Science.gov

Sample records for symbols safety

  1. Safety symbol comprehension: effects of symbol type, familiarity, and age.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Holly E; Rogers, Wendy A; Schroeder, Derek; Fisk, Arthur D

    2004-01-01

    A new procedure for evaluating symbol comprehension, the phrase generation procedure, was assessed with 52 younger and 52 older adults. Participants generated as many phrases as came to mind when viewing 40 different safety symbols (hazard alerting, mandatory action, prohibition, and information symbols). Symbol familiarity was also assessed. Comprehension rates for both groups were lower than the 85% level recommended by the American National Standards Institute. Moreover, older participants' comprehension was significantly worse than younger participants', and the older adults also generated significantly fewer phrases. Generally, prohibition symbols were comprehended best and hazard alerting symbols worst. In addition, symbol familiarity was positively correlated with symbol comprehension. These findings indicate that important safety information depicted on signs and household products may be misunderstood if presented in symbolic form. Furthermore, certain types of symbols may be better understood (e.g., prohibition symbols) than other types (e.g., hazard alerting symbols) by both younger and older individuals. These findings signify the utility of the phrase generation procedure as a method for evaluating symbol comprehension, particularly when it is not possible or desirable to provide contextual information. Actual or potential applications of this research include using the phrase generation approach to identify poorly comprehended symbols, including identification of critical confusions that may arise when processing symbolic information. PMID:15359669

  2. Engaging Latino farmworkers in the development of symbols to improve pesticide safety and health education and risk communication.

    PubMed

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Blanchard, Margaret R; Asuaje, Cesar R; Cope, W Gregory

    2013-10-01

    The working and living environments of farmworkers put them and their families at risk for pesticide exposure and, consequently, immediate and long-term health effects. In this study, visual materials for a pesticide toxicology safety and health curriculum were constructed by engaging farmworkers in various stages of symbol development. Twenty-seven farmworkers in two states participated in this descriptive case study through focused small group discussions and interviews. Our findings support the importance of vivid and realistic symbols, the effectiveness of a traffic-light symbol in communicating technical information to farmworkers, and the need to engage low-literacy end-users in the production of educational materials. This work informs the development of curricula for other vulnerable populations pertaining to a variety of health-related topics, as well as discussions surrounding regulatory proposals to revise the United States Worker Protection Standard. PMID:22833257

  3. Symbolic solutions for deadly dilemmas: an analysis of federal coal mine health and safety legislation.

    PubMed

    Curran, D J

    1984-01-01

    Numerous studies of coal mine laws have argued that the passage of all significant health and safety legislation can be attributed to a succession of catastrophic disasters which heightened awareness and propelled lawmakers into action. This paper takes issue with this "disaster-law" argument because it obscures the intricacies of law creation by focusing on a single factor. More accurately, mining disasters represent one dimension of a process aimed at resolving conflicts occurring within a specific social context. Historically, legislation has been utilized to avert economic crises by addressing the demands of protesting miners. Unfortunately, while the "written law" assured improvements, the "law in action" did not meet these guarantees and the deaths in the mines continued. A case study of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 demonstrates how a law with apparently progressive standards can fail to effect change because of its dualistic nature and incomplete implementation. PMID:6370880

  4. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

  5. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  6. Symbolicity Among Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, L. Brooks; Lujan, Philip

    Within the framework of "symbolicity" and "nativistic movement" the paper presents a "reasonably balanced and illustrative" examination of selected negative and positive trends in Native American symbolicity. Symbolicity is defined as the state, condition, and tendency of people to organize their perceptions and experience into symbols and symbol…

  7. Sorting Symbol Strings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Jodie D.; Jacobs, Judith E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a variety of activities that ask students to identify, describe, compare, and classify symbol strings (algebraic expressions and equations). The activities use a collection of twelve symbol strings on cards. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Pedagogical Symbols and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolin, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses symbolism in society, literature, and education. Describes the use of symbolism in the changes accompanying the Bolshevik revolution and the establishment of Marxist-Leninist society in the Soviet Union. Suggests that no effort has been made to develop a set of symbols to accompany the changes of perestroika. (DK)

  9. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  10. Definitions and Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Terminology, definitions and symbols for particle characterization widely vary in different countries and fields of application. Therefore, definitions and symbols used in this book are summarized in this chapter. Moreover, the reader is strongly advised to check whether the definitions and symbols used in his or her country and field of application agree with the ones used here and in other literature.

  11. Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

  12. Handwritten mathematical symbols dataset.

    PubMed

    Chajri, Yassine; Bouikhalene, Belaid

    2016-06-01

    Due to the technological advances in recent years, paper scientific documents are used less and less. Thus, the trend in the scientific community to use digital documents has increased considerably. Among these documents, there are scientific documents and more specifically mathematics documents. In this context, we present our own dataset of handwritten mathematical symbols composed of 10,379 images. This dataset gathers Arabic characters, Latin characters, Arabic numerals, Latin numerals, arithmetic operators, set-symbols, comparison symbols, delimiters, etc. PMID:27006975

  13. Handwritten mathematical symbols dataset

    PubMed Central

    Chajri, Yassine; Bouikhalene, Belaid

    2016-01-01

    Due to the technological advances in recent years, paper scientific documents are used less and less. Thus, the trend in the scientific community to use digital documents has increased considerably. Among these documents, there are scientific documents and more specifically mathematics documents. In this context, we present our own dataset of handwritten mathematical symbols composed of 10,379 images. This dataset gathers Arabic characters, Latin characters, Arabic numerals, Latin numerals, arithmetic operators, set-symbols, comparison symbols, delimiters, etc. PMID:27006975

  14. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  15. The Symbolic Identity Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goud, Nelson H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.

  16. Symbolic Interaction Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Vernon W.; Wright, H. Curtis

    Symbolic interactionism is a theoretical framework that derives from critical humanism through social psychology and is presented as an alternative to sociological and psychological views of social reality. This paper analyzes the general arguments of symbolic interactionism, its portrayal of people as responsible agents, and its interpretive…

  17. Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

  18. Computers for symbolic processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Lowrie, Matthew B.; Li, Guo-Jie

    1989-01-01

    A detailed survey on the motivations, design, applications, current status, and limitations of computers designed for symbolic processing is provided. Symbolic processing computations are performed at the word, relation, or meaning levels, and the knowledge used in symbolic applications may be fuzzy, uncertain, indeterminate, and ill represented. Various techniques for knowledge representation and processing are discussed from both the designers' and users' points of view. The design and choice of a suitable language for symbolic processing and the mapping of applications into a software architecture are then considered. The process of refining the application requirements into hardware and software architectures is treated, and state-of-the-art sequential and parallel computers designed for symbolic processing are discussed.

  19. Symbolic transfer entropy.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-18

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity. PMID:18518155

  20. Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.

  1. Memoized Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

  2. Multiple symbol differential detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  3. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  4. Web life: Sixty Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    So what is the site about? If you enjoyed The Periodic Table of Videos we profiled earlier this year (January p35), but found it a bit too...well...chemical, then this is the website for you. Physics does not really have a periodic table, so a handful of scientists from Nottingham University in the UK worked with video-journalist Brady Haran to create one. The result is a 6 × 10 matrix of important symbols in physics and astronomy, each linked to a 5–10 min video describing the symbol's significance.

  5. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques

  6. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  7. Textures as Communication Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Branch, Jamie; Bailey, Brent R.; Poff, Lisa E., Ed.

    Designed for teaching the related services staff, residential care providers, and families of individuals with severe hearing and vision impairments, this booklet explains the issues related to developing a communication system using textures. The texture symbols described are intended for use by individuals with dual sensory and multiple

  8. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  9. The Meaning Constructed beyond Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delice, Ali; Aydin, Emin

    2006-01-01

    Algebra and calculus students have difficulties to express themselves in a statement of mathematical symbols and to comment on written mathematical statements to end with equivalent mathematical symbols statement. In this study, the reasons behind the meaning students load to the mathematical symbols and written mathematical statements was…

  10. Symbolic play and language development.

    PubMed

    Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny

    2015-02-01

    Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis. PMID:25658200

  11. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  12. Symbolic local information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.

  13. International Icon Symbols: How Well Are These Symbols Understood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E.; Gibbs, William J.

    There is a great reliance on symbolic messages in our society, but the success of these messages depends on how they are interpreted. The variability of subjects' interpretations of commonly used visual symbols was investigated by comparing the interpretations of a U.S. audience and a Jamaican audience. Responses of 27 executive master's in

  14. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    PubMed

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility. PMID:12278515

  15. Shanahan on symbolization.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago. PMID:18293048

  16. SYMBOLS USED IN MUSIC ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, GEORGE T.

    A RECOMMENDED STANDARDIZED SYMBOLIZATION RESULTED FROM A DETAILED COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALYTICAL SYMBOLIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY FOUND IN MUSIC THEORY AND HARMONY TEXTBOOKS WHICH WERE IN GENERAL USE IN THE UNITED STATES. OVER 200 MEMBER SCHOOLS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOLS OF MUSIC PROVIDED DATA ON MATERIALS. ABSTRACTS SHOWING…

  17. Fostering Symbolic Interpretation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan; Wells-Jopling, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although by 11 years children demonstrate impressive performance on various tasks that assess symbolic thinking in language development, research suggests that few young adolescents demonstrate evidence of symbolic processing when reading literature. This study investigated whether the difficulty might be due to a lack of adequate exposure to…

  18. The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.

  19. Symbolism, Science, and Developing Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Michael J.; Levine, Shellie H.

    1986-01-01

    Approximately 500 nonscience major university chemistry students were surveyed to record their interpretations of specific chemical symbolism before presenting modern concepts of atomic and molecular structure, in an attempt to understand the thought processes entering students use as they interpret symbolism. Results are reported and discussed.…

  20. [Plastic image and symbolization].

    PubMed

    Loschi, J A

    1979-03-01

    This paper deals with the ontogenesis of the plastic image in its different pxychobiological aspects, in the background of the symbolization process. A reference is made to the maturing of perceptive processes, including the developments of Spitz, Wallon, Melanie Klein and Fontana. The analysis of the neurophysiological correlations of the image formation process is followed by a study of the functional role of the image in psychic dynamics, its genetic relationship with sensation and speech, its role in the communication functions, in the structuring of the relationship between the internal and the external world. The symbolizing faculty of the image is shown in the fact that it connects the body, the emotions and the sensations with the objects visually perceived, and makes up a unit with all that. According with the principle of genetic continuity, the effect of disturbances in the image formation process on speech is studied, and the way this is reflected in the forms of connexion and in the characteristic discourse of the different psychopathological structures. The image as a confluence of corporal and affective sensations constitutes a basic support in the projective identification process and in the problems of fusion-differentiation with the object as something external, the predominance of the image or of that which is perceived. The items in this paper offer a detailed description of the earliest stages of development, and is completed with references to aspects in the history of man and of culture where an evidence can be found of the role of the image insofar it reflects a certain orden in human dimensions in time and space. PMID:94970

  1. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax. PMID:17101209

  2. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  3. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  4. Symbols: Weapons of Math Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torigoe, Eugene; Gladding, Gary

    2007-11-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing investigation of how students use and understand mathematics in introductory physics. Our previous research [1] revealed that differences in score as large as 50% can be observed between numeric and symbolic versions of the same question. We have expanded our study of numeric and symbolic differences to include 10 pairs of questions on a calculus based introductory physics final exam. We find that not all physics problems exhibit such large differences and that in the cases where a large difference is observed that the largest difference occurs for the poorest students. With these 10 questions we have been able to develop phenomenological categories to characterize the properties of each of the questions. We will discuss what question properties are necessary to observe differences in score on the numeric and symbolic versions. We will also discuss what insights these categories give us about how students think about and use symbols in physics.

  5. Subprincipal Symbol for Toeplitz Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    We establish some subprincipal estimates for Berezin-Toeplitz operators on symplectic compact manifolds. From this, we construct a family of subprincipal symbol maps and we prove that these maps are the only ones satisfying some expected conditions.

  6. Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

  7. Early Numerical Development and the Role of Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    For learning math, non-symbolic quantity skills, symbolic skills and the mapping between number symbols and non-symbolic quantities are all important precursors. Little is known, however, about the interrelated development of these skills. The current study focuses on numerical development by: (a) investigating the structure of non-symbolic,…

  8. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  9. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies. PMID:26983175

  10. Architectural relationships involving symbolic substitution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L

    1988-02-01

    A functional correspondence is shown among neural networks, symbolic substitution, digital computers, the permutation group S(N), and optical correlator devices. Group and element networks are postulated. The dimensionality of the group number N is interpreted as a measure of the parallel capacity of a network. The principle of symbolic substitution is used to design S(2) rules for a full binary adder, and neura! model techniques are applied to produce a neural net implementing the adder. Optical neuromorphs are described for the processing nodes of the network. PMID:20523635

  11. Made to Symbolize: Intentionality and Children's Early Understanding of Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Tanya

    2005-01-01

    This experiment tested whether children's insight into a difficult symbolic relation could be increased by explicitly emphasizing the intentionality surrounding the artifact's creation and use. Specifically, I explicitly emphasized (a) the adult's intent to communicate information via the artifact and (b) the artifact's intentional origins and…

  12. Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

  13. Fractions--Concepts before Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

    The learning difficulties that students experience with fractions begin immediately when they are shown fraction symbols with one numeral written above the other and told that the "top number" is called the numerator and the "bottom number" is called the denominator. This introduction to fractions will usually include a few visual diagrams to help…

  14. Symbolic Power, Robotting, and Surveilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical…

  15. Automating symbolic analysis with CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Keith E.

    1990-01-01

    Symbolic Analysis is a methodology first applied as an aid in selecting and generating test cases for 'white box' type testing of computer software programs. The feasibility of automating this analysis process has recently been demonstrated through the development of a CLIPS-based prototype tool. Symbolic analysis is based on separating the logic flow diagram of a computer program into its basic elements, and then systematically examining those elements and their relationships to provide a detailed static analysis of the process that those diagrams represent. The basic logic flow diagram elements are flow structure (connections), predicates (decisions), and computations (actions). The symbolic analysis approach supplies a disciplined step-by-step process to identify all executable program paths and produce a truth table that defines the input and output domains for each path identified. The resulting truth table is the tool that allows software test cases to be generated in a comprehensive manner to achieve total program path, input domain, and output domain coverage. Since the manual application of symbolic analysis is extremely labor intensive and is itself error prone, automation of the process is highly desirable. Earlier attempts at automation, utilizing conventional software approaches, had only limited success. This paper briefly describes the automation problems, the symbolic analysis expert's problem solving heuristics, and the implementation of those heuristics as a CLIPS based prototype, and the manual augmentation required. A simple application example is also provided for illustration purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of implementation experiences, automation limitations, usage experiences, and future development suggestions.

  16. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  17. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  18. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  19. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  20. Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is

  1. Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

  2. 22 CFR 41.12 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification of Nonimmigrants § 41.12 Classification symbols. A visa... appropriate visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. The symbol shall be inserted in the...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  7. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  8. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  11. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  12. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

  13. Priming Reveals Differential Coding of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggeman, Chantal; Verguts, Tom; Fias, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Number processing is characterized by the distance and the size effect, but symbolic numbers exhibit smaller effects than non-symbolic numerosities. The difference between symbolic and non-symbolic processing can either be explained by a different kind of underlying representation or by parametric differences within the same type of underlying…

  14. Figural symbolism in Chinese ideographs.

    PubMed

    Koriat, A; Levy, I

    1979-07-01

    Hebrew-speaking subjects were presented with 42 pairs of Chinese characters designating antonymic concepts and were required to match them with their corresponding Hebrew words. Correct translation was significant and was related to foreign language study and academic experience. Highest success was found for the activity domain of the semantic differential and for attributes judged to afford a diagrammatic representation. Examination of the character-referent relationships suggested that translation success was due to principles of figural symbolism rather than to pictographic representation of the attributes in question. The results are seen as suggestive of the effects of figural symbolization on the invention and/or evolution of natural scripts and are discussed in terms of the manner in which the graphic medium has been fashioned to convey abstract concepts. PMID:90721

  15. Symbolic Execution Enhanced System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Misty D.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Raman, Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    We describe a testing technique that uses information computed by symbolic execution of a program unit to guide the generation of inputs to the system containing the unit, in such a way that the unit's, and hence the system's, coverage is increased. The symbolic execution computes unit constraints at run-time, along program paths obtained by system simulations. We use machine learning techniques treatment learning and function fitting to approximate the system input constraints that will lead to the satisfaction of the unit constraints. Execution of system input predictions either uncovers new code regions in the unit under analysis or provides information that can be used to improve the approximation. We have implemented the technique and we have demonstrated its effectiveness on several examples, including one from the aerospace domain.

  16. Selforganization of Symbols and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Werner; Feistel, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    Following the spirit of the late John Nicolis, the purpose of this paper is to develop an evolutionary approach for the basic problem of generation, storage and dissipation of information in physical and biological systems via dynamical processes. After analysing the relation of entropy and information we develop our view that information is in general a nonphysical, emergent quantity, in spite of the fact that information transfer is always connected with flows of physical energy and entropy. We argue that information can have two basic forms: free information (like that of disks, tapes, books), that is what is transferred between sender and receiver, and bound information, that is a physical non-equilibrium structure which retains potential information reflecting the history of its formation (like fossils, geological strata or galaxies). As a basic concept we consider a kinetic phase transition of the second kind, termed the ritualization transition, which leads to the self-organized emergence of symbols, the key elements of free information. Ritualization occurs only in the context of life. Hence, the simplest physical example for a ritualization process is a system that starts as a physical and ends as a biological one, in other words, the origin of life. Our interest in this transition is focussed on the self-organization of information, on the way how a physical system can be enabled to create symbols and the related symbol-processing machinery out of ordinary pre-biological roots.

  17. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424

  18. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  3. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures. PMID:24795662

  4. Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

  5. Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

  6. SYMBOLIC INFERENCE OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    MCSHAN, D.C.; UPDADHAYAYA, M.; SHAH, I.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new symbolic computational approach to elucidate the biochemical networks of living systems de novo and we apply it to an important biomedical problem: xenobiotic metabolism. A crucial issue in analyzing and modeling a living organism is understanding its biochemical network beyond what is already known. Our objective is to use the available metabolic information in a representational framework that enables the inference of novel biochemical knowledge and whose results can be validated experimentally. We describe a symbolic computational approach consisting of two parts. First, biotransformation rules are inferred from the molecular graphs of compounds in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Second, these rules are recursively applied to different compounds to generate novel metabolic networks, containing new biotransformations and new metabolites. Using data for 456 generic reactions and 825 generic compounds from KEGG we were able to extract 110 biotransformation rules, which generalize a subset of known biocatalytic functions. We tested our approach by applying these rules to ethanol, a common substance of abuse and to furfuryl alcohol, a xenobiotic organic solvent, which is absent in metabolic databases. In both cases our predictions on the fate of ethanol and furfuryl alcohol are consistent with the literature on the metabolism of these compounds. PMID:14992532

  7. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  8. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  9. Symbolic enhancement of perspective displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Hacisalihzade, Selim S.

    1990-01-01

    Two exocentric azimuth judgment experiments with a perspective display were conducted with 16 subjects. Previous work has shown these judgments to exhibit a bias possibly due to misinterpretation of the viewing parameters used to generate the display. Though geometric compensations may be used to correct for the bias, an alternate technique selected in the following 2 experiments was the introduction of symbolic enhancements in the form of compass roses. It is suggested that a compass rose with 30 deg divisions results in overall optimal azimuth estimation accuracy when accuracy and decision time are both considered. The data also suggest that the added radial lines on the compass roses may interact with normalization processes that influence the judgment errors.

  10. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  11. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and G—green....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and G—green....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and G—green....

  14. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and G—green....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and G—green....

  16. Symbol Character Generator Developed for Decwriter II

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, R.J.

    2001-03-15

    The versatile dot matrix printer of the DECwriter II was modified to enable printing of symbol characters., e.g., Greek letters and other symbol for mathematical expressions and units of measurement. This development involved the replacement of the read-only memory (ROM) units with erasable-programmable read-only memory (EPROM) units.

  17. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  18. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  19. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  4. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  5. The Ceremonies and Symbols of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Courtney H.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2007-01-01

    The University of Virginia takes great care in being thoughtful, consistent, and clear about its messages regarding citizenship. While many other institutions hold rituals and distribute symbols to help students achieve desired learning outcomes, all colleges and universities may not be fully realizing the potential of these rituals and symbols.…

  6. Banking (on) Different Forms of Symbolic Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Blaise; Shaw, Debora

    2002-01-01

    Successful symbolic capital formation in academia is commonly signified by the trappings of scholarly distinction or acknowledged status as a public intellectual. Compares three potential indices of symbolic capital: citation counts, Web hits, and media mentions. Findings, which are domain specific, suggest public intellectuals are notable by…

  7. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can

  8. Symbolism and Presidential Perceptions of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    1989-01-01

    Leadership is discussed from the perspective of post-secondary organizations as socially constructed and subjective entities. Six symbolic categories used by presidents are examined: metaphorical, physical, communicative, structural, personification, and ideational. Implications for administrators of understanding the symbolism of their leadership…

  9. The Sound-Symbolic System of Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamano, Shoko

    This study explores sound-symbolic, or mimetic, words in the Japanese language, the majority of which are never entered in Japanese dictionaries, and which may not be fully understood in all their nuances by native speakers. The extensiveness of the sound-symbolic system is related to the semantic under-differentiation of Japanese verbs. An…

  10. Computerized Symbol Processing for Handicapped Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others

    The paper describes the development of a computerized symbol processing system which allows nonspeaking severely handicapped persons to create communication electronically. Two pilot studies investigated the use of Rebus and Bliss Symbols with either an Apple Graphics Tablet or the Power Pad, a peripheral which allowed users to activate the…

  11. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  12. THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAFFAL, JULIUS

    A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

  13. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant...

  14. Goal oriented symbolic propagation in Bayesian networks

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, E.; Gutierrez, J.M.; Hadi, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents an efficient goal oriented algorithm for symbolic propagation in Bayesian networks. The proposed algorithm performs symbolic propagation using numerical methods. It first takes advantage of the independence relationships among the variables and produce a reduced graph which contains only the relevant nodes and parameters required to compute the desired propagation. Then, the symbolic expression of the solution is obtained by performing numerical propagations associated with specific values of the symbolic parameters. These specific values are called the canonical components. Substantial savings are obtained with this new algorithm. Furthermore, the canonical components allow us to obtain lower and upper bounds for the symbolic expressions resulting from the propagation. An example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  15. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  16. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  17. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  18. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  19. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  20. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  1. Operator method for calculating Q symbols and their relation to weyl-wigner symbols and symplectic tomogram symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V. A.; Davidović, L. D.; Davidović, Milena D.; Davidović, Miloš D.; Manko, V. I.; Manko, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a new method for calculating Husimi symbols of operators. In contrast to the standard method, it does not require using the anti-normal-ordering procedure. According to this method, the coordinate and momentum operators and are assigned other operators and satisfying the same commutation relations. We then find the result of acting with the and operators and also polynomials in these operators on the Husimi function. After the obtained expression is integrated over the phase space coordinates, the integrand becomes a Husimi function times the symbol of the operator chosen to act on that function. We explicitly evaluate the Husimi symbols for operators that are powers of or.

  2. Symbolism in the dreams of the blind.

    PubMed

    Kirtley, D D; Sabo, K T

    1979-01-01

    The present study compared a group of visually handicapped adults and normally-sighted college students with respect to extent of symbolic content in nocturnal dreams. The visually handicapped group comprised individuals who were partially sighted, congenitally blind and adventitiously blind. Each subject was required to keep a dream-diary for a period of two or four months. These diaries were then content-analyzed for frequency of symbolic instances, with symbols being identified in line with the criteria suggested by Hall (1966) and Hall and Nordby (1972). Although individual differences were marked and some visually handicapped subjects reported highly symbolic dreams, this group, on the whole, revealed less symbolism in dreams than did the normally sighted subjects. There was also a tendency for individuals blinded later in life (after age seven) to manifest more symbolic content in dreams than subjects blinded earlier (before age five). However, for the partially sighted subjects in the study, there emerged no clear relationship between age of onset of visual impairment and amount of symbolism in dreams. In general, the present findings were congruent with those of Blank (1958). PMID:90024

  3. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  4. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  5. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  6. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  7. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  8. 9 CFR 590.412 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 590.412 Section 590.412 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and...

  9. Symbolic representation of cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H I; Sayetta, R B; Coston, G N; Hussey, J R

    1991-07-01

    Since the introduction of symbolic representations of cleft lip and palate anomalies in 1964, they have served the clinician as a quick and easy method of recording these disorders. This paper reviews the evolution of the schematic classification systems and evaluates them. It then presents a new scheme that synthesizes what the authors feel are the most advanced of the existing symbolic representations. This proposed new symbolic representation scheme also specifically provides for ratings of severity (including the documentation of microforms) and facilitates computerized data storage and analysis. PMID:1911812

  10. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  11. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  12. Symbolic signatures for deformable shapes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Correa, Salvador; Shapiro, Linda G; Meila, Marina; Berson, Gabriel; Cunningham, Michael L; Sze, Raymond W

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing classes of objects from their shape is an unsolved problem in machine vision that entails the ability of a computer system to represent and generalize complex geometrical information on the basis of a finite amount of prior data. A practical approach to this problem is particularly difficult to implement, not only because the shape variability of relevant object classes is generally large, but also because standard sensing devices used to capture the real world only provide a partial view of a scene, so there is partial information pertaining to the objects of interest. In this work, we develop an algorithmic framework for recognizing classes of deformable shapes from range data. The basic idea of our component-based approach is to generalize existing surface representations that have proven effective in recognizing specific 3D objects to the problem of object classes using our newly introduced symbolic-signature representation that is robust to deformations, as opposed to a numeric representation that is often tied to a specific shape. Based on this approach, we present a system that is capable of recognizing and classifying a variety of object shape classes from range data. We demonstrate our system in a series of large-scale experiments that were motivated by specific applications in scene analysis and medical diagnosis. PMID:16402621

  13. Physical Concepts and Mathematical Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelland, Hans Herlof

    2007-12-01

    According to traditional empiricist philosophy of science, concepts and meaning grow out of sense experience, and the mathematical structure of a physical theory is nothing but a formalisation of a given meaning-content. This view seems to work well in classical mechanics. But it breaks down in quantum physics, where we have a self-supported mathematical structure which resists any conceptual or pictorial interpretation in the traditional sense. Thus, traditional empiricism is flawed. Quantum physics teaches us that mathematics is a language in itself which extends beyond ordinary language. To understand the meaning of this extended language, we have to explore how new concepts and intuitions grow out of mathematics, not the other way around. The symbolic structure is prior to its meaning. This point of view is called linguistic empiricism, to stress that the connection with experience is still crucial. As cases, I compare the concept of stiffness in classical mechanics and the concept of electron density in quantum mechanics. The last case demonstrates that the wave function has a richer interpretation than the probabilistic one concerning measurement of position.

  14. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  15. Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.

    1993-01-01

    Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.

  16. Mastering Word and Symbol Language in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Alfred J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggested are sight word activities which will help students recognize both language and mathematical symbols in reading materials. Activities described include context clues, structural analysis, phonic cues, and dictionary skills. (DS)

  17. Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

  18. Using Symbolism to Enhance the School Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, James J.

    1985-01-01

    In response to the current criticisms of the educational system, a method for incorporating the use of symbolism to spread positive information about schools is outlined. It uses stories, rituals, evaluation procedures, humor, and other activities. (MD)

  19. Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

  20. Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

  1. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Information § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and... the convenience of the user, the added text is set forth as follows: § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms,...

  2. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  3. Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Amlan; Hu, Qian; Boykin, Stanley; Clark, Cheryl; Fish, Randy; Jones, Stephen; Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet PC's handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet PC's symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this new symbol recognition module is robust and expandable, we report results on both a medical symbol set and an expanded symbol test set which includes selected mathematical symbols.

  4. How Do You Describe a Symbol? The Problems Involved in Retrieving Symbols from a Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Mary C.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes attributes of symbols and identifies the need for a suitable management system for retrieving images from a database. A classification structure that incorporates graphic, semantic, and bibliographic dimensions is described; experiments with describing, sorting, and drawing symbols are reviewed; and future work on a database management…

  5. On the symbolism of the white coat.

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2014-12-01

    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry. PMID:25480273

  6. Artificial symbols and the essence of intelligent computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus, Amy L.; Oxley, Mark E.

    2003-08-01

    A challenge for intelligent computing is translating the skills of innovation into mathematical theory and persistent learning algorithms. Computational intelligence differs from artificial intelligence in that artificial intelligence reasons over symbols while computational intelligence reasons over sub-symbolic data and information. Natural symbos arise from shared human experiences. The creative quality of human interaction suggests symbol generation involves a collection of cooperative agents capable of representing relative experience, negotiating innovation, and---finally---building consensus. As hybrids of sub-symbolic and symbolic reasoning become the norm, it is necessary to formalize the design and evaluation of artificial symbols. In this paper, we delineate the difference between sub-symbolic patterns and symbolic experience. Further, we propose fundamental theory supporting the autonomous construction of artificial symbols which---we assert---is the ultimate culmination of an intelligent computation. We apply this theory to model selection among neural networks.

  7. Symbolic Substitution Methods For Optical Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdocca, M. J.; Huang, A.

    1989-02-01

    Symbolic substitution is a method of computing based on parallel binary pattern replacement, that can be implemented with simple optical components and regular free-space interconnection schemes. A two-dimensional pattern is searched for in parallel in an array and is replaced with another pattern. Pattern transformation rules can be applied sequentially or in parallel to realize complex functions. When the substitution space is modified to be loge SIT connected for N binary spots, and masks are allowed to customize the system, then optical digital circuits using symbolic substitution for network interconnects can be made nearly as efficient in terms of gate count and circuit depth as conventional arbitrary interconnection schemes allow. We describe an optical setup that requires no more than a fanin and fanout of two using optically nonlinear logic devices and a free space interconnection scheme based on symbolic substitution.

  8. Use of symbolic computation in robotics education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward

    1992-01-01

    An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.

  9. Second topological conjugate transformation in symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shou-Li; Zhang, Xu-Sheng

    1998-05-01

    A topological conjugate transformation defined as the joint actions of both the Derrida-Gervois-Pomeau (DGP) * product operation QC * in the symbolic space (or its corresponding parameter space) and the mapping f\\|QC\\| in the symbolic dynamics of the interval, which with respect to the first topological conjugate transformation (the merely action of QC * ) is called the second topological conjugate transformation, is found. It reveals conspicuously clustering of the orbital points and preserves the topological entropy of the dynamical systems. In analogy to the first topological conjugate transformation, there exist also infinitely many second topological conjugate maps. The second topological conjugate transformation provides a topological foundation for Feigenbaum's [J. Stat. Phys. 19, 25 (1978); 21, 669 (1979)] universalities and a basic topological method for discriminating the compound words in the sense of the DGP * product in the symbolic space Σ2 of two letters. Therefore it opens up a way to seek the generalized * product for the more complex dynamical systems.

  10. Symbolic-numeric interface: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

  11. Efficient computation of Lorentzian 6J symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Joshua

    2007-04-01

    Spin foam models are a proposal for a quantum theory of gravity, and an important open question is whether they reproduce classical general relativity in the low energy limit. One approach to tackling that problem is to simulate spin-foam models on the computer, but this is hampered by the high computational cost of evaluating the basic building block of these models, the so-called 10J symbol. For Euclidean models, Christensen and Egan have developed an efficient algorithm, but for Lorentzian models this problem remains open. In this talk we describe an efficient method developed for Lorentzian 6J symbols, and we also report on recent work in progress to use this efficient algorithm in calculating the 10J symbols that are of real interest.

  12. Symbolic objects and the analytic frame.

    PubMed

    Colman, Warren

    2011-04-01

    With reference to two patients who brought material objects to their sessions (previously discussed in Colman 2010a, 2010b), this paper reconsiders the pre-eminent role of verbal communication in analysis. I suggest that the privileging of words over action derives from Freud's view of the mind in which only that which can be put into words can become conscious. Following Stephen Mitchell (1993), I discuss the way that this view has become relativized by the shift away from an instinctual drive model to a more relational, meaning-making view of the mind. This is then linked to Jung's emphasis on the importance of symbols and the transcendent function and Milner's view of the therapeutic frame as a space for symbolic meaning. Drawing the boundaries of the therapeutic frame in this way allows for symbolic actions within the frame rather than as boundary-crossing deviations from a more narrowly defined frame which allows only for verbal communications. PMID:21434899

  13. Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.C. |

    1997-12-31

    Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.

  14. Symbolic Simulation Of Engineering Systems On A Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragheb, Magdi; Gvillo, Dennis; Makowitz, Henry

    1986-03-01

    Model-Based Production-Rule systems for analysis are developed for the symbolic simulation of Complex Engineering systems on a CRAY X-MP Supercomputer. The Fault-Tree and Event-Tree Analysis methodologies from Systems-Analysis are used for problem representation and are coupled to the Rule-Based System Paradigm from Knowledge Engineering to provide modelling of engineering devices. Modelling is based on knowledge of the structure and function of the device rather than on human expertise alone. To implement the methodology, we developed a Production-Rule Analysis System that uses both backward-chaining and forward-chaining: HAL-1986. The inference engine uses an Induction-Deduction-Oriented antecedent-consequent logic and is programmed in Portable Standard Lisp (PSL). The inference engine is general and can accommodate general modifications and additions to the knowledge base. The methodologies used will be demonstrated using a model for the identification of faults, and subsequent recovery from abnormal situations in Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis. The use of the exposed methodologies for the prognostication of future device responses under operational and accident conditions using coupled symbolic and procedural programming is discussed.

  15. Online Tester for a Symbol Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, D.; Mcconaugy, K.

    1985-01-01

    About 95 percent of faults detected. Programable instrument periodically checks for failures in system that generates alphanumerical and other symbol voltages for cathode-ray-tube displays. Symbol-generator tester compares gated test-point voltages with predetermined voltage limits while circuit under test performs commanded operation. A go/no-go indication given, depending on whether test voltage is or is not within its specification. Tester in plug-in modular form, temporarily wired to generator test points, or permanently wired to these points.

  16. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  17. Saccadic compression of symbolic numerical magnitude.

    PubMed

    Binda, Paola; Morrone, M Concetta; Bremmer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities. PMID:23166720

  18. Saccadic Compression of Symbolic Numerical Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Paola; Morrone, M. Concetta; Bremmer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities. PMID:23166720

  19. The Impact of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantity on Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    McCrink, Koleen; Galamba, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An implicit mapping of number to space via a “mental number line” occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers) and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left) on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number—especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high—and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner. PMID:25748826

  20. Perception and view of consumers on food irradiation and the Radura symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria P.; Galotto, Maria J.; Valenzuela, Ximena; Dinten, Carolina M.; Aguirre, Paulina; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at carrying out a survey on the knowledge and acceptance level of food irradiation. The work was carried out in Santiago, Chile. As an above-average level country in South and Central America, the results may give an indication about the situation in other countries. The survey could also provide an indication about the impression of the public regarding the international "Radura" symbol, indicating on a food product that has been irradiated. A total of 497 persons were interviewed. Among the interviewed people, 76.5% did not know that irradiation could be used as a method for food preservation; 46% expressed their belief that irradiated food means the same as radioactive food. Nevertheless, 91% claimed that they would become consumers of irradiated food if they knew that "irradiated" is not "radioactive" and that proper irradiation enhances food safety; 95.8% of the interviewed persons were not familiar with the "Radura" symbol. However, 55.8% expressed their opinion that they would buy irradiated food because of the symbol, affirming that the "Radura" symbol transmits the sensation of confidence and safety.

  1. Thought-Provoking Software: Juxtaposing Symbol Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, W. Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Argues that the computer's capacity to provide rapid translation between symbol systems in a socially meaningful context can be exploited to enrich learners' metacognitive skills and social awareness, as well as problem solving and creative expression. Describes software that capitalizes on this potential and proposes the development of new…

  2. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite

  3. Two Pieces of Wood: Symbols of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon Shockley; McKerrow, K. Kelly

    For 2 years, at least 2 days a week were spent by a researcher in observing, through the actions of the principal, the dynamics of cultural and ideologic conflict and the process of social control in an elementary school. This personal account analyzes the principal's use of corporal punishment, symbolized by the paddle, and positive

  4. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  5. Symbolic Interactionism and Social Action Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrione, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    An explanation and elaboration of existing theory on interaction, this article describes a point of convergence between Parsons' Voluntaristic Theory of Action and Blumer's conceptualization of Symbolic Interactionism and develops specific problems of divergence in these normative and interpretive models of interaction. (JC)

  6. Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

  7. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.

  8. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498

  9. The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Donna Dee

    The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

  10. Assessing levels of consciousness with symbolic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A

    2015-02-13

    'Covert consciousness' is a state in which consciousness is present without the capacity for behavioural response, and it can occur in patients with intraoperative awareness or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. To detect and prevent this undesirable state, it is critical to develop a reliable neurobiological assessment of an individual's level of consciousness that is independent of behaviour. One such approach that shows potential is measuring surrogates of cortical communication in the brain using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is practicable in clinical application, but involves many fundamental signal processing problems, including signal-to-noise ratio and high dimensional complexity. Symbolic analysis of EEG can mitigate these problems, improving the measurement of brain connectivity and the ability to successfully assess levels of consciousness. In this article, we review the problem of covert consciousness, basic neurobiological principles of consciousness, current methods of measuring brain connectivity and the advantages of symbolic processing, with a focus on symbolic transfer entropy (STE). Finally, we discuss recent advances and clinical applications of STE and other symbolic analyses to assess levels of consciousness. PMID:25548273

  11. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  12. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants

  13. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  14. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  15. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols. We have prescribed distinctive...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on which taxes and duties have been collected to support...

  16. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... September 11, 2001, if the petition or application was rendered void due to a terrorist act of September 11... September 11, 2001 Section 421 of Public Law 107-56. SR1 Certain Religious Workers 101(a)(27)(C)(ii)(II... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section...

  17. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... September 11, 2001, if the petition or application was rendered void due to a terrorist act of September 11... September 11, 2001 Section 421 of Public Law 107-56. SR1 Certain Religious Workers 101(a)(27)(C)(ii)(II... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section...

  18. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... September 11, 2001, if the petition or application was rendered void due to a terrorist act of September 11... September 11, 2001 Section 421 of Public Law 107-56. SR1 Certain Religious Workers 101(a)(27)(C)(ii)(II... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section...

  19. Brief non-symbolic, approximate number practice enhances subsequent exact symbolic arithmetic in children

    PubMed Central

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research reveals a link between individual differences in mathematics achievement and performance on tasks that activate the approximate number system (ANS): a primitive cognitive system shared by diverse animal species and by humans of all ages. Here we used a brief experimental paradigm to test one causal hypothesis suggested by this relationship: activation of the ANS may enhance children's performance of symbolic arithmetic. Over 2 experiments, children who briefly practiced tasks that engaged primitive approximate numerical quantities performed better on subsequent exact, symbolic arithmetic problems than did children given other tasks involving comparison and manipulation of non-numerical magnitudes (brightness and length). The practice effect appeared specific to mathematics, as no differences between groups were observed on a comparable sentence completion task. These results move beyond correlational research and provide evidence that the exercise of non-symbolic numerical processes can enhance children's performance of symbolic mathematics. PMID:24462713

  20. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  1. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This component has also contributed to the basic social scientific literature on complex organizations and the self. PMID:25221375

  2. NSL a Neuro-Symbolic Language for a Neuro-Symbolic Processor (NSP).

    PubMed

    Burattini, Ernesto; De Francesco, Antonio; De Gregorio, Massimo

    2003-04-01

    A Neuro-Symbolic Language for monotonic and non-monotonic parallel logical inference by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. Both the language and its compiler have been designed and implemented in order to translate the neural representation of a given problem into a VHDL software, which in turn can set devices such as FPGA. The result of this operation leads to an electronic circuit that we call NSP (Neuro-Symbolic Processor). PMID:12923922

  3. Performance Of The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Biren N.; Hinedi, Sami M.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents analysis of performance of Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) algorithm. Designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio of radio signal modulated by binary data pulses of period T and received in presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Incoming signal and noise first filtered, then sampled Ns - T/Ts times per symbol period. This study focuses on performance of SSME in case in which frequency width limited by digital filter and inter-symbol interference is thereby generated.

  4. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  5. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  6. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  7. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  8. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  9. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1037.805 Section 1037.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Information § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms,...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  12. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  14. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  15. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1037.805 Section 1037.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Information § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms,...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  19. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  20. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than

  1. 32 CFR 310.42 - Reports control symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports control symbol. 310.42 Section 310.42... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Reports § 310.42 Reports control symbol. Any report established by this subpart in support of the Privacy Program shall be assigned Report Control Symbol DD-COMP(A)1379....

  2. Developing Meaning for Algebraic Symbols: Possibilities and Pitfall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannin, John K.; Townsend, Brian E.; Armer, Nathan; Green, Savanna; Schneider, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Developing meaning for symbolic representations is an important part of the middle school mathematics experience for all students. Teachers must not see simply writing symbolic representations as the end goal, but focus on the internal meaning that students ascribe to these symbols. Too often, students lack a deep understanding of the algebraic…

  3. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Publication § 97.900 Form of official identification symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety...

  4. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Publication § 97.900 Form of official identification symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety...

  5. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Publication § 97.900 Form of official identification symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety...

  6. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Publication § 97.900 Form of official identification symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety...

  7. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Publication § 97.900 Form of official identification symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety...

  8. The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Mary E.

    Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

  9. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  13. Developing Meaning for Algebraic Symbols: Possibilities and Pitfall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannin, John K.; Townsend, Brian E.; Armer, Nathan; Green, Savanna; Schneider, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Developing meaning for symbolic representations is an important part of the middle school mathematics experience for all students. Teachers must not see simply writing symbolic representations as the end goal, but focus on the internal meaning that students ascribe to these symbols. Too often, students lack a deep understanding of the algebraic

  14. Sex Differences in Symbol-Digit Substitution Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Fred L.

    1978-01-01

    Three forms of a symbol-digit substitution task were administered to 62 female and 96 male college students. Results support the theory that the superior performance of women over men on the Digit-Symbol Substituion subtest of the Wechsler scales is due to their greater ability to encode symbols verbally. (Author/JAC)

  15. "They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols

  16. Symbolic Mathematics Engines in Teaching Chemistry: A Symposium Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The use of Symbolic Mathematics Engines (SMEs) in chemical education as a part of the Division of Computers in Chemistry was discussed by a panel of educators at the Symbolic Calculation in Chemistry symposium in Philadelphia in 2004. The panelists agreed that many more topics in chemistry are amenable to SME's exploration and that symbolic

  17. Transfer by Very Young Children in the Symbolic Retrieval Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoache, Judy S.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Marzolf, Donald P.

    2004-01-01

    Cumulative experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been hypothesized as a source of young children's increasing sensitivity to new symbol-referent relations. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from transfer studies showing that experience with a relatively easy symbolic retrieval task improves performance on a more difficult task.…

  18. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  19. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Julia F.; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed. PMID:26579012

  20. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people. PMID:17817633

  1. Symbolic learning supporting early diagnosis of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Surwka, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    We present a classification analysis of the pigmented skin lesion images taken in white light based on the inductive learning methods by Michalski (AQ). Those methods are developed for a computer system supporting the decision making process for early diagnosis of melanoma. Symbolic (machine) learning methods used in our study are tested on two types of features extracted from pigmented lesion images: coloristic/geometric features, and wavelet-based features. Classification performance with the wavelet features, although achieved with simple rules, is very high. Symbolic learning applied to our skin lesion data seems to outperform other classical machine learning methods, and is more comprehensive both in understanding, and in application of further improvements. PMID:21096628

  2. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  3. The myth and the symbol of biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, H D

    1986-01-01

    This paper argues that biofeedback suffers from misrepresentation of its historical background and early development, false claims about its effects (e.g. mind-expansion) and that it now symbolizes political and social positions with which it has no connection. The myth that biofeedback arose as a revolutionary break from established science is shown to be false. The symbolization of biofeedback as antifascist and libertarian is also debunked. Unfair demands on biofeedback for miracle cures and excessive profiteering from the biofeedback technology are also criticized. It is urged that scientists and clinicians who know better about the real history and applicability of biofeedback should speak out whenever possible against these misrepresentations. PMID:2419296

  4. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, E.

    1985-10-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race.

  5. Symbolic transfer entropy: inferring directionality in biosignals.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    Inferring directional interactions from biosignals is of crucial importance to improve understanding of dynamical interdependences underlying various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We here present symbolic transfer entropy as a robust measure to infer the direction of interactions between multidimensional dynamical systems. We demonstrate its performance in quantifying driver-responder relationships in a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators and in the human epileptic brain. PMID:19938889

  6. [The collective unconscious: from image to symbol].

    PubMed

    Brasseur, E

    1995-01-01

    With the help of clinical examples, the author tries to show how the therapeutic process works in Jung's theory of Unconscious: in the course of transference, the Unconscious generates Images which are coming from the Archetypes of Collective Unconscious. The interpretation of these Images and dreamer's associations trough transference, leads the patient to elaborate Symbols as carriers of a new sense for himself. PMID:7502672

  7. Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

  8. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field. PMID:12197200

  9. Estimation of chaotic coupled map lattices using symbolic vector dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Cheung, Yiu-ming; Shen, Yi; He, Zhenya

    2010-01-01

    In [K. Wang, W.J. Pei, Z.Y. He, Y.M. Cheung, Phys. Lett. A 367 (2007) 316], an original symbolic vector dynamics based method has been proposed for initial condition estimation in additive white Gaussian noisy environment. The estimation precision of this estimation method is determined by symbolic errors of the symbolic vector sequence gotten by symbolizing the received signal. This Letter further develops the symbolic vector dynamical estimation method. We correct symbolic errors with backward vector and the estimated values by using different symbols, and thus the estimation precision can be improved. Both theoretical and experimental results show that this algorithm enables us to recover initial condition of coupled map lattice exactly in both noisy and noise free cases. Therefore, we provide novel analytical techniques for understanding turbulences in coupled map lattice.

  10. Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1989-01-01

    A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

  11. Left parietal TMS disturbs priming between symbolic and non-symbolic number representations.

    PubMed

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Göbel, Silke M; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-07-01

    An amodal number representation activated by all types of numerical input, irrespective of the input notation, has often been proposed to be located in the left or right intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Two cross-notational priming experiments were carried out to test the existence of a notation-independent magnitude representation in the left or right parietal lobes. In Experiment 1, stimuli were Arabic digits and number words. Results revealed no significant effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left or right IPS during prime presentation. In contrast, in Experiment 2, digits and dot patterns were intermixed and here the priming distance effect (PDE) was reduced in the right TMS condition and absent for stimulation over left IPS. These findings suggest: (1) that TMS over left but not right IPS disrupts processes that are crucial for priming when symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli are intermixed, and (2) that disruption of the left IPS on its own is not sufficient to disrupt cross-notational priming when purely symbolic number notations are used. Our results point towards a crucial role of the left hemisphere for the mapping between small symbolic and non-symbolic numerosities. PMID:23665379

  12. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  13. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication.

    PubMed

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  14. Symbolic attitude and reverie: problems of symbolization in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bovensiepen, Gustav

    2002-04-01

    In comparison to the 1970s and 1980s, we now treat more children and adolescents who, because they have had traumatic experiences of violence, child abuse, deprivation or chronic physical illness, are not able to adequately use their symbolizing function. The question is which qualities and which analytical attitude we should and can offer in analysis to help a child regain his or her capacity to symbolize, irrespective of how poorly developed or blocked this capacity may be. In contrast to Jung and some Jungians, the author argues that although the transcendent function is a 'natural process' and hence archetypally grounded as Jung maintained, the transcendent function does not work spontaneously. Rather it requires a matrix based on the child's earliest relationship, which can later be re-enacted in treatment. Jung's general concept of a 'symbolic attitude' can be complemented and focused in a specific way through the use of Bion's concept of 'reverie', which contributes in a fundamental way to symbol formation within the transference/countertransference. This idea is illustrated by clinical material from a nine-year-old boy who suffered from a severe congenital intestinal disease and was blocked in his capacity to symbolize. From the perspective of treatment technique, the author shows how the drawing of 'comic book' narratives in a reciprocal exchange was brought into the treatment. The drawings evolved in a way that he understood as a modified form of active imagination with children. The drawing process helped the boy gradually to develop a symbolic space in the therapy and to contain a psychic space in his mind. PMID:12025497

  15. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  16. q-entropy for symbolic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Pesin, Yakov

    2015-12-01

    For symbolic dynamical systems we use the Carathéodory construction as described in (Pesin 1997 Dimension Theory in Dynamical Systems, ConTemporary Views and Applications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)) to introduce the notions of q-topological and q-metric entropies. We describe some basic properties of these entropies and in particular, discuss relations between q-metric entropy and local metric entropy. Both q-topological and q-metric entropies are new invariants respectively under homeomorphisms and metric isomorphisms of dynamical systems.

  17. Comprehensibility of universal healthcare symbols for wayfinding in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghae; Dazkir, Sibel Seda; Paik, Hae Sun; Coskun, Aykut

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare facilities are often complex and overwhelming for visitors, and wayfinding in healthcare facilities can be challenging. As there is an increasing number of global citizens who travel to seek medical care in another country, it is critical to make wayfinding easy for visitors who are not familiar with the language in a foreign country. Among many wayfinding aids, symbols are helpful for those visitors who have limited ability to understand written language. This study tested universal healthcare symbols in the United States, South Korea, and Turkey to compare the comprehension of symbols cross-country and identify predictors of the correct comprehension. To explore statistically significant relationships between symbol comprehension and countries, Pearson's Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and ANOVA were conducted. The test results showed that ten symbols among 14 tested have significant relationship with countries. Results of this study demonstrate that symbol comprehension can be varied significantly in different countries. PMID:24290906

  18. Chaos Synchronization Via The Transmission Of Symbolic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, Shawn D.; Corron, Ned J.; Underwood, Quitisha; Myneni, Krishna

    2003-08-01

    We report high-quality chaotic synchronization of one-way coupled electronic circuits through a communication channel that transmits only symbolic dynamical information. This is accomplished by converting the synchronization signal into a discrete symbol sequence at the transmitter and then decoding the symbols at the receiver in real time. We find that symbol information is critical in the synchronization process and that an arbitrarily low rms synchronization error can be maintained by only transmitting a single 1-bit symbol per cycle. This indicates that chaotic synchronization is robust to severe band limiting and/or noise in the coupling channel provided symbol information is preserved. The experimental setup also allows us to explore so-called achronal synchronization in which the receiver lags or leads the transmitter by fixed time. We discuss fundamental trade-offs between the accuracy to which the transmitter state can be known, the quality of synchronization, and the delay or anticipation created in the receiver.

  19. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  20. What are symbols symbols of? Situated action, mythological bootstrapping and the emergence of the Self.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2004-02-01

    This paper addresses the question of how symbols should be understood in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis. The point of view examined focuses on the recent turn to more cognitive and developmental models in both disciplines and briefly reviews and critiques the evolutionary and cognitive arguments. The paper then presents an argument based on dynamic systems theory in which no pre-existing template or structure for either mind or behaviour is assumed. Within the dynamic systems model the Self is viewed as an emergent phenomenon deriving from the dynamic patterns existing in a complex system that includes the physiological characteristics of the infant, the intentional attributions of the caregiver and the cultural or symbolic resources that constitute the environment. The symbol can then be seen as a discrete, and in important ways an autonomous, element in the dynamic system. Conclusions are drawn for further research into the nature of the symbol with implications for both theory and practice in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis. PMID:14720230

  1. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  2. Symbolic play in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Gillian C; Konstantareas, M Mary

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between symbolic play and other domains, such as degree of autistic symptomatology, nonverbal cognitive ability, receptive language, expressive language, and social development, was investigated. The assessment files of 101 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were studied. Nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive language were both significantly and uniquely related to symbolic play, although receptive language was not. Autistic symptomatology ceased to be significantly related to symbolic play when controlling for two or more other variables. Social development was related to symbolic play in those children with high nonverbal cognitive ability but not those with low nonverbal cognitive ability. The diagnostic and treatment implications of these results are discussed. PMID:17082977

  3. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26726913

  4. Pseudodifferential Symbols on Riemann Surfaces and Krichever Novikov Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donin, Dmitry; Khesin, Boris

    2007-06-01

    We define the Krichever-Novikov-type Lie algebras of differential operators and pseudodifferential symbols on Riemann surfaces, along with their outer derivations and central extensions. We show that the corresponding algebras of meromorphic operators and symbols have many invariant traces and central extensions, given by the logarithms of meromorphic vector fields. Very few of these extensions survive after passing to the algebras of operators and symbols holomorphic away from several fixed points. We also describe the associated Manin triples and KdV-type hierarchies, emphasizing the similarities and differences with the case of smooth symbols on the circle.

  5. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  6. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.

    PubMed

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-01-01

    This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine. PMID:20039773

  7. Group-identity completion and the symbolic value of property.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, Alison; Liviatan, Ido; Carnevale, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Building on symbolic self-completion theory, we conceptualize group identity as a goal toward which group members strive, using material symbols of that identity. We report four studies showing that the value placed on such material symbols (e.g., a building) depends on commitment to group identity, the extent to which a symbol can be used to represent in-group identity, and situational variability in goal strength induced through group-identity affirmation or threat. Our results suggest that property derives value from its capacity to serve as an effective means in the pursuit of group-identity goals. Implications for intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:17894604

  8. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  9. Combining Symbolic Representations for Solving Timed Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Rdiger; Mattmller, Robert; Peter, Hans-Jrg

    We present a general approach to combine symbolic state space representations for the discrete and continuous parts in the synthesis of winning strategies for timed reachability games. The combination is based on abstraction refinement where discrete symbolic techniques are used to produce a sequence of abstract timed game automata. After each refinement step, the resulting abstraction is used for computing an under- and an over-approximation of the timed winning states. The key idea is to identify large relevant and irrelevant parts of the precise weakest winning strategy already on coarse, and therefore simple, abstractions. If neither the existence nor nonexistence of a winning strategy can be established in the approximations, we use them to guide the refinement process. Based on a prototype that combines binary decision diagrams[7,9] and difference bound matrices[5], we experimentally evaluate the technique on standard benchmarks from timed controller synthesis. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the new approach concerning running time and memory consumption compared to the classical on-the-fly algorithm implemented in Uppaal-Tiga [10,4].

  10. A Unitary or Multiple Representations of Numerical Magnitude? – the Case of Structure in Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a controversial debate on whether there is an abstract representation of number magnitude, multiple different ones, or multiple different ones that project onto a unitary representation. The current study aimed at evaluating this issue by means of a magnitude comparison task involving Arabic numbers and structured as well as unstructured non-symbolic patterns of squares. In particular, we were interested whether a specific numerical effect, the unit-decade compatibility effect reflecting decomposed processing of tens and units complying with the place-value structure of the Arabic number system, is affected by input notation. Indeed, a reliable unit-decade compatibility effect was observed in the symbolic-digital notation condition but was absent for unstructured non-symbolic notation. However, for structured non-symbolic notation a – albeit negative – compatibility effect was observed as well. Theses results are hard to reconcile with the notion of an abstract representation of number magnitude. Instead, our data support the existence of multiple representations of numerical magnitude. In addition, the current data indicate that it may not be a question of symbolic vs. non-symbolic notation only but also an issue of the structuring of the input notation. While unstructured non-symbolic quantities seemed to be processed holistically we found evidence suggesting at least partially decomposed processing not only for symbolic Arabic numbers but also for structured non-symbolic quantities. PMID:22712021

  11. Symbolic decision support in medical care.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Fox, J; Gordon, C; Jackson-Smale, A

    1993-10-01

    Symbolic decision procedures offer a flexible alternative to classical quantitative procedures for decision making, particularly when precise parameters (such as probabilities) are hard to estimate. One such procedure, based on a logic of argumentation, is described. Specifications of inference methods for such functions as proposing and refining decision options, deducing and inheriting arguments for and against options, and selecting among alternatives are presented. These exploit declarative models for patient data, domain and task knowledge. A simple method for translating the specifications into executable Prolog is described. A practical and efficient toolset for using the procedure in a wide range of clinical environments is being developed within the DILEMMA project of the European Commission's Advanced Informatics in Medicine research programme. PMID:8004142

  12. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation☆

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called RΠΣ⁎-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics. PMID:26726284

  13. The Impact of Congenital Deafblindness on the Struggle to Symbolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Most children who are congenitally deafblind are severely delayed in their communication development and many will not achieve symbolic understanding and expression. This article discusses developmental markers cited in the research literature as predictive of or facilitative of the development of symbolism. These markers include the growth toward…

  14. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abbreviations and symbols. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS § 1.2 Abbreviations and symbols. In Subchapters A through K of this chapter: AFM means airplane flight manual. AGL...

  15. 78 FR 23508 - Use of Certain Symbols in Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Federal Register of February 25, 1998 (63 FR 9561). Modifications to the initial and previous lists of... modifications, was published in the Federal Register on January 15, 2013 (78 FR 2998). In addition, the Agency....'' (See 67 FR 4904; February 1, 2002.) The symbol in the symbol statement ``Rx only'' or the...

  16. Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. G.; And Others

    This report contains recommendations on chemical nomenclature, guidance on symbols, and terminology and units for physiochemical quantities. This report, intended to provide guidance to science teachers, consists of eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) introduction to symbols, terminology, and units for physiochemical quantities; (3)…

  17. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  18. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  19. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  20. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  1. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  2. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  3. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  4. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  5. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  6. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  7. The Role of Submicroscopic and Symbolic Representations in Chemical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Chittleborough, Gail; Mamiala, Thapelo L.

    2003-01-01

    Chemistry is commonly portrayed at three different levels of representation--macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic--that combine to enrich the explanations of chemical concepts. In this article, we examine the use of submicroscopic and symbolic representations in chemical explanations and ascertain how they provide meaning. Of specific interest

  8. The Interpretation of Symbol Schemes in a Computational Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael; Frederickson, Ann; Martin, Lori

    This study investigated the variation of meaning that may be assigned by students to instructional symbol systems. Toward this end, student interpretations of symbols employed to represent free fall in Boxer, a computational environment designed for innovative instructional activities in math and science, were analyzed. Four classes of…

  9. The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeland, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

  10. Symbolic Confrontation with Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apolinsky, Sandra R.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Investigated comparative effects of symbolic confrontation in affecting measures of self-concept and depression of 30 adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse participating in a counseling group. The results seem to suggest that the technique of symbolic confrontation can be effective in ameliorating negative aftereffects of victimization

  11. Symbolic Calculators in Mathematics Lessons--The Case of Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigand, Hans-Georg; Bichler, Ewald

    2010-01-01

    Many empirical investigations concerning the use of computer algebra systems (CAS) and symbolic calculators (SC) are restricted to a period of only a few weeks. They do not show long-term effects on students understanding. Therefore, a long term project (2003-2012) was started to test the use of symbolic calculators in Bavarian "Gymnasien"…

  12. "La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and…

  13. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  14. Scene understanding based on network-symbolic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2005-05-01

    New generations of smart weapons and unmanned vehicles must have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. Instead of precise computations of 3-dimensional models, a network-symbolic system converts image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in the Network-Symbolic models and used for the disambiguation of visual information. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation that can be better interpreted by higher-level knowledge structures. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views.

  15. Automated non-alphanumeric symbol resolution in clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B

    2011-01-01

    Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols ('+', '-', '/', and '#') were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for '+', '-', '/', and '#' were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems. PMID:22195157

  16. SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.

    1970-01-01

    The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.

  17. Automated Non-Alphanumeric Symbol Resolution in Clinical Texts

    PubMed Central

    Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2011-01-01

    Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols (‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’) were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for ‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’ were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems. PMID:22195157

  18. Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics courses to chemistry students that is strongly based on symbolic computation and allows an instructor to explore a topic or principle is reviewed. The mathematical software available, nominally for symbolic computation associated with numerical and graphical capabilities are highly developed and provides an invaluable…

  19. Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorantas, Raymond

    Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

  20. "They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols…

  1. Infants' Symbolic Comprehension of Actions Modeled with Toy Replicas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy E.; Younger, Barbara A.; Furrer, Stephanie D.

    2005-01-01

    While very young children's understanding of objects as symbols for other entities has been the focus of much investigation, very little is known concerning the emergence of comprehension for symbolic relations among actions modeled with toy replicas and their real counterparts. We used videotaped depictions of real actions in a preferential…

  2. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  3. Practising English Phonetic Symbols in a Communicative Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Wai Ling

    Classroom exercises designed to help students learn phonetic symbols more effectively are described. The exercises were developed for use in a Hong Kong school. The idea behind their creation was that use of the symbols in communicative situations would emphasize their utility for learning English pronunciation. Each exercise uses contextualized…

  4. Symbolic Interactionism and Ethnomethodology: A Perspective on Qualitiative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloski, John; Daley, Patrick J.

    Methods employed in social science research must be true to the phenomena under investigation. Both symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology take everyday life as their fundamental premise. Symbolic interactionism, based primarily on the work of George Herbert Mead, is the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place…

  5. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  6. Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

  7. Book Report Alternative: Summary, Symbol, and Analysis in Bookmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    By making simple bookmarks, students in grades 6-8 practice summarizing, recognizing symbols, and writing reviews in these two 50-minute class sessions--all while writing for an authentic audience. Student objectives for this lesson are that they will: write summaries and reviews for books they read; identify appropriate symbols that relate to…

  8. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  9. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  10. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  11. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  12. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  13. Symbolic Calculators in Mathematics Lessons--The Case of Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigand, Hans-Georg; Bichler, Ewald

    2010-01-01

    Many empirical investigations concerning the use of computer algebra systems (CAS) and symbolic calculators (SC) are restricted to a period of only a few weeks. They do not show long-term effects on students understanding. Therefore, a long term project (2003-2012) was started to test the use of symbolic calculators in Bavarian "Gymnasien"

  14. Wyoming Tombstone Symbolism: A Reflection of Western Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John; Rezabek, Landra L.

    Eleven cemeteries in Wyoming are examined for visuals pertaining to life in the West. The purpose is to demonstrate the importance of Western culture tradition evidenced through tombstone symbolism--representations of the activities and environments of the living through the memory provided by the deceased. The visual symbols found on the…

  15. Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their mutual relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui

    2006-10-01

    Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their mutual relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their mutual relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.

  16. Interview: Charlene Teters on Native American Symbols as Mascots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    Interview with Charlene Teters, Native American artist and activist, focuses on her role as leader of the national campaign to eliminate Native American symbols as college sports mascots, and especially on her experience as a University of Illinois graduate student, where the Native American symbol and mascot continues to be used despite a faculty…

  17. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of

  18. Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics courses to chemistry students that is strongly based on symbolic computation and allows an instructor to explore a topic or principle is reviewed. The mathematical software available, nominally for symbolic computation associated with numerical and graphical capabilities are highly developed and provides an invaluable

  19. Ordinal symbolic analysis and its application to biomedical recordings

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, José M.; Keller, Karsten; Unakafova, Valentina A.

    2015-01-01

    Ordinal symbolic analysis opens an interesting and powerful perspective on time-series analysis. Here, we review this relatively new approach and highlight its relation to symbolic dynamics and representations. Our exposition reaches from the general ideas up to recent developments, with special emphasis on its applications to biomedical recordings. The latter will be illustrated with epilepsy data. PMID:25548264

  20. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING... the symbol is printed on the box or package from which the commercial container is removed...

  1. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING... the symbol is printed on the box or package from which the commercial container is removed...

  2. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING... the symbol is printed on the box or package from which the commercial container is removed...

  3. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING... the symbol is printed on the box or package from which the commercial container is removed...

  4. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING... the symbol is printed on the box or package from which the commercial container is removed...

  5. A Symbolic Measure of Authoritarianism: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne

    1970-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the personality dimension of authoritarianism can be measured by means of symbols just as well as it is currently measured by Adorno's verbal F-scale. Pilot study confirms symbolic test of intolerance of ambiguity resulted in positive correlation. (Author/DB)

  6. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade E.; McGeown, William J.; Guerrini, Chiara; Castronovo, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the number sense, is not well-known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18–25) and 25 older adults (60–77) participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly [RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w)]. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w) in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive, and embedded number sense. PMID:26236269

  7. The symbolism of salt in paintings.

    PubMed

    Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; De Santo, D; Bellini, L; De Santo, N G

    1997-01-01

    Many artists have used the symbol of salt in both religious and profane works, yet very few studies have explored the symbolism of salt as used in works of art. In this study, Panofsky's method has been adopted to evaluate works of art through an organic process articulated into three stages: (1) pre-iconographic, (2) iconographic and (3) iconological. The method was used for (a) religious paintings of the Old and New Testaments and (b) mythological and profane themes. Various salt-cellars were also studied. In particular, the paper examines the following themes: Isaac blessing Jacob, the return of Esau, Samuel consecrating David, the Last Supper, the suppers at Emmaus and at the house of Simon, the birth of St. John the Baptist, the Baptism of Constantine, the prodigal son, Bacchus-Apollo, the nuptial banquet of Love and Psyche, the death of the Cavalier of Celano, the king drinks, the landlord's visit, 'Phitopolis faisant servir des mets en or au roi Pithès', certain still life paintings and various salt-cellars including those of Cellini and Giulio Romano. The paper discusses the works of many artists including Raphael, Leonardo and his school (Boltraffio, Giampietrino, d'Oggiono, Solario), Hendricksz, Corenzio, Jean-Baptiste and Philippe de Champaigne, Damaskinos, Tintoretto, Titian, Romanino, Rubens, Bellini, Bloemaert, Veronese, Sustris, Just of Ghent, Jan Van Hemessen, Poussin, Loir, Giotto, Jordaens, Brueghel and Mimmo Paladino with his enchanted mountain. From the data examined it emerged that salt is a primary iconological presence in various works of art. PMID:9189253

  8. Symbolic representation of recurrent neural network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thuan Q; Reggia, James A

    2012-10-01

    Simple recurrent error backpropagation networks have been widely used to learn temporal sequence data, including regular and context-free languages. However, the production of relatively large and opaque weight matrices during learning has inspired substantial research on how to extract symbolic human-readable interpretations from trained networks. Unlike feedforward networks, where research has focused mainly on rule extraction, most past work with recurrent networks has viewed them as dynamical systems that can be approximated symbolically by finite-state machine (FSMs). With this approach, the network's hidden layer activation space is typically divided into a finite number of regions. Past research has mainly focused on better techniques for dividing up this activation space. In contrast, very little work has tried to influence the network training process to produce a better representation in hidden layer activation space, and that which has been done has had only limited success. Here we propose a powerful general technique to bias the error backpropagation training process so that it learns an activation space representation from which it is easier to extract FSMs. Using four publicly available data sets that are based on regular and context-free languages, we show via computational experiments that the modified learning method helps to extract FSMs with substantially fewer states and less variance than unmodified backpropagation learning, without decreasing the neural networks' accuracy. We conclude that modifying error backpropagation so that it more effectively separates learned pattern encodings in the hidden layer is an effective way to improve contemporary FSM extraction methods. PMID:24808009

  9. Adults' preferences between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) used in AAC.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether significantly different preference exists in typical adults between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) frequently displayed on their AAC. A total of 56 participants participated in the study, including 15 participants in ages 20-35; 14 participants in ages 36-50; 13 participants in ages 51-60; and 14 participants in ages 66-80. Two tasks, an identification task and a preference task, were administered sequentially and individually. The results of this study suggest: (1) typical adults' preference between PCSs and GCSs did not show any significant difference; (2) the effect of age groups of typical adults did not have any significant effect on their preference between PCSs and GCSs. However, except the group of ages 51-65, the other three groups did consciously show their preferences for PCSs. Limitations and clinical implications of the current study have been concluded. PMID:23962601

  10. Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shihabi, Mazen M. (Inventor); Hinedi, Sami M. (Inventor); Shah, Biren N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.

  11. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  12. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed. PMID:26294566

  13. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  14. Symbol-Decision Successive Cancellation List Decoder for Polar Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chenrong; Lin, Jun; Yan, Zhiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Polar codes are of great interests because they provably achieve the capacity of both discrete and continuous memoryless channels while having an explicit construction. Most existing decoding algorithms of polar codes are based on bit-wise hard or soft decisions. In this paper, we propose symbol-decision successive cancellation (SC) and successive cancellation list (SCL) decoders for polar codes, which use symbol-wise hard or soft decisions for higher throughput or better error performance. First, we propose to use a recursive channel combination to calculate symbol-wise channel transition probabilities, which lead to symbol decisions. Our proposed recursive channel combination also has a lower complexity than simply combining bit-wise channel transition probabilities. The similarity between our proposed method and Arikan's channel transformations also helps to share hardware resources between calculating bit- and symbol-wise channel transition probabilities. Second, a two-stage list pruning network is proposed to provide a trade-off between the error performance and the complexity of the symbol-decision SCL decoder. Third, since memory is a significant part of SCL decoders, we propose a pre-computation memory-saving technique to reduce memory requirement of an SCL decoder. Finally, to evaluate the throughput advantage of our symbol-decision decoders, we design an architecture based on a semi-parallel successive cancellation list decoder. In this architecture, different symbol sizes, sorting implementations, and message scheduling schemes are considered. Our synthesis results show that in terms of area efficiency, our symbol-decision SCL decoders outperform both bit- and symbol-decision SCL decoders.

  15. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a discourse which stigmatizes the home medicine cabinet for reasons of safety, which in fact questions patients’ ability to use drugs properly. This analysis shows that the various behaviours and discourses relating to the risks of drugs are impregnated with symbolic, ethical and cultural logics. As a consequence, above and beyond works carried out on the question of pharmacovigilance, examining the issue of safe drug use involves studying the human (social and cultural) aspects which govern part of the discourses and practices relating to drug safety. PMID:20635820

  16. A review of symbolic analysis of experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daw, C. S.; Finney, C. E. A.; Tracy, E. R.

    2003-02-01

    This review covers the group of data-analysis techniques collectively referred to as symbolization or symbolic time-series analysis. Symbolization involves transformation of raw time-series measurements (i.e., experimental signals) into a series of discretized symbols that are processed to extract information about the generating process. In many cases, the degree of discretization can be quite severe, even to the point of converting the original data to single-bit values. Current approaches for constructing symbols and detecting the information they contain are summarized. Novel approaches for characterizing and recognizing temporal patterns can be important for many types of experimental systems, but this is especially true for processes that are nonlinear and possibly chaotic. Recent experience indicates that symbolization can increase the efficiency of finding and quantifying information from such systems, reduce sensitivity to measurement noise, and discriminate both specific and general classes of proposed models. Examples of the successful application of symbolization to experimental data are included. Key theoretical issues and limitations of the method are also discussed.

  17. The Contextually Controlled, Feature-Mediated Classification of Symbols

    PubMed Central

    DeRosse, Pamela; Fields, Lanny

    2010-01-01

    The classification of names of people or objects based on the features acquired by the names and the sorting instructions provided is a commonplace occurrence. For example, given the names Renoir, Pollock, James and Voltaire the average adult would be able to classify them differentially based on the instruction to classify them based on vocation or nationality. In general, such a repertoire reflects the reclassification of symbols (i.e, the names of individuals) in terms of contextual cues (instructions to sort by vocation or nationality) and the features acquired by the symbols (the specific nationalities and vocations). The present experiment studied this phenomenon with the use of arbitrary stimuli that did not have clear preexperimental associations. Two of 4 participants classified the symbols into different equivalence classes based on the prevailing contextual cues and the features that had been acquired by the symbols. Using an ABA reversal design we then demonstrated that 1 participant classified the symbols in accordance with the contextual cues and acquired features when present, but not in the absence of the contextual cues. A 3rd participant showed symbol classification that differed from that predicted by the procedures, and the 4th classified the symbols based on one set of features but not on context. These data describe one set of conditions that could account for the establishment of complex classification repertoires that occur in natural settings. PMID:20885812

  18. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    PubMed

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations. PMID:20729173

  19. Capacity improvement for a blind symbolic music score watermarking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucker, Martin

    2002-04-01

    Current music score watermarking techniques either lack in robustness or in capacity: While embedding data into staff lines guarantees a certain payload, modulation of the staff lines' thickness can be attacked using image processing techniques. Changing properties of musical symbols is more robust. But, the number of musical symbols limits the payload. Therefore, we propose the following method: The staff lines' distances are used as a carrier signal for embedding information. Changes are applied by using an image warping technique to reduce artifacts. Image warping techniques can also be applied locally to music symbols to change their properties, e.g. their horizontal distance or their width. Thus, quality improves. Furthermore, musical symbols doesn't have to be recognized. It is sufficient to cluster the symbols according to their properties and to treat symbols of the same cluster equally. The described method guarantees a minimum payload and increased robust. The application of image warping techniques reduces visible distortion. The results are visual appealing music scores. Capacity improvement can be achieved by applying the proposed methods to music symbols.

  20. Automated symbolic calculations in nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Martin; Hütter, Markus

    2010-12-01

    We cast the Jacobi identity for continuous fields into a local form which eliminates the need to perform any partial integration to the expense of performing variational derivatives. This allows us to test the Jacobi identity definitely and efficiently and to provide equations between different components defining a potential Poisson bracket. We provide a simple Mathematica TM notebook which allows to perform this task conveniently, and which offers some additional functionalities of use within the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics: reversible equations of change for fields, and the conservation of entropy during the reversible dynamics. Program summaryProgram title: Poissonbracket.nb Catalogue identifier: AEGW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 227 952 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 268 918 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica TM 7.0 Computer: Any computer running Mathematica TM 6.0 and later versions Operating system: Linux, MacOS, Windows RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 4.2, 5, 23 Nature of problem: Testing the Jacobi identity can be a very complex task depending on the structure of the Poisson bracket. The Mathematica TM notebook provided here solves this problem using a novel symbolic approach based on inherent properties of the variational derivative, highly suitable for the present tasks. As a by product, calculations performed with the Poisson bracket assume a compact form. Solution method: The problem is first cast into a form which eliminates the need to perform partial integration for arbitrary functionals at the expense of performing variational derivatives. The corresponding equations are conveniently obtained using the symbolic programming environment Mathematica TM. Running time: For the test cases and most typical cases in the literature, the running time is of the order of seconds or minutes, respectively.

  1. Quantifying heart rate dynamics using different approaches of symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cysarz, D.; Porta, A.; Montano, N.; Leeuwen, P. V.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series is able to retrieve information about dynamical properties of the underlying system that cannot be gained with standard methods like e.g. spectral analysis. Different approaches for the transformation of the original time series to the symbolic time series have been proposed. Yet the differences between the approaches are unknown. In this study three different transformation methods are investigated: (1) symbolization according to the deviation from the average time series, (2) symbolization according to several equidistant levels between the minimum and maximum of the time series, (3) binary symbolization of the first derivative of the time series. Furthermore, permutation entropy was used to quantify the symbolic series. Each method was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RR i and its difference Δ RR I of 17 healthy subjects obtained during head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics of each method is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences ("words") of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), words with one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis showed that for method 1 0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle. For method 2 0V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle and method 3 showed changes for 0V% and 1V%. Furthermore, also the permutation entropy decreased with increasing tilt angle. In conclusion, all methods are capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during head-up tilt. All methods show that even the analysis of very short symbolic sequences is capable of tracking changes of the cardiac autonomic regulation during head-up tilt testing.

  2. Sandplay in Jungian analysis: matter and symbolic integration.

    PubMed

    Castellana, Franco; Donfrancesco, Antonietta

    2005-06-01

    Jung described a way of thinking, tied to sensations and feelings, that is a thought connected to the body. Again in The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Jung (1954) speaks of the symbol as a 'live body', corpus et anima. If the mind cannot credit itself with the discomfort that manifests through the body, this is a sign of a separation between mind and body. A consequence of all this is the literalization of the discomfort which makes it impossible to have a symbolic dimension. Therapy activates a process in which the patient can move from a stage of separation to a possible connection between mind and body, resulting in changes in the level of communication and of awareness. The mind opens itself to symbolization and the body becomes a field for a common language. From our reflections we have come to ascertain that we can speak of analysis only when an imaginary space is achieved, an intermediate space between the patient and the analyst, a space that is created from the intertwining of the symbolic capability of the patient with that of the analyst. Focusing our attention on the use of sandplay in analytic therapy, we know that one puts in the sand box objects that are marks of our psyche, visible traits that contain actions, corporeal movements and feelings. When one focuses on the overall representation built, one can go beyond the literal image and the analyst, keeping alive the image through his symbolic capability, opens the possibility of a dialogue with the symbolic dimension. The imagination as a symbolic thought is the humus that allows the analyst to maintain the intermediate symbolic level open by activating a symbolic process within the dialectic of the analysis. PMID:15926956

  3. Color and symbology: symbolic systems of color ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Diana

    2002-06-01

    Color has been used symbolically in various different fields, such as Heraldry, Music, Liturgy, Alchemy, Art and Literature. In this study, we shall investigate and analyse the structures of relationships that have taken shape as symbolic systems within each specific area of analysis. We shall discuss the most significant symbolic fields and their systems of color ording, considering each one of them as a topological model based on a logic that determines the total organization, according to the scale of reciprocities applied, and the cultural context that gives it meaning.

  4. Symbolic dynamics of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the symbolic dynamics analysis was used to analyze the complexity of normal heartbeat signal (NSR), Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) signals. By calculating the information entropy value of symbolic sequences, the complexities were quantified. Based on different information entropy values, NSR, VT and VF signals were distinguished with satisfactory results. The study showed that a sudden drop of symbolic sequence’s entropy value indicated that the patients most likely entered the episode of ventricular tachycardia and this was a crucial episode for the clinical treatment of patients. It had important clinical significance for the automatic diagnosis.

  5. Modeling Manic-Depression with Symbolic Logic

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Charles; Banks, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    We characterize manic-depression in terms of symbolic logic and dynamical systems, and describe a computer simulation used to develop our theory. A formal theory of cognitive deficit has four parts. (1) For a normal representation we use the concept of sound and complete “self-axioms.” (2) Normal processing occurs when changes in our personal environment trigger a search for a new set of sound and complete self-axioms. (3) Deficits can lead to unsound judgement in mania and incomplete judgement in depression. (4) Adaptation may consist of attempts to suppress or use the changes in reasoning style. Since manic-depression involves changes in the temporal organization of mood and judgement, it can be classified as a dynamical disease. Nonlinear dynamical systems exhibit transitions between steady state, periodic, and chaotic behavior. We illustrate our approach with a computer simulation that searches through a small set of “self-axioms” while exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior. In conclusion we conjecture that manic-depression may represent a bifurcation from the chaotic dynamics of normal emotional lability to the pathological periodicity of affective illness.

  6. Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M.; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A.; Karp, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. ‘Groups’ is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org. PMID:24037025

  7. Entropy estimation of very short symbolic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, Annick; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Pezard, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    While entropy per unit time is a meaningful index to quantify the dynamic features of experimental time series, its estimation is often hampered in practice by the finite length of the data. We here investigate the performance of entropy estimation procedures, relying either on block entropies or Lempel-Ziv complexity, when only very short symbolic sequences are available. Heuristic analytical arguments point at the influence of temporal correlations on the bias and statistical fluctuations, and put forward a reduced effective sequence length suitable for error estimation. Numerical studies are conducted using, as benchmarks, the wealth of different dynamic regimes generated by the family of logistic maps and stochastic evolutions generated by a Markov chain of tunable correlation time. Practical guidelines and validity criteria are proposed. For instance, block entropy leads to a dramatic overestimation for sequences of low entropy, whereas it outperforms Lempel-Ziv complexity at high entropy. As a general result, the quality of entropy estimation is sensitive to the sequence temporal correlation hence self-consistently depends on the entropy value itself, thus promoting a two-step procedure. Lempel-Ziv complexity is to be preferred in the first step and remains the best estimator for highly correlated sequences.

  8. Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing.

    PubMed

    Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A; Karp, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. 'Groups' is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org. PMID:24037025

  9. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    PubMed

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225

  10. [Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer

    2007-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor. PMID:17585707

  11. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... issuer may file an HTML document, as defined in § 232.11 of this chapter, that contains text in both... letters in the English language rather than representative symbols, except that HTML documents may...

  12. Symbolic Uses of the Berlin Wall, 1961-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines samples from public discourse during the period 1961-1989, which reveal several different symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall. Suggests these differences reflect the never-completed struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. (KEH)

  13. Effects of Different Symbolic Coding Stimuli In Behavior Modeling Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phillip J.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effect of different symbolic coding stimuli on reproduction and generalization of modeled events in business students (N=80). Results indicated that presentation of learning points plays an important role in observational learning. (LLL)

  14. Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols of the four seasons on the lamp's aluminum supports - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.

  16. Highly efficient zerotree wavelet image coder with reduced symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzaffar, Tanzeem; Choi, Tae-Sun

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a novel wavelet comrpession technique to increase compression of images. Based on extension of zerotree entoropy coding method, this method initially uses only two symbols (significant and zerotree) to compress image data for each level. Additionally, sign bit is used for newly significant coefficients to indicate them being positive or negative. Contrary to isolated-zero symbols used in conventional zerotree algorithms, the proposed algorithm changes them to significant coefficients and saves its location, they are then treated just like other significant coefficients. This is done to decrease the number of symbols and hence decrease number of bits to represent the symbols used. In the end, algorithm indicates isolated-zero coordinates that are used to change the value back to original during reconstruction. Noticeably high compression ratio is achieved with no change in image quality.

  17. Symbols for the General British English Vowel Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J. Windsor

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the critique of Hans G. Hoffmann saying that the new phonetic symbols contained in A. S. Hornby's "Advanced Learner's Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London, 1974) are harder to learn than the older system of transcription. (IFS/WGA)

  18. Geometric Computerized Proofs = Drawing Package + Symbolic Computation Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Witold A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of symbolic computation packages as another aid in teaching geometry. The need for such packages and their use in computerized proofs are demonstrated by a problem in high school planar geometry. (LZ)

  19. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741

  20. A Comparative Study : Microprogrammed Vs Risc Architectures For Symbolic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heudin, J. C.; Metivier, C.; Demigny, D.; Maurin, T.; Zavidovique, B.; Devos, F.

    1987-05-01

    It is oftenclaimed that conventional computers are not well suited for human-like tasks : Vision (Image Processing), Intelligence (Symbolic Processing) ... In the particular case of Artificial Intelligence, dynamic type-checking is one example of basic task that must be improved. The solution implemented in most Lisp work-stations consists in a microprogrammed architecture with a tagged memory. Another way to gain efficiency is to design a well suited instruction set for symbolic processing, which reduces the semantic gap between the high level language and the machine code. In this framework, the RISC concept provides a convenient approach to study new architectures for symbolic processing. This paper compares both approaches and describes our projectof designing a compact symbolic processor for Artificial Intelligence applications.

  1. A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, James

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)

  2. The relationship between symbolic interactionism and interpretive description.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In this article I explore the relationship between symbolic interactionist theory and interpretive description methodology. The two are highly compatible, making symbolic interactionism an excellent theoretical framework for interpretive description studies. The pragmatism underlying interpretive description supports locating the methodology within this cross-disciplinary theory to make it more attractive to nonnursing researchers and expand its potential to address practice problems across the applied disciplines. The theory and method are so compatible that symbolic interactionism appears to be part of interpretive description's epistemological foundations. Interpretive description's theoretical roots have, to date, been identified only very generally in interpretivism and the philosophy of nursing. A more detailed examination of its symbolic interactionist heritage furthers the contextualization or forestructuring of the methodology to meet one of its own requirements for credibility. PMID:21876207

  3. Monkeys display classic signatures of human symbolic arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Merritt, Dustin J; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Non-human primates compare quantities in a crude manner, by approximating their values. Less is known about the mental transformations that non-humans can perform over approximate quantities, such as arithmetic transformations. There is evidence that human symbolic arithmetic has a deep psychological connection with the primitive, approximate forms of quantification of non-human animals. Here, we ask whether the subtle performance signatures that humans exhibit during symbolic arithmetic also bear a connection to primitive arithmetic. Specifically, we examined the problem size effect, the tie effect, and the practice effect-effects which are commonly observed in children's math performance in school. We show that, like humans, monkeys exhibited the problem size and tie effects, indicating commonalities in arithmetic algorithms with humans. Unlike humans, however, monkeys did not exhibit a practice effect. Together, these findings provide new evidence for a cognitive relation between non-symbolic and symbolic arithmetic. PMID:26660686

  4. Multithreaded processor architecture for parallel symbolic computation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, T.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes the Multilisp Architecture for Symbolic Applications (MASA), which is a multithreaded processor architecture for parallel symbolic computation with various features intended for effective Multilisp program execution. The principal mechanisms exploited for this processor are multiple contexts, interleaved pipeline execution from separate instruction streams, and synchronization based on a bit in each memory cell. The tagged architecture approach is taken for Lisp program execution, and trap conditions are provided for future object manipulation and garbage collection.

  5. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.

  6. Rapunzel: the symbolism of the cutting of hair.

    PubMed

    Andresen, J J

    1980-01-01

    I have adduced data to demonstrate that the act of cutting of hair is a symbol. The criterion of proof used is the traditional one in psychoanalysis: the idea carries constant meanings in separate areas of human experience and behavior. Such constant meanings are shown in a folk tale, the mental lives of patients, clinical studies by other authors, and certain practices of other cultures. The cutting of hair symbolizes separation from a mothering object, castration, and reparation. PMID:6155393

  7. Multiple symbol partially coherent detection of MPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that by using the known (or estimated) value of carrier tracking loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the decision metric, it is possible to improve the error probability performance of a partially coherent multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK) system relative to that corresponding to the commonly used ideal coherent decision rule. Using a maximum-likeihood approach, an optimum decision metric is derived and shown to take the form of a weighted sum of the ideal coherent decision metric (i.e., correlation) and the noncoherent decision metric which is optimum for differential detection of MPSK. The performance of a receiver based on this optimum decision rule is derived and shown to provide continued improvement with increasing length of observation interval (data symbol sequence length). Unfortunately, increasing the observation length does not eliminate the error floor associated with the finite loop SNR. Nevertheless, in the limit of infinite observation length, the average error probability performance approaches the algebraic sum of the error floor and the performance of ideal coherent detection, i.e., at any error probability above the error floor, there is no degradation due to the partial coherence. It is shown that this limiting behavior is virtually achievable with practical size observation lengths. Furthermore, the performance is quite insensitive to mismatch between the estimate of loop SNR (e.g., obtained from measurement) fed to the decision metric and its true value. These results may be of use in low-cost Earth-orbiting or deep-space missions employing coded modulations.

  8. Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Namhee; Sage, Daniel S.

    2008-06-15

    Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.

  9. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Granular/Symbolic Data Processing.

    PubMed

    Su, Shun-Feng; Pedrycz, Witold; Hong, Tzung-Pei; De Carvalho, Francisco De A T

    2016-02-01

    Granular/symbolic data processing is an emerging conceptual and computing paradigm of information processing. In the era of big data, the emergence of granular/symbolic processing has been motivated by the urgent need for intelligent transformation of empirical data that are now commonly available in vast quantities, into a human-manageable knowledge. In such an aggregation process, we hope to retain as much information as possible while making the findings easily understood and well-supported by the existing experimental evidence. Those aggregated entities are often referred to as symbolic or granular data. Research areas referred to as symbolic data analysis in statistics and multivariate data analysis address some of the fundamental or applied facets of granular computing. The theoretical fundamentals of granular/symbolic data processing are well-established. They involve set theory (interval mathematics), fuzzy sets, rough sets, and random sets linked together in a highly comprehensive treatment of this emerging paradigm. In addition to interval-based formalism of information granules, we also encounter histograms, distributions, lists of values, etc. Hence, granular/symbolic data processing hinges on a general computation theory that effectively uses granules such as classes, clusters, subsets, groups, and intervals to build an efficient computational model for complex applications realized in the presence of huge amounts of data, information, and knowledge. This research arises as a substantial shift from the current machine-centric to human-centric approach to information and knowledge. PMID:26742157

  10. Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.

    PubMed

    Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning. PMID:24728912

  11. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  12. Measuring an Individual's Investment in the Future: Symbolic Immortality, Sensation Seeking, and Psychic Numbness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Robert C.; Mister, Rena D.

    1988-01-01

    Operationalized Lifton's constructs of symbolic immortality and developed instrument to measure individual's needs for symbolic immortality in Lifton's five modes (biological, religious, nature, creative, experiential) in study which also examined age effects on needs for symbolic immortality and relation between sensation seeking and symbolic

  13. A Preliminary Study of the Burgers Equation with Symbolic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derickson, Russell G.; Pielke, Roger A.

    2000-07-01

    A novel approach based on recursive symbolic computation is introduced for the approximate analytic solution of the Burgers equation. Once obtained, appropriate numerical values can be inserted into the symbolic solution to explore parametric variations. The solution is valid for both inviscid and viscous cases, covering the range of Reynolds number from 500 to infinity, whereas current direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods are limited to Reynolds numbers no greater than 4000. What further distinguishes the symbolic approach from numerical and traditional analytic techniques is the ability to reveal and examine direct nonlinear interactions between waves, including the interplay between inertia and viscosity. Thus, preliminary efforts suggest that symbolic computation may be quite effective in unveiling the “anatomy” of the myriad interactions that underlie turbulent behavior. However, due to the tendency of nonlinear symbolic operations to produce combinatorial explosion, future efforts will require the development of improved filtering processes to select and eliminate computations leading to negligible high order terms. Indeed, the initial symbolic computations present the character of turbulence as a problem in combinatorics. At present, results are limited in time evolution, but reveal the beginnings of the well-known “saw tooth” waveform that occurs in the inviscid case (i.e., Re=∞). Future efforts will explore more fully developed 1-D flows and investigate the potential to extend symbolic computations to 2-D and 3-D. Potential applications include the development of improved subgrid scale (SGS) parameterizations for large eddy simulation (LES) models, and studies that complement DNS in exploring fundamental aspects of turbulent flow behavior.

  14. Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James P.

    1991-12-01

    The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

  15. Math expression retrieval using an inverted index over symbol pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalnaker, David; Zanibbi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new method for indexing and retrieving mathematical expressions, and a new protocol for evaluating math formula retrieval systems. The Tangent search engine uses an inverted index over pairs of symbols in math expressions. Each key in the index is a pair of symbols along with their relative distance and vertical displacement within an expression. Matched expressions are ranked by the harmonic mean of the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the query, and the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the candidate expression. We have found that our method is fast enough for use in real time and finds partial matches well, such as when subexpressions are re-arranged (e.g. expressions moved from the left to the right of an equals sign) or when individual symbols (e.g. variables) differ from a query expression. In an experiment using expressions from English Wikipedia, student and faculty participants (N=20) found expressions returned by Tangent significantly more similar than those from a text-based retrieval system (Lucene) adapted for mathematical expressions. Participants provided similarity ratings using a 5-point Likert scale, evaluating expressions from both algorithms one-at-a-time in a randomized order to avoid bias from the position of hits in search result lists. For the Lucene-based system, precision for the top 1 and 10 hits averaged 60% and 39% across queries respectively, while for Tangent mean precision at 1 and 10 were 99% and 60%. A demonstration and source code are publicly available.

  16. Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Eugne; Laroulandie, Vronique

    2012-01-01

    In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?10060 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (6040 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

  17. Combining Automated Theorem Provers with Symbolic Algebraic Systems: Position Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to pure mathematical applications where automated theorem provers (ATPs) are quite capable, proof tasks arising form real-world applications from the area of Software Engineering show quite different characteristics: they usually do not only contain much arithmetic (albeit often quite simple one), but they also often contain reasoning about specific structures (e.g. graphics, sets). Thus, an ATP must be capable of performing reasoning together with a fair amount of simplification, calculation and solving. Therefore, powerful simplifiers and other (symbolic and semi-symbolic) algorithms seem to be ideally suited to augment ATPs. In the following we shortly describe two major points of interest in combining SASs (symbolic algebraic systems) with top-down automated theorem provers (here: SETHEO [Let92, GLMS94]).

  18. Multiple layer identification label using stacked identification symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

  19. Age differences in symbol-digit substitution task performance.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, G C; Royer, F L; Gruhn, J J

    1983-01-01

    A decline in performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution test related to aging is well documented. There is no agreement on the reason for the decline, however. In part, the lack of consensus with regard to changes on the test may be attributed to the limitations imposed by comparing groups on a single performance measure. In the present study, three forms of a Symbol-Digit Substitution task that varied in difficulty level were administered to 125 persons between the ages of 30 and 92. On all forms there was a clear performance decline associated with age. The differences observed among the age groups were interpreted as evidence for a change in a sensorimotor component and in two information-processing operations: Symbol encoding and visual search. PMID:6186694

  20. Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ≈ 100-60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (≈ 90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60-40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

  1. Semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Haggard, Hal M.; Hedeman, Austin; Jeevanjee, Nadir; Littlejohn, Robert G.; Yu, Liang

    2012-02-01

    The semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol is examined from the standpoint of WKB theory for multidimensional, integrable systems to explore the geometrical issues surrounding the Ponzano-Regge formula. The relations among the methods of Roberts and others for deriving the Ponzano-Regge formula are discussed, and a new approach, based on the recoupling of four angular momenta, is presented. A generalization of the Yutsis type of spin network is developed for this purpose. Special attention is devoted to symplectic reduction, the reduced phase space of the 6j-symbol (the 2-sphere of Kapovich and Millson) and the reduction of Poisson bracket expressions for semiclassical amplitudes. General principles for the semiclassical study of arbitrary spin networks are laid down; some of these were used in our recent derivation of the asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j-symbol.

  2. A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling

    PubMed Central

    Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

    2009-01-01

    Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520

  3. Symbolic dynamics of successive quantum-mechanical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christian; Graudenz, Dirk

    1992-11-01

    We consider successive measurements on quantum-mechnical systems and investigate the way in which sequences of measurements produce information. The eigenvalues of suitable projection operators form symbolic sequences that characterize the quantum system under consideration. For several model systems with finite-dimensional state space, we explicitly calculate the probabilities to observe certain symbol sequences and determine the corresponding Rényi entropies K(β) with the help of the transfer-matrix method. A nontrivial dependence on β is observed. We show that the Rényi entropies as well as the symbol-sequence probabilities of the quantum-mechanical measurement process coincide with those of appropriate classes of one-dimensional chaotic maps.

  4. Causation entropy from symbolic representations of dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lord, Warren M.; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M.

    2015-04-15

    Identification of causal structures and quantification of direct information flows in complex systems is a challenging yet important task, with practical applications in many fields. Data generated by dynamical processes or large-scale systems are often symbolized, either because of the finite resolution of the measurement apparatus, or because of the need of statistical estimation. By algorithmic application of causation entropy, we investigated the effects of symbolization on important concepts such as Markov order and causal structure of the tent map. We uncovered that these quantities depend nonmonotonically and, most of all, sensitively on the choice of symbolization. Indeed, we show that Markov order and causal structure do not necessarily converge to their original analog counterparts as the resolution of the partitioning becomes finer.

  5. Dilogarithme Quantique et 6j-Symboles Cycliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseilhac, Stephane

    2002-02-01

    Let {W}_N be a quantized Borel subalgebra of U_q(sl(2,mc)), specialized at a primitive root of unity omega = exp(2i?/N) of odd order N >1. One shows that the 6j-symbols of cyclic representations of {W}_N are representations of the canonical element of a certain extension of the Heisenberg double of {W}_N. This canonical element is a twisted q-dilogarithm. In particular, one gives explicit formulas for these 6j-symbols, and one constructs partial symmetrizations of them, the c-6j-symboles. The latters are at the basis of the construction of the quantum hyperbolic invariants of 3-manifolds.

  6. What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism?

    PubMed Central

    Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism is a property of certain words which have a direct link between their phonological form and their semantic meaning. In certain instances, sound symbolism can allow non-native speakers to understand the meanings of etymologically unfamiliar foreign words, although the mechanisms driving this are not well understood. We examined whether sound symbolism might be mediated by the same types of cross-modal processes that typify synaesthetic experiences. Synaesthesia is an inherited condition in which sensory or cognitive stimuli (e.g., sounds, words) cause additional, unusual cross-modal percepts (e.g., sounds trigger colours, words trigger tastes). Synaesthesia may be an exaggeration of normal cross-modal processing, and if so, there may be a link between synaesthesia and the type of cross-modality inherent in sound symbolism. To test this we predicted that synaesthetes would have superior understanding of unfamiliar (sound symbolic) foreign words. In our study, 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 57 non-synaesthete controls were presented with 400 adjectives from 10 unfamiliar languages and were asked to guess the meaning of each word in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Both groups showed superior understanding compared to chance levels, but synaesthetes significantly outperformed controls. This heightened ability suggests that sound symbolism may rely on the types of cross-modal integration that drive synaesthetes’ unusual experiences. It also suggests that synaesthesia endows or co-occurs with heightened multi-modal skills, and that this can arise in domains unrelated to the specific form of synaesthesia. PMID:25498744

  7. What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism?

    PubMed

    Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Sound symbolism is a property of certain words which have a direct link between their phonological form and their semantic meaning. In certain instances, sound symbolism can allow non-native speakers to understand the meanings of etymologically unfamiliar foreign words, although the mechanisms driving this are not well understood. We examined whether sound symbolism might be mediated by the same types of cross-modal processes that typify synaesthetic experiences. Synaesthesia is an inherited condition in which sensory or cognitive stimuli (e.g., sounds, words) cause additional, unusual cross-modal percepts (e.g., sounds trigger colours, words trigger tastes). Synaesthesia may be an exaggeration of normal cross-modal processing, and if so, there may be a link between synaesthesia and the type of cross-modality inherent in sound symbolism. To test this we predicted that synaesthetes would have superior understanding of unfamiliar (sound symbolic) foreign words. In our study, 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 57 non-synaesthete controls were presented with 400 adjectives from 10 unfamiliar languages and were asked to guess the meaning of each word in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Both groups showed superior understanding compared to chance levels, but synaesthetes significantly outperformed controls. This heightened ability suggests that sound symbolism may rely on the types of cross-modal integration that drive synaesthetes' unusual experiences. It also suggests that synaesthesia endows or co-occurs with heightened multi-modal skills, and that this can arise in domains unrelated to the specific form of synaesthesia. PMID:25498744

  8. Symbolic interactionism and critical perspective: divergent or synergistic?

    PubMed

    Burbank, Patricia M; Martins, Diane C

    2010-01-01

    Throughout their history, symbolic interactionism and critical perspective have been viewed as divergent theoretical perspectives with different philosophical underpinnings. A review of their historical and philosophical origins reveals both points of divergence and areas of convergence. Their underlying philosophies of science and views of human freedom are different as is their level of focus with symbolic interactionism having a micro perspective and critical perspective using a macro perspective. This micro/macro difference is reflected in the divergence of their major concepts, goals and basic tenets. While their underlying philosophies are different, however, they are not necessarily contradictory and areas of convergence may include the concepts of reference groups and looking glass self within symbolic interactionism and ideological hegemony within critical perspective. By using a pragmatic approach and combining symbolic interactionism and critical perspectives, both micro and macro levels come into focus and strategies for change across individual and societal levels can be developed and applied. Application of both symbolic interactionism and critical perspective to nursing research and scholarship offers exciting new opportunities for theory development and research methodologies. In nursing education, these two perspectives can give students added insight into patients' and families' problems at the micro level while, at the same time, giving them a lens to see and tools to apply to problems at the macro level in health care. In nursing practice, a combined symbolic interactionism/critical perspective approach assists nurses to give high-quality care at the individual level while also working at the macro level to address the manufacturers of illness. New research questions emerge from this combination of perspectives with new possibilities for theory development, a transformation in nursing education, and the potential for new practice strategies that can address individual client and larger system problems through empowerment of clients and nurses. PMID:20017881

  9. Quantification of cardiorespiratory interactions based on joint symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Muammar M; Saint, David A; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Abbott, Derek; Voss, Andreas; Baumert, Mathias

    2011-10-01

    Cardiac and respiratory rhythms are highly nonlinear and nonstationary. As a result traditional time-domain techniques are often inadequate to characterize their complex dynamics. In this article, we introduce a novel technique to investigate the interactions between R-R intervals and respiratory phases based on their joint symbolic dynamics. To evaluate the technique, electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory signals were recorded in 13 healthy subjects in different body postures during spontaneous and controlled breathing. Herein, the R-R time series were extracted from ECG and respiratory phases were obtained from abdomen impedance belts using the Hilbert transform. Both time series were transformed into ternary symbol vectors based on the changes between two successive R-R intervals or respiratory phases. Subsequently, words of different symbol lengths were formed and the correspondence between the two series of words was determined to quantify the interaction between cardiac and respiratory cycles. To validate our results, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was further studied using the phase-averaged characterization of the RSA pattern. The percentage of similarity of the sequence of symbols, between the respective words of the two series determined by joint symbolic dynamics, was significantly reduced in the upright position compared to the supine position (26.4 ± 4.7 vs. 20.5 ± 5.4%, p < 0.01). Similarly, RSA was also reduced during upright posture, but the difference was less significant (0.11 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.01 s, p < 0.05). In conclusion, joint symbolic dynamics provides a new efficient technique for the analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction that is highly sensitive to the effects of orthostatic challenge. PMID:21618043

  10. Preference Transitivity and Symbolic Representation in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Mancini, Alessandra; Crescimbene, Lara; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    Background Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity - a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A≥B, B≥C and A≥C (where ≥ indicates preference). In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic representation. PMID:18545670

  11. Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for reading symbols on highly reflective surfaces. By use of beam splitters, the visible and infrared collimated lights are introduced along the optical path of the telecentric lens, so that the target is illuminated and viewed from the same direction.

  12. New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.

  13. An all-digital Manchester symbol synchronizer for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, B. H.; Vang, H.; Cellier, A.; Lindsey, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Shuttle S-Band relay communications links via TDRS are coded and may operate at symbol signal-to-noise ratios (Es/No) as low as -5dB. A brass-board all-digital bit synchronizer with very low (0.05dB) degradation relative to an idealized analog model has been designed to process the 216 KBPS Manchester data symbols. This all-digital bit synchronizer, which provides soft decision detected outputs to a convolutional decoder, may be operated at any rate below 216 KBPS by merely changing the master clock frequency.

  14. Multiplexing symbolic dynamics-based chaos communications using synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Corron, Ned J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel form of multiplexing information-bearing chaotic waveforms is demonstrated experimentally. This scheme dramatically increases the information carrying capacity of a chaotic communication system. In the transmitter, information is encoded in the chaotic waveforms of two electronic circuits using small perturbations to induce the symbolic dynamics to follow a prescribed symbol sequence. Waveforms from each of the drive oscillators are summed to form a single scalar signal that is transmitted to the receiver. Identical oscillators in the receiver synchronize to their counterparts in the drive system, effectively de-multiplexing the transmitted signal. The transmitted information in each channel is extracted from simple return maps of the receiver oscillators.

  15. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  16. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

  17. Latah: the symbolism of a putative mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Kenny, M G

    1978-09-01

    This paper examines the symbolic properties and cultural relevance of latah, a behavioral state noted in Malay and Indonesia since the 19th Century. Most interpretations of latah have been psychological, latah being perceived as a 'mental disorder.' In the following, it is concluded that latah is intimately related to other aspects of Malayo-Indonesian culture and that it is a well-known cultural pattern and not a mental disorder as such, though it may occur among persons, largely women, in a socially and psychologically marginal situation. Latah is a symbolic representation of marginality, and it is as appropriate to certain mythological and religious figures to the socially marginal. PMID:710172

  18. The analysis of control trajectories using symbolic and database computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This final report comprises the formal semi-annual status reports for this grant for the periods June 30-December 31, 1993, January 1-June 30, 1994, and June 1-December 31, 1994. The research supported by this grant is broadly concerned with the symbolic computation, mixed numeric-symbolic computation, and database computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. A review of work during the report period covers: trajectories and approximating series, the Cayley algebra of trees, actions of differential operators, geometrically stable integration algorithms, hybrid systems, trajectory stores, PTool, and other activities. A list of publications written during the report period is attached.

  19. One snake or two: the symbols of medicine.

    PubMed

    Froman, Carol R; Skandalakis, John E

    2008-04-01

    In antiquity, Asklepios was portrayed with a stout staff around which was coiled a snake. Hermes (Mercury), the messenger of the gods, was portrayed with a wand, often with wings, around which were coiled two snakes. During the Renaissance and up to modern times, in varied locales, each icon has been termed the caduceus and afforded the status of the symbol of medicine. It is proposed that this confusion did not arise from ignorance, but from the loss of the deeper significance of the symbols, and from the replacement of religious iconographic constraints by aesthetic and decorative considerations. PMID:18453299

  20. Things to think with: words and objects as material symbols.

    PubMed

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2008-06-12

    This paper integrates archaeology, anthropology and functional brain imaging in an examination of the cognition of words and objects. Based on a review of recent brain imaging experiments, it is argued that in cognition and action, material symbols may be the link between internal representations and objects and words in the world. This principle is applied to the sapient paradox, the slow development of material innovation at the advent of the anatomically modern human. This translates the paradox into a long-term build-up of extended and distributed cognition supported by development in the complexity of material symbols. PMID:18299276

  1. Detecting recurrence domains of dynamical systems by symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    beim Graben, Peter; Hutt, Axel

    2013-04-12

    We propose an algorithm for the detection of recurrence domains of complex dynamical systems from time series. Our approach exploits the characteristic checkerboard texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots. In phase space, recurrence plots yield intersecting balls around sampling points that could be merged into cells of a phase space partition. We construct this partition by a rewriting grammar applied to the symbolic dynamics of time indices. A maximum entropy principle defines the optimal size of intersecting balls. The final application to high-dimensional brain signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal. PMID:25167271

  2. Detecting Recurrence Domains of Dynamical Systems by Symbolic Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graben, Peter beim; Hutt, Axel

    2013-04-01

    We propose an algorithm for the detection of recurrence domains of complex dynamical systems from time series. Our approach exploits the characteristic checkerboard texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots. In phase space, recurrence plots yield intersecting balls around sampling points that could be merged into cells of a phase space partition. We construct this partition by a rewriting grammar applied to the symbolic dynamics of time indices. A maximum entropy principle defines the optimal size of intersecting balls. The final application to high-dimensional brain signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal.

  3. Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig

    2005-01-01

    All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

  4. From symbolizing to non-symbolizing within the scope of a link: from dreams to shouts of terror caused by an absent presence.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ruggero

    2012-08-01

    This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552

  5. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND...

  6. The Social Fabric and Innovation Diffusion: Symbolic Adoption of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Stephen G.; Korsching, Peter F.

    2004-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, panel design to examine the effects of negative information acquisition, compliance with opinion leader endorsements, and social demographic characteristics on consumers' symbolic adoption of food irradiation. Data collection coincided with the first market test of irradiated food conducted by a commercial firm,…

  7. Similarity of Symbol Frequency Distributions with Heavy Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Martin; Font-Clos, Francesc; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the similarity between symbolic sequences is a traditional problem in information theory which requires comparing the frequencies of symbols in different sequences. In numerous modern applications, ranging from DNA over music to texts, the distribution of symbol frequencies is characterized by heavy-tailed distributions (e.g., Zipf's law). The large number of low-frequency symbols in these distributions poses major difficulties to the estimation of the similarity between sequences; e.g., they hinder an accurate finite-size estimation of entropies. Here, we show analytically how the systematic (bias) and statistical (fluctuations) errors in these estimations depend on the sample size N and on the exponent γ of the heavy-tailed distribution. Our results are valid for the Shannon entropy (α =1 ), its corresponding similarity measures (e.g., the Jensen-Shanon divergence), and also for measures based on the generalized entropy of order α . For small α 's, including α =1 , the errors decay slower than the 1 /N decay observed in short-tailed distributions. For α larger than a critical value α*=1 +1 /γ ≤2 , the 1 /N decay is recovered. We show the practical significance of our results by quantifying the evolution of the English language over the last two centuries using a complete α spectrum of measures. We find that frequent words change more slowly than less frequent words and that α =2 provides the most robust measure to quantify language change.

  8. Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use

  9. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  10. Frame synchronization methods based on channel symbol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.

    1989-01-01

    The current DSN frame synchronization procedure is based on monitoring the decoded bit stream for the appearance of a sync marker sequence that is transmitted once every data frame. The possibility of obtaining frame synchronization by processing the raw received channel symbols rather than the decoded bits is explored. Performance results are derived for three channel symbol sync methods, and these are compared with results for decoded bit sync methods reported elsewhere. It is shown that each class of methods has advantages or disadvantages under different assumptions on the frame length, the global acquisition strategy, and the desired measure of acquisition timeliness. It is shown that the sync statistics based on decoded bits are superior to the statistics based on channel symbols, if the desired operating region utilizes a probability of miss many orders of magnitude higher than the probability of false alarm. This operating point is applicable for very large frame lengths and minimal frame-to-frame verification strategy. On the other hand, the statistics based on channel symbols are superior if the desired operating point has a miss probability only a few orders of magnitude greater than the false alarm probability. This happens for small frames or when frame-to-frame verifications are required.

  11. Visual and Symbolic Reasoning in Mathematics: Making Connections with Computers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Lulu; Hoyles, Celia

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes visual and symbolic strategies developed by students to express generalizations of number patterns and connections between them. Compares approaches adopted by students working through parallel task sequences which integrate different computer tools in different ways. Makes suggestions as to how students might be encouraged to exploit…

  12. Decreasing Aggression Using Four-Point Restraints and Symbol Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    Physical aggression among institutionalized mentally retarded persons arouses great social concern. To examine the effectiveness of four-point mechanical restraints and a positive adaptive symbol program in the reduction of high frequency, high intensity aggression, three institutionalized severely mentally retarded adolescents (2 females, 1 male)…

  13. Symbolic Immortality in Ordinary Contexts: Impediments to the Nuclear Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Raymond L.

    1982-01-01

    Lifton's writings indicate that fear of nuclear holocaust has severely impaired and threatens to negate traditional modes of symbolic immortality in America. Lifton's research, however, has been limited to extreme contexts. Data were triangulated in four distinctive American contexts. Found substantial negative evidence of Lifton's suspicions in

  14. Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

  15. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children

  16. 40 CFR 1036.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. BTU British thermal units. CFR Code of Federal... Test (see 40 CFR 86.1362). U.S. United States. U.S.C. United States Code. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and...

  17. 40 CFR 1036.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. BTU British thermal units. CFR Code of Federal... Test (see 40 CFR 86.1362). U.S. United States. U.S.C. United States Code. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and...

  18. 40 CFR 1036.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. BTU British thermal units. CFR Code of Federal... Test (see 40 CFR 86.1362). U.S. United States. U.S.C. United States Code. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and...

  19. Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

  20. 40 CFR 91.403 - Symbols and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols and abbreviations. 91.403 Section 91.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures §...

  1. Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…

  2. Kick with the finger: symbolic actions shape motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Betti, Sonia; Castiello, Umberto; Sartori, Luisa

    2015-11-01

    A large body of research indicates that observing actions made by others is associated with corresponding motor facilitation of the observer's corticospinal system. However, it is still controversial whether this matching mechanism strictly reflects the kinematics of the observed action or its meaning. To test this issue, motor evoked potentials induced by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand and leg muscles while participants observed a symbolic action carried out with the index finger, but classically performed with the leg (i.e., a soccer penalty kick). A control condition in which participants observed a similar (but not symbolic) hand movement was also included. Results showed that motor facilitation occurs both in the observer's hand (first dorsal interosseous) and leg (quadriceps femoris) muscles. The present study provides evidence that both the kinematics and the symbolic value of an observed action are able to modulate motor cortex excitability. The human motor system is thus not only involved in mirroring observed actions but is also finely tuned to their symbolic value. PMID:26354677

  3. Outdoor Recreation Behavior as Viewed from a Symbolic Interactionism Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Craig W.; Morrione, Thomas J.

    This paper analyzes past studies of outdoor recreational behavior from the point of view of symbolic interactionism. This perspective focuses directly on the manner in which individuals interpret the words and behavior of others, as well as their own physical environment. The first part of the analysis examines some recent definitions of…

  4. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  5. A Theory for Educational Research: Socialisation Theory and Symbolic Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theory of socialisation based on the Chicago School of symbolic interactionism but infused with new and important insights offered by contemporary scholars and their writings on roles and relationships in the twenty first century and life in the informational, network and global world. While still rooted in the seminal…

  6. Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate…

  7. Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, M. Wyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…

  8. Animal Symbols in the Art of the Hodensaunee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Explains the significance of the main animal symbols incorporated into the social, cultural, artistic, and spiritual fabric of the Hodenosaunee (the People of the Longhouse) also known as the Six Nations Iroquois: the eagle, turtle, bear, wolf, hawk, heron, snipe, eel, deer, beaver, moose, snake, and serpent. (NEC)

  9. Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

    2008-01-01

    This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

  10. Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an…

  11. Symbols and the Bifurcation between Procedural and Conceptual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David; Gray, Eddie; Bin Ali, Maselan; Crowley, Lillie; DeMarois, Phil; McGowen, Mercedes; Pitta, Demetra; Pinto, Marcia; Thomas, Michael; Yusof, Yudariah

    Symbols occupy a pivotal position between processes to be carried out and concepts to be thought about. They allow us both to do mathematical problems and to think about mathematical relationships. In this presentation, the discontinuities that occur in the learning path taken by different students, leading to a divergence between conceptual and…

  12. Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Literal Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jodi L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been continuing pressure to incorporate algebraic thinking into K-12 education. Elementary teachers will be expected to incorporate and successfully execute algebra related lessons. This dissertation study examines pre-service elementary teachers' conceptions and content knowledge regarding literal symbols and their usage. A written…

  13. Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

  14. The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich…

  15. Symbolic Play in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gillian C.; Konstantareas, M. Mary

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between symbolic play and other domains, such as degree of autistic symptomatology, nonverbal cognitive ability, receptive language, expressive language, and social development, was investigated. The assessment files of 101 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were studied. Nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive language…

  16. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,

  17. Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

  18. The Influence of Symbols and Equations on Understanding Mathematical Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students with mathematics difficulty demonstrate lower mathematics performance than typical-performing peers. One contributing factor to lower mathematics performance may be misunderstanding of mathematics symbols. In several studies related to the equal sign (=), students who received explicit instruction on the relational definition (i.e.,…

  19. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  20. Symbolic Immortality in Ordinary Contexts: Impediments to the Nuclear Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Raymond L.

    1982-01-01

    Lifton's writings indicate that fear of nuclear holocaust has severely impaired and threatens to negate traditional modes of symbolic immortality in America. Lifton's research, however, has been limited to extreme contexts. Data were triangulated in four distinctive American contexts. Found substantial negative evidence of Lifton's suspicions in…

  1. Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masiki, Trent

    2011-01-01

    Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…

  2. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign language documents and... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by paragraph (d) of this section. If a filing...

  3. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign language documents and... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by paragraph (d) of this section. If a filing...

  4. Scaffolding Young Children's Understanding of Symbolic Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Olga; Salsa, Analía; Maita, María del Rosario; Mareovich, Florencia

    2013-01-01

    Symbolic objects are cognitive tools children must learn to master very early in life. A crucial factor in cognitive development is the instruction or informational support children receive in social contexts. While numerous studies have investigated the relation between instruction and development in various domains, like language or symbolic…

  5. Rona's Story and the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naveh, Nissan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a method for teaching the theory of symbolic interactionism in a high-school course--Introduction to Sociology. The role-playing game used as a method for teaching the theory is grounded on a philosophy of education whose principles call for meaningful and relevant learning, based on experiential activity and investigation of…

  6. Wishes and Riddles: Symbolic Imagery in Chinese Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the wishes and riddles found in myths and rebuses in Chinese art. The packet contains: (1) an introductory essay describing symbolism used in the art of various dynasties of China; (2) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (3) a…

  7. Symbolic loss in American adolescents: mourning in teenage cinema.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2014-04-01

    I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre. PMID:22843337

  8. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sathasivam, Saratha

    2010-12-23

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  9. Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…

  10. AACSB Accreditation: Symbol of Excellence or March toward Mediocrity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, William; Noland, Thomas G.; Sinclair, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is supposed to be a symbol of excellence for business schools. However, the recent increase in the number of accredited schools and the creation of AACSB's "professionally qualified" (PQ) designation for faculty raises some concern in the academic community. Why has…

  11. Insight and Outlook: Symbol and Metaphor in Phototherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, David

    Although the roots of phototherapy extend back to the late 1850's, it did not emerge as a distinct entity until the late 1970's. Growing interest has generated a substantial body of literature in the field. While photographs may be looked at concretely, as two-dimensional, their symbolic and metamorphic nature is a potentially powerful tool in…

  12. Student Activism within Christian College Cultures: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their…

  13. The Comprehension of Symbolic Play in the Nursery School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellares Viola, R.; Bassedas Ballus, M.

    This paper describes two projects analyzing forms of appearance and the characteristics of symbolic play, that is, spontaneous play free from adult intervention. The paper highlights some characteristics and theoretical orientations and discusses preliminary findings. The theoretical framework includes using evolutive cognitive and

  14. Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two…

  15. Student Activism within Christian College Cultures: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their

  16. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

  17. 50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signs and symbols. 85.43 Section 85.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Conditions on Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.43 Signs...

  18. 50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signs and symbols. 85.43 Section 85.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Conditions on Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.43 Signs...

  19. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,…

  20. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that

  1. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  2. Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigam, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…

  3. Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masiki, Trent

    2011-01-01

    Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI

  4. Generalized Symbolic Execution for Model Checking and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurshid, Sarfraz; Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem; Kofmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Modern software systems, which often are concurrent and manipulate complex data structures must be extremely reliable. We present a novel framework based on symbolic execution, for automated checking of such systems. We provide a two-fold generalization of traditional symbolic execution based approaches: one, we define a program instrumentation, which enables standard model checkers to perform symbolic execution; two, we give a novel symbolic execution algorithm that handles dynamically allocated structures (e.g., lists and trees), method preconditions (e.g., acyclicity of lists), data (e.g., integers and strings) and concurrency. The program instrumentation enables a model checker to automatically explore program heap configurations (using a systematic treatment of aliasing) and manipulate logical formulae on program data values (using a decision procedure). We illustrate two applications of our framework: checking correctness of multi-threaded programs that take inputs from unbounded domains with complex structure and generation of non-isomorphic test inputs that satisfy a testing criterion. Our implementation for Java uses the Java PathFinder model checker.

  5. Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate

  6. Organizational Communication Assessment: Fuzzy Methods and the Accessibility of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes two interpretive methodological directions available to organizational assessors: textual analysis, or hermeneutics; and ethnomethodology. Explains that to apply these methods, assessment of organizational symbols in messages requires emphasis on three types of data: researcher observations; member responses; and transcripts of…

  7. Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

    2008-01-01

    This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.

  8. Revitalized Undergraduate Mathematics with Symbol Manipulating Graphics Calculators. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaTorre, Donald R.

    Clemson University's Revitalized Undergraduate Mathematics with Symbol Manipulating Graphics Calculators Project introduced Hewlett-Packard HP-48S graphing calculators into undergraduate mathematics instruction to demonstrate that calculators can be effectively integrated into the undergraduate mathematics curriculum. This document reports the

  9. The rod and the serpent: history's ultimate healing symbol.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Learney, Robert; Granderath, Frank A; Antoniou, Athanasios I

    2011-01-01

    The snake has served as a medical emblem for more than 2400 years, since its association with the ancient Greek god of medicine and healing, Asclepius, in the 4th century BC. Its symbolic background can be traced further back to the worship of gods of earth's blossom in ancient Egypt and earth-related deities of the archaic period of Greek antiquity. It is featured entwined around a staff of knowledge and wisdom in most anaglyphs depicting Asclepius. The snake was impressed in the Old and the New Testament as well as in the Christian tradition as a symbol of sin, rejuvenation, death, resurrection, asthenia, and therapy. It is postulated that the double-snake motif was reintroduced by Renaissance philosophers as a medical emblem due to the symbolic connections of Hermes with deliverance and redemption. However, its use during the last two centuries seems to lack substantial historical background. The historical, mythological, and traditional retrospection of the snake's symbolism validates its appropriateness in the health-care field. PMID:20556606

  10. On Symbolic Significance of Characters in "Lord of the Flies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Weihua

    2009-01-01

    The characters in "Lord of the Flies" possess recognizable symbolic significance, which make them as the sort of people around us. Ralph stands for civilization and democracy; Piggy represents intellect and rationalism; Jack signifies savagery and dictatorship; Simon is the incarnation of goodness and saintliness. All of these…

  11. Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is

  12. Transforming Ourselves/Transforming Curriculum: Spiritual Education and Tarot Symbolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semetsky, Inna

    2009-01-01

    This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual "lessons" derived from collective human experiences across…

  13. The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich

  14. Space telescope coordinate systems, symbols, and nomenclature definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The major coordinate systems as well as the transformations and transformation angles between them, for the Space Telescope are defined. The coordinate systems were primarily developed for use in pointing and control system analysis and simulation. Additional useful information (on nomenclature, symbols, quaternion operations, etc.) is also contained.

  15. Symbols and Formulas for a Few Bibliometric Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, B. K.

    1999-01-01

    Symbols for bibliometric concepts like "half life,""impact factor,""normalized impact factor," and "immediacy index" are proposed and formulas for the determination of their values are provided. The features of the bibliometric concepts are also highlighted. (Author/AEF)

  16. A Symbolic Model of the Nonconscious Acquisition of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Charles X.; Marinov, Marin

    1994-01-01

    Challenges Smolensky's theory that human intuitive/nonconscious cognitive processes can only be accurately explained in terms of subsymbolic computations in artificial neural networks. Symbolic learning models of two cognitive tasks involving nonconscious acquisition of information are presented: learning production rules and artificial finite…

  17. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling Mid 31 Strict Low Middling SLM 41 Low Middling LM 51 Strict Good Ordinary SGO 61 Good Ordinary GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM... Spotted SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM Sp 23 Middling Spotted...

  18. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling Mid 31 Strict Low Middling SLM 41 Low Middling LM 51 Strict Good Ordinary SGO 61 Good Ordinary GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM... Spotted SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM Sp 23 Middling Spotted...

  19. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling Mid 31 Strict Low Middling SLM 41 Low Middling LM 51 Strict Good Ordinary SGO 61 Good Ordinary GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM... Spotted SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM Sp 23 Middling Spotted...

  20. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... grade Symbol Code No. Good Middling GM 11 Strict Middling SM 21 Middling Mid 31 Strict Low Middling SLM 41 Low Middling LM 51 Strict Good Ordinary SGO 61 Good Ordinary GO 71 Good Middling Light Spotted GM... Spotted SGO Lt Sp 62 Good Middling Spotted GM Sp 13 Strict Middling Spotted SM Sp 23 Middling Spotted...

  1. Auto Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Auto Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Auto Safety Print A A ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  2. Facilitating Children’s Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted. PMID:21813821

  3. Dorsal and ventral attention systems underlie social and symbolic cueing.

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Eye gaze is a powerful cue for orienting attention in space. Studies examining whether gaze and symbolic cues recruit the same neural mechanisms have found mixed results. We tested whether there is a specialized attentional mechanism for social cues. We separately measured BOLD activity during orienting and reorienting attention following predictive gaze and symbolic cues. Results showed that gaze and symbolic cues exerted their influence through the same neural networks but also produced some differential modulations. Dorsal frontoparietal regions in left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and bilateral MT(+)/lateral occipital cortex only showed orienting effects for symbolic cues, whereas right posterior IPS showed larger validity effects following gaze cues. Both exceptions may reflect the greater automaticity of gaze cues: Symbolic orienting may require more effort, while disengaging attention during reorienting may be more difficult following gaze cues. Face-selective regions, identified with a face localizer, showed selective activations for gaze cues reflecting sensory processing but no attentional modulations. Therefore, no evidence was found linking face-selective regions to a hypothetical, specialized mechanism for orienting attention to gaze cues. However, a functional connectivity analysis showed greater connectivity between face-selective regions and right posterior IPS, posterior STS, and inferior frontal gyrus during gaze cueing, consistent with proposals that face-selective regions may send gaze signals to parts of the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attention networks. Finally, although the default-mode network is thought to be involved in social cognition, this role does not extend to gaze orienting as these regions were more deactivated following gaze cues and showed less functional connectivity with face-selective regions during gaze cues. PMID:23937692

  4. Fuzzy Intervals for Designing Structural Signature: An Application to Graphic Symbol Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Delalandre, Mathieu; Brouard, Thierry; Ramel, Jean-Yves; Lladós, Josep

    The motivation behind our work is to present a new methodology for symbol recognition. The proposed method employs a structural approach for representing visual associations in symbols and a statistical classifier for recognition. We vectorize a graphic symbol, encode its topological and geometrical information by an attributed relational graph and compute a signature from this structural graph. We have addressed the sensitivity of structural representations to noise, by using data adapted fuzzy intervals. The joint probability distribution of signatures is encoded by a Bayesian network, which serves as a mechanism for pruning irrelevant features and choosing a subset of interesting features from structural signatures of underlying symbol set. The Bayesian network is deployed in a supervised learning scenario for recognizing query symbols. The method has been evaluated for robustness against degradations & deformations on pre-segmented 2D linear architectural & electronic symbols from GREC databases, and for its recognition abilities on symbols with context noise i.e. cropped symbols.

  5. Distinctive Role of Symbolic Number Sense in Mediating the Mathematical Abilities of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Hiniker, Alexis; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Despite reports of mathematical talent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about basic number processing abilities in affected children. We investigated number sense, the ability to rapidly assess quantity information, in 36 children with ASD and 61 typically developing controls. Numerical acuity was assessed using symbolic (Arabic numerals) as well as non-symbolic (dot array) formats. We found significant impairments in non-symbolic acuity in children with ASD, but symbolic acuity was intact. Symbolic acuity mediated the relationship between non-symbolic acuity and mathematical abilities only in children with ASD, indicating a distinctive role for symbolic number sense in the acquisition of mathematical proficiency in this group. Our findings suggest that symbolic systems may help children with ASD organize imprecise information. PMID:26659551

  6. Effects of environmental sounds on the guessability of animated graphic symbols.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Ashley C; Schlosser, Ralf W; Gygi, Brian; Shane, Howard C; Kong, Ying-Yee; Book, Lorraine; Macduff, Kelly; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    Graphic symbols are a necessity for pre-literate children who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (including non-electronic communication boards and speech generating devices), as well as for mobile technologies using AAC applications. Recently, developers of the Autism Language Program (ALP) Animated Graphics Set have added environmental sounds to animated symbols representing verbs in an attempt to enhance their iconicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental sounds (added to animated graphic symbols representing verbs) in terms of naming. Participants included 46 children with typical development between the ages of 3;0 to 3;11 (years;months). The participants were randomly allocated to a condition of symbols with environmental sounds or a condition without environmental sounds. Results indicated that environmental sounds significantly enhanced the naming accuracy of animated symbols for verbs. Implications in terms of symbol selection, symbol refinement, and future symbol development will be discussed. PMID:25384797

  7. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  8. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... NONROAD PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  11. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  13. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  14. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  15. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  16. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  1. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... NONROAD PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  2. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  3. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... NONROAD PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  4. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  5. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  6. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  7. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  8. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  9. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: $U.S. dollars. CFRCode...

  10. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  11. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  13. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  15. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: $U.S. dollars. CFRCode...

  16. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  17. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  18. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  19. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  20. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...