac lesions within a single patient may often represent a pathogenetic process in which one primary event gives rise to a sequence of secondary lesions. The mechanical paradigm of cardiogenesis suggests that abnormal primary lesions may give rise to secondary lesions through altered blood flow or pressure relations, if the secondary structure normally appears later and represents a reasonable tissue response to altered mechanics. Symbolic logic is a mathematical method in which descriptive statements are placed in formal relation to one another and their logical consequences are deduced. Using the mechanical paradigm as a technique of hypothesis generation and symbolic logic as a technique of hypothesis testing, we have analyzed the following malformation complexes in large series of autopsied patients: coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, arterious malformation, interrupted aortic arch, and semilunar valve malformations. PMID:7279779

Moore, G W; Hutchins, G M

1981-03-01

203

Political Party PlatformsSymbolic Politics and Criminal Justice Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of symbolic politics is used to examine the elements of criminal justice policy in political party platforms. It is hypothesized that political parties use their party platforms to make symbolic, rather than substantive, statements. Data were collected from the digital archives of both the American Presidency Project and the American Reference Library consisting of all political party platforms

Willard M. Oliver; Nancy E. Marion

2008-01-01

204

Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their mutual relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their mutual relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their mutual relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.

Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui

2006-10-01

205

The Impact of Congenital Deafblindness on the Struggle to Symbolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most children who are congenitally deafblind are severely delayed in their communication development and many will not achieve symbolic understanding and expression. This article discusses developmental markers cited in the research literature as predictive of or facilitative of the development of symbolism. These markers include the growth toward more abstract representations, the rate of intentional communication, joint attention to objects

Susan M. Bruce

2005-01-01

206

New symbolic method for studying brain connectivity during sleep onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new technique of symbolic time-series analysis which are useful for analyzing biological signals. The method is based on coarse-graining of the first range difference of the analyzed time series. The paper include prelimary results of analysis EEG-data for sleep onset. K eywords: Symbolic dynamics, EEG, Sleep, Mapping, STM

Robert A. Stepien; Wlodzimierz Klonowski; Wojciech Androsiuk

2007-01-01

207

Scene understanding based on network-symbolic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New generations of smart weapons and unmanned vehicles must have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. Instead of precise computations of 3-dimensional models, a network-symbolic system converts image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in the Network-Symbolic models and used for the disambiguation of visual information. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation that can be better interpreted by higher-level knowledge structures. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views.

Kuvich, Gary

2005-05-01

208

Interview: Charlene Teters on Native American Symbols as Mascots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interview with Charlene Teters, Native American artist and activist, focuses on her role as leader of the national campaign to eliminate Native American symbols as college sports mascots, and especially on her experience as a University of Illinois graduate student, where the Native American symbol and mascot continues to be used despite a faculty…

Johns, Rebecca

2000-01-01

209

Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the

Lawrence Bobo

1983-01-01

210

Practising English Phonetic Symbols in a Communicative Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Classroom exercises designed to help students learn phonetic symbols more effectively are described. The exercises were developed for use in a Hong Kong school. The idea behind their creation was that use of the symbols in communicative situations would emphasize their utility for learning English pronunciation. Each exercise uses contextualized…

Chu, Wai Ling

211

Symbolic and Neural Learning Algorithms: An Experimental Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that many symbolic and neural network (connectionist) learning algorithms address the same problem of learning from classified examples, very little is known regarding their comparative strengths and weaknesses. Experiments comparing the ID3 symbolic learning algorithm with the perception and backpropaga- tion neural learning algorithms have been performed using five large, real-world data sets. Overall, backpropaga- tion performs

Jude W. Shavlik; Raymond J. Mooney; Geoffrey G. Towell

1991-01-01

212

Metacognição e Tecnologia Educacional Simbólica* Metacognition and Symbolic Educational Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Directives for Medicine Courses list among others learn how to learn and scientific competence as main objectives for graduation curricula. The purpose of this study is to propose metacognition as a Symbolic Educational Technology. This proposition is based upon Schultz's phenomenological perspective of symbols. The following text presents four main topics. The first introduces a broad definition for

Maurício de Abreu; Pinto Peixoto; Marcos Antônio; Gomes Brandão

213

Symbolic Role Models and Identity Patterns of Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to focus on the symbolic role models available and internalized by Indian women. These role meals as internalized by Indian women determines the nature of social role taking in the society as well managerial roles in formal work organizations. This paper identifies five symbolic models from the cultural role as influencing women’s role taking and crystallization of

Parikh Indira J; Garg Pulin K

214

Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

215

Symbolic Heuristic Search Value Iteration for Factored POMDPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose Symbolic heuristic search value iteration (Symbolic HSVI) algorithm, which extends the heuris- tic search value iteration (HSVI) algorithm in order to handle factored partially observable Markov decision processes (factored POMDPs). The idea is to use al- gebraic decision diagrams (ADDs) for compactly rep- resenting the problem itself and all the relevant inter- mediate computation results in the algorithm.

Hyeong Seop Sim; Kee-eung Kim; Jin Hyung Kim; Du-seong Chang; Myoung-wan Koo

2008-01-01

216

Symbolic double-coding: the case of Australian pubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Discussions of symbolic meaning tend to focus on consumer goods and as a result there is relatively little consideration given to the meanings associated with less tangible receptacles such as locations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the symbolic meaning resident in a particular consumption location, namely the Australian pub (public drinking house). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews

Simone Pettigrew

2006-01-01

217

Symbolic processing methods for 3D visual processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a theory that defines an open method for solving 3D visual data processing and artificial intelligence problems that is independent of hardware or software implementation. The goal of the theory is to generalize and abstract the process of 3D visual processing so that the method can be applied to a wide variety of 3D visual processing problems. Once the theory is described a heuristic derivation is given. Symbolic processing methods can be generalized into an abstract model composed of eight basic components. The symbolic processing model components are: input data; input data interface; symbolic data library; symbolic data environment space; relationship matrix; symbolic logic driver; output data interface and output data. An obstacle detection and avoidance experiment was constructed to demonstrate the symbolic processing method. The results of the robot obstacle avoidance experiment demonstrated that the mobile robot could successfully navigate the obstacle course using symbolic processing methods for the control software. The significance of the symbolic processing approach is that the method arrived at a solution by using a more formal quantifiable process. Some of the practical applications for this theory are: 3D object recognition, obstacle avoidance, and intelligent robot control.

Tedder, Maurice; Hall, Ernest L.

2001-10-01

218

Online detection of fatigue failure via symbolic time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the efficacy of symbolic-time series analysis for online detection of fatigue failure in mechanical structures. The detection algorithm is formulated on the principles of symbolic dynamics and automata theory. The performance of this method is evaluated based on the information extracted from available sensor data for early detection of small anomalies in the observed data sequence. This

Shalabh Gupta; Asok Ray; Eric Keller

2005-01-01

219

Pattern identification in dynamical systems via symbolic time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents symbolic time series analysis (STSA) of multi-dimensional measurement data for pattern identification in dynamical systems. The proposed methodology is built upon concepts derived from Information Theory and Automata Theory. The objective is not merely to classify the time series patterns but also to identify the variations therein. To achieve this goal, a symbol alphabet is constructed from

Venkatesh Rajagopalan; Asok Ray; Rohan Samsi; Jeffrey Mayer

2007-01-01

220

46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast...

2012-10-01

221

The symbolic empire and the history of racial inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historiography is routinely employed to support contemporary accounts of racial inequality. Subjecting Khan's (1991) exploration of the history of East Indians in Canada (1903–47) to critical analysis this article argues that ‘empire’ is used as a narrative and symbolic device. But the symbolic empire is a constrained analytic tool which can only produce a circumscribed account of race and a

Caroline Knowles

1996-01-01

222

Completion and Invariant Theory in Symbolic Computation and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outline for the study of invariant theoretic (as structural) and completion (as syntactical) concepts in symbolic computation and artificial intelligence is presented on a level of abstraction which permits a unifying viewpoint on problems in symbolic computation and artificial intelligence. We refer to applications in computational polynomial ideal theory and in general problem-solving in the sense of AI research.

Eugen E. Ardeleanu

1992-01-01

223

A symbolic approach for text classification based on dissimilarity measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a simple and efficient symbolic text classification is presented. A text document is represented by the use of interval valued symbolic features. Subsequently, a new feature selection method based on a new dissimilarity measure is also presented. The new feature selection method reduces the features in the representation phase for effective text classification. It keeps the best

B. S. Harish; D. S. Guru; S. Manjunath; Bapu B. Kiranagi

2010-01-01

224

The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

Helgeland, John

1985-01-01

225

Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as Medical Symbols Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the

Touraj Nayernouri

226

Symbols, patterns, and behavior: towards a new understanding of intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has two main goals, namely to understand intelligence and to develop systems which behave in intelligent ways. The classical approach views an intelligent agent as a symbol processor: it receives input from the environment, processes the information, i.e. manip- ulates symbols, and produces some output. This way of looking at intelligence has also been called the information

Rolf Pfeifer

1999-01-01

227

Symbolic analysis of attractor geometry for the Lozi map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic dynamics of the Lozi map is described for both positive and negative Jacobians. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic sequences, the geometrical structure of foliations associated with attractors is constructed for some typical cases. The critical parameters between one- and two-piece attractors are also given.

Wei-Mou Zheng; Jun-Xian Liu

1994-01-01

228

Symbolic analysis of attractor geometry for the Lozi map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbolic dynamics of the Lozi map is described for both positive and negative Jacobians. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic sequences, the geometrical structure of foliations associated with attractors is constructed for some typical cases. The critical parameters between one- and two-piece attractors are also given.

Zheng, Wei-Mou; Liu, Jun-Xian

1994-10-01

229

The sri chakra as a symbol of the human body.  

PubMed

Sri Chakra is the celebrated Yantra used in the worship of the primordial energy. The Chakra is conceived as a symbol of the human body. Some salient features of this symbolism are discussed in this article. An attempt has also been made to provide a short introduction to the Bhavanopanishad Prayogavidhi devised by Bhaskararaya, the doyen of Sri charka worshippers. PMID:22556608

Krishnakumar, P R

1993-01-01

230

National symbols, globalization, and the well-being of nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

I estimate the effects of national symbols and globalization on the well-being of 88 countries. I find that conventional determinants of production affect national well-being, measured as human development index (HDI). The effects on HDI of national symbols like national flag colors are unstable, while those of globalization are strong, with social globalization having the strongest effect. The results suggest

Voxi Heinrich Amavilah

2009-01-01

231

Hierarchical approach to exact symbolic analysis of large analog circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel approach to the exact symbolic analysis of very large analog circuits. The new method is based on determinant decision diagrams (DDDs) representing symbolic product terms. But instead of constructing DDD graphs directly from a flat circuit matrix, the new method constructs DDD graphs in a hierarchical way based on hierarchically defined circuit structures. The resulting

Sheldon X.-D. Tan; Weikun Guo; Zhenyu Qi

2005-01-01

232

Hierarchical approach to exact symbolic analysis of large analog circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a novel approach to exact symbolic analysis of very large analog circuits. The new method is based on determinant decision diagrams (DDDs) to represent symbolic product terms. But instead of constructing DDD graphs directly from a flat circuit matrix, the new method constructs DDD graphs in a hierarchical way based on hierarchically defined circuit structures. The resulting

Sheldon X.-D. Tan; Weikun Guo; Zhenyu Qi

2004-01-01

233

Symbolic significance of initials on longevity.  

PubMed

The longevities of deceased major league baseball players who died prior to 1950 (N=3835) and whose initials formed acronyms, words, or names with "positive" or "negative" affect, as rated a priori by two judges, were compared with those for a group of neutral controls matched for birth year and career length, using the Berkeley standardized mortality tables. Players (n=11) with positive initials, e.g., A.C.E., lived a mean of 13 years longer than players (n=30) with negative initials, e.g., D.E.D., or players with neutral initials (n=864). These results corroborated a previous study and suggest positive name symbols are associated with increased longevity in this sample. PMID:17450979

Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

2007-02-01

234

Adults' preferences between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) used in AAC.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine whether significantly different preference exists in typical adults between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) frequently displayed on their AAC. A total of 56 participants participated in the study, including 15 participants in ages 20-35; 14 participants in ages 36-50; 13 participants in ages 51-60; and 14 participants in ages 66-80. Two tasks, an identification task and a preference task, were administered sequentially and individually. The results of this study suggest: (1) typical adults' preference between PCSs and GCSs did not show any significant difference; (2) the effect of age groups of typical adults did not have any significant effect on their preference between PCSs and GCSs. However, except the group of ages 51-65, the other three groups did consciously show their preferences for PCSs. Limitations and clinical implications of the current study have been concluded. PMID:23962601

Tsai, Meng-Ju

2013-08-17

235

Symbolic document image compression based on pattern matching techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel compression algorithm for Chinese document images is proposed. Initially, documents are segmented into readable components such as characters and punctuation marks. Similar patterns within the text are found by shape context matching and grouped to form a set of prototype symbols. Text redundancies can be removed by replacing repeated symbols by their corresponding prototype symbols. To keep the compression visually lossless, we use a multi-stage symbol clustering procedure to group similar symbols and to ensure that there is no visible error in the decompressed image. In the encoding phase, the resulting data streams are encoded by adaptive arithmetic coding. Our results show that the average compression ratio is better than the international standard JBIG2 and the compressed form of a document image is suitable for a content-based keyword searching operation.

Shiah, Chwan-Yi; Yen, Yun-Sheng

2011-10-01

236

A dynamical systems perspective on the relationship between symbolic and non-symbolic computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that connectionist (artificial neural network) models of language processing, which do not appear to employ\\u000a “rules”, are doing something different in kind from classical symbol processing models, which treat “rules” as atoms (e.g.,\\u000a McClelland and Patterson in Trends Cogn Sci 6(11):465–472, 2002). This claim is hard to assess in the absence of careful, formal comparisons between

Whitney Tabor

2009-01-01

237

A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.  

PubMed

We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time. PMID:17848774

LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

2007-11-01

238

A Study of System Design Considerations in Computers for Symbol Manipulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to investigate symbol manipulation, and to determine properties which would aid the design of computers specifically for symbol manipulation. The investigation was confined to two important areas of symbol manipulation: list p...

D. Chai J. DiGiuseppe

1965-01-01

239

Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

240

Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects  

PubMed Central

Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a discourse which stigmatizes the home medicine cabinet for reasons of safety, which in fact questions patients’ ability to use drugs properly. This analysis shows that the various behaviours and discourses relating to the risks of drugs are impregnated with symbolic, ethical and cultural logics. As a consequence, above and beyond works carried out on the question of pharmacovigilance, examining the issue of safe drug use involves studying the human (social and cultural) aspects which govern part of the discourses and practices relating to drug safety.

Fainzang, Sylvie

2010-01-01

241

Fixing the broken system of genetic locus symbols  

PubMed Central

Originally, locus symbols (e.g., DYT1) were introduced to specify chromosomal regions that had been linked to a familial disorder with a yet unknown gene. Symbols were systematically assigned in a numerical series to designate mapped loci for a specific phenotype or group of phenotypes. Since the system of designating and using locus symbols was originally established, both our knowledge and our techniques of gene discovery have evolved substantially. The current system has problems that are sources of confusion, perpetuate misinformation, and misrepresent the system as a useful reference tool for a list of inherited disorders of a particular phenotypic class. These include erroneously assigned loci, duplicated loci, missing symbols, missing loci, unconfirmed loci in a consecutively numbered system, combining causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we describe these problems and their impact, and propose solutions. The system could be significantly improved by creating distinct lists for clinical and research purposes, creating more informative locus symbols, distinguishing disease-causing mutations from risk factors, raising the threshold of evidence prior to assigning a locus symbol, paying strict attention to the predominant phenotype when assigning symbols lists, and having a formal system for reviewing and continually revising the list that includes input from both clinical and genetics experts.

Lohmann, Katja; Lang, Anthony; Klein, Christine

2012-01-01

242

An efficient algorithm for the Riemannian 10j symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10j symbol is a spin network that appears in the partition function for the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity. Elementary methods of calculating the 10j symbol require O(j9) or more operations and O(j2) or more space, where j is the average spin. We present an algorithm that computes the 10j symbol using O(j5) operations and O(j2) space, and a variant that uses O(j6) operations and a constant amount of space. An implementation has been made available on the web.

Christensen, J. Daniel; Egan, Greg

2002-03-01

243

Postponement of death until symbolically meaningful occasions.  

PubMed

This study shows that mortality dips before a symbolically meaningful occasion and peaks just afterward. Mortality among Chinese (n = 1288) dips by 35.1% in the week before the Harvest Moon Festival and peaks by the same amount (34.6%) in the week after. We chose to study mortality among Chinese and a Chinese holiday for two reasons. First, the holiday moves around the calendar, thus allowing separation of the effects of the holiday from fixed, monthly mortality effects. Second, the holiday appeals strongly to one (experimental) group and not to others (which can be used as control groups). In terms of percentage, cerebrovascular diseases displayed the largest dip/peak pattern, followed by diseases of the heart, and then malignant neoplasms. The dip/peak mortality pattern does not appear in various non-Chinese control groups. The statistical significance of the findings was demonstrated with linear and curvilinear regression analysis and with two nonparametric tests. After testing alternative explanations for the findings, we concluded that the dip/peak pattern occurs because death can be briefly postponed until after the occurrence of a significant occasion. PMID:2313872

Phillips, D P; Smith, D G

1990-04-11

244

Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing.  

PubMed

Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. 'Groups' is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org. PMID:24037025

Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A; Karp, Peter D

2013-09-14

245

Boxes: A Symbolic Abstract Domain of Boxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numeric abstract domains are widely used in program analyses. The simplest numeric domains over-approximate disjunction by an imprecise join, typically yielding path-insensitive analyses. This problem is addressed by domain refinements, such as finite powersets, which provide exact disjunction. However, developing correct and efficient disjunctive refinement is challenging. First, there must be an efficient way to represent and manipulate abstract values. The simple approach of using "sets of base abstract values" is often not scalable. Second, while a widening must strike the right balance between precision and the rate of convergence, it is notoriously hard to get correct. In this paper, we present an implementation of the Boxes abstract domain - a refinement of the well-known Box (or Intervals) domain with finite disjunctions. An element of Boxes is a finite union of boxes, i.e., expressible as a propositional formula over upper- and lower-bounds constraints. Our implementation is symbolic, and weds the strengths of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) and Box. The complexity of the operations (meet, join, transfer functions, and widening) is polynomial in the size of the operands. Empirical evaluation indicates that the performance of Boxes is superior to other existing refinements of Box with comparable expressiveness.

Gurfinkel, Arie; Chaki, Sagar

246

Mollusks of Candombl?: symbolic and ritualistic importance  

PubMed Central

Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora.

2012-01-01

247

Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance.  

PubMed

Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523

Léo Neto, Nivaldo A; Voeks, Robert A; Dias, Thelma L P; Alves, Rômulo R N

2012-03-15

248

Understanding neurodynamical systems via Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics.  

PubMed

Neurodynamical systems are characterized by a large number of signal streams, measuring activity of individual neurons, local field potentials, aggregated electrical (EEG) or magnetic potentials (MEG), oxygen use (fMRI) or activity of simulated neurons. Various basis set decomposition techniques are used to analyze such signals, trying to discover components that carry meaningful information, but these techniques tell us little about the global activity of the whole system. A novel technique called Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD) is introduced to help in understanding of the multidimensional dynamical system's behavior. It is based on a fuzzy partitioning of the signal space that defines a non-linear mapping of the system's trajectory to the low-dimensional space of membership function activations. This allows for visualization of the trajectory showing various aspects of observed signals that may be difficult to discover looking at individual components, or to notice otherwise. FSD mapping can be applied to raw signals, transformed signals (for example, ICA components), or to signals defined in the time-frequency domain. To illustrate the method two FSD visualizations are presented: a model system with artificial radial oscillatory sources, and the output layer (50 neurons) of Respiratory Rhythm Generator (RRG) composed of 300 spiking neurons. PMID:20045631

Dobosz, Krzysztof; Duch, W?odzis?aw

2009-12-21

249

Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing  

PubMed Central

Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. ‘Groups’ is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org.

Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M.; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A.; Karp, Peter D.

2013-01-01

250

Asymptotics of 6j and 10j symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the building blocks for state sum models of quantum gravity are given by 6j and 10j symbols. In this work, we study the asymptotics of these symbols by using their expressions as group integrals. We carefully describe the measure involved in terms of invariant variables and develop new technics in order to study their asymptotics. Using these technics, we compute the asymptotics of the various Euclidean and Lorentzian 6j symbols. Finally, we compute the asymptotic expansion of the 10j symbol which is shown to be non-oscillating, in agreement with a recent result of Baez et al. We discuss the physical origin of this behaviour and a way to modify the Barrett-Crane model in order to cure this disease.

Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

2003-04-01

251

Symbolic magnitude modulates perceptual strength in binocular rivalry.  

PubMed

Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of known size increases with their magnitude. Importantly, variations in symbolic magnitude acted like variations in luminance contrast: we found that an increase in numerical magnitude of adding one lead to an equivalent increase in perceptual dominance as a contrast increment of 0.32%. Our results support the claim that magnitude is extracted automatically, since the increase in perceptual dominance came about in the absence of a magnitude-related task. Our findings show that symbolic, acculturated knowledge about magnitude interacts with visual perception and affects perception in a manner similar to lower-level aspects of magnitude such as luminance contrast. PMID:21316649

Paffen, Chris L E; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

2011-02-12

252

One-dimensional three-body problem via symbolic dynamics.  

PubMed

Symbolic dynamics is applied to the one-dimensional three-body problem with equal masses. The sequence of binary collisions along an orbit is expressed as a symbol sequence of two symbols. Based on the time reversibility of the problem and numerical data, inadmissible (i.e., unrealizable) sequences of collisions are systematically found. A graph for the transitions among various regions in the Poincare section is constructed. This graph is used to find an infinite number of periodic sequences, which implies an infinity of periodic orbits other than those accompanying a simple periodic orbit called the Schubart orbit. Finally, under reasonable assumptions on inadmissible sequences, we prove that the set of admissible symbol sequences forms a Cantor set. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779414

Tanikawa, Kiyotaka; Mikkola, Seppo

2000-09-01

253

A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)|

Hiebert, James

1988-01-01

254

47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...services are: Symbol and class of station AXâAeronautical fixed AXOâAeronautical operational fixed DGPâDifferential GPS FAâAeronautical land (unspecified) FAUâAeronautical advisory (unicom) FACâAirport control tower...

2011-10-01

255

47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...services are: Symbol and class of station AXâAeronautical fixed AXOâAeronautical operational fixed DGPâDifferential GPS FAâAeronautical land (unspecified) FAUâAeronautical advisory (unicom) FACâAirport control tower...

2012-10-01

256

The use of art for the study of symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

All symbols function within a complex network of matrices and potential choices which can perhaps be explained up to a point, but not translated into exact equivalences unless a happy accident provides one.\\

E. H. Gombrich

1965-01-01

257

Attachment and symbolic play in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions during free play and doll play. We hypothesized that children with secure attachments will score higher on measures of symbolic play compared to children with insecure attachments, and that children with organized attachments will also score higher on measures of symbolic play compared to children with disorganized attachments. Only the second hypothesis received support, and the reasons for this, as well as the implications of the findings for attachment theory, are discussed. PMID:19421849

Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

2009-05-07

258

Symbols for the General British English Vowel Sounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the critique of Hans G. Hoffmann saying that the new phonetic symbols contained in A. S. Hornby's "Advanced Learner's Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London, 1974) are harder to learn than the older system of transcription. (IFS/WGA)

Lewis, J. Windsor

1975-01-01

259

21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.03 Symbol required; exceptions... (a) Each commercial container of a controlled substance (except for a controlled substance excepted by the Administrator...

2013-04-01

260

OSIRRUS: Oceanic Symbolic Image Representation, Recognition and Understanding Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Symbolic contours representing isotherms are used for shape and feature analysis of infrared oceanic satellite imagery. Techniques for detecting and analyzing oceanic thermal structures are presented. An effective image-processing technique called Image M...

L. A. Atkinson

1990-01-01

261

Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.

O'Dell, Linda Kay

262

Symbolic Play in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between symbolic play and other domains, such as degree of autistic symptomatology, nonverbal cognitive ability,\\u000a receptive language, expressive language, and social development, was investigated. The assessment files of 101 children with\\u000a Autism Spectrum Disorder were studied. Nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive language were both significantly and uniquely\\u000a related to symbolic play, although receptive language was not. Autistic symptomatology

Gillian C. Stanley; M. Mary Konstantareas

2007-01-01

263

An Experimental Comparison of Symbolic and Connectionist Learning Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that many symbolic and connec­ tionist (neural net) learning algorithms are ad­ dressing the same problem of learning from classified examples, very little Is known regarding their comparative strengths and weaknesses. This paper presents the results of experiments compar­ ing the ID3 symbolic learning algorithm with the perceptron and back-propagation connectionist learning algorithms on several large real-world

Raymond J. Mooney; Jude W. Shavlik; Geoffrey G. Towell; Alan Gove

1989-01-01

264

Different approaches of symbolic dynamics to quantify heart rate complexity.  

PubMed

The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series is able to retrieve information about dynamical properties of the underlying system that cannot be gained with standard methods like e.g. spectral analysis. Different approaches for the transformation of the original time series to the symbolic time series have been proposed. Yet the differences between the approaches are unknown. In this study three different transformation methods are investigated: (1) symbolization according to the deviation from the average time series, (2) symbolization according to several equidistant levels between the minimum and maximum of the time series, (3) binary symbolization of the first derivative of the time series. Each method was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RRi and its difference ?RRI of 17 healthy subjects obtained during head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics of each method is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences ('words') of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), words with one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis showed that for method 1 0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle. For method 2 0V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle and method 3 showed changes for 0V% and 1V%. In conclusion, all methods are capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during head-up tilt. All methods show that even the analysis of very short symbolic sequences is capable of tracking changes of the cardiac autonomic regulation during head-up tilt testing. PMID:24110868

Cysarz, Dirk; Porta, Alberto; Montano, Nicola; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Kurths, Jurgen; Wessel, Niels

2013-07-01

265

Rapunzel: the symbolism of the cutting of hair.  

PubMed

I have adduced data to demonstrate that the act of cutting of hair is a symbol. The criterion of proof used is the traditional one in psychoanalysis: the idea carries constant meanings in separate areas of human experience and behavior. Such constant meanings are shown in a folk tale, the mental lives of patients, clinical studies by other authors, and certain practices of other cultures. The cutting of hair symbolizes separation from a mothering object, castration, and reparation. PMID:6155393

Andresen, J J

1980-01-01

266

A Signal-Symbol Approach to Change Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid (signal-symbol) approach for detecting significant changes in imagery uses a signal-based change detection algorithm followed by a symbol-based change interpreter. The change detection algorithm is based on a linear prediction model which uses small patches from a reference image to locally model the corresponding areas in a newly acquired image, and vice versa. Areas that cannot be accurately

B. G. Lee; V. T. Tom; Mark J. Carlotto

1986-01-01

267

Symbol-Based Belief Propagation Decoding of Reed Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a symbol-based belief propagation (BP) algorithm for iterative soft-decision decoding of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes. Complexity reduction is achieved by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based BP algorithm. Parity-check matrix adaptation based on the reliability of the codeword symbols is an essential step to make the BP algorithm effective on high-density parity-check matrices characteristic of RS codes. The matrix

C. Zhong; J. R. Cruz

2009-01-01

268

Cluster Based Symbolic Representation and Feature Selection for Text Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose a new method of representing documents based on clustering of term frequency vectors. For each class\\u000a of documents we propose to create multiple clusters to preserve the intraclass variations. Term frequency vectors of each\\u000a cluster are used to form a symbolic representation by the use of interval valued features. Subsequently we propose a novel\\u000a symbolic

B. S. Harish; D. S. Guru; S. Manjunath; R. Dinesh

2010-01-01

269

The effects of Freudian symbolism on creative story production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore the nature of Freudian symbolism by determining to what extent, if any, the variables of gender, symbol and mode of presentation and\\/or their interactions influenced the writing of a short story by dextral 18 to 22-year-olds as measured by four dependent variables: two objective and two subjective. The objective measures were

Constance Jean Larson

1995-01-01

270

Database Preferences Queries - A Possibilistic Logic Approach with Symbolic Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach to database preferences queries, where preferences are represented in a possibilistic logic\\u000a manner, using symbolic weights. The symbolic weights may be processed without assessing their precise value, which leaves\\u000a the freedom for the user to not specify any priority among the preferences. The user may also enforce a (partial) ordering\\u000a between them, if necessary.

Allel Hadjali; Souhila Kaci; Henri Prade

2008-01-01

271

Symbolic and Structuring Effects of the Internet on Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology has influenced human lives since the beginning of mankind. Sociologists have described the effects that technology\\u000a has on society as structuring or symbolic. We will use the same concepts to investigate the capability of the Internet to\\u000a influence privacy. We analyse the structuring and symbolic effects of technology on privacy and thereby demonstrate some potentials\\u000a of Internet technology and

Albin Zuccato; Simone Fischer-Hübner

272

Inhomogeneous symbols, the Newton polygon, and maximal L p -regularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a maximal regularity result for operators corresponding to rotation invariant symbols (in space) which are inhomogeneous in space and time. Symbols of this type frequently arise in the treatment of half-space models for (free) boundary-value\\u000a problems. The result is obtained by extending the Newton polygon approach to variables living in complex sectors and combining\\u000a it with abstract results

R. Denk; J. Saal; J. Seiler

2008-01-01

273

Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols  

SciTech Connect

Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.

Kwon, Namhee [Department of Mathematics, The University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Sage, Daniel S. [Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

2008-06-15

274

Symbolic expressions within a spatial algebra: unification and impact upon spatial reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial reasoning in symbolic images requires a means for identification of spatial relationships. In earlier work (see E. Jungert and S.-K. Chung, Proc. IFIP TC-2 Working Conf. on Visual Database Systems, Tokyo, Japan, 1989) an algebra based on symbolic projections for manipulation and transformation of symbolic images has been defined. Although that symbolic algebra was quite powerful for manipulation of

Erland Jungert

1989-01-01

275

Comparison of Graphic Symbol Learning in Individuals with Aphasia and Right Hemisphere Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the differences in performance on recognition of graphic symbols across time by individuals with aphasia, individuals with right-hemisphere brain damage, and neurologically normal adults. The subjects, seen individually, learned 40 Blissymbols. The symbols were selected so that the effects of symbol translucency and complexity on the recognition of graphic symbols could be examined. A paired-associate learning paradigm

Rajinder K. Koul; Lyle L. Lloyd

1998-01-01

276

Symbolic Problem Solving: An Important Piece of the Emergent Literacy Puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the representational nature of symbols and the ability to actively internalize and use these symbols is a crucial developmental step in the emergence of reading and writing literacy. Information was obtained from a study briefly summarized in this report which confirmed that children become able to understand and exploit external physical symbols by age three. How symbolic

Mary Benson McMullen; Carol Anderson Darling

1996-01-01

277

The political use of symbols of accord and discord: Northern Ireland and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the saliency of symbols of partisanship and division in deeply divided societies, as against the difficulty of establishing symbols of unity and accord in post?settlement situations. The examples of Northern Ireland and South Africa are used. In both situations, there was a heavy usage of symbols and symbolism during periods of conflict or single group domination. Following

Roger Mac Ginty

2001-01-01

278

Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

Martin, James P.

1991-12-01

279

Semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol is examined from the standpoint of WKB theory for multidimensional, integrable systems to explore the geometrical issues surrounding the Ponzano-Regge formula. The relations among the methods of Roberts and others for deriving the Ponzano-Regge formula are discussed, and a new approach, based on the recoupling of four angular momenta, is presented. A generalization of the Yutsis type of spin network is developed for this purpose. Special attention is devoted to symplectic reduction, the reduced phase space of the 6j-symbol (the 2-sphere of Kapovich and Millson) and the reduction of Poisson bracket expressions for semiclassical amplitudes. General principles for the semiclassical study of arbitrary spin networks are laid down; some of these were used in our recent derivation of the asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j-symbol.

Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Haggard, Hal M.; Hedeman, Austin; Jeevanjee, Nadir; Littlejohn, Robert G.; Yu, Liang

2012-02-01

280

A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling.  

PubMed

Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520

Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

2010-10-01

281

A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling  

PubMed Central

Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior.

Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

2009-01-01

282

Word-addressable holographic memory using symbolic substitution and SLRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heteroassociative memory is proposed that allows a key word in a dictionary of key words to be used to recall an associated holographic image in a database of images. Symbolic substitution search finds the word sought in a dictionary of key words and generates a beam that selects the corresponding holographic image from a directory of images. In this case, symbolic substitution is used to orthogonalize the key words. Spatial light rebroadcasters are proposed for the key word database. Experimental results demonstrate that symbolic substitution will enable a holographic image to be selected and reconstructed. In the case considered, a holographic image having over 40,000-bits is selected out of eight by using a key word from a dictionary of eight words.

McAulay, Alastair D.; Wang, Junqing

1990-12-01

283

Symbolic flux analysis for genome-scale metabolic networks  

PubMed Central

Background With the advent of genomic technology, the size of metabolic networks that are subject to analysis is growing. A common task when analyzing metabolic networks is to find all possible steady state regimes. There are several technical issues that have to be addressed when analyzing large metabolic networks including accumulation of numerical errors and presentation of the solution to the researcher. One way to resolve those technical issues is to analyze the network using symbolic methods. The aim of this paper is to develop a routine that symbolically finds the steady state solutions of large metabolic networks. Results A symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination routine was developed for analyzing large metabolic networks. This routine was tested by finding the steady state solutions for a number of curated stoichiometric matrices with the largest having about 4000 reactions. The routine was able to find the solution with a computational time similar to the time used by a numerical singular value decomposition routine. As an advantage of symbolic solution, a set of independent fluxes can be suggested by the researcher leading to the formation of a desired flux basis describing the steady state solution of the network. These independent fluxes can be constrained using experimental data. We demonstrate the application of constraints by calculating a flux distribution for the central metabolic and amino acid biosynthesis pathways of yeast. Conclusions We were able to find symbolic solutions for the steady state flux distribution of large metabolic networks. The ability to choose a flux basis was found to be useful in the constraint process and provides a strong argument for using symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination in place of singular value decomposition.

2011-01-01

284

New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.

Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.

2012-01-01

285

Whole Symbol Moments SNR Estimator (WSME) Analysis and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive data rate (ADR) functionality was added to the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Electra software-defined radio (SDR) via software and firmware uploads to its modem in October 2011. An integral part of ADR is the symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation algorithm. The Whole Symbol Moments SNR Estimator (WSME) algorithm has been developed for ADR control and was included in the October 2011 upload. It is the subject of this article. The WSME architecture is described and performance results are presented via analysis, simulation, and data from an inflight MRO test on March 5, 2012.

Kuperman, I.; Satorius, E.

2012-08-01

286

Differential Operators of Infinite Order with Symbols of Gevrey Class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential operators of infinite order with symbols that are infinitely differentiable functions (of Gevrey class) in some domain in \\mathbb R^n are considered. With the help of such operators a generalized Fourier transform of infinitely differentiable functions is constructed. For these operators a criterion for the of solvability of the Cauchy problem in some subclasses of exponential functions is proved.The results are similar to those of Dubinski? [1] for differential operators of infinite order with symbols analytic in some Runge domain in \\mathbb C^n.

Odinokov, O. V.

1992-04-01

287

Finiteness of Lorentzian 10j symbols and partition functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a short and simple proof that the Lorentzian 10j symbol, which forms a key part of the Barrett Crane model of Lorentzian quantum gravity, is finite. The argument is very general, and applies to other integrals. For example, we show that the Lorentzian and Riemannian causal 10j symbols are finite, despite their singularities. Moreover, we show that integrals that arise in Cherrington's work are finite. Cherrington has shown that this implies that the Lorentzian partition function for a single triangulation is finite, even for degenerate triangulations. Finally, we also show how to use these methods to prove finiteness of integrals based on other graphs and other homogeneous domains.

Christensen, J. Daniel

2006-03-01

288

Multiplexing symbolic dynamics-based chaos communications using synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel form of multiplexing information-bearing chaotic waveforms is demonstrated experimentally. This scheme dramatically increases the information carrying capacity of a chaotic communication system. In the transmitter, information is encoded in the chaotic waveforms of two electronic circuits using small perturbations to induce the symbolic dynamics to follow a prescribed symbol sequence. Waveforms from each of the drive oscillators are summed to form a single scalar signal that is transmitted to the receiver. Identical oscillators in the receiver synchronize to their counterparts in the drive system, effectively de-multiplexing the transmitted signal. The transmitted information in each channel is extracted from simple return maps of the receiver oscillators.

Blakely, Jonathan N.; Corron, Ned J.

2005-01-01

289

Inhomogeneous symbols, the Newton polygon, and maximal L p -regularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove a maximal regularity result for operators corresponding to rotation invariant symbols (in space) which are inhomogeneous in space and time. Symbols of this type frequently arise in the treatment of half-space models for (free) boundary-value problems. The result is obtained by extending the Newton polygon approach to variables living in complex sectors and combining it with abstract results on the mathcal{H}^infty -calculus and mathcal{R} -bounded operator families. As an application, we derive maximal regularity for the linearized Stefan problem with Gibbs-Thomson correction.

Denk, R.; Saal, J.; Seiler, J.

2008-06-01

290

A geometric consistency theorem for a symbolic perturbation scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, we introduced a generic solution to the problem of data degeneracy in geometric algorithms. The scheme is simple to use: algorithms qualifying under our requirements just have to use a prescribed blackbox for polynomial evaluation in order to achieve a symbolic perturbation of data. In this paper, we introduce the concept of an infinitesimal perturbation and

Chee-Keng Yap

1988-01-01

291

Aphasia in an artist: A disorder of symbolic processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of a prominent Polish painter who suffered from a left brain stroke resulting in hemiparesis and aphasia. His drawing abilities were preserved on the performance level but he was not able to create the highly symbolic pictures he used to paint before the stroke. A neuropsychological examination, using Luria's approach, revealed a kinetic aphasia with

B. L. J. Kaczmarek

1991-01-01

292

Foundations of Representation: Where Might Graphical Symbol Systems Come from?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been suggested that iconic graphical signs evolve into symbolic graphical signs through repeated usage. This article reports a series of interactive graphical communication experiments using a "pictionary" task to establish the conditions under which the evolution might occur. Experiment 1 rules out a simple repetition based account in…

Garrod, Simon; Fay, Nicolas; Lee, John; Oberlander, Jon; MacLeod, Tracy

2007-01-01

293

Improvement of Tactual Symbols for Blind Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the project was to gain information with which to improve the quality of tactual maps for the blind. Empirical studies of the pair-comparison type were conducted, using blind students as subjects, to determine discriminable sets of areal, linear, and point symbols made in plastic and to identify discriminable sets of linear and…

Nolan, Carson Y.; Morris, June E.

294

Energy Eigenvalue Level Motion and a SymbolicC++ Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Hamilton operator ? {H}(? )=? {H}0 +? ? {V}. We assume that ?(?) has a discrete spectrum. We show that the energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors obey an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. An implementation of this system of differential equations is given using SymbolicC++.

Steeb, Willi-Hans; Hardy, Yorick

295

Frame synchronization methods based on channel symbol measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current DSN frame synchronization procedure is based on monitoring the decoded bit stream for the appearance of a sync marker sequence that is transmitted once every data frame. The possibility of obtaining frame synchronization by processing the raw received channel symbols rather than the decoded bits is explored. Performance results are derived for three channel symbol sync methods, and these are compared with results for decoded bit sync methods reported elsewhere. It is shown that each class of methods has advantages or disadvantages under different assumptions on the frame length, the global acquisition strategy, and the desired measure of acquisition timeliness. It is shown that the sync statistics based on decoded bits are superior to the statistics based on channel symbols, if the desired operating region utilizes a probability of miss many orders of magnitude higher than the probability of false alarm. This operating point is applicable for very large frame lengths and minimal frame-to-frame verification strategy. On the other hand, the statistics based on channel symbols are superior if the desired operating point has a miss probability only a few orders of magnitude greater than the false alarm probability. This happens for small frames or when frame-to-frame verifications are required.

Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.

1989-08-01

296

Symbols and the bifurcation between procedural and conceptual thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbols occupy a pivotal position between processes to be carried out and concepts to be thought about. They allow us both to d o mathematical problems and to think about mathematical relationships. In this presentation we consider the discontinuities that occur in the learning path taken by different students, leading to a divergence between conceptual and procedural thinking. Evidence will

David Tall; Eddie Gray; Maselan Bin Ali; Lillie Crowley; Phil Demarois; Mercedes McGowen; Demetra Pitta; Marcia Pinto; Michael Thomas; Yudariah Yusof

2001-01-01

297

A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from exampleshave worked best in domains in which all features had numericvalues. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points anddistance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains,a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. Weintroduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning in domains withsymbolic features. Our

Steven Salzberg

1993-01-01

298

Phonetic Symbols: A Necessary Stepping Stone for ESL Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why English pronunciation and intonation have been neglected in Hong Kong English-as-a-Second-Language lessons, why it is essential to teach English phonetic symbols, and what remedial measures should be taken to implement this neglected component of teaching ESL. (Author/VWL)

Lu, Dan

2002-01-01

299

Using Behavior Activation Value Histories for Updating Symbolic Facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new technique for extracting symbolic ground facts out of the sensor data stream in autonomous robots for use under hybrid control architectures. The sen- sor data are used in the form of time series curves of behavior activation values, yielding an image of the environment as perceived through the eyes of useful behaviors. Similar progressions in

Frank Sch; Mihaela Cistelecan; Joachim Hertzberg; Thomas Christaller

300

Relations between language and symbolic gesture development in early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language development is thought to be associated with other domains of mental activity that require representational capacity, like symbolic gesture. Study 1 explores associations between multiple measures of language and gesture across the third and fourth years of life. Results indicate stability in language, partial stability in gesture, and concurrent and longitudinal associations between language and gesture. Study 2 further

Kathleen M. Painter; Marc H. Bornstein

1997-01-01

301

Impact of Symbolic Gesturing on Early Language Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect on verbal language development of purposefully encouraging hearing infants to use simple gestures as symbols for objects, requests, and conditions. To this end, 103, 11-month-old infants were divided into three groups, all of whom were seen in the laboratory for a variety of assessments, including standardized language tests at

Susan W. Goodwyn; Linda P. Acredolo; Catherine A. Brown

2000-01-01

302

SYMBOLS, STIMULUS EQUIVALENCE AND THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in the origins of language, within the strongly cognitive field of Evolutionary Psychology, has predominantly focused upon the origins of syntax (cf. Hurford, Knight, & Studdert-Kennedy, 1998). However, Ullin Place's (2000a) theory of the gestural origins of language also addresses the more fundamental issue of the antecedents of symbols, and does so from a behaviorist perspective, stressing the

Thomas E. Dickins; David W. Dickins

2001-01-01

303

Symbol tales: Paths towards the creation of a saint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In “Symbol Tales: Paths Towards the Creation of a Saint”, I discuss Catholic Pueblo women's devotion to Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha, a seventeenth century Mohawk convert turned folk saint. Between 1996 and 1998, I conducted extensive ethnographic fieldwork in the Pueblos of New Mexico, including Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Acoma, and San Juan, as well as in Mescalero, on the Navajo Nation,

Paula Elizabeth Holmes

2000-01-01

304

Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…

Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

2011-01-01

305

Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

2008-01-01

306

A Revisited Perspective on Symbolic Mathematical Computing and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a perspective on the current state and possible future of links between symbolic mathematical computing and artificial intelligence, on the occasion of the 10th biennial conference (AISMC, later AISC) devoted to those connections. It follows a similar perspective expressed for the first such conference in 1992 and then revised and expanded 5 years later. Issues related to the

Jacques Calmet; John A. Campbell

2010-01-01

307

A Prime Sensitive Hankel Determinant of Jacobi Symbol Enumerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the determinant of a Hankel matrix of odd dimension n whose entries are the enumerators of the Jacobi symbols which depend on the row and the column indices vanishes if and only\\u000a if n is composite. If the dimension is a prime p, then the determinant evaluates to a polynomial of degree p ? 1 which is

Ömer E?ecio?lu

2010-01-01

308

Symbolic Functioning and Language Development in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Understanding the relationship between preverbal skills and language development has important implications for identifying communication delay/disorders and for early childhood intervention. In the case of children with Down syndrome, it is well established that symbolic play is associated with the emergence of language. However, the…

O'toole, Ciara; Chiat, Shula

2006-01-01

309

Efficient Symbolic State-Space Construction for Asynchronous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many techniques for the verication of reactive systems rely on the analysis of their reachable state spaces. In this paper, a new al- gorithm for the symbolic generation of the state spaces of asynchronous system models, such as Petri nets, is developed. The algorithm is based on previous work that employs Multi-valued Decision Diagrams for e- ciently storing sets of

Gianfranco Ciardo; Gerald Lüttgen; Radu Siminiceanu

2000-01-01

310

Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

2008-01-01

311

Transforming Ourselves/Transforming Curriculum: Spiritual Education and Tarot Symbolism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual "lessons" derived from collective human experiences across…

Semetsky, Inna

2009-01-01

312

50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...black, and the background is white. For using inks to create the...259U. Letters and black and white colors shall follow the...are black and background is white. The same reference under...the Northeast to make signs taller than wider. Symbol or...

2009-10-01

313

Symbolic Reachability Computation for Families of Linear Vector Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we present the first known families oflinear di#erential equations with a decidable reachability problem. This is achieved byposing the reachability computation as a quantifier elimination problem in the decidabletheory of the reals. We illustrate the applicability of our approach by performing computationsusing the packages Redlog and Qepcad. Such symbolic computations can beincorporated in computer-aided verification tools for purely

Gerardo Lafferriere; George J. Pappas; Sergio Yovine

2001-01-01

314

Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

2008-01-01

315

Properties of Eisenstein series formed with modular symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a new kind of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series, first introduced by Goldfeld, is studied. For an arbitrary Fuchsian group of the first kind we fix a holomorphic cusp form and consider Eisenstein series constructed with the modular symbol associated with this cusp form. We develop the theory analogously with that of the usual Eisenstein series starting with its

Cormac O'Sullivan

2000-01-01

316

Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

Anderson, John R.

2005-01-01

317

A symbolic approach for content-based information filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommender systems seek to furnish personalized suggestions automatically based on user preferences. These systems use information filtering techniques to recommend new items by comparing them with a user profile. This paper presents an approach through which each user profile is modelled using a set of modal symbolic descriptions that summarize the information taken from a set of items the user

Byron L. D. Bezerra; Francisco De A. T. De Carvalho

2004-01-01

318

The Social Fabric and Innovation Diffusion: Symbolic Adoption of Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a longitudinal, panel design to examine the effects of negative information acquisition, compliance with opinion leader endorsements, and social demographic characteristics on consumers' symbolic adoption of food irradiation. Data collection coincided with the first market test of irradiated food conducted by a commercial firm,…

Sapp, Stephen G.; Korsching, Peter F.

2004-01-01

319

A Conjunctively Decomposed Boolean Representation for Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A canonical boolean representation is proposed, which decomposes a function into the conjunction of a sequence of components, based on a fixed variable order. The components can be represented in OBDD form. Algorithms for boolean operations and quantification are presented allowing the representation to be used for symbolic model checking. The decomposed form has a number of useful properties that

Kenneth L. Mcmillan; Cadence Berkeley Labs

1996-01-01

320

Academic Visual Identity (AVI): an act of symbolic leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI development, evaluation, management, and change are essential components

Trent Masiki

2011-01-01

321

Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…

Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

322

The dead end of symbolic AI and the connectionist approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows, using as well philosophical as logical arguments, the deficiency of the belief, that universal intelligence could be based on the 'physical symbol systems hypothesis'1 as it was stated by Newell & Simon. In spite of the (sometimes outstanding) results of orthodox AI, it seems that AI finds it self in a dead end, which is based on

Markus F. Peschl

1989-01-01

323

Sport, Gender and Ethnicity: Practises of Symbolic Inclusion/exclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper symbolic inclusion/exclusion processes in sport with respect to gender and ethnicity among adolescents (n = 1025) are analyzed from a social-critical perspective. It was found that sport participation preferences of young people are still influenced by dominant normative gendered and racial/ethnic images. Sport can serve not only as…

Elling, Agnes; Knoppers, Annelies

2005-01-01

324

Acculturation: the symbolism of ethnic eating among contemporary British consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades there has been a dynamic growth in consumption of ethnic foods both in and outside home in the UK. Explores symbolic meanings associated with ethnic food consumption by native British consumers in the light of this growth. At a very broad level, an acculturation framework is applied to describe this cultural transformation of tastes from

Ahmad Jamal

1996-01-01

325

Animal Symbols in the Art of the Hodensaunee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of the main animal symbols incorporated into the social, cultural, artistic, and spiritual fabric of the Hodenosaunee (the People of the Longhouse) also known as the Six Nations Iroquois: the eagle, turtle, bear, wolf, hawk, heron, snipe, eel, deer, beaver, moose, snake, and serpent. (NEC)

Hill, Richard

1987-01-01

326

A symbolic-interconnect router for custom IC design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The router described in this paper is part of a complete CAD system which aims at hierarchical designs of customized VLSI MOS circuits. It routes global signals as symbolic interconnect and is guaranteed to complete all routing in one pass. The router is fully automatic as well as highly interactive. It employs the novel idea of bouyancy and produces wires

Charles H. Ng

1984-01-01

327

Verification of Synchronous Sequential Machines Based on Symbolic Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an original method to compare two synchronous sequential machines. The method consists in a breadth first traversal of the product machine during which symbolic expressions of its observable behaviour are computed. The method uses formal manipulations on boolean functions to avoid the state enumeration and diagram construction. For this purpose, new algorithms on boolean functions represented by

Olivier Coudert; Christian Berthet; Jean Christophe Madre

1989-01-01

328

Efficient application of symbolic tools for resource booking problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how symbolic model checking tools, like binary decision diagrams (BDDs), may be used to analyze and synthesize supervisors for discrete event systems. As an application, a general routing resource booking problem is considered. A specification language is presented which makes it easy to handle both multiple and alternative resource booking problems. The language is directly translated to

A. Vahidi; B. Lennartson; D. Arkeryd; M. Fabian

2001-01-01

329

On the Use of Symbolic Computation in Undergraduate Microeconomics Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analysis and instruction, at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, continue to employ more and more sophisticated mathematical methods, yet the technology typically used by students to solve economics problems ana - lytically has not ad vanced much beyond pencil and paper. In the last decade or so, powerful software programs, generally called symbolic processors or com - puter

David W. Boyd

1998-01-01

330

Computational Templates, Neural Network Dynamics, and Symbolic Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the relationship between subsymbolic neural networks and symbolic logical systems from a philosophy of science perspective. More specifically, the point of view is that of Paul Humphreys' philosophical account of the organization of scientific knowledge (Humphreys, Paul. Extending Ourselves - Computational Science, Empiricism and the Scientific Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.) Humphreys considers the units

Otto Lappi

2007-01-01

331

Mathematics and Symbolic Logics: Some Notes on an Uneasy Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic logics tend to be too mathematical for the philosophers and too philosophical for the mathematicians; and their history is too historical for most mathematicians, philosophers and logicians. This paper reflects upon these professional demarcations as they have developed during the century.

I. Grattan-Guinness

1999-01-01

332

Creating Brand Names With Meaning: The Use of Sound Symbolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The staggering level and rate of growth of brands being introduced to the marketplace suggests a heightened need to understand how to create effective new brand names. Limited academic research, however, has been conducted in this area. This paper investigates the use of linguistics, specifically sound symbolism, in order to create brand names with inherent meaning. Results of two studies

Richard R. Klink; A. Sellinger

2000-01-01

333

Symbolic Loss in American Adolescents: Mourning in Teenage Cinema.  

PubMed

I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre. PMID:22843337

Kramp, Joseph M

2012-07-28

334

Symbolic analysis of linear networks using parameter extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the physical meaning of a closed system which is the basis for Lin's symbolic network functions for analyzing linear networks. Interpreting the closed system as a virtual oscillator, the paper extends Lin's method to the analysis of networks using a 2-port augmented closed system. With this extended method it is possible to obtain input-output impedances, forward transfer

M. Sagawa; H. Kitazawa

1977-01-01

335

Nonlinear Dynamics and Symbolic Dynamics of Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A piecewise linear equation is proposed as a method of analysis of mathematical models of neural networks. A symbolic representation of the dynamics in this equation is given as a directed graph on an N-dimensional hypercube. This provides a formal link with discrete neural networks such as the original Hopfield models. Analytic criteria are given to establish steady states and

John E. Lewis; Leon Glass

1992-01-01

336

The Symbolic Math Guide and the Laws of Exponents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of an application for TI-83 and TI-92 calculators called the Symbolic Math Guide (SMG) for teaching and learning the laws of exponents in algebra. Discusses ways in which the SMG can be used for teaching, review, and testing. (MM)|

Child, Doug

2001-01-01

337

The Magic of Harry Potter: Symbols and Heroes of Fantasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the worldwide, multiage appeal of Harry Potter may lie in the way these stories of magic meet the needs of readers to find meaning in today's unmagical contexts. The imaginative appeal and symbolic efficacy of the books for children are examined in terms of Bruno Bettelheim's The Uses of Enchantment. The development of Harry Potter as

Sharon Black

2003-01-01

338

The Importance of Being Neural-Symbolic - A Wilde Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that Neural-Symbolic Integration is a topic of central importance for the advancement of Artificial General Intelligence. What We Want Artificial General Intelligence - the quest for artifi- cially created entities with human-like abilities - has been pursued by humanity since the invention of ma- chines. It has also been a driving force in establishing artificial intelligence (AI) as

Pascal Hitzler; Kai-Uwe Kuhnberger

339

A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from examples have worked best in domains in which all features had numeric values. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points and distance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains, a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. We introduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning

Steven Salzberg

1993-01-01

340

The Puer and the Symbolism of the Sword  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I examine the symbolism of the sword from the perspective of the knights of the romantic period, in particular, the depictions in Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. My contention is that such figures provide an extremely detailed and enlightening depiction of the male puer, the eternal male child figure who has problems relating to the world in very

Philip L. Kime

2010-01-01

341

Enduring symbols of dentistry: international metaphors of dental science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dentists' contributions to science and society extend beyond the practice of clinical dentistry and preventive oral health. Such service encompasses contributions to biology specifically and more generally to societal good works for which dentists are particularly esteemed. The profession of dentistry promotes the history and heritage of its craft and those who practise it. Enduring symbols of dentistry take many

J. Pearn

2008-01-01

342

Symbolic Functioning and Language Development in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding the relationship between preverbal skills and language development has important implications for identifying communication delay/disorders and for early childhood intervention. In the case of children with Down syndrome, it is well established that symbolic play is associated with the emergence of language. However, the…

O'toole, Ciara; Chiat, Shula

2006-01-01

343

Applying Statistical English Language Modeling to Symbolic Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PANGLOSS Mark III system (Frederking et al. 94) was from the outset de- signed to be a symbolic, human-aided machine translation (MT) system. The need arose to rapidly adapt it for use as a fully-automated MT system. Our solution to this problem was to add a statistical English language model (ELM) to replace the most significant user activity, selecting

Ralf Brown; Robert Frederking

1995-01-01

344

Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

Anderson, John R.

2005-01-01

345

Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

2003-01-01

346

The symbolism of the eye in Mesopotamia and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores eye symbolism within the context of the art forms of the Ancient Near East, including pottery, sculpture, idols of amulets, seals, cuneiform texts and the literature of the Old Testament. The central concern in this study is to bring together under one cover the iconography of the eye and its meaning from the cultures of Mesopotamia and

Helen L. Seawright

1988-01-01

347

Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The…

Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale

2010-01-01

348

Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…

Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

2011-01-01

349

Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…

Masiki, Trent

2011-01-01

350

Outdoor Recreation Behavior as Viewed from a Symbolic Interactionism Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyzes past studies of outdoor recreational behavior from the point of view of symbolic interactionism. This perspective focuses directly on the manner in which individuals interpret the words and behavior of others, as well as their own physical environment. The first part of the analysis examines some recent definitions of…

Colton, Craig W.; Morrione, Thomas J.

351

Moral medicine: Symbolic content in 19th century Shaker therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the symbolic meanings implicit in an ostensibly empirical therapeutic system. The Shakers, a celibate communal religious order founded in New York State in the mid 1770s, were practitioners of botanic medicine, as were many other Americans in the nineteenth century. This study analyzes the therapeutic properties of the herbs they produced (such as diuretic,

Ellen L. Idler

1989-01-01

352

Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this…

Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.

2011-01-01

353

Symbol-and-Arrow Diagrams in Teaching Pharmacokinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Symbol-and-arrow diagrams are helpful adjuncts to equations derived from pharmacokinetic models. Both show relationships among dependent and independent variables. Diagrams show only qualitative relationships, but clearly show which variables are dependent and which are independent, helping students understand complex but important functional…

Hayton, William L.

1990-01-01

354

AUTOMATIC ACQUISITION OF GL RESOURCES, USING AN EXPLANATORY, SYMBOLIC TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a symbolic machine learning method that automatically infers, from descriptions of noun-verb pairs found in a corpus in which the verb plays (or not) one of the qualia roles of the noun, corpus-specific morpho- syntactic and semantic patterns that convey qualia relations. The patterns are explanatory and linguistically motivated, and can be applied to a corpus to

Vincent Claveau; Pascale Sébillot

355

Rona's Story and the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a method for teaching the theory of symbolic interactionism in a high-school course--Introduction to Sociology. The role-playing game used as a method for teaching the theory is grounded on a philosophy of education whose principles call for meaningful and relevant learning, based on experiential activity and investigation…

Naveh, Nissan

2010-01-01

356

The rod and the serpent: history's ultimate healing symbol.  

PubMed

The snake has served as a medical emblem for more than 2400 years, since its association with the ancient Greek god of medicine and healing, Asclepius, in the 4th century BC. Its symbolic background can be traced further back to the worship of gods of earth's blossom in ancient Egypt and earth-related deities of the archaic period of Greek antiquity. It is featured entwined around a staff of knowledge and wisdom in most anaglyphs depicting Asclepius. The snake was impressed in the Old and the New Testament as well as in the Christian tradition as a symbol of sin, rejuvenation, death, resurrection, asthenia, and therapy. It is postulated that the double-snake motif was reintroduced by Renaissance philosophers as a medical emblem due to the symbolic connections of Hermes with deliverance and redemption. However, its use during the last two centuries seems to lack substantial historical background. The historical, mythological, and traditional retrospection of the snake's symbolism validates its appropriateness in the health-care field. PMID:20556606

Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Learney, Robert; Granderath, Frank A; Antoniou, Athanasios I

2011-01-01

357

Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…

Moriarty, M. Wyn

2009-01-01

358

Structural Elements of Symbolic Play of Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The structural elements of the spontaneous symbolic play of 2- and 3-year-olds were compared with those of 4- and 5-year-olds. All 32 children studied were enrolled in a private day care center. Each child was observed during free play in the center for 15 minutes. Three categories of signifiers (animate, inanimate and imaginary) and five modes…

Gowen, Jean W.

359

Promoting injury or freedom: radical pluralism and orthodox Jewish symbolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an interrogation of radical pluralism as an analytical and normative framework through the prism of the eruv. The eruv is a symbolic perimeter structure which, by privatizing public space, enables orthodox Jews to carry on the Sabbath beyond their homes. The article focuses on the controversial, highly contested attempt to establish an eruv in North London in

Davina Cooper

2000-01-01

360

Challenges of Symbolic Computation: My Favorite Open Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the symbolic mathematical computation discipline is striking. The theoretical advances have been continuous and significant: Gröbner bases, the Risch integration algorithm, integer lattice basis reduction, hypergeometric summation algorithms, etc. From the beginning in the early 1960s, it has been the tradition of our discipline to create software that makes our ideas readily available to scientists, engineers, and

Erich Kaltofen

2000-01-01

361

Fitness-guided path exploration in dynamic symbolic execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic symbolic execution is a structural testing tech- nique that systematically explores feasible paths of the pro- gram under test by running the program with different test inputs to improve code coverage. To address the space- explosion issue in path exploration, we propose a novel approach called Fitnex, a search strategy that uses state- dependent fitness values (computed through a

Tao Xie; Nikolai Tillmann; Jonathan de Halleux; Wolfram Schulte

2009-01-01

362

Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration  

SciTech Connect

New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

Sathasivam, Saratha [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

2010-12-23

363

A Symbolic Model of the Nonconscious Acquisition of Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges Smolensky's theory that human intuitive/nonconscious cognitive processes can only be accurately explained in terms of subsymbolic computations in artificial neural networks. Symbolic learning models of two cognitive tasks involving nonconscious acquisition of information are presented: learning production rules and artificial finite…

Ling, Charles X.; Marinov, Marin

1994-01-01

364

The effects of age on symbol comprehension in central rail hubs in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age and symbol design features on passengers' comprehension of symbols and the performance of these symbols with regard to route guidance. In the first experiment, 30 young participants and 30 elderly participants interpreted the meanings and rated the features of 39 symbols. Researchers collected data on each subject's comprehension time, comprehension score, and feature ratings for each symbol. In the second experiment, this study used a series of photos to simulate scenarios in which passengers follow symbols to arrive at their destinations. The length of time each participant required to follow his/her route and his/her errors were recorded. Older adults experienced greater difficulty in understanding particular symbols as compared to younger adults. Familiarity was the feature most highly correlated with comprehension of symbols and accuracy of semantic depiction was the best predictor of behavior in following routes. PMID:22424647

Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin-Heng

2012-03-15

365

Basic Numerical Skills in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Symbolic vs Non-Symbolic Number Magnitude Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing…

Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

2007-01-01

366

Lightning Safety  

MedlinePLUS

Lightning Safety: When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors! What's New? September 2013 Lightning Safety Blog What You Need to Know: Tips for Safety NWS Lightning Safety Awareness Message 2013 Lightning Deaths in 2013 ...

367

The Schoolyard as a Stage: Missing Cultural Clues in Symbolic Fighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how social conflict was enacted at one racially diverse, urban middle school. Discusses symbolic fighting, the use of body language, the location of symbolic fighting, and symbolic fighting as a source of transformation, proposing to redefine the socializing role of social conflict in the lives of students and adults in schools.…

Arriaza, Gilberto

2003-01-01

368

SAPEC-a personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of electric circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of lumped, linear, time-invariant networks is presented. The program, written in Microsoft Lisp, utilizes methods of symbolic manipulation of algebraic expressions. The proposed approach is based on modified nodal analysis and an algorithm developed by the authors for the completely symbolic solution of the related linear systems. A useful property of the

A. Liberatore; S. Manetti

1988-01-01

369

16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited...IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.9 Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited...symbols which connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or...

2013-01-01

370

Symbol Creator: Usability Evaluation of the Novel Pen-Based Text Input Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was a usability study of Symbol Creator, a pen-based text input technique. Symbol Creator (SC) is a new technique, which aims at faster and more intuitively usable text entry. It is based on assembling characters using symbols that resemble basic elements of Latin cursive. Since keyboards are getting smaller and smaller, and the number of

Melinda Luoma

2003-01-01

371

A novel speech-like symbol design for data transmission through GSM voice channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new approach to design speech-like (SL) symbols in order to transmit digital data through global system for mobile communications (GSM) voice channel. Using these symbols leads to design a GSM voice channel data modem to modulate and demodulate data on enhanced full rate voice codec. Designing a set of time-symbols is an offline procedure with the

Ali Shahbazi; Amir Hossein Rezaie; Abolghasem Sayadiyan; Saeed Mosayyebpour

2009-01-01

372

Session 17 Psychology and Artificial Intelligence THE SYMBOLIC NATURE OF VISUAL IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue is whether human visual imagery can be represented by symbolic structures and processes. Protocols of the task of imagining a path in space were analyzed using a production system interpreter. A detailed simulation of the subject's behavior within the confines of a symbolic short-term memory (STM) demonstrates that symbol structures are sufficient to explain imaging behavior. The experience

Thomas P. Moran

373

The use of symbolic interaction in the management of Alzheimer's disease: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following review of literature highlights a common theme in social gerontology today Symbolic Interaction. The symbolic interaction theory emphasizes the dynamic interaction present between people and their social worlds. It is the purpose of this paper to establish that symbolic interaction is a consistent dimension present in the multidisciplinary practices addressing the management of the person with Alzheimer's disease.

Roxanna H. Moore

1991-01-01

374

There’s no glamour in glue: News and the symbolic framing of substance misuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symbolism of substance misuse is a familiar theme. However, relatively little attention has been paid specifically to the nature of the symbolic frameworks through which substance misuse is represented and even less attention to the part played by the news media in the reproduction of these symbolic frameworks. This article takes volatile substance abuse (VSA) and ecstasy as examples

Paul Manning

2006-01-01

375

Symbolism and Economic Development Work: Perceptions of Urban Economic Development Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elaborate themes suggested by Edelman's model of symbolic politics, data from a national survey of economic development practitioners are examined. In response to the uncertainty of municipal economic development efforts, economic development practitioners claim they undertake formalistic activities and indicate that city leaders encourage symbolic economic development projects. Concerns with formalism and symbolism are most prevalent among those economic

Herbert J. Rubin

1989-01-01

376

Persuasion, Symbols, and Alfajores: A Qualitative Study of Unique Advertising Approaches in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of how symbols are used in Argentine advertising and how Argentines interpret these symbols. Expanding on past research, the researcher took a deeper look at how identification is achieved with the use of symbols. The researcher investigated a particularly popular brand of dessert products called Havanna alfajores. Because of the immense

Gina Lessard

2009-01-01

377

Comprehension and memory for warning symbols: Age-related differences and impact of training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Prior research indicates that many warning symbols are poorly understood, particularly by the elderly. Method: The effectiveness of three different training conditions to improve comprehension and memory for warning symbols was assessed for younger (18–35 years of age) and older (50–67 years of age) participants. All three conditions paired the symbols with associated text during training; however they differed

Mary F. Lesch

2003-01-01

378

Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of…

Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

2006-01-01

379

Knowledge representation for a neuro-symbolic network in home care risk identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk identification in home care is a key issue in ambient assisted living today. This paper introduces a bionic approach to risk identification in home care based on simple, inexpensive and diverse sensors. Neuro-symbolic perception combines characteristics of neural and symbolic information processing. We represent knowledge relevant for home care as an ontology and apply this knowledge in a neuro-symbolic

Nauman Qadeer; Rosemarie Velik; Gerhard Zucker; Harold Boley

2009-01-01

380

The Path to Symbolism. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language involves the use of symbols in the form of words or signs that allow people to communicate their thoughts, ideas, and needs. Even without formal language, many children who are deaf-blind learn to communicate with gestures and object or picture symbols. Symbolic expression makes it possible to express thoughts and feelings about the…

Malloy, Peggy

2008-01-01

381

Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language: Toward a dynamic psycholinguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed

Joanna R?czaszek-Leonardi; J. A. Scott Kelso

2008-01-01

382

Symbols as a Means of Delivering the Theme in Nabokov's Lolita  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the symbols in Nabokov's Lolita. There are two main points that this paper tries to answer: 1) What the symbols used in the novel are, and 2) how the symbols help to deliver the theme of the novel. Throughout the 20th century Lolita has been considered as a controversial novel because it talks about the relationship between

Rosemary Kesauly

2004-01-01

383

Symbolic bounds analysis of pointers, array indices, and accessed memory regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a novel framework for the symbolic bounds analysis of pointers, array indices, and accessed memory regions. Our framework formulates each analysis problem as a system of in- equality constraints between symbolic bound polynomials. It then reduces the constraint system to a linear program. The solution to the linear program provides symbolic lower and upper bounds for the

Radu Rugina; Martin C. Rinard

2000-01-01

384

Greek or Not: The Use of Symbols and Abbreviations in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language of mathematics is unique and complex. One feature of the mathematical register is the use of symbols and abbreviations. Whilst it may be possible for a student to think mathematically in the absence of symbols, the written communication of mathematical ideas cannot be achieved concisely without the use of mathematical symbols.…

Quinnell, Lorna; Carter, Merilyn

2012-01-01

385

Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.  

PubMed

We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

2011-12-27

386

Structural analysis of box beams using symbolic manipulation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aeroelastic analysis of aircraft wings requires an accurate determination of the influence coefficients. In the past, energy methods have been commonly used to analyze box-type structures and the results have been found to agree well with the experiments. However, when analysis of large wing-type structures is desired, it becomes necessary to automate the energy method. In this article, a method has been developed based on symbolic manipulation as an automated technique to find solutions to box-type structures. Various manipulations required for the energy method have been automatically implemented in a computer program with solutions available at each stage in a symbolic form. The numerical results for several example problems have been compared with alternate theoretical as well as experimental results. Good agreement has been noted in all the cases considered in this article.

Sathyamoorthy, M.; Sirigiri, Ravindra

1993-04-01

387

Symbols and Dynamics in Embodied Cognition: Revisiting a Robot Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper introduces novel analyses that clarify why the dynamical systems approach is essential for studies of embodied\\u000a cognition by revisiting author’s prior robot experiment studies. Firstly, we argue that the symbol grounding problems as well\\u000a as the “situatedness” problems should be the consequences of lacking a shared metric space for the interactions between the\\u000a higher cognitive levels based on

Jun Tani

2003-01-01

388

Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored

Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani

2001-01-01

389

A perspective on symbolic mathematical computing and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and history of the research area common to artificial intelligence and symbolic mathematical computation are examined,\\u000a with particular reference to the topics having the greatest current amount of activity or potential for further development:\\u000a mathematical knowledge-based computing environments, autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, transformation of problem\\u000a descriptions in logics into algebraic forms, exploitation of machine learning, qualitative reasoning,

J. Calmet; J. A. Campbell

1997-01-01

390

Efficient Symbolic State-Space Construction for Asynchronous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many techniques for the verification of reactive systems rely on the analysis of their reachable state spaces. In this paper,\\u000a a new algorithm for the symbolic generation of the state spaces of asynchronous system models, such as Petri nets, is developed. The algorithm is based on previous work that employs Multi-valued Decision Diagrams for efficiently storing sets of reachable states.

Gianfranco Ciardo; Gerald Lüttgen; Radu Siminiceanu

391

Symbolic Model Checking for Self-Stabilizing Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed system is said to be self-stabilizing if it converges to safe states regardless of its initial state. In this paper we present our results of using symbolic model checking to verify distributed algorithms against the self-stabilizing property. In general, the most difficult problem with model checking is state explosion; it is especially serious in verifying the self-stabilizing property,

Tatsuhiro Tsuchiya; Shin'ichi Nagano; Rohayu Bt Paidi; Tohru Kikuno

2001-01-01

392

Sport, Gender and Ethnicity: Practises of Symbolic Inclusion\\/Exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper symbolic inclusion\\/exclusion processes in sport with respect to gender and ethnicity among adolescents (n = 1025) are analyzed from a social-critical perspective. It was found that sport participation preferences of young people are still influenced by dominant normative gendered and racial\\/ethnic images. Sport can serve not only as an agent of integration among youth, but is also

Agnes Elling; Annelies Knoppers

2005-01-01

393

Some applications of the matrix symbolism in the adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical matrix (mhmlus whi(:h is due to CAYLEY is intended to be employed on systems of linear equations. Therefore it is no wonder that the method of least squaces with great advantage may be expressed by means of the matrix symbols. A great literature o,l adjustment t)roblems using the mah'iees as tools has appeared. In the list of references

Henry Jensen

1950-01-01

394

Two Systems of Non-Symbolic Numerical Cognition  

PubMed Central

Studies of human adults, infants, and non-human animals demonstrate that non-symbolic numerical cognition is supported by at least two distinct cognitive systems: a “parallel individuation system” that encodes the numerical identity of individual items and an “approximate number system” that encodes the approximate numerical magnitude, or numerosity, of a set. The exact nature and role of these systems, however, have been debated for over a 100-years. Some argue that the non-symbolic representation of small numbers (<4) is carried out solely by the parallel individuation system and the non-symbolic representation of large numbers (>4) is carried out solely by the approximate number system. Others argue that all numbers are represented by the approximate number system. This debate has been fueled largely by some studies showing dissociations between small and large number processing and other studies showing similar processing of small and large numbers. Recent work has addressed this debate by showing that the two systems are present and distinct from early infancy, persist despite the acquisition of a symbolic number system, activate distinct cortical networks, and engage differentially based attentional constraints. Based on the recent discoveries, I provide a hypothesis that may explain the puzzling findings and makes testable predictions as to when each system will be engaged. In particular, when items are presented under conditions that allow selection of individuals, they will be represented as distinct mental items through parallel individuation and not as a numerical magnitude. In contrast, when items are presented outside attentional limits (e.g., too many, too close together, under high attentional load), they will be represented as a single mental numerical magnitude and not as distinct mental items. These predictions provide a basis on which researchers can further investigate the role of each system in the development of uniquely human numerical thought.

Hyde, Daniel C.

2011-01-01

395

Polynomial 6j-Symbols and States Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

For q a root of unity of order 2r, we give explicit formulas of a family of 3-variable Laurent polynomials J_{i,j,k} with coefficients in Z[q] that encode the 6j-symbols associated with nilpotent representations of U_qsl_2. For a given abelian group G, we use them to produce a state sum invariant tau^r(M,L,h_1,h_2) of a quadruplet (compact 3-manifold M, link L inside

Nathan Geer; Bertrand Patureau-Mirand

2009-01-01

396

Feature Extraction of Handwritten Symbols Using Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Feature extraction is a process whereby the input data is transformed into a set of features which characterise the input,\\u000a and which can therefore be used to classify the input. This paper presents a new technique for feature extraction from handwritten\\u000a symbols. We present a two-phase process. Firstly a pre-processing phase generates a chord vector for each handwritten stroke,\\u000a thereby

John A. Fitzgerald; Franz Geiselbrechtinger; M. Tahar Kechadi

2004-01-01

397

OFMC: A Symbolic Model-Checker for Security Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wepresenttheon-the-?ymodel-checkerOFMC,atoolthatcombinestwoideasforanalyzing security protocols based on lazy, demand-driven search. The flrst is the use of lazy data- types as a simple way of building e-cient on-the-?y model-checkers for protocols with very large, or even inflnite, state-spaces. The second is the integration of symbolic techniques and optimizations for modeling a lazy Dolev-Yao intruder, whose actions are generated in a demand-driven way. We

David Basin; Sebastian Modersheim; Luca Vigan

398

Verification of Java Programs Using Symbolic Execution and Invariant Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

pcorinaaemail. arc .nasa. gov wisserQemail.arc.nasa.gov Abstract. Softm-are verification is recognized as an important and dif- ficult problem. We present a norel framework, based on symbolic ese- cution, for the automated verification of software. The framework uses annotations in the form of method specifications an3 loop invariants. We present a novel iterative technique that uses invariant strengthening and approximation for discovering

Corina S. Pasareanu; Willem Visser

2004-01-01

399

On the inverse symbol-error probability for diversity reception  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of finding the inverse symbol-error probability (SEP) expression for coherent detection of M-ary phase-shift keying with multichannel reception and maximal ratio combining in Rayleigh fading. To this aim, we derive upper and lower bounds on SEP that are simply invertible and uniformly tight for all values of signal-to-noise ratio. This enables us to obtain tight

Andrea Conti; Moe Z. Win; Marco Chiani

2003-01-01

400

3j symbols: to normalize or not to normalize?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to tesseral harmonics. The methodology developed here leads to a significantly clearer presentation, which is of interest, not only for textbooks but also for researchers using spherical tensors.

van Veenendaal, Michel

2011-07-01

401

Generalization of Hilbert transform for symbolic analysis of noisy signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent publication has reported a Hilbert-transform-based partitioning method, called analytic signal space partitioning (ASSP), which essentially replaces wavelet space partitioning (WSP) for symbolic analysis of time series data in dynamical systems. When used in conjunction with D-Markov machines, also reported in the recent literature, ASSP provides a fast method of pattern recognition. However, wavelet transform facilitates denoising, which allows

Soumik Sarkar; Kushal Mukherjee; Asok Ray

2009-01-01

402

Symbolic Domination and Active Power: Female Roles in Criminal Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of the power and symbolic domination exercised bywomen inside mafia organizations is rather difficult to tackle,\\u000a given the scarcity of available sources and lack of existing literature on the subject. Among the many possible approaches\\u000a for its study,wehave chosen one that specifically examines the field of communication, asserting that the public image ofwomen\\u000a from the mafia underworld is

Alessandra Dino

403

Learning Symbolic Formulations in Design: Syntax, Semantics, Knowledge Reification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. An AI algorithm to automate symbolic designre formulation is an enduring challenge in design automation. Existing research shows,that design,tools either require high levels of knowledge engineering or large databases of training cases. To address these limitations, we present a singular value decomposition (SVD) and unsupervised,clustering based method,that performs design reformulation,by acquiring semantic,knowledge,from,the syntax of design representations.The development,of the method,was

Somwrita Sarkar; Andy Dong; John S. Gero

404

Efficient generation of counterexamples and witnesses in symbolic model checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Model checking is an automatic technique for verify#ing sequential circuit designs and protocols. An e##cient search procedure is used to determine whetheror not the speci#cation is satis#ed. If it is not sat#is#ed# our technique will produce a counterexampleexecution trace that shows the cause of the prob#lem. We describe an e#cient algorithm to producecounterexamples and witnesses for symbolic modelchecking algorithms.

Edmund M. Clarke; Orna Grumberg; Kenneth L. McMillan; Xudong Zhao

1995-01-01

405

Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3–6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9–11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two groups of children were controlled for

Christophe Mussolin; Anne G. De Volder; Cécile Grandin; Xavier Schlögel; Marie-Cécile Nassogne; Marie-Pascale Noël

2010-01-01

406

Crime control in the 2000 presidential election: A symbolic issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presidential candidates regularly use crime issues to help win electoral support. Contrary to conventional wisdom, crime control\\u000a also became an issue in the 2000 presidential campaign. Despite decreasing crime rates, the debate was driven by public opinion.\\u000a Because the crime debate was fueled by perception rather than reality, it is argued that the symbolic nature of the debate\\u000a became important

Nancy E. Marion; Rick Farmer

2003-01-01

407

Symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall, 1961–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay presents the argument that samples from public discourse during the period 1961–1989 reveal several different symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall. Not only are these differences interesting from the point of view of rhetorical theory, they may reflect something of the never?completed struggle between the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union, between the cultures these nations have made, and

Michael S. Bruner

1989-01-01

408

Symbolic Objects as Sediments of the Intersubjective Stream of Feelings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account that feeling is “the critical mediating process of the person-world relationships” (Josephs, Theory &\\u000a Psychology 10(6):815, 2000), this article focuses on the artistic symbolic object as constraints that direct someone’s feelings. Johansen (2010) states that the literary discourse “is designed to arousing and forming the feelings of listeners and readers” (p. 185).\\u000a Distancing from strict literary production,

Danilo Silva Guimarães

2010-01-01

409

Testing for spatial association of qualitative data using symbolic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative spatial variables are important in many fields of research. However, unlike the decades-worth of research devoted to the spatial association of quantitative variables, the exploratory analysis of spatial qualitative variables is relatively less developed. The objective of the present paper is to propose a new test ( Q) for spatial independence. This is a simple, consistent, and powerful statistic for qualitative spatial independence that we develop using concepts from symbolic dynamics and symbolic entropy. The Q test can be used to detect, given a spatial distribution of events, patterns of spatial association of qualitative variables in a wide variety of settings. In order to enable hypothesis testing, we give a standard asymptotic distribution of an affine transformation of the symbolic entropy under the null hypothesis of independence in the spatial qualitative process. We include numerical experiments to demonstrate the finite sample behaviour of the test, and show its application by means of an empirical example that explores the spatial association of fast food establishments in the Greater Toronto Area in Canada.

Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Páez, Antonio

2010-09-01

410

Opechowski-Guccione-like symbols labelling magnetic space groups independent of tabulated (0, 0, 0)+ sets.  

PubMed

For the magnetic space-group types with a black and white lattice two sets of symbols have been proposed: the BNS symbols [Belov et al. (1957). Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 2, 311-322] and the OG symbols [Opechowski & Guccione (1965). Magnetism, edited by G. T. Rado & H. Suhl, Vol. II, Part A, pp. 105-165. New York: Academic Press]. Whereas generators of the group can be read off the BNS symbol, International Tables for X-ray Crystallography (1952) must be consulted to interpret the OG symbols. In the cases where the black and white lattice is centred, it is shown how the OG symbols can be modified so that generators of the group can be deduced directly from the symbol. PMID:20404436

Grimmer, Hans

2010-03-26

411

Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, it is common to put the condition of "safety" around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, "Safety for whom?" A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on…

Leonardo, Zeus; Porter, Ronald K.

2010-01-01

412

Quest for social safety in imported foods in China: Gatekeeper perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about food safety, and mistrust of food production systems within China, result in imported food products generally enjoying a higher reputation than locally produced food products. Findings from interviews of gatekeepers are discussed in relation to conspicuous consumption, social trust, and the symbolic value of foreign brands and production. The issue of social safety emerges as a dominant consideration

John Knight; Hongzhi Gao; Tony Garrett; Ken Deans

2008-01-01

413

Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In education, it is common to put the condition of "safety" around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, "Safety for whom?" A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on…

Leonardo, Zeus; Porter, Ronald K.

2010-01-01

414

Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice  

PubMed Central

Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care.

Kennedy, Holly Powell

2010-01-01

415

Analysis and Performance Evaluation of a K-Symbol Pilot Assisted Channel Estimator using Linear Interpolation for OFDM Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the performance of a novel linear interpolator scheme that uses K successive orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols is examined. The estimator collects K successive OFDM symbols to create a virtual super symbol (VSS) with K-P pilots using P pilots from each OFDM symbol. The (K - 1) middot P pilots are shifted in frequency in such

Athanasios Doukas; Grigorios Kalivas

2007-01-01

416

It's all about color: an analysis of color symbolism in Toni Morrison's Sula and the bluest eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines Toni Morrison’s use of symbolism in Sula and The Bluest Eye, especially archetypal and color symbolism, in an effort to recover the culture that has been lost to Diasporic Africans. Moreover, the color symbolism and symbolic archetypes that Morrison employs in both novels, but to a greater extent Sula, are a direct reflection of her awareness of

Veda Kimber Jackson

2011-01-01

417

Facilitating Children's Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by…

Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

2011-01-01

418

Individual differences in non-symbolic numerical abilities predict mathematical achievements but contradict ATOM  

PubMed Central

Background A significant debate surrounds the nature of the cognitive mechanisms involved in non-symbolic number estimation. Several studies have suggested the existence of the same cognitive system for estimation of time, space, and number, called “a theory of magnitude” (ATOM). In addition, researchers have proposed the theory that non-symbolic number abilities might support our mathematical skills. Despite the large number of studies carried out, no firm conclusions can be drawn on either topic. Methods In the present study, we correlated the performance of adults on non-symbolic magnitude estimations and symbolic numerical tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude abilities were assessed by asking participants to estimate which auditory tone lasted longer (time), which line was longer (space), and which group of dots was more numerous (number). To assess symbolic numerical abilities, participants were required to perform mental calculations and mathematical reasoning. Results We found a positive correlation between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical abilities. On the other hand, no correlation was found among non-symbolic estimations of time, space, and number. Conclusions Our study supports the idea that mathematical abilities rely on rudimentary numerical skills that predate verbal language. By contrast, the lack of correlation among non-symbolic estimations of time, space, and number is incompatible with the idea that these magnitudes are entirely processed by the same cognitive system.

2013-01-01

419

Semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 12j symbol with one small angular momentum  

SciTech Connect

We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner 12j symbol, in the limit of one small and 11 large angular momenta. There are two kinds of asymptotic formulas for the 12j symbol with one small angular momentum. We present the first kind of formula in this paper. Our derivation relies on the techniques developed in the semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 9j symbol [L. Yu and R. G. Littlejohn, Phys. Rev. A 83, 052114 (2011)], where we used a gauge-invariant form of the multicomponent WKB wave functions to derive asymptotic formulas for the 9j symbol with small and large angular momenta. When applying the same technique to the 12j symbol in this paper, we find that the spinor is diagonalized in the direction of an intermediate angular momentum. In addition, we find that the geometry of the derived asymptotic formula for the 12j symbol is expressed in terms of the vector diagram for a 9j symbol. This illustrates a general geometric connection between asymptotic limits of the various 3nj symbols. This work contributes an asymptotic formula for the 12j symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum, and serves as a basis for finding asymptotic formulas for the Wigner 15j symbol with two small angular momenta.

Yu Liang [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-08-15

420

Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal decision-feedback mechanism is introduced to truncate the channel memory "seen" by the MAPSD section. Also, simpler gradient-based updates for the channel estimates, and a metric pruning technique are used to further reduce the MAPSD complexity. Spatial diversity MAP combiners are developed to enhance the error rate performance and combat channel fading. As a first application of the MAPSD algorithm, dual-mode recovery techniques for TDMA (time-division multiple access) mobile radio signals are presented. Combined estimation of the symbol timing and the multipath parameters is proposed, using an auxiliary extended Kalman filter during the training cycle, and then tracking of the fading parameters is performed during the data cycle using the blind MAPSD algorithm. For the second application, a single-input receiver is employed to jointly recover cochannel narrowband signals. Assuming known channels, this two-stage joint MAPSD (JMAPSD) algorithm is compared to the optimal joint maximum likelihood sequence estimator, and to the joint decision-feedback detector. A blind MAPSD algorithm for the joint recovery of cochannel signals is also presented. Computer simulation results are provided to quantify the performance of the various algorithms proposed in this dissertation.

Giridhar, K.

421

Science and Art: physics as a symbolic formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflection on the preconditions and evolution of science has played a decisive role in the development of Ernst Cassirer’s\\u000a philosophy, contributing to its functional and thus inherently pluralistic and holistic view of knowledge. To present Cassirer’s\\u000a conception of physics as an open symbolic formation enables us to reveal and study the radical features of his epistemological\\u000a model: \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a \\u000a the

Christiane Schmitz-Rigal

2011-01-01

422

Symbol calculus and zeta-function regularized determinants  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for nonpositive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action, one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose, we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate the determinant as a derivative expansion. The technique is applied both to a spin-0 bosonic operator and to the Dirac operator coupled to a scalar field.

Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O. Teoman [Department of Physics, Bogazici University, Bebek, Istanbul 34342 (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bogazici University, Bebek, Istanbul 34342, Turkey and Feza Gursey Institute, Kandilli, Istanbul 34684 (Turkey)

2007-11-15

423

Weighted symbolic analysis of human behavior for event detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic video analysis and understanding has become a high interest research topic, with applications to video browsing, content-based video indexing, and visual surveillance. However, the automation of this process is still a challenging task, due to clutters produced by low-level processing operations. This common problem can be solved by embedding signi cant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between actual sequences and models. In this context we propose a novel framework that employs a symbolic representation of complex activities through sequences of atomic actions based on a weighted Context-Free Grammar.

Rosani, A.; Boato, G.; De Natale, F. G. B.

2013-03-01

424

SYMBOLS.com: Encyclopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by HME Media, this site is an online version of Carl G. Liungman's Thought Signs (1995), an encyclopedia of graphic symbols. The site contains more than 2,500 Western signs, arranged into 54 groups according to their graphic characteristics. Ranging from Cro-Magnon carvings in mammoth teeth to hobo signs and subway graffiti, the signs are explained and examined in 1,600 articles. Users may search for the meaning or history of a sign in the Graphic Index or use the Word Index to find an ideogram with a certain meaning.

Liungman, Carl G., 1938-.

1997-01-01

425

Discovering Application-Level Insider Attacks Using Symbolic Execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a technique to systematically discover insider attacks in applications. An attack model where the insider is in the same address space as the process and can corrupt arbitrary data is assumed. A formal technique based on symbolic execution and model-checking is developed to comprehensively enumerate all possible insider attacks corresponding to a given attack goal. The main advantage of the technique is that it operates directly on the program code in assembly language and no manual effort is necessary to translate the program into a formal model. We apply the technique to security-critical segments of the OpenSSH application.

Pattabiraman, Karthik; Nakka, Nithin; Kalbarczyk, Zbigniew; Iyer, Ravishankar

426

[Symbol-based communication in non-human primates: a C. S. Peirce's semiotic analysis].  

PubMed

Are (or were) there any other symbolic species? This question has been addressed by researchers from many different fields and is responsible for a historical controversy on the existence of a threshold between "symbolic creatures" vs "simple forms of language creatures". According to the mainstream ethology and comparative psychology only the Homo sapiens is cognitively equiped to produce and interpret symbols. Here, I introduce an empirically testable model of symbolic semiosis ("symbolic action of sign") supported by C.S.Peirce logical-phenomenological theory of categories. I suggest that a specific sign-user pattern of behavior, observed in non-human primate communication, indicate a transition from indexical to symbolic semiosis. PMID:14978578

Queiroz, João

2004-02-16

427

Semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 9j symbol with small and large angular momenta  

SciTech Connect

We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j symbol, in the limit of one small and eight large angular momenta, using a gauge-invariant factorization for the asymptotic solution of a set of coupled wave equations. Our factorization eliminates the geometric phases completely, using gauge-invariant noncanonical coordinates, parallel transports of spinors, and quantum rotation matrices. Our derivation generalizes to higher 3nj symbols. We display without proof some asymptotic formulas for the 12j symbol and the 15j symbol in the Appendices. This work contributes an asymptotic formula of the Wigner 9j symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum and serves as an example of a general method for deriving asymptotic formulas for 3nj symbols.

Yu Liang; Littlejohn, Robert G. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-05-15

428

The nursing pin: symbol of 1,000 years of service.  

PubMed

The nursing pin is a 1,000-year old symbol of service to others. The earliest ancestor of the pin dates back to the Maltese Cross, adopted by crusaders and worn on their habits as a symbol of service to Christianity. Over the centuries, variations of the crusader's symbol were gradually modified and became family coats of arms, often symbolizing service to a ruler. By the Renaissance, guilds had adopted coats of arms symbolizing masterful service to the community. The most recent ancestor of the pin is the hospital badge of 100 years ago. It was given by the hospital school of nursing to the students to identify them as nurses who were educated to serve the health needs of society. This symbol of service involves many professional rights and responsibilities. PMID:2694101

Rode, M W

1989-01-01

429

Hodge decompositions of Loday symbols in K -theory and cyclic homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the Hodge decompositions ofK-theory and cyclic homology induced by the operations ?k and ?k, and in particular the decomposition of the Loday symbols «x,y, ...z». Except in special cases, these Loday symbols do not have pure Hodge index. InKn(A) they can project into every componentKn(i) for 2?i?n, and the projection of the Loday symbol «x,y,

Susan C. Geller; Charles A. Weibel

1994-01-01

430

Object-Oriented Symbolic Derivation and Automatic Programming of Finite Elements in Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Symbolic approaches to assist in the development of finite element formulations have been used since the late 1970s. Today,\\u000a symbolic mathematical software such as Mathematica, Maple, etc., has proved to be helpful when testing formulations. In earlier\\u000a work, the authors introduced a new way of integrating naturally symbolic concepts in numerical finite element codes, taking\\u000a advantage of an objectoriented

Dominique Eyheramendy; Thomas Zimmermann

1999-01-01

431

Fast multiple-symbol detection for free-space optical communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate noncoherent detection, i.e. detection assuming the absence of channel state information at the receiver, of on-off keying in an intensity modulation and direct detection (IM\\/DD) free-space optical (FSO) system. To partially recover the performance loss associated with symbol- by-symbol noncoherent detection, we consider the application of multiple-symbol detection (MSD), in which block-wise decisions are made

Michael L. B. Riediger; Robert Schober; Lutz H.-J. Lampe

2009-01-01

432

The use of contextual cues to improve warning symbol comprehension: making the connection for older adults  

PubMed Central

This study teased apart the effects of comprehensibility and complexity on older adults' comprehension of warning symbols by manipulating the relevance of additional information in further refining the meaning of the symbol. Symbols were systematically altered such that increased visual complexity (in the form of contextual cues) resulted in increased comprehensibility. One hundred older adults, aged 50–71 years, were tested on their comprehension of these symbols before and after training. High comprehensibility–complexity symbols were found to be better understood than low- or medium-comprehensibility–complexity symbols and the effectiveness of the contextual cues varied as a function of training. Therefore, the nature of additional detail determines whether increased complexity is detrimental or beneficial to older adults' comprehension – if the additional details provide ‘cues to knowledge’, older adults' comprehension improves as a result of the increased complexity. However, some cues may require training in order to be effective. Practitioner Summary: Research suggests that older adults have greater difficulty in understanding more complex symbols. However, we found that when the complexity of symbols was increased through the addition of contextual cues, older adults' comprehension actually improved. Contextual cues aid older adults in making the connection between the symbol and its referent.

Lesch, Mary F.; Powell, W. Ryan; Horrey, William J.; Wogalter, Michael S.

2013-01-01

433

Symbolic hate: intention to intimidate, political ideology, and group association.  

PubMed

In Virginia v. Black (123 S.Ct. 1536, 2003), the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment did not bar statutes that prohibit cross burnings in which defendants acted with intention to intimidate others. Using a variety of symbols including cross burnings, swastikas, confederate flags, and skin fists, the current research tested how mock jurors used alternative actor intentions to judge culpability in symbolic hate speech cases. Only partially validating the Court's assumptions, participants rated guilt certainty highest when they believed the speakers conveyed direct threats, sometimes regardless of whether defendants intended to intimidate others. Further, results showed the level of perceived intimidation only partially mediated the relationship between type of fact pattern and guilt certainty ratings. While alternative intentions did produce different levels of intention to intimidate, path analysis showed that the participants' ratings of the defendant's intention to convey a direct threat influenced guilt certainty ratings in all cases. Perceived intimidation levels predicted culpability in only some of the cases and not for cross burning on private property. PMID:18030607

Wiener, Richard L; Richter, Erin

2007-11-21

434

Symbolic dynamics of event-related brain potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply symbolic dynamics techniques such as word statistics and measures of complexity to nonstationary and noisy multivariate time series of electroencephalograms (EEG) in order to estimate event-related brain potentials (ERP). Their significance against surrogate data as well as between different experimental conditions is tested. These methods are validated by simulations using stochastic dynamical systems with time-dependent control parameters and compared with traditional ERP-analysis techniques. Continuous EEG data are cut into epochs according to stimuli events presented to the subjects. These ensembles of time series can be considered as ensembles of trajectories given by some dynamical systems. We employ a statistical mechanics approach motivated by the Frobenius-Perron equation and apply it to coarse-grained symbolic descriptions of the dynamics. We develop time-dependent measures of complexity founded on running cylinder sets and show that these quantities are able to distinguish simulated data obtained by different control parameters as well as experimental data between different experimental conditions. As a first finding, our approach restores the well-known ERP components and it reveals additionally qualitative changes in the EEG that cannot be detected by means of the traditional techniques. We criticize the prerequisites of the traditional approach to ERP analysis and propose to consider ERP instead in terms of dynamical system theory and information theory.

Graben, Peter Beim; Saddy, J. Douglas; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Kurths, Jürgen

2000-10-01

435

On the origins of naming and other symbolic behavior  

PubMed Central

We identify naming as the basic unit of verbal behavior, describe the conditions under which it is learned, and outline its crucial role in the development of stimulus classes and, hence, of symbolic behavior. Drawing upon B. F. Skinner's functional analysis and the theoretical work of G. H. Mead and L. S. Vygotsky, we chart how a child, through learning listener behavior and then echoic responding, learns bidirectional relations between classes of objects or events and his or her own speaker-listener behavior, thus acquiring naming—a higher order behavioral relation. Once established, the bidirectionality incorporated in naming extends across behavior classes such as those identified by Skinner as the mand, tact, and intraverbal so that each becomes a variant of the name relation. We indicate how our account informs the specification of rule-governed behavior and provides the basis for an experimental analysis of symbolic behavior. Furthermore, because naming is both evoked by, and itself evokes, classes of events it brings about new or emergent behavior such as that reported in studies of stimulus equivalence. This account is supported by data from a wide range of match-to-sample studies that also provide evidence that stimulus equivalence in humans is not a unitary phenomenon but the outcome of a number of different types of naming behavior.

Horne, Pauline J.; Lowe, C. Fergus

1996-01-01

436

Cardiovascular regulation during sleep quantified by symbolic coupling traces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep is a complex regulated process with short periods of wakefulness and different sleep stages. These sleep stages modulate autonomous functions such as blood pressure and heart rate. The method of symbolic coupling traces (SCT) is used to analyze and quantify time-delayed coupling of these measurements during different sleep stages. The symbolic coupling traces, defined as the symmetric and diametric traces of the bivariate word distribution matrix, allow the quantification of time-delayed coupling. In this paper, the method is applied to heart rate and systolic blood pressure time series during different sleep stages for healthy controls as well as for normotensive and hypertensive patients with sleep apneas. Using the SCT, significant different cardiovascular mechanisms not only between the deep sleep and the other sleep stages but also between healthy subjects and patients can be revealed. The SCT method is applied to model systems, compared with established methods, such as cross correlation, mutual information, and cross recurrence analysis and demonstrates its advantages especially for nonstationary physiological data. As a result, SCT proves to be more specific in detecting delays of directional interactions than standard coupling analysis methods and yields additional information which cannot be measured by standard parameters of heart rate and blood pressure variability. The proposed method may help to indicate the pathological changes in cardiovascular regulation and also the effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on the cardiovascular system.

Suhrbier, A.; Riedl, M.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

2010-12-01

437

Inheritance of knowledge in neural networks via symbolic algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theme is that of `inheritance' and the use of symbolic algebra to implement it. The notion of inheriting knowledge between networks is crucial since training a network can be exceedingly slow. Partial information acquired through long experience (learning epochs) should be `transferrable.' A technique using the notion of `gluing' networks has been pioneered by Alex Waibel of CMU. However, this technique cannot be considered true inheritance since the component networks are trained on similar but different subtasks that are later `concatenated.' The approach presented here is based on the observation that even when the problem is not separable, one can get a reasonable performance out of a 2 layer network. Its training is fast and its only minimum is often below that of many of the local minima of the corresponding multi-layer networks. After training such a net, if one can transfer the knowledge to a multi-layer net, not only would one have saved valuable training time, but one would have avoided many of the local minima associated with the multi-layer network. Training can then proceed with the task of the multi-layer net reduced to improving the performance of the 2-layer net, instead of having to start from scratch. Equations corresponding to this approach are derived. They can be written for specific topologies and solved exactly (toys) or approximately (larger problems) using symbolic algebra.

Sayegh, Samir I.

1992-07-01

438

Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language.  

PubMed

Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill's criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

Sandler, Wendy

2009-04-01

439

Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*  

PubMed Central

Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths.

Sandler, Wendy

2010-01-01

440

The social and symbolic quality of autistic children's communication.  

PubMed

The developmental status of the communicatory behavior of 11 autistic children was assessed. Children were observed during free play sessions under two conditions: when teachers were present to direct the children's behavior and when teachers were absent and the children played among themselves. Mean changes in the children's communicatory behavior were measured over time (8 months) using the behavior scale designed for this study. The relationship between the developmental status of the children's communicatory behavior and standardized measures of their social and cognitive functioning (e.g., IQ, Vineland Social Age) was also assessed. The results revealed that the quantity and social quality of autistic children's communicatory behavior were greater in the teachers' presence than in their absence and that the symbolic and social quality of the children's communicatory behavior increased over 8 months. Also, positive correlations were found between social and symbolic levels of communication and standardized tests of social and cognitive functioning. The implications of these findings for the assessment of autistic children are discussed. PMID:6085946

McHale, S M; Simeonsson, R J; Marcus, L M; Olley, J G

1980-09-01

441

Validational data on the Warwick Symbolic Play Test.  

PubMed

This paper examines the validity of a recently developed test of symbolic play. The Warwick Symbolic Play Test (WSPT) was administered to 60 normal children, 30 girls and 30 boys aged 3-6 years. In addition the children's expressive and receptive language skills were assessed using the Renfrew Action Picture Test and the British Picture Vocabulary Scale respectively. Significant correlations were found between scores obtained on the play test and both language measures. Exploratory statistics indicated that, when age was taken into account, partial correlations between play and language remained moderate. Further analysis of the results also suggested that the relationship between play and language ability as measured by the tests was stronger for the younger children in the sample than for the older children. These results suggest that the WSPT may indeed be a useful assessment instrument, in conjunction with measures of functional play, for assessment of language ability, diagnosis and possible treatment of language disorders, especially for children under the developmental age of 5 years. PMID:7532477

Doswell, G; Lewis, V; Sylva, K; Boucher, J

1994-01-01

442

The symbolic and concrete: Psychotic adolescents in psychoanalytic psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Unique disturbances in symbolisation are characteristic of the pathology of schizophrenia. Drawing on the case vignette of a psychotic adolescent, the author discusses theoretical problems in the symbolisation process in general and then in psychosis, in particular the relation between 'concretism' as a thought disorder and other psychotic defences. The ability to symbolise on the one hand and to maintain sufficiently stable ego boundaries on the other hand are examined in their relation. The author's clinical experience supports her hypothesis that there is a close relationship between the impairment of the symbolisation process in the adolescent or adult psychotic patient and his/her inability to engage in symbolic play as a child. Special attention is paid to the role of early trauma and consequent pathology of object relations for disturbances of symbolic play in childhood. Regression to concrete thinking is understood as the chance of the psychotic patient to give some meaning to reality in an unreal, delusional world and as his/her last chance to communicate at all. Conclusions are drawn for psychoanalytic techniques in the treatment of patients who are deeply regressed in this respect. Special attention is given to the particular circumstances and challenges of adolescence and to providing psychoanalytic psychotherapy to adolescent psychotic patients. PMID:12873371

Pestalozzi, Julia

2003-06-01

443

Medicine, landscapes, symbols: "The country Doctor" by Honoré de Balzac.  

PubMed

This paper considers examples from research that has interpreted literary works including representations of topographical landscapes, in order to examine the geographical and social perspectives of the author, and of the society in which the author was living and working. We focus especially on the use of representations of therapeutic landscapes in literature to convey the author's perceptions of the aspects of social and physical environments that contribute to human well-being. The novel entitled The country Doctor (Le Médecin de campagne) by Honore de Balzac, first published in 1833, is the particular focus of this paper and we consider this book in the context of the historical period when it was written and other novels of the period which also portray doctors and medicine in varying ways. We present an interpretation of Balzac's novel which focuses on four themes arising from the discussion in the introduction of this paper: the symbolic use of ideas of 'therapeutic landscapes' to represent the 'heroic' role of the doctor; the link between landscapes and ideas of medicine and health, corresponding to the Hippocratic heritage; the representation, through images of salubrious landscapes, of planning and economic development and the role of the leader; the significance of the contrast between the 'therapeutic' rural world and the unhealthy urban settings found in Paris. We conclude that The country Doctor is interesting because of the ways that it reflects the three aspects of landscape (physical, social and symbolic) that Gesler (1998. In: Kearns, R., Gesler W. (Eds.), Putting Health into Place: Landscape, Identity and Well-Being. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY, pp. 17-35 (Chapter 2)) has identified as central 'therapeutic' qualities. Not only does the book reflect a conceptual model of what a therapeutic landscape might be, but it also uses this landscape symbolically as an allegory for spiritual progress and redemption, and for medical and social advance. The novel represents a period of transition from traditional social values and prescientific medical theory towards modernization of society associated with the growing domination of medical science, which continued into the 20th century. PMID:15886140

Tonnellier, François; Curtis, Sarah

2005-12-01

444

Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

2010-01-01

445

Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

2009-01-01

446

Statistically integrated semiotics that enables mutual inference between linguistic and behavioral symbols for humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the linguistic model based on symbolization of motion patterns for humanoid robots. The model consists of two kinds of stochastic models : the motion language model and the natural language model. The motion language model stochastically connects the symbols of motion patterns to the morpheme words through the latent states which represent the underlying linguistic structure such

Wataru Takano; Yoshihiko Nakamura

2009-01-01

447

Beyond Quantity: Individual Differences in Working Memory and the Ordinal Understanding of Numerical Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two different contexts, we examined the hypothesis that individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity are related to the tendency to infer complex, ordinal relationships "between" numerical symbols. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether this tendency arises in a learning context that involves mapping novel symbols to quantities by…

Lyons, Ian M.; Beilock, Sian L.

2009-01-01

448

The symbolic distance effect for alphabetic order judgements: A subjective report and reaction time analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time needed to decide whether a pair of letters is in the correct alphabetic order varies inversely with alphabetic separation. This is an example of a phenomenon generally found with the comparison of ordered symbols or concepts, called the symbolic distance effect (Moyer and Bayer, 1976). It is argued that when letters are compared, an important determinant of this

J. M. E. Hamilton; A. J. Sanford

1978-01-01

449

Perspectives on Symbolic Leadership and Political Fragmentation in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "The Symbolic Uses of Politics," Edelman presents the thesis that the symbolic output of a political system is a primary force in the development of the system's legitimacy. An examination of this thesis in the context of the political systems of several emerging nations in Sub-Saharan Africa reveals that it must be refined. Because the…

Schneider, Michael J.

450

For the Sake of Themes: Symbolism in In Another Country and The Horse Dealer's Daughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Hemingway in his In Another Country and D.H. Lawrence in his The Horse Dealer's Daughter use a lot of symbols. The smart application of symbolism in these two reputed stories, on one hand, gives readers different interpretations with more personal involvement while reading; on the other hand, serves better for their hidden themes. This paper tries to probe into

LU Xiu-ying

2007-01-01

451

Additional symbols used in double-spaced text for Wang OIS word-processor users  

SciTech Connect

This paper illustrates samples of Greek symbols (and other symbols) that are on the Wang daisy printwheel but not in the form that is often required. This technique can be used in place of rub-ons. It applies to double-spaced formats only, and involves creating new format lines within the text.

Miller, J.A.

1983-06-01

452

Dams as Symbols of Modernization: The Urbanization of Nature Between Geographical Imagination and Materiality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article offers an analysis of the iconography and symbolism of dam constructions at three levels: first, as embodiments of the dialectics between geographical imaginations and material practices in the process of modernization; second, as symbols of modernity's quest to conquer and urbanize nature; and third, as the catalysts for reconfiguring the relationship between nature and the city. The article

Maria Kaika

2006-01-01

453

Symbolic Politics or Rational Choice? Testing Theories of Extreme Ethnic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational choice theories claim that extreme ethnic violence (war and genocide) can be explained either as the result of information failures and commitment problems or as the utility-maximizing strategy of predatory elites. Symbolic politics theory asserts that such violence is driven by hostile ethnic myths and an emotionally driven symbolic politics based on those myths that popularizes predatory policies. Tests

Stuart J. Kaufman

2006-01-01

454

Teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using Pivotal Response Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to teach 7 children with autism to engage in symbolic play behaviors. Symbolic play, complexity of play behavior, and creativity of play were assessed. In addition, generalization measures were obtained across settings, toys, and play partners. Interaction with the play partners and comparison with typical controls were also examined. Results indicated that children with autism

Aubyn C. Stahmer

1995-01-01

455

Constructing Public Opinion and Manipulating Symbols: China's Press Coverage of the Student Movement in 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a content analysis of Chinese newspapers before and after the Tiananmen Square protest. Shows that top leaders manipulated symbols given to the media and that these symbols rigorously highlighted the dominant ideology of the Chinese Communist Party and isolated participants of the 1989 Student Movement to legitimize the military…

Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Kraus, Sidney

1995-01-01

456

The use of graphic symbols in infancy: how early can we start?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate if infants at three developmental ages could respond using graphic symbols during a choice?making task. An alternating treatment design was used to illustrate infants’ response when presented with two types of graphic symbols. A total of nine items were presented to each infant and were randomly selected from suggestions provided by caregivers.

Maria Alexandra Da Fonte

2010-01-01

457

Beyond quantity: individual differences in working memory and the ordinal understanding of numerical symbols.  

PubMed

In two different contexts, we examined the hypothesis that individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity are related to the tendency to infer complex, ordinal relationships between numerical symbols. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether this tendency arises in a learning context that involves mapping novel symbols to quantities by training adult participants to associate dot-quantities with novel symbols, the overall relative order of which had to be inferred. Performance was best for participants who were higher in WM capacity (HWMs). HWMs also learned ordinal information about the symbols that lower WM individuals (LWMs) did not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether WM relates to performance when participants are explicitly instructed to make numerical order judgments about highly enculturated numerical symbols by having participants indicate whether sets of three Arabic numerals were in increasing order. All participants responded faster when sequential sets (3-4-5) were in order than when they were not. However, only HWMs responded faster when non-sequential, patterned sets (1-3-5) were in order, suggesting they were accessing ordinal associations that LWMs were not. Taken together, these experiments indicate that WM capacity plays a key role in extending symbolic number representations beyond their quantity referents to include symbol-symbol ordinal associations, both in a learning context and in terms of explicitly accessing ordinal relationships in highly enculturated stimuli. PMID:19732870

Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

2009-09-03

458

English as a cultural symbol: The case of advertisements in French?speaking Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a world language, freed from its ties with any country where it is a native language, English acts both as a linguistic resource and as a symbolic resource for the different countries that use it. The occurrence of English in advertisements in the Suisse Romande is analysed in this paper as an illustration of the symbolic use of English.

Jenny Cheshire

1994-01-01

459

Graphic Symbol and Speech Training of Young Children With Down Syndrome: Some Preliminary Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of five treatment conditions on the abilities of 11 preschool children with Down Syndrome to learn and use five new words\\/graphic symbols (Rebus or modified Bliss symbols). Treatment conditions included Speech and Language Training Only, Nonspeech Communication Training Only (Rebus or Bliss) and Speech and Language Training Combined with Nonspeech Communication Training (Rebus or Bliss).

Paula M. Pecyna Rhyner

1988-01-01

460

TECHNIQUES FOR INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE REASONING AND SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION IN ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents techniques that extend theories from the fields of artificial intelligence (AI) and engineering optimization for automating design decision making at three levels of reasoning: qualitative, functional, and numerical. Qualitative reasoning about constraint activity is implemented in SYMON (SYmbolic MONotonicity analyzer) through monotonicity analysis and the maximal activity principle. Functional reasoning is employed in SYMFUNE (SYMbolic FUNclional Evaluator)

ALICE M. AGOGINO; ANN S. ALMGREN

1987-01-01

461

The Role of Symbol Systems in Problem Solving: A Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review brings diverse research to bear on the contention that current achievement tests may underestimate students' subject-matter knowledge and problem-solving ability because of the mismatch between the symbolic form that typical achievement tests use and the specificity of students' symbolic encoding that arises from instruction and…

Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

462

Symbolic solution of the multiconductor transmission-line equations for lines containing shielded wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiconductor transmission line equations that characterize crosstalk in a multiconductor transmission line containing a shielded wire are solved in symbolic form, that is, the resulting crosstalk voltages are determined in terms of symbols rather than numerical values. The resulting solutions show the frequency range for which the widely used, low-frequency, inductive-capacitive coupling model is a valid representation. The solution

Clayton R. Paul; Betty A. Bowles

1991-01-01

463

SYMBOLIC LANGUAGE IN CHEMISTRY - A NEW LOOK AT AN OLD PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

When bridging students' decoding and encoding abilities in chemistry were assessed at the start of a South African Post Matric Program, it was clear that they experienced fewer difficulties in decoding than in encoding. Encoding from the names of chemical compounds to symbolic formulae caused considerable cognitive discomfort, with students resorting to creating their own chemical symbols and combining atoms

J. D. Bradley; E. Steenberg

464

Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

2010-01-01

465

A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

2012-01-01

466

Materiality, Symbolicity, and the Rhetoric of Order: "Dialectical Biologism" as Motive in Burke.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how the work of Kenneth Burke has recently been critiqued for its lack of attention to the role of non-symbolic motivation in rhetoric. Describes Burke's contributions as a "dialectical biologism" that sets forth a system of five symbolic/material dialectics that undergird all rhetorical appeal. Suggests that the most effective rhetoric…

Engnell, Richard A.

1998-01-01

467

A Socio-Cognitive Approach to How Children with Deafblindness Understand Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with congenital deafblindness are a population of learners who may need intervention in order to develop symbolic understanding. They experience a combination of vision and hearing impairments that can affect how they make sense of the world, develop relationships, and understand symbols. In this article, the author reviewed a…

Hartmann, Elizabeth S.

2012-01-01

468

Decoupling Synchronization from Logic for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking of Statecharts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic model checking is a powerful formal-verification technique for reactive systems. In this paper we address the problem of symbolic model checking for software specifica- tions written as statecharts. We concentrate on how the syn- chronization of statecharts relates to the efficiency of model checking. We show that statecharts synchronized in an obliv- ious manner, such that the synchronization and

William Chan; Richard J. Anderson; Paul Beame; David H. Jones; David Notkin; William E. Warner

469

Decoupling synchronization from local control for efficient symbolic model checking of statecharts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic model checking is a powerful formal-verification technique for reactive systems. In this paper we address the problem of symbolic model checking for software specifica- tions written as statecharts. We concentrate on how the syn- chronization of statecharts relates to the efficiency of model checking. We show that statecharts synchronized in an obliv- ious manner, such that the synchronization and

William Chant; Richard J. Anderson; Paul Bearnet; David H. Jones; David Notkin; William E. Warner

1999-01-01

470

Symbolism in California’s Early Market for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the symbolic meanings being created, appropriated, and communicated by the owners of hybrid electric vehicles. As symbolic meanings are shown to be important to hybrid electric vehicle purchase and use, understanding the meanings, as well as their construction and communication, is essential for policy makers and others hoping to promote these new types of vehicles. Hybrid electric

Reid R. Heffner; Kenneth S Kurani; Tom Turrentine

2008-01-01

471

Symbolism in California’s early market for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the symbolic meanings being created, appropriated, and communicated by the owners of hybrid electric vehicles. As symbolic meanings are shown to be important to hybrid electric vehicle purchase and use, understanding the meanings, as well as their construction and communication, is essential for policy makers and others hoping to promote these new types of vehicles. Hybrid electric

Reid R. Heffner; Kenneth S. Kurani; Thomas S. Turrentine

2007-01-01

472

A study of symbolic processing and computational aspects in helicopter dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even research models of helicopter dynamics often lead to a large number of equations of motion with periodic coefficients; and Floquet theory is a widely used mathematical tool for dynamic analysis. Presently, three approaches are used in generating the equations of motion. These are (1) general-purpose symbolic processors such as REDUCE and MACSYMA, (2) a special-purpose symbolic processor, DEHIM (Dynamic

S. Ravichandran; G. Gaonkar; J. Nagabhushanam; T. S. R. Reddy

1990-01-01

473

Online Signature Verification and Recognition: An Approach Based on Symbolic Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new method of representing on-line signatures by interval valued symbolic features. Global features of on-line signatures are used to form an interval valued feature vectors. Methods for signature verification and recognition based on the symbolic representation are also proposed. We exploit the notions of writer dependent threshold and introduce the concept of feature dependent

D. S. Guru; H. N. Prakash

2009-01-01

474

A hierarchy neural network approach to symbolic logic-algorithms of problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a neural network approach, based on high-order two-dimension temporal and dynamically clustering competitive activation mechanism, to implement the parallel searching algorithm and many other symbolic logic algorithms. This approach is superior in many respects to both the common sequential algorithms of symbolic logic and the common neural network used for optimization problems. Simulations for some problem solving

Dianxun Shuai; Y. Watanabe

1993-01-01

475

Developmental Algebra Students' Use of Prose and Tabular Representations of Functions To Construct Symbolic Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports that most of 13 developmental algebra students interviewed preferred constructing tables of values, or the combination of prose with tables, as symbolic models for additive and unit-rate functional relationships. States that these students achieved greater success rates than those who used only prose in their symbolic modeling attempts.…

Gray, Susan

2000-01-01

476

Intelligent diagnosis for autonomous underwater vehicles using a neuro-symbolic system in a distributed architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the utilisation of a neuro-symbolic system designed and developed for health monitoring and diagnosis of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) within a complete modular and distributed architecture. The neuro-symbolic system, named NSS has been developed within the IST European project ADVOCATE II and is part of the global architecture designed in the project. The paper focuses on the

M. Perrier; J. Kalwa

2005-01-01

477

A Is for "Apple": Mnemonic Symbols Hinder the Interpretation of Algebraic Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how literal symbols affect students' understanding of algebraic expressions. Middle school students (N = 322) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions in which they were asked to interpret an expression (e.g., 4c + 3b) in a story problem. Each literal symbol represented the price of an item. In the c-and-b condition, the…

McNeil, Nicole M.; Weinberg, Aaron; Hattikudur, Shanta; Stephens, Ana C.; Asquith, Pamela; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.

2010-01-01

478

Symbolic Immortality and the Management of the Terror of Death: The Moderating Role of Attachment Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were designed to examine the contribution of R. J. Lifton's (1979) symbolic immortality construct to the management of the terror of death and to investigate whether attachment style may underlie this contribution. Using a sample of 420 Israeli students, Study 1 revealed an inverse correlation between self-reports of symbolic immortality and fear of personal death. This finding was

Victor Florian; Mario Mikulincer

1998-01-01

479

Symbolic regression and evolutionary computation in setting an optimal trajectory for a robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a novelty tool for symbolic regression - Analytic Programming (AP) which is able to solve various problems from the symbolic regression domain. One of tasks for it can be setting an optimal trajectory for artificial ant on Santa Fe trail which is the main application of Analytic Programming in this paper. In this contribution main principles

Zuzana Oplatkova; Ivan Zelinka

2007-01-01

480

The Role of Intentionality and Iconicity in Children's Developing Comprehension and Production of Cartographic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contribution of intentionality understanding to symbolic development was examined. Actors added colored dots to a map, displaying either symbolic or aesthetic intentions. In Study 1, most children (5-6 years) understood actors' intentions, but when asked which graphic would help find hidden objects, most selected the incorrect (aesthetic) one…

Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

2008-01-01

481

Place promotion and symbolic characterization of New Songdo City, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the symbolic characterization of urban space in the publicity and marketing of New Songdo City – a new city under construction in South Korea. Competing with other places, the real estate sector and government actors construct the symbolic characterization of Songdo using various themes and cultural appeals. Songdo has been promoted as a node in the multicentered

Chigon Kim

2010-01-01

482

Symbol grounding transfer with hybrid self-organizing\\/supervised neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports new simulations on an extended neural network model for the transfer of symbol grounding. It uses a hybrid and modular connectionist model, consisting of an unsupervised, self-organizing map for stimulus classification and a supervised network for category acquisition and naming. The model is based on a psychologically-plausible view of symbolic communication, where unsupervised concept formation precedes the

Thomas Riga; Angelo Cangelosi; Alberto Greco

2004-01-01

483

Additional symbols used in double-spaced text for Wang OIS word-processor users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates samples of Greek symbols (and other symbols) that are on the Wang daisy printwheel but not in the form that is often required. This technique can be used in place of rub-ons. It applies to double-spaced formats only, and involves creating new format lines within the text.

1983-01-01

484

Symbol Creator: An Alternative Eye-based Text Entry Technique with Low Demand for Screen Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual keyboards used by physically impaired users for text entry usually display all characters simultaneously on the screen. Applications where saving physical space is critical, however, require another approach. A common option is grouping several symbols under one key and employing a hierarchical selection mechanism. We present an alternative technique (Symbol Creator) based on assembling characters using segments that resemble

Darius Miniotas; Oleg Spakov; Grigori E. Evreinov

2003-01-01

485

SYMBOLIC PROGRAMMING OF A GRAPH-THEORETIC APPROACH TO FLEXIBLE MULTIBODY DYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic formulation for multibody systems of rigid bodies and elastic beams has been implemented using a commercial symbolic manipulation language, Maple. The formulation is unique in that it combines linear graph theory with kinematics and the principle of virtual work. Symbolic equations in joint and elastic coordinates are automatically generated by our Maple algorithms, called DynaFlex, given only a

Pengfei Shi; John McPhee

2002-01-01

486

Body-symbols and social reality: Resurrection, incarnation and asceticism in early Christianity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mary Douglas has invited historians of religion to test her hypothesis about the social meaning of body symbols. Her view that body symbolism always points in the direction of social concerns and that efforts to separate body and spirit indicate sentiments of revolt and alienation has proved fruitful in several areas. Of course there is nothing particularly novel in the

John G Gager

1982-01-01

487

Rhetoric of Identity: An Inquiry into Symbolic Syntax and Composition of Black Identity in Bamboozled  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration into the epistemological function of symbols, their validity, and how they contribute to identity formation is imperative because of their rhetorical properties in the conceptualization and communication of black identity. In order to conduct such an effort, I draw from the term symbolic material to explore the formation of black identity and the representation of that identity, encrypted

2005-01-01

488

A symbolic manipulator for automated verification of reactive systems with heterogeneous data types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In this paper, we present design and implementationof the Composite Symbolic Library, a symbolicmanipulator for model checking systems with heterogeneousdata types. Our tool provides a common interfacefor different symbolic representations, such as BDDsfor representing boolean logic formulas and polyhedralrepresentations for linear arithmetic formulas. Based onthis common interface, these data structures are combinedusing a disjunctive composite representation. Wepropose several...

Tuba Yavuz-kahveci; Tevfik Bultan

2003-01-01

489

Integrated Evaluation of Listed Companies by Factor Analysis for Symbolic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic data analysis is a new data mining technology. Interval number is a most important type of symbolic data. An interval number can be seen as an ordered pair composed of its center and radius, where the radius can be considered as its limit error. A factor analysis is firstly performed on the center sample data matrix, from which the

Jun-Peng Guo; Feng Gao; Wen-Hua Li; Sa Gao

2008-01-01

490

Evaluating Maintenance Performance: A Video Approach to Symbolic Testing of Electronics Maintenance Tasks. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume reports an effort to use the video media as an approach for the preparation of a battery of symbolic tests that would be empirically valid substitutes for criterion referenced Job Task Performance Tests. The graphic symbolic tests require the storage of a large amount of pictorial information which must be searched rapidly for…

Shriver, Edgar L.; And Others

491

Emergence of graphic symbol functioning and the question of domain specificity: a longitudinal training study.  

PubMed

The impact of social scaffolding on the emergence of graphic symbol functioning was explored in a longitudinal training study. Links among graphic, language, and play domains in symbolic development were also investigated. The symbolic functioning of 16 children, who were 28 months at the outset of the study, was assessed in comprehension and production tasks across the three domains at monthly intervals from 28 to 36 months, and again at 42 months. Training was delivered in between monthly assessments during weekly visits. Half of the children received training, which consisted of the experimenter drawing common objects and highlighting the relation between pictures and their referents, for 16 consecutive weeks early in the study (early training, ET). The remaining half received a placebo version of training for these 16 weeks, followed by actual training for 4 weeks in the fifth month (late training, LT). After the first 4 months of training the ET group was found to have accelerated comprehension and production of graphic symbols relative to the LT group. After the fifth month, the LT group reached the same level of graphic symbol performance as the ET group. There were strong positive correlations found among graphic symbol functioning and language and play, and between play and language. These findings support the view that graphic symbolic development can be influenced by cultural scaffolding, that more extensive training is needed early rather than later in development, and that interrelationships exist among symbolic domains. PMID:11949897

Callaghan, Tara C; Rankin, Mary P

492

Acquisition of lexical semantics through unsupervised discovery of associations between perceptual symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an unsupervised method to acquire the lexical semantics of action verbs. The eventual goal of the presented method is allowing a robot to acquire language under realistic conditions. The method acquires lexical semantics by forming association sets that contain general perceptual symbols associated with a certain concept as well as perceptual symbols of the utterances of the

Tuna Oezer

2008-01-01

493

A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

2012-01-01

494

21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01...and size of symbol on label and labeling. 1302.04 Section 1302.04 Food and Drugs DRUG...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS...and size of symbol on label and...

2013-04-01

495

Effect of Translucency on Transparency and Symbol Learning for Children with and without Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the concept of iconicity, the iconicity hypothesis was emphasized for decades. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy. Twenty children with cerebral palsy and forty typical peers participated in the study. Ten symbols with high…

Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Ming-Chung

2011-01-01

496

Skill in the Arts: The Functions and Development of Presentational Symbolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general model of the uses of symbolic systems is defined in terms of the use of two techniques of symbolization: transactional and presentational. These techniques in turn are shown to relate to underlying modes of experience, which Susanne Langer has discussed as objective and subjective feeling, respectively. The second half of the paper…

Applebee, Arthur N.

497

The Statue of Liberty: The Meaning and Use of a National Symbol. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Statue of Liberty, which stands in Upper New York Bay, is a universal symbol of freedom. A gift from France, it originally was conceived as an emblem of the friendship between the people of France and the United States. It has become much more, symbolizing the Mother of Exiles, greeting the millions of immigrants and embodying hope and…

2001

498

Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

2009-01-01

499

Symbolics of the constellations of sagittarius and centaurus in russian traditional culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centaurus falls into the category of 'imaginary animals'. The Russian tradition used not only the symbol Sgr (a result of its acquaintance with the circle of Zodiac), but also the symbol Cen, which fact, as we shall demonstrate, is an evidence of certain mythological-astronomical conceptions. Both the constellations Sagittarius (Sgr) and Centaurus (Cen) are usually represented as versions of the

R. Bagdasarov

2001-01-01

500

REVIEW ARTICLE: Operator ordering in quantum optics theory and the development of Dirac's symbolic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general unified approach for arranging quantum operators of optical fields into ordered products (normal ordering, antinormal ordering, Weyl ordering (or symmetric ordering)) by fashioning Dirac's symbolic method and representation theory. We propose the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators to realize our goal. The IWOP makes Dirac's representation theory and the symbolic method

Hong-yi Fan

2003-01-01