ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others
Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…
Context-Sensitive Relevancy Analysis for Efficient Symbolic Execution
Khurshid, Sarfraz
on a generalized symbolic execution engine that is developed upon Java Path Finder with checking safety properties. Symbolic execution interprets the program over symbolic D.Shannon was an intern at Fujistu Labs. SunnyvaleContext-Sensitive Relevancy Analysis for Efficient Symbolic Execution Xin Li1 , Daryl Shannon2
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ever wondered about the symbols used by scientists? You're probably not alone, and this website created by a team at the University of Nottingham demystifies sixty prominent physics symbols via informative video segments. The videos are not necessarily meant to be lessons or lectures on the symbols, "The films are just fun chats with men and women who live their subject and know a lot about it!" The videos are quite fun, and the talk on "gamma" includes a discussion of cricket balls, while the "rho" video features paperclips in coffee cups. All of the videos can be accessed via the homepage, and visitors should plan on making several visits to check out all of the clips. At the bottom of the homepage, visitors can also view earlier videos created as part of the project, learn more about their scientists, and take a look at a list of other related sites.
Keselj, Vlado
Key to symbols P PD i Permit Parking Metered Parking Parking for people with Disabilities Emergency Arts and Social Sciences D D100 Management Building D120 Banner Project Office D280 Nu-Tech D300 Safety Building (P) J700 Bernard N. Cain Building (Q) J800 R1 Building J810 R2 Building J850 Dust Explosion Lab (T
Advanced Symbolic Artificial Intelligence
Polani, Daniel
equation ¢£ ! ¡ " Dirac equation Problem: "meaning" of symbols Note: mathematical/physical symbols scripture via mathematics Question: is use of symbols limited to humans? Hypothesis: if so, human for human culture But: ambiguity 8 The Power of Symbols (revisited) Disambiguation: language of mathematics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This website, maintained by a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Fla., reviews the Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. Listed here are the names and information for the first individuals to use some common mathematical symbols, including symbols of operation, grouping symbols, symbols of relation, and symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus, probability, number theory, and logic. The main source used for the information provided is a book by Florian Cajori entitled A History of Mathematical Notations. Links to other pages on topics in mathematics history are also provided.
Demanet, Laurent
This paper deals with efficient numerical representation and manipulation of differential and integral operators as symbols in phase-space, i.e., functions of space $x$ and frequency $\\xi$. The symbol smoothness conditions ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Gary Martin
2000-01-01
As students begin to use symbolic representations, they use variables as unknowns. To help their concept of symbolic representation to grow, they need to explore questions such as: What is an identity? and When are two symbolic representations equal? This activity engages students in work with an online algebraic balance. Questions as well as ideas for class discussion are included in the lesson plan.
Pedagogical Symbols and Reality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zolin, P. M.
1992-01-01
Discusses symbolism in society, literature, and education. Describes the use of symbolism in the changes accompanying the Bolshevik revolution and the establishment of Marxist-Leninist society in the Soviet Union. Suggests that no effort has been made to develop a set of symbols to accompany the changes of perestroika. (DK)
Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha
2011-01-01
Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.
Simone Marinai; Beatrice Miotti; Giovanni Soda
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the indexing and retrieval of mathematical symbols from digitized documents. The proposed approach exploits\\u000a Shape Contexts (SC) to describe the shape of mathematical symbols. Indexed symbols are represented with a vector space-based\\u000a method that is grounded on SC clustering. We explore the use of the Self Organizing Map (SOM) to perform the clustering and\\u000a we compare several
Henzinger, Thomas A.
Automatic Symbolic Verification of Embedded Systems \\Lambda Rajeev Alur y Thomas A. Henzinger z Pei watches, and verified by symbolic fixpoint computation. The verification procedure by checking safety, liveness, timeÂbounded, and duration requirements of digital controllers, schedulers
Optimal Symbol-by-Symbol Detection for Duobinary Signaling
Eggers, M.; Painter, John H.
1983-01-01
processes. Dr. Rubin is a member of Eta Kappa Nu. Optimal Symbol-by-Symbol Detection for Signaling Duobinary MITCHELL D. EGGERS AND JOHN H. PAINTER, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE Abstract-An optimal symbol-by-symbol ietection scheme for duo- binary signaling...: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 12:58:04 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. EGGERS AND PAINTER: SYMBOL-BY-SYMBOL DETECTION 1079 The derivation of the optimal symbol-by-symbol detector Case 11: ;k- = &2 = 0 follows...
Quantities, Units, and Symbols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Royal Society, London (England).
This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…
Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.
Computers for symbolic processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wah, Benjamin W.; Lowrie, Matthew B.; Li, Guo-Jie
1989-01-01
A detailed survey on the motivations, design, applications, current status, and limitations of computers designed for symbolic processing is provided. Symbolic processing computations are performed at the word, relation, or meaning levels, and the knowledge used in symbolic applications may be fuzzy, uncertain, indeterminate, and ill represented. Various techniques for knowledge representation and processing are discussed from both the designers' and users' points of view. The design and choice of a suitable language for symbolic processing and the mapping of applications into a software architecture are then considered. The process of refining the application requirements into hardware and software architectures is treated, and state-of-the-art sequential and parallel computers designed for symbolic processing are discussed.
Goebel, P
1986-01-01
Taking Jones' work--A Theory of Symbolism as a Basis--it is attempted to elaborate on the basic underlying hypotheses of his symbol concept and to show the partiality of his metaphor concept. Prominence is given the concepts of similarity, identification and structure of experience. The insufficient definition of the metaphor complicates, the understanding of the connection between symbol, symptom and language. The metaphor phenomenon is explained and its organization principles pointed out; principles which are also found in the organisation of experience formation. Freunds theses of primitive language and the use of language as a bridge to symbolism is clarified. The connection between metaphor and symbol is represented as a circular process. PMID:2420091
SymbolicSymbolic PerseusPerseus
Poupart, Pascal
with Application to Dynamic PricingApplication to Dynamic Pricing with Demand Learningwith Demand Learning Pascal Poupart (University of Waterloo) INFORMS 2009 #12;2 OutlineOutline · Dynamic Pricing as a POMDP · Symbolic and fixed number of selling rounds (i.e., sale of seasonal items) · Finite range of prices · Unknown
Environmental Health and Safety
Shoubridge, Eric
and purpose of Material Safety Data Sheets, the Laboratory Information Card and other safety symbolsEnvironmental Health and Safety Approved by Document No. Version Date Replaces Page EHS EHS-FORM-072 1.0 15-May-2008 N/A 1 of 4 Laboratory Safety Orientation Checklist Name (Print) Department
Sound Symbolism and Synaesthesia
Bankieris, Kaitlyn
2011-11-20
Sound symbolism is the phenomenon of cross-modal correspondences non-arbitrarily linking phonological components and semantic meanings in language (e.g., words meaning round contain a high proportion of rounded vowels such as /u/; Mathur, 2010). Our...
Advanced Symbolic Arti cial Intelligence
Polani, Daniel
;^p #12;mc) = 0 Dirac equation Problem: \\meaning" of symbols Note: mathematical/physical symbols de#12 But: ambiguity 8 The Power of Symbols (revisited) Disambiguation: language of mathematics GoalAdvanced Symbolic Arti#12;cial Intelligence Is it AI? 1. text editor 2. searching for a name
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This resource describes what a topographic map is, how to read them, and what the symbols shown on maps and their legends mean. Contour lines, intervals, depth curves, and color meanings are discussed. There is also a legend showing examples of each symbol by category: elevation, boundaries, land surface features (mines, vegetation), water features (reefs, channels), buildings and related features (airports, schools), and roads, railroads and others (pipelines, bridges).
Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz
2011-01-01
The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.
Symbolic computer vector analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoutemyer, D. R.
1977-01-01
A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.
Communication in Symbolic Play.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona
2001-01-01
Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, John A.
1989-12-01
Experiments originating from Gestalt psychology have shown that representing information in a symbolic form provides a more effective means to understanding. Computer scientists have been struggling for the last two decades to determine how best to create, manipulate, and store collections of symbolic structures. In the past, much of this struggling led to software innovations because that was the path of least resistance. For example, the development of heuristics for organizing the searching through knowledge bases was much less expensive than building massively parallel machines that could search in parallel. That is now beginning to change with the emergence of parallel architectures which are showing the potential for handling symbolic structures. This paper will review the relationships between symbolic computing and parallel computing architectures, and will identify opportunities for optics to significantly impact the performance of such computing machines. Although neural networks are an exciting subset of massively parallel computing structures, this paper will not touch on this area since it is receiving a great deal of attention in the literature. That is, the concepts presented herein do not consider the distributed representation of knowledge.
ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS
Boyle, Mike
on SFT's, the KimRoushWagoner Factorization Theorem, and the KimRoush counterex amples to Williams introduction to the symbolic dynamics around SFT's, see the very fine introduction [LM] D. Lind and B. Marcus characterization 3.5 Applications 4. SFTlike subshifts 4.1 Sofic shifts 4.2 Specification 4.3 Synchronized systems
Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toro, Leonor
Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Susan Slaymaker
Topographic map examples illustrate symbols commonly used on maps for cultural and natural features, such as boundaries, buildings, caves and mines, coastal features, contour lines and elevations, dams, railroads, rivers, trails, bogs, pipelines, vegetation types, surficial material, and modifications for navigation. Each item links to a map that is enlarged and clearly marked for easy identification.
Symbolic play and language development.
Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny
2015-02-01
Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis. PMID:25658200
HMD symbol stabilization concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.
1995-05-01
Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. Symbol stabilization is a key issue for HMDs. In current equipment, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. A set of standardized coordinate transformations are necessary for the development of HMD symbology and the control laws. Part of the problem is there is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A candidate set of coordinate definitions is proposed to address this issue.
Historic Symbols of Patriotism
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Murry
2010-11-04
What are historical symbols of patriotism? 1. Open: (Teacher will give it to you) Graphic Organzer. Draw a picture in each circle of things you learn. 2. Look at the American Flag American Flag. Draw your own in a circle. 3. Now look at the Alabama Flag Alabama Flag. Let's draw this flag. 4. Watch this video The National Anthem being sung Draw you singing this song! 5. What is this? The Pledge of Allegiance. When do we say this ...
Automatic Symbolic Veri cation of Embedded Systems Rajeev Alury Thomas A. Henzingerz Pei-Hsin Hox
Henzinger, Thomas A.
Automatic Symbolic Veri cation of Embedded Systems Rajeev Alury Thomas A. Henzingerz Pei-Hsin Hox by symbolic xpoint computation. The veri cation procedure|implemented in the Cornell Hybrid Technology Tool on the variables and their deriva- tives. We illustrate the method and the tool by checking safety, liveness, time
Symbolic functions from neural computation.
Smolensky, Paul
2012-07-28
Is thought computation over ideas? Turing, and many cognitive scientists since, have assumed so, and formulated computational systems in which meaningful concepts are encoded by symbols which are the objects of computation. Cognition has been carved into parts, each a function defined over such symbols. This paper reports on a research program aimed at computing these symbolic functions without computing over the symbols. Symbols are encoded as patterns of numerical activation over multiple abstract neurons, each neuron simultaneously contributing to the encoding of multiple symbols. Computation is carried out over the numerical activation values of such neurons, which individually have no conceptual meaning. This is massively parallel numerical computation operating within a continuous computational medium. The paper presents an axiomatic framework for such a computational account of cognition, including a number of formal results. Within the framework, a class of recursive symbolic functions can be computed. Formal languages defined by symbolic rewrite rules can also be specified, the subsymbolic computations producing symbolic outputs that simultaneously display central properties of both facets of human language: universal symbolic grammatical competence and statistical, imperfect performance. PMID:22711873
Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols
Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.
2014-09-16
The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.
Symbolic Invariant Verification for Systems with Dynamic Structural Adaptation
Beyer, Dirk
- dination features that result from the structural adaptation at run-time. Techniques such as testingSymbolic Invariant Verification for Systems with Dynamic Structural Adaptation Basil Becker1 Dirk will be characterized by complex coordination and structural adaptation at run-time. Crucial safety properties have
Symbolic modeling of flexible manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cetinkunt, Sabri; Book, Wayne J.
1987-01-01
An algorithm is presented to symbolically derive the full nonlinear dynamic equations of motion of multilink flexible manipulators. Lagrange's assumed modes method is the basis of new algorithm and adapted in a way suitable for symbolic manipulation by digital computers. It is applied to model a two-link flexible arm by means of a commercially available symbolic manipulation program. The advantages of the algorithm and simulation results are discussed.
Symbolic local information transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.
2013-06-01
Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cathey, W. T.; Schmidt, Rodney A.
1988-04-01
This report describes the results of the work on optical symbolic computing that was performed on grant AFOSR-86-0189 during the second year of the three year program. The detail of the research is in the appended papers. This section of the report is to summarize the motivation for the work, the reasons for the approach taken, and the results. First, a rationale is given for the use of optics in A.I., and then the approach taken is described. The results of the research are then given.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation Methods used The differentiation commands Practice solving symbolic differentiation problems #12;hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation Methods used To perform symbolic differentiation we just use
LABORATORY SAFETY CHECKLIST LABORATORY: DATE
Fleming, Andrew J.
refrigerators and freezers inside and outside the designated lab, have a biological hazard symbol on themLABORATORY SAFETY CHECKLIST LABORATORY: DATE: RESPONSIBLE OFFICER: INSPECTION BY: Boxes apparatus? 1.3 Is there appropriate signage: (a) Biological hazard symbol, and/or (b) OGTR PC2 sign, (c
How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.
2014-01-01
The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…
The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, William B.
2005-01-01
A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.
The Origins of Symbolic Racism
David O. Sears; P. J. Henry
2003-01-01
The theory of symbolic racism places its origins in a blend of anti-Black affect and conservative values, particularly individualism. We clarify that hypothesis, test it directly, and report several findings consistent with it. Study 1 shows that racial prejudice and general political conservatism fall into 2 separate factors, with symbolic racism loading about equally on both. Study 2 found that
SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable
Duchowski, Andrew T.
SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) Cost spent to build variation point i at time i = index over variation points #12;SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) ...adjusted by a factor
Symbolic Mediation in Cognitive Activity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veraksa, Alexander N.
2011-01-01
This article used two studies to investigate sign and symbol mediation in children aged 8-11 years. In role play, children exist at one at the same time in objective reality and their representation of reality. We cannot observe their mental representation directly, but the issue of whether signs or symbols mediate early role play is an important…
Fostering Symbolic Interpretation during Adolescence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peskin, Joan; Wells-Jopling, Rebecca
2012-01-01
Although by 11 years children demonstrate impressive performance on various tasks that assess symbolic thinking in language development, research suggests that few young adolescents demonstrate evidence of symbolic processing when reading literature. This study investigated whether the difficulty might be due to a lack of adequate exposure to…
Symbolic Communication Between Two Chimpanzees
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; And Others
1978-01-01
Through the use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one and requested specific food of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. (Author/MA)
Symbolism, Science, and Developing Minds.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strauss, Michael J.; Levine, Shellie H.
1986-01-01
Approximately 500 nonscience major university chemistry students were surveyed to record their interpretations of specific chemical symbolism before presenting modern concepts of atomic and molecular structure, in an attempt to understand the thought processes entering students use as they interpret symbolism. Results are reported and discussed.…
Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pasareanu, Corina S.
2012-01-01
We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.
School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John
2006-01-01
The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…
Eskander, George S; Atiya, Amir F
2009-05-01
In this paper a model called symbolic function network (SFN) is introduced; that is based on using elementary functions (for example powers, the exponential function, and the logarithm) as building blocks. The proposed method uses these building blocks to synthesize a function that best fits the training data in a regression framework. The resulting network is of the form of a tree, where adding nodes horizontally means having a summation of elementary functions and adding nodes vertically means concatenating elementary functions. Several new algorithms were proposed to construct the tree based on the concepts of forward greedy search and backward greedy search, together with applying the steepest descent concept. The method is tested on a number of examples and it is shown to exhibit good performance. PMID:19342195
Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha
2010-01-01
Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.
Solving Symbolic Equations with PRESS
Sterling, L.; Bundy, Alan; Byrd, L.; O'Keefe, R.; Silver, B.
1982-01-01
We outline a program, PRESS (PRolog Equation Solving System) for solving symbolic, transcendental, non-differential equations. The methods used for solving equations are described, together with the service facilities. The ...
Electrical Units, Abbreviations, and Symbols
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Hoppe, Patrick
In this animated and interactive object, students read an introduction to electrical quantities, units, and symbols and test their knowledge in a matching exercise.Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students
Symbolic Analysis of Hybrid Systems \\Lambda Rajeev Alur 1 Thomas A. Henzinger 2 Howard WongToi 3
Alur, Rajeev
Symbolic Analysis of Hybrid Systems \\Lambda Rajeev Alur 1 Thomas A. Henzinger 2 Howard WongÂToi 3 continuous change. In this survey, we demonstrate symbolic algorithms for the verification of and controller. When these systems occur in safetyÂcritical applications, formal guarantees about the absence
Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction.
Gilmore, Camilla K; McCarthy, Shannon E; Spelke, Elizabeth S
2007-05-31
Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required. Here we report that young children, who have mastered verbal counting and are on the threshold of arithmetic instruction, can build on their nonsymbolic number system to perform symbolic addition and subtraction. Children across a broad socio-economic spectrum solved symbolic problems involving approximate addition or subtraction of large numbers, both in a laboratory test and in a school setting. Aspects of symbolic arithmetic therefore lie within the reach of children who have learned no algorithms for manipulating numerical symbols. Our findings help to delimit the sources of children's difficulties learning symbolic arithmetic, and they suggest ways to enhance children's engagement with formal mathematics. PMID:17538620
Noncoherent DTTLs for Symbol Synchronization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Marvin; Tkacenko, Andre
2007-01-01
Noncoherent data-transition tracking loops (DTTLs) have been proposed for use as symbol synchronizers in digital communication receivers. [Communication- receiver subsystems that can perform their assigned functions in the absence of synchronization with the phases of their carrier signals ( carrier synchronization ) are denoted by the term noncoherent, while receiver subsystems that cannot function without carrier synchronization are said to be coherent. ] The proposal applies, more specifically, to receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signals generated by directly phase-modulating binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data streams onto carrier signals having known frequencies but unknown phases. The proposed noncoherent DTTLs would be modified versions of traditional DTTLs, which are coherent. The symbol-synchronization problem is essentially the problem of recovering symbol timing from a received signal. In the traditional, coherent approach to symbol synchronization, it is necessary to establish carrier synchronization in order to recover symbol timing. A traditional DTTL effects an iterative process in which it first generates an estimate of the carrier phase in the absence of symbol-synchronization information, then uses the carrier-phase estimate to obtain an estimate of the symbol-synchronization information, then feeds the symbol-synchronization estimate back to the carrier-phase-estimation subprocess. In a noncoherent symbol-synchronization process, there is no need for carrier synchronization and, hence, no need for iteration between carrier-synchronization and symbol- synchronization subprocesses. The proposed noncoherent symbolsynchronization process is justified theoretically by a mathematical derivation that starts from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method of estimation of symbol timing utilized in traditional, coherent DTTLs. In that MAP method, one chooses the value of a variable of interest (in this case, the offset in the estimated symbol timing) that causes a likelihood function of symbol estimates over some number of symbol periods to assume a maximum value. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified to fit within the space available for this article, it can be said that the mathematical derivation involves a modified interpretation of the likelihood function that lends itself to noncoherent DTTLs. The proposal encompasses both linear and nonlinear noncoherent DTTLs. The performances of both have been computationally simulated; for comparison, the performances of linear and nonlinear coherent DTTLs have also been computationally simulated. The results of these simulations show that, among other things, the expected mean-square timing errors of coherent and noncoherent DTTLs are relatively insensitive to window width. The results also show that at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), the performances of the noncoherent DTTLs approach those of their coherent counterparts at, while at low SNRs, the noncoherent DTTLs incur penalties of the order of 1.5 to 2 dB.
Symbolic discrete event system specification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeigler, Bernard P.; Chi, Sungdo
1992-01-01
Extending discrete event modeling formalisms to facilitate greater symbol manipulation capabilities is important to further their use in intelligent control and design of high autonomy systems. An extension to the DEVS formalism that facilitates symbolic expression of event times by extending the time base from the real numbers to the field of linear polynomials over the reals is defined. A simulation algorithm is developed to generate the branching trajectories resulting from the underlying nondeterminism. To efficiently manage symbolic constraints, a consistency checking algorithm for linear polynomial constraints based on feasibility checking algorithms borrowed from linear programming has been developed. The extended formalism offers a convenient means to conduct multiple, simultaneous explorations of model behaviors. Examples of application are given with concentration on fault model analysis.
Teaching With Stories and Symbols
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-04-30
This activity is about symbols used by various cultures to interpret the Sun. Learners will do three separate activities to illustrate how astronomy was important to both ancient and present day cultures. First, they will learn about Sun symbols from different cultures and then decorate or create their own to hang in the classroom. After, learners will interpret and retell an astronomical myth or legend to the group. This is Activity L-4 of Universe at Your Fingertips 2.0: A Collection of Activities and Resources for Teaching Astronomy DVD-ROM, which is available for purchase.
Measuring correlations in symbol sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzel, Hanspeter; Große, Ivo
1995-02-01
The paper is devoted to relations between correlation functions and mutual information. It is shown that, in sequences over an alphabet of ? symbols, statistical dependences are measured by ( ? - 1) 2 independent parameters. However, not all of them can be determined by autocorrelation functions. Appropriate sets of correlation functions (including crosscorrelations) are introduced, which allow the detection of all dependences. The results are exemplified for binary, ternary, and quaternary symbol sequences. As an application, it is discussed that a nonuniform codon usage in protein-coding DNA sequences introduces periodic correlations even at distances in the order of 1000 base pairs.
Symbol nomenclature for glycan representation
Varki, Ajit; Cummings, Richard D.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Stanley, Pamela; Marth, Jamey D.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Hart, Gerald W.; Etzler, Marilynn E.
2010-01-01
The glycan symbol nomenclature proposed by Harvey et al. in these pages has relative advantages and disadvantages. The use of symbols to depict glycans originated from Kornfeld in 1978, was systematized in the First Edition of “Essentials of Glycobiology” and updated for the second edition, with input from relevant organizations such as the Consortium for Functional Glycomics. We also note that >200 illustrations in the second edition have already been published using our nomenclature and are available for download at PubMed. PMID:19902428
Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merriam, Allen H.
1975-01-01
Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)
BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas
2013-08-01
BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.
Class, Race, and Symbolic Community
John Brueggemann
1995-01-01
In a quantitative analysis of class consciousness, race is shown to be one of the important determinants. Erik Olin Wright's exploitative asset-based theory of class structure is critiqued because it does not take sufficient account of race as it shapes the class content of consciousness. This paper proposes that blacks in the United States constitute a symbolic community with a
Symbolic Power, Robotting, and Surveilling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Skovsmose, Ole
2012-01-01
Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical…
Dream Symbol or Dream Process?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Himelstein, Philip
1984-01-01
Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)
Symbolic Computation Software Composability Protocol
Konovalov, Alexander
, Fife, KY16 9SX, Scotland Steve Linton Email: sal at cs dot st-andrews dot ac dot uk Homepage: http, Fife, KY16 9SX, Scotland #12;SCSCP 2 Abstract The GAP package SCSCP implements the Symbolic Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7 Examples of SCSCP usage 35 7.1 Providing services with the SCSCP package
Children's Idiosyncratic Symbol-Making.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barrett, Margaret; And Others
An ethnographic study documented and analyzed the idiosyncratic symbols kindergarten children employ to encode their experiences in the domains of mathematics, music, and visual art, in order to identify any patterns in use and meaning. In the area of mathematics, children were given common objects and asked to sort them. Four categories of…
On symbol permutation invariant balanced codes
Raffaele Mascella; Luca G. Tallini
2005-01-01
A symbol permutation invariant balanced (SPI-balanced) code over the alphabet ZZm = {0, 1,....,m - 1} is a block code over ZZ m such that each alphabet symbol occurs as many times as any other symbol in every codeword. For this reason every permutation among the symbols of the alphabet changes a SPI-balanced code into a SPI-balanced code. This means
Categorical Introduction to Dynamical Systems Symbolic Dynamical Systems
Kahng, Byung-Jay
Categorical Introduction to Dynamical Systems Symbolic Dynamical Systems Symbolic Embedding Examples Results Embeddings in Symbolic Dynamical Systems Jonathan Jaquette Swarthmore College July 22, 2009 Jonathan Jaquette Embeddings in Symbolic Dynamical Systems #12;Categorical Introduction
Digit Symbol Rotation: A More g-Loaded Version of the Traditional Digit Symbol Subtest.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gignac, Gilles; Vernon, Philip A.
2003-01-01
Created an adaptation of the Digit Symbol subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Digit Symbol Rotation test, and evaluated its "g" loading with 54 adults. Results suggest the Digit Symbol Rotation test has more factorial validity than Digit Symbol, but remains equally easy to administer and score. (SLD)
7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Type 92) § 29.1008 Combination symbols. A color or group symbol used with another symbol to form the third factor of a...primings, XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized leaf or smoking leaf, GL—thin-bodied nondescript,...
Symbolic Play in Autism: A Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarrold, Christopher; And Others
1993-01-01
Experimental research into the symbolic play of children with autism is reviewed in an attempt to outline the nature of their deficit in this area. Evidence is found for an impairment in the spontaneous symbolic play of autistic children, but autistic children may have a capacity for symbolic play that they do not spontaneously exhibit.…
Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Auty, Geoff
2012-01-01
Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…
Symbolic links in the Open Directory Project
Saverio Perugini
2008-01-01
We present a study to develop an improved understanding of symbolic links in web directories. A symbolic link is a hyperlink which makes a directed connection from a webpage along one path through a directory to a page along another path. While symbolic links are ubiquitous in web directories such as Yahoo!, they are under-studied and, as a result, their
SYMBOLIC EXTENSION ENTROPY: Cr PRODUCTS AND FLOWS
Boyle, Mike
. Key words and phrases. sex entropy, residual entropy, entropy, superenvelope. This work was partly} . The symbolic extension entropy function hT sex is the infimum of the extension en- tropy functions h ext, taken over all symbolic extensions [1]. (If there is no symbolic extension, then we set hT sex . Also, we
7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...
7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...
7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...
Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki
2008-01-01
Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…
7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...
Symbol-String Sensitivity and Children's Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pammer, Kristen; Lavis, Ruth; Hansen, Peter; Cornelissen, Piers L.
2004-01-01
In this study of primary school children, a novel "symbol-string" task is used to assess sensitivity to the position of briefly presented non-alphabetic but letter-like symbols. The results demonstrate that sensitivity in the symbol-string task explains a unique proportion of the variability in children's contextual reading accuracy. Moreover,…
Automating symbolic analysis with CLIPS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Keith E.
1990-01-01
Symbolic Analysis is a methodology first applied as an aid in selecting and generating test cases for 'white box' type testing of computer software programs. The feasibility of automating this analysis process has recently been demonstrated through the development of a CLIPS-based prototype tool. Symbolic analysis is based on separating the logic flow diagram of a computer program into its basic elements, and then systematically examining those elements and their relationships to provide a detailed static analysis of the process that those diagrams represent. The basic logic flow diagram elements are flow structure (connections), predicates (decisions), and computations (actions). The symbolic analysis approach supplies a disciplined step-by-step process to identify all executable program paths and produce a truth table that defines the input and output domains for each path identified. The resulting truth table is the tool that allows software test cases to be generated in a comprehensive manner to achieve total program path, input domain, and output domain coverage. Since the manual application of symbolic analysis is extremely labor intensive and is itself error prone, automation of the process is highly desirable. Earlier attempts at automation, utilizing conventional software approaches, had only limited success. This paper briefly describes the automation problems, the symbolic analysis expert's problem solving heuristics, and the implementation of those heuristics as a CLIPS based prototype, and the manual augmentation required. A simple application example is also provided for illustration purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of implementation experiences, automation limitations, usage experiences, and future development suggestions.
Symbolizing quantitative differences on color CRTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGranaghan, Matthew
1988-04-01
This study examined the use of brightness to encode ordinal differences between symbols on CRT screens. The symbols were either U.S. states on a choropleth map or simple rectangles. The effects of background color and brightness were also measured. These results were related to the conventional practice with printed maps. Subjects compared pairs of symbols with different brightnesses, displayed on three background colors each of which had three brightnesses, and chose as quickly as possible which of the pair of symbols indicated more. On both the maps and the rectangles, subject responses indicated that the darker symbols meant more. These CRT results are consistent with the convention used with printed maps.
Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1990-01-01
A differential detection technique for MPSK (multiple-phase shift keying), which uses a multiple-symbol observation interval, is presented, and its performance is analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. Thus, the performance of this multiple-symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases M and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded MPSK.
Symbolic Execution Enhanced System Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davies, Misty D.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Raman, Vishwanath
2012-01-01
We describe a testing technique that uses information computed by symbolic execution of a program unit to guide the generation of inputs to the system containing the unit, in such a way that the unit's, and hence the system's, coverage is increased. The symbolic execution computes unit constraints at run-time, along program paths obtained by system simulations. We use machine learning techniques treatment learning and function fitting to approximate the system input constraints that will lead to the satisfaction of the unit constraints. Execution of system input predictions either uncovers new code regions in the unit under analysis or provides information that can be used to improve the approximation. We have implemented the technique and we have demonstrated its effectiveness on several examples, including one from the aerospace domain.
... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...
Selforganization of Symbols and Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebeling, Werner; Feistel, Rainer
2014-12-01
Following the spirit of the late John Nicolis, the purpose of this paper is to develop an evolutionary approach for the basic problem of generation, storage and dissipation of information in physical and biological systems via dynamical processes. After analysing the relation of entropy and information we develop our view that information is in general a nonphysical, emergent quantity, in spite of the fact that information transfer is always connected with flows of physical energy and entropy. We argue that information can have two basic forms: free information (like that of disks, tapes, books), that is what is transferred between sender and receiver, and bound information, that is a physical non-equilibrium structure which retains potential information reflecting the history of its formation (like fossils, geological strata or galaxies). As a basic concept we consider a kinetic phase transition of the second kind, termed the ritualization transition, which leads to the self-organized emergence of symbols, the key elements of free information. Ritualization occurs only in the context of life. Hence, the simplest physical example for a ritualization process is a system that starts as a physical and ends as a biological one, in other words, the origin of life. Our interest in this transition is focussed on the self-organization of information, on the way how a physical system can be enabled to create symbols and the related symbol-processing machinery out of ordinary pre-biological roots.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baez, John C.; Christensen, J. Daniel; Egan, Greg
2002-12-01
The Riemannian 10j symbols are spin networks that assign an amplitude to each 4-simplex in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity. This amplitude is a function of the areas of the ten faces of the 4-simplex, and Barrett and Williams have shown that one contribution to its asymptotics comes from the Regge action for all non-degenerate 4-simplices with the specified face areas. However, we show numerically that the dominant contribution comes from degenerate 4-simplices. As a consequence, one can compute the asymptotics of the Riemannian 10j symbols by evaluating a 'degenerate spin network', where the rotation group SO(4) is replaced by the Euclidean group of isometries of Bbb R3. We conjecture formulae for the asymptotics of a large class of Riemannian and Lorentzian spin networks in terms of these degenerate spin networks, and check these formulae in some special cases. Among other things, this conjecture implies that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are asymptotic to 1/16 times the Riemannian ones.
Ordinality and the nature of symbolic numbers.
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
2013-10-23
The view that representations of symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are closely tied to one another is widespread. However, the link between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers is almost always inferred from cardinal processing tasks. In the current work, we show that considering ordinality instead points to striking differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers. Human behavioral and neural data show that ordinal processing of symbolic numbers (Are three Indo-Arabic numerals in numerical order?) is distinct from symbolic cardinal processing (Which of two numerals represents the greater quantity?) and nonsymbolic number processing (ordinal and cardinal judgments of dot-arrays). Behaviorally, distance-effects were reversed when assessing ordinality in symbolic numbers, but canonical distance-effects were observed for cardinal judgments of symbolic numbers and all nonsymbolic judgments. At the neural level, symbolic number-ordering was the only numerical task that did not show number-specific activity (greater than control) in the intraparietal sulcus. Only activity in left premotor cortex was specifically associated with symbolic number-ordering. For nonsymbolic numbers, activation in cognitive-control areas during ordinal processing and a high degree of overlap between ordinal and cardinal processing networks indicate that nonsymbolic ordinality is assessed via iterative cardinality judgments. This contrasts with a striking lack of neural overlap between ordinal and cardinal judgments anywhere in the brain for symbolic numbers, suggesting that symbolic number processing varies substantially with computational context. Ordinal processing sheds light on key differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing both behaviorally and in the brain. Ordinality may prove important for understanding the power of representing numbers symbolically. PMID:24155309
RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY
WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH TRAINING FIRE PREVENTION and LIFERESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY ADMINISTRATION Organizational Chart June 8, 2015 Russell Vernon, Ph.D. Director
[Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].
Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán
2013-09-01
Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424
Drug Saf . Author manuscript Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Drug Saf . Author manuscript Page /1 5 Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical.fainzang@orange.fr > Abstract Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view
Symbolic Analysis for Improving Simulation Coverage of Simulink/Stateflow Models
Kanade, Aditya
Symbolic Analysis for Improving Simulation Coverage of Simulink/Stateflow Models Rajeev Alur@seas.upenn.edu S. Ramesh GM India Science Lab ramesh.s@gm.com K.C. Shashidhar GM India Science Lab shashidhar.kc@gm.com ABSTRACT Aimed at verifying safety properties and improving simula- tion coverage for hybrid systems models
Symbolic meanings of island in dreams.
Takao, H
1998-02-01
Six dreams reported from neurotic patients in the therapy of Jungian analysis are presented to illustrate the symbolic meanings of islands in dreams. The island in dreams symbolizes (i) the entrance point into Jungian analysis, (ii) a complex in which a dreamer has got involved and (iii) the beginning of the newly organized ego consciousness. The multiple meanings of islands are suggested to originate from several levels of the unconscious from which the identical symbol of island comes from. PMID:9682934
A Symbolic Model Checker for ACTL
Alessandro Fantechi; Stefania Gnesi; Franco Mazzanti; Rosario Pugliese; Enrico Tronci
1998-01-01
. We present SAM, a symbolic model checker for ACTL, theaction-based version of CTL. SAM relies on implicit representations ofLabeled Transition Systems (LTSs), the semantic domain for ACTL formulae,and makes use of symbolic manipulation algorithms. SAM hasbeen realized by translating (networks of) LTSs and, possibly recursive,ACTL formulae into BSP (Boolean Symbolic Programming), a programminglanguage aiming at defining computations on boolean
Symbolic Methods in Industrial Analog Circuit Design
T. Halfmann; T. Wichmann
Industrial analog circuits are usually designed using numerical simulation tools. To obtain a deeper circuit understanding, symbolic analysis techniques can additionally be applied. Approximation methods which reduce the complexity of symbolic expressions are needed in order to handle industrial-sized problems. This paper describes aspects of the field of symbolic analog circuit analysis. Some state-of-the-art simplification algorithms for linear and nonlinear
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective and Identity Theory
Richard T. Serpe; Sheldon Stryker
\\u000a Symbolic interactionist perspectives or frames underlie most sociological interest in identity. We focus first on the presentation\\u000a of these perspectives, beginning with the eighteenth-century Scottish moral philosophers and the later work of the philosopher-psychologist\\u000a George Herbert Mead, tracing their influence on current sociological thinking about social psychology and identity. Two important\\u000a variants in symbolic interactionist thinking, “traditional symbolic interactionism” and
Symbolically-assisted power system simulation
J. Mahseredjian
1996-01-01
This paper describes the concept of symbolically-assisted numeric computation, with applications to power system simulation problems. The paper makes the case that symbolically-assisted computation can be a useful tool for prototyping and program design. The concept and features of a general purpose symbolically-assisted simulation environment are described. Three case-studies are presented: eigenvalue computations, solution of differential equation problems, and the
Mathematical Symbol Indexing for Digital Libraries
Simone Marinai; Beatrice Miotti; Giovanni Soda
2010-01-01
\\u000a In this paper we describe our recent research for mathematical symbol indexing and its possible application in the Digital\\u000a Library domain. The proposed approach represents mathematical symbols by means of Shape Contexts (SC) description. Indexed\\u000a symbols are represented with a vector space-based method, but peculiar to our approach is the use of Self Organizing Maps\\u000a (SOM) to perform the clustering
Park, Sang Woo
2009-05-15
Blind estimation of unknown channel parameters and data symbol detection represent major open problems in non-cooperative communication systems such as automatic modulation classification (AMC). This thesis focuses on estimating the symbol rate...
Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality
Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver
2014-01-01
Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242
Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.
Morrison, J.L.
1984-01-01
A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author
Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan
2008-01-01
Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…
Can Symbolic Play Prepare Children for Their Future?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nowak-Fabrytkowski, Krystyna
1994-01-01
Presents findings concerning the role of symbolic play. Assumes that symbolic play has seven functions in the child's development: cognitive, creative, ordering, stimulative, social, expressive, and substitutive. Considers play as a phenomenon that prepares children's abilities through symbolic play. (BAC)
Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelto, E. V.
1967-01-01
Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.
Set Manipulation with Boolean Functional Vectors for Symbolic Reachability Analysis
Bryant, Randal E.
Set Manipulation with Boolean Functional Vectors for Symbolic Reachability Analysis Amit Goel techniques usually use characteristic functions for representing sets of states. Boolean functional vectors provide an alternate set representation which is suitable for symbolic simulation. Their use in symbolic
Play and the Acquisition of Symbols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fein, Greta G.
This paper examines the interrelationship between children's acquisition and use of symbols and the development of imaginative play. The paper focuses on the use of pretend play as an expression of the child's capacity for symbolic functioning and as an index of intellectual development. The first section of the paper reviews developmental changes…
Object Recognition by Matching Symbolic Edge Graphs
WÃ¼rtz, Rolf P.
Object Recognition by Matching Symbolic Edge Graphs Tino Lourens1 and Rolf P. Wurtz2 1 Computing system based on symbolic graphs with object corners as vertices and outlines as edges. Corners and thus potentially models aspects of human object recognition, for which corners and edges play
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
Application of Unspecified Sequences in Symbolic Summation
Schneider, Carsten
Application of Unspecified Sequences in Symbolic Summation Manuel Kauers RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler UniversitÂ¨at A-4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni-linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler UniversitÂ¨at A-4040 Linz, Austria cschneid@risc.uni-linz.ac.at ABSTRACT We consider symbolic sums which
The Sound-Symbolic System of Japanese.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamano, Shoko
This study explores sound-symbolic, or mimetic, words in the Japanese language, the majority of which are never entered in Japanese dictionaries, and which may not be fully understood in all their nuances by native speakers. The extensiveness of the sound-symbolic system is related to the semantic under-differentiation of Japanese verbs. An…
The Ceremonies and Symbols of Citizenship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thornton, Courtney H.; Jaeger, Audrey J.
2007-01-01
The University of Virginia takes great care in being thoughtful, consistent, and clear about its messages regarding citizenship. While many other institutions hold rituals and distribute symbols to help students achieve desired learning outcomes, all colleges and universities may not be fully realizing the potential of these rituals and symbols.…
Symbolic computation of derivations using labeled trees
Grossman, Robert
. Considering the vector fields as first-order differential operators, it is natural to form higher in the Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 13, pp. 511-523, 1992. 1 Introduction This paper discusses the effective symbolic computation of operators under composition. Examples include differential operators under
THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LAFFAL, JULIUS
A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…
Deficient symbol processing in Alzheimer disease.
Toepper, Max; Steuwe, Carolin; Beblo, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Boedeker, Sebastian; Thomas, Christine; Markowitsch, Hans J; Driessen, Martin; Sammer, Gebhard
2014-01-01
Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 matched healthy controls performed a symbol processing task (SPT) with 4 different item categories. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was run to identify impact of different item categories on performance accuracy in both the experimental groups. Moreover, SPT scores were correlated with neuropsychological test scores in a broad range of other cognitive domains. Finally, diagnostic accuracy of the SPT was calculated by a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Results revealed a global symbol processing dysfunction in AD that was associated with semantic memory and executive deficits. Moreover, AD patients showed a disproportional performance decline at SPT items with visual distraction. Finally, the SPT total score showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between AD patients and healthy controls. The present findings suggest that specific symbol features impede symbol processing in AD and argue for a diagnostic benefit of the SPT in neuropsychological assessment. PMID:24614273
An FMRI-compatible Symbol Search task.
Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H
2015-03-01
Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; p<.001). The criterion validity of the new task was supported, as it exhibited a strong positive correlation with the WAIS Symbol Search (r=.717; p<.001). Predicted convergent and discriminant validity patterns of the FMRI Symbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance. PMID:25794263
Banking (on) Different Forms of Symbolic Capital.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cronin, Blaise; Shaw, Debora
2002-01-01
Successful symbolic capital formation in academia is commonly signified by the trappings of scholarly distinction or acknowledged status as a public intellectual. Compares three potential indices of symbolic capital: citation counts, Web hits, and media mentions. Findings, which are domain specific, suggest public intellectuals are notable by…
Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feasley, Florence G.
Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…
Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Sergio Cabello
Utrecht, Universiteit
for Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, Ljubljana, Slovenia. sergio.cabello@fmf.uni-lj.si 2 DepartmentAlgorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps Sergio Cabello Herman Haverkort Marc van Kreveld-CS-2008-008 www.cs.uu.nl ISSN: 0924-3275 #12;Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps Sergio
Automated Simplification of Large Symbolic Expressions
Bailey, David H.
are highly desirable, both in mathematical research and in problems, say, from mathematical physics or sums, and are frequently large and machine-generated by symbolic mathematics softwareAutomated Simplification of Large Symbolic Expressions David H. Bailey Lawrence Berkeley National
Connecting symbolic difficulties with failure in physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torigoe, Eugene T.; Gladding, Gary E.
2011-01-01
We find that symbolic physics questions are significantly more difficult than their analogous numerical versions. Very few of the errors are due to manipulation errors of the symbolic equations. Instead, most errors are due to confusions of symbolic meaning. We also find that performance on symbolic questions is more highly correlated with the overall performance than performance on numeric questions. We devised a coding scheme that distinguishes questions based only on the mathematical structure of the solutions. The coding scheme can be used to identify both difficult and discriminating physics questions. The questions identified by this coding scheme require an algebraic representation and discourage problem solving strategies that do not require an understanding of symbolic equations. Our results suggest that an inability to interpret physics equations may be a major contributor to student failure in introductory physics.
Symbolic walk in regular networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.
2015-01-01
We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach.
Symbolic manipulators affect mathematical mindsets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bing, Thomas J.; Redish, Edward F.
2008-04-01
The use of symbolic calculators such as MATHEMATICA is becoming more commonplace among upper level physics students. The presence of such powerful calculators can couple strongly to the type of mathematical reasoning students employ. These tools do not merely offer students a convenient way to perform the calculations they would have otherwise done by hand. We present examples from the work of upper level physics majors where MATHEMATICA plays an active role in focusing and sustaining their thoughts around calculation. These students still engage in powerful mathematical reasoning while they calculate, but struggle because of the narrowed breadth of their thinking. We model MATHEMATICA'S influence as an integral part of the constant feedback that occurs in how students frame, and hence focus, their work.
Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costello, D. J., Jr.
1983-01-01
Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.
Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality
2011-01-01
Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087
Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.
Barsalou, Lawrence W
2003-01-01
After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648
Symbolic signatures for deformable shapes.
Ruiz-Correa, Salvador; Shapiro, Linda G; Meila, Marina; Berson, Gabriel; Cunningham, Michael L; Sze, Raymond W
2006-01-01
Recognizing classes of objects from their shape is an unsolved problem in machine vision that entails the ability of a computer system to represent and generalize complex geometrical information on the basis of a finite amount of prior data. A practical approach to this problem is particularly difficult to implement, not only because the shape variability of relevant object classes is generally large, but also because standard sensing devices used to capture the real world only provide a partial view of a scene, so there is partial information pertaining to the objects of interest. In this work, we develop an algorithmic framework for recognizing classes of deformable shapes from range data. The basic idea of our component-based approach is to generalize existing surface representations that have proven effective in recognizing specific 3D objects to the problem of object classes using our newly introduced symbolic-signature representation that is robust to deformations, as opposed to a numeric representation that is often tied to a specific shape. Based on this approach, we present a system that is capable of recognizing and classifying a variety of object shape classes from range data. We demonstrate our system in a series of large-scale experiments that were motivated by specific applications in scene analysis and medical diagnosis. PMID:16402621
Symbolic Search-Based Testing Arthur Baars
Harman, Mark
Symbolic Search-Based Testing Arthur Baars Universidad Polit´ecnica de Valencia Valencia, Spain.harman@ucl.ac.uk Youssef Hassoun King's College London London, U.K. youssef.hassoun@kcl.ac.uk Kiran Lakhotia University
Matter and symbols of the artificial
Rocha, L.M.
1998-08-01
The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.
Intrinsic representation : bootstrapping symbols from experience
Larson, Stephen David, 1980-
2003-01-01
If we are to understand human-level intelligence, we need to understand how meanings can be learned without explicit instruction. I take a step toward that understanding by focusing on the symbol-grounding problem, showing ...
Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.
1993-01-01
Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.
Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem
2014-01-01
Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.
Unpacking Symbolic Equations in Introductory Physics
Torigoe, Eugene T
2015-01-01
Symbolic equations are one of the many representations used in the discipline of physics. Understanding these representations is important for students because they are how students access knowledge in physics. In this paper I build off of the work by Redish and Kuo, which described the cultural differences between how math is used in math class and physics class, and the work by Fredlund et al, which described the importance of unpacking representations for physics student. I will describe how differences in the goals of numeric and symbolic problem solving lead to different set of affordances. In particular, the inability to distinguish variables, knowns, and unknowns in symbolic problem solving is a benefit when describing a generalized physical system. I also present evidence that observed errors when trying to solve symbolic problems are due to students acting on inappropriate cues associated with numeric problem solving.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols...Restoration Act and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on...
Automatic analysis of signals with symbolic content.
Moreno, L; Estévez, J I; Aguilar, R M; Sánchez, J L; Sigut, J; Piñeiro, J D; Marichal, R
2000-03-01
This paper presents a set of methods for helping in the analysis of signals with particular features that admit a symbolic description. The methodology is based on a general discrete model for a symbolic processing subsystem, which is fuzzyfied by means of a fuzzy inference system. In this framework a number of design problems have been approached. The curse of dimensionality problem and the specification of adequate membership functions are the main ones. In addition, other strategies, which make the design process simpler and more robust, are introduced. Their goals are automating the production of the rule base of the fuzzy system and composing complex systems from simpler subsystems under symbolic constrains. These techniques are applied to the analysis of wakefulness episodes in the sleep EEG. In order to solve the practical difficulty of finding remarkable situations from the outputs of the symbolic subsystems an unsupervised adaptive learning technique (FART network) has been applied. PMID:10675717
Effects of Social Reality on Self-Symbolizing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Mendez, Roque
Symbolic self-completion theory postulates that an individual experiencing a shortcoming in one symbolic dimension of a self-defined goal will emphasize an alternative symbolic dimension; these compensatory efforts are considered self-symbolizing. To test this hypothesis two studies were conducted using college females committed either to raising…
Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.
2007-01-01
Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials Methods used The integration commands The substitution commands Practice integrating polynomials symbolically #12;hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials Methods used The HP
Renormalised multiple integrals of symbols with linear constraints
Sart, Remi
renormalisation procedures in physics on firm mathematical ground using the language pseudodi#erential symbolsRenormalised multiple integrals of symbols with linear constraints Sylvie PAYCHA September 19, 2008) on classical symbols, we define renormalised multiple integrals of radial classical symbols with linear
Thirty-second interval patterns for WAIS-III Digit Symbol and Symbol Search
Joseph J. Ryan; David S. Kreiner; Jared M. Bartels; Heather A. Tree; Summer D. Schnakenberg-Ott
2006-01-01
For Digit Symbol-Coding (CD) and Symbol Search (SS) we tested the hypothesis that young adults (44 males, 60 females) would start out quickly and demonstrate steady increases in symbols\\/items completed across each of four 30-s intervals. The average number of CD symbols was 23.19 (S.D.=3.46) for 0–30s, 21.11 (S.D.=3.75) for 30–60s, 21.98 (S.D.=3.70) for 60–90s, and 22.46 (S.D.=3.55) for 90–120s.
[The symbol of the three reigns of nature: to look further into its significance symbolic system].
Devaux, Guy
2010-04-01
Emblem chosen by the Parisian apothecaries, the symbol of the Palm tree, the Snake and Rocks reminds that the pharmaceutical skills concern three reigns of the nature from which arise the constituents of medicines. The hypothesis according to which Nicolas Houel was at the origin of this emblem when he was at the head of the Parisian community in 1556 is advanced, whereas an extension of its symbolic reach is looked for. The analysis of the symbolic senses associated with the snake, with the palm tree and with the rocks directs to a religious interpretation of the symbol in a Christian prospect. PMID:20533810
A symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Dongxin; Sun, Xiangran; Yang, Zhanxin; Niu, Lipi
2013-03-01
This paper presents a symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor. We redefine the initial matrix of 3GPP MBMS Raptor, and add some ancillary information to help make up for destruction of linear relationship in matrix caused by advanced Gauss elimination in 3GPP MBMS Raptor. So we can realize a correct decoding by symbolby- symbol, while 3GPP can not. The proposed algorithm is adapted to an erasure channel with large symbols, low code rate, big time delay or high error probability , and it can greatly improve decoding efficiency.
Symbolic model checking with rich assertional languages
Yonit Kesten; Oded Maler; Monica Marcus; Amir Pnueli; Elad Shahar
2001-01-01
. The paper shows that, by an appropriate choice of a rich assertionallanguage, it is possible to extend the utility of symbolic modelchecking beyond the realm of bdd-represented finite-state systems into thedomain of infinite-state systems, leading to a powerful technique for uniformverification of unbounded (parameterized) process networks.The main contributions of the paper are a formulation of a general frameworkfor symbolic
Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet PC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, Amlan; Hu, Qian; Boykin, Stanley; Clark, Cheryl; Fish, Randy; Jones, Stephen; Moore, Stephen
2011-01-01
In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet PC's handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet PC's symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this new symbol recognition module is robust and expandable, we report results on both a medical symbol set and an expanded symbol test set which includes selected mathematical symbols.
Symbol transmission in VLC Links are challenged by Inter-symbol interference,
Aazhang, Behnaam
periodically insert Styrofoam Blocks blank frames to ensure pure captures occur regularly, limiting the latency of resolvability. Our timing assures a sequence between Styrofoam blocks will have a symbol by the Styrofoam block. Thus, Styrofoam blocks only need be half as long as symbol transmissions. We schedule
Moreno, L; Estévez, J I; Aguilar, R M; Sigut, J; González, C
2001-01-01
Continuous biomedical parameters are normally hybrid signals, because they contain both sub-symbolic and symbolic information. This paper describes a methodology to design adequate processing systems for the automatic analysis of this kind of signals. The methodology is supported by the concept of fuzzy system. PMID:11154894
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.
2015-01-01
Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…
Symbolic Analysis of Hybrid Systems \\Lambday Rajeev Alur 1 Thomas A. Henzinger 2 Howard WongToi 3
Henzinger, Thomas A.
Symbolic Analysis of Hybrid Systems \\Lambday Rajeev Alur 1 Thomas A. Henzinger 2 Howard WongÂToi 3. When these systems occur in safetyÂcritical applications, formal guarantees about the absence@cis.upenn.edu. 2 EECS Dept, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, tah@eecs.berkeley.edu. 3 Cadence Berkeley Labs
Symbolic Analysis of Hybrid Systems y Rajeev Alur1 Thomas A. Henzinger2 Howard Wong-Toi3
Henzinger, Thomas A.
Symbolic Analysis of Hybrid Systems y Rajeev Alur1 Thomas A. Henzinger2 Howard Wong-Toi3 Abstract in safety-critical applications, formal guarantees about the absence of logical and timing errors. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, tah@eecs.berkeley.edu. 3 Cadence Berkeley Labs, 2001 Addison Street, Third Fl
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buden, D.
1991-01-01
Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.
Ping, Li
2558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 1999 Symbol-by-Symbol APP, and Kwan L. Yeung, Member, IEEE Abstract-- An efficient coset based symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP decoding, turbo codes, turbo decoding. I. INTRODUCTION The symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP (a
Artificial symbols and the essence of intelligent computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnus, Amy L.; Oxley, Mark E.
2003-08-01
A challenge for intelligent computing is translating the skills of innovation into mathematical theory and persistent learning algorithms. Computational intelligence differs from artificial intelligence in that artificial intelligence reasons over symbols while computational intelligence reasons over sub-symbolic data and information. Natural symbos arise from shared human experiences. The creative quality of human interaction suggests symbol generation involves a collection of cooperative agents capable of representing relative experience, negotiating innovation, and---finally---building consensus. As hybrids of sub-symbolic and symbolic reasoning become the norm, it is necessary to formalize the design and evaluation of artificial symbols. In this paper, we delineate the difference between sub-symbolic patterns and symbolic experience. Further, we propose fundamental theory supporting the autonomous construction of artificial symbols which---we assert---is the ultimate culmination of an intelligent computation. We apply this theory to model selection among neural networks.
Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language
R?czaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Kelso, J.A. Scott
2009-01-01
The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed within a more general framework that deals with the role of information in biological systems. In this framework, symbols are seen as information-bearing entities that emerge under pressures of communicative needs and that serve as concrete constraints on development and communication. In an attempt to identify relevant dynamic aspects of such a system, one has to take into account events that happen on different time scales: evolutionary language change (i.e., a diachronic aspect), processes of communication (language use) and language acquisition. Acknowledging the role of dynamic processes in shaping and sustaining the structures of natural language calls for a change in methodology. In particular, a purely synchronic analysis of a system of symbols as “meaning-containing entities” is not sufficient to obtain answers to certain recurring problems in linguistics and the philosophy of language. A more encompassing research framework may be the one designed specifically for studying informationally based coupled dynamical systems (coordination dynamics) in which processes of self-organization take place over different time scales. PMID:19173014
On the symbolism of the white coat.
Nash, David A
2014-12-01
The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry. PMID:25480273
Symbolic objects and the analytic frame.
Colman, Warren
2011-04-01
With reference to two patients who brought material objects to their sessions (previously discussed in Colman 2010a, 2010b), this paper reconsiders the pre-eminent role of verbal communication in analysis. I suggest that the privileging of words over action derives from Freud's view of the mind in which only that which can be put into words can become conscious. Following Stephen Mitchell (1993), I discuss the way that this view has become relativized by the shift away from an instinctual drive model to a more relational, meaning-making view of the mind. This is then linked to Jung's emphasis on the importance of symbols and the transcendent function and Milner's view of the therapeutic frame as a space for symbolic meaning. Drawing the boundaries of the therapeutic frame in this way allows for symbolic actions within the frame rather than as boundary-crossing deviations from a more narrowly defined frame which allows only for verbal communications. PMID:21434899
Symbolic-numeric interface: A review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, E. W.
1980-01-01
A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.
Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration
Carlson, B.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
1997-12-31
Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.
Use of symbolic computation in robotics education
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward
1992-01-01
An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.
The Impact of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantity on Spatial Learning
McCrink, Koleen; Galamba, Jennifer
2015-01-01
An implicit mapping of number to space via a “mental number line” occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers) and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left) on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number—especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high—and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner. PMID:25748826
Online Tester for a Symbol Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juday, D.; Mcconaugy, K.
1985-01-01
About 95 percent of faults detected. Programable instrument periodically checks for failures in system that generates alphanumerical and other symbol voltages for cathode-ray-tube displays. Symbol-generator tester compares gated test-point voltages with predetermined voltage limits while circuit under test performs commanded operation. A go/no-go indication given, depending on whether test voltage is or is not within its specification. Tester in plug-in modular form, temporarily wired to generator test points, or permanently wired to these points.
A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Gregory M.
2000-06-01
A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.
Saccadic Compression of Symbolic Numerical Magnitude
Binda, Paola; Morrone, M. Concetta; Bremmer, Frank
2012-01-01
Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities. PMID:23166720
Automatically Generating Symbolic Prefetches for Distributed Transactional Memories
Demsky, Brian
Automatically Generating Symbolic Prefetches for Distributed Transactional Memories Alokika Dash automatically generate symbolic prefetches for distributed applications. It combines this static analysis and Brian Demsky University of California, Irvine Abstract. Developing efficient distributed applications
Test Generation for Graphical User Interfaces Based on Symbolic Execution
Khurshid, Sarfraz
the technique of symbolic execution in GUI testing (addressing a common weakness of traditional GUI testing test generation approach based on symbolic execution to obtain data inputs and enumerate event
The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hardy, Donna Dee
The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…
Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter
2007-01-01
This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…
Towards a Symbolic Modal Logic for LOTOS
Carron Kirkwood; Muffy Thomas
1996-01-01
We present a version of HML (7), adapted to allow description of properties of Full LOTOS (8) specifications using symbolic values and conditions in modal formulae as well as concrete data values. In modifying HML we especially consider the features of LOTOS which distinguish it from other process algebras and discuss how these alter the requirements of the logic, and
Analog Circuits for Symbol-Likelihood Computation
Loeliger, Hans-Andrea
Analog Circuits for Symbol-Likelihood Computation Matthias Frey and Hans-Andrea Loeliger Signal}@isi.ee.ethz.ch Patrick Merkli Sensirion AG, CH-8712 Staefa ZH, Switzerland merkli@ieee.org Abstract-- New analog circuits to analog decoders for error correcting codes. The new circuits can be adapted to many constellations
Symbolic Computational Algebra Applied to Picard Iteration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathews, John
1989-01-01
Uses muMATH to illustrate the step-by-step process in translating mathematical theory into the symbolic manipulation setting. Shows an application of a Picard iteration which uses a computer to generate a sequence of functions which converge to a solution. (MVL)
Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna
2010-01-01
Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…
Decidability and Universality in Symbolic Dynamical Systems
Jean-Charles Delvenne; Petr Kurka; Vincent Blondel
2004-01-01
Many different definitions of computational universality for various types of dynamical systems have flourished since Turing's work. We propose a general definition of universality that applies to arbitrary discrete time symbolic dynamical systems. Universality of a system is defined as undecidability of a model-checking problem. For Turing machines, counter machines and tag systems, our definition coincides with the classical one.
Assertion Guided Symbolic Execution of Multithreaded Programs
Wang, Chao
Assertion Guided Symbolic Execution of Multithreaded Programs Shengjian Guo Department of ECE of cov- ering all feasible intra-thread paths and inter-thread interleavings. We propose a new assertion 1. Our assertion guided redundancy pruning framework. analysis [7], and coverage metrics [14
Buddha in Art: From Symbol to Image
Ganguli, Kalyankumar
1986-01-01
popularity and in artistic representation of such accounts symbols of various denomination such as the foot print. the vacant seat, the dharma chakra wheel and a tree with railing around its bottom came to be used as indicating the presence of the Master...
Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers
Schneider, Carsten
Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler UniversitÂ¨at A-4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni-linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler UniversitÂ¨at A-4040 Linz, Austria cschneid@risc.uni-linz.ac.at ABSTRACT An extension of Karr's summation
Symbolic Finite State Transducers: Algorithms and Applications
Livshits, Ben
visited Microsoft Research. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this workSymbolic Finite State Transducers: Algorithms and Applications Margus Veanes Microsoft Research margus@microsoft.com Pieter Hooimeijer University of Virginia pieter@cs.virginia.edu Benjamin Livshits
The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.
Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J
2014-06-01
Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498
The rich detail of cultural symbol systems.
Read, Dwight W
2014-08-01
The goal of forming a science of intentional behavior requires a more richly detailed account of symbolic systems than is assumed by the authors. Cultural systems are not simply the equivalent in the ideational domain of culture of the purported Baldwin Effect in the genetic domain. PMID:25162879
There Is More to Mathematics than Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rivera, Ferdinand
2010-01-01
When teachers provide students with every opportunity to visually understand a mathematical concept, process, definition, or notation, they allow them to construct and manipulate relevant and useful images in their minds. Visual understanding has a dynamic character that they do not easily develop with alphanumeric symbols alone despite the…
Confidence Measures in Recognizing Handwritten Mathematical Symbols
Watt, Stephen M.
Confidence Measures in Recognizing Handwritten Mathematical Symbols Oleg Golubitsky and Stephen M individual characters about 96% of the time. This paper presents confidence measures for two classifica- tion to use the distance to the nearest neighbor(s) to produce a confidence measure. In this paper, we show
Symbolic Summation in Di#erence Fields
Schneider, Carsten
are able to apply creative telescoping in a very general di#erence field setting and are capable of solving algorithms for finding appropriate di#erence field extensions to solve problems in symbolic summation creative telescoping as a special case of sum extensions in an indefinite summation problem. In particular
Mandala Symbolism in the Theology of Bonaventure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cousins, Ewert
1971-01-01
Bonaventure's symbols of the circle, centre, cross, and journey are analyzed from the perspective of the mandala, as it has been explored in the research of C.G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Guiseppe Tucci." Three photographs are included. (Author/SP)
Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.
2012-01-01
We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.
Performance Of The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, Biren N.; Hinedi, Sami M.
1993-01-01
Report presents analysis of performance of Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) algorithm. Designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio of radio signal modulated by binary data pulses of period T and received in presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Incoming signal and noise first filtered, then sampled Ns - T/Ts times per symbol period. This study focuses on performance of SSME in case in which frequency width limited by digital filter and inter-symbol interference is thereby generated.
Near, Joseph P.
2014-04-22
Symbolic execution of a language is traditionally achieved by replacing the language s interpreter with an entirely new interpreter. This may be an unnecessary burden, and it is tempting instead to try to use as much of ...
Symbol Manipulation: Alternatives to the Computational View of Mind.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolers, Paul A.; Smythe, William E.
1984-01-01
Examines some of the issues that underlie the conceptual structure of the computational approach to cognition. Finds that this approach construes symbolization too narrowly, thereby blocking more adequate treatments of learning and acquisition of skills. Discusses the notion of symbol and symbolization and suggests an alternative approach to the…
Patterns and symbols for solving ill-defined problems
T. Furuhashi; Y. Hattori
1997-01-01
The paper presents a novel network for inference using patterns and symbols. The meanings of patterns and symbols are also given. The network consists of a self organizing network and a two layered associative memory network having a pattern layer and a symbol layer. The proposed network is an implementation of a new framework for solving ill defined problems using
Social Validation of Symbolic Play Training for Children with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Schreibman, Laura; Powell, Nicole Palardy
2006-01-01
The present study examined the social significance of changes resulting from teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Qualitatively obtained results from a previous study indicated that, following symbolic play training, children with autism increased their symbolic play behaviors and play…
A Symbolic Approach to What Curriculum Professors Do.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hazlett, J. Stephen
The characteristics, responsibilities, and functions of curriculum professors are examined using a symbolic approach. Education is an area of endeavor representing a high level of symbolic activity, and insofar as curriculum centers on what is or should be taught in the schools and how it should be treated, curriculum workers occupy symbolically…
"They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.
2012-01-01
Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols…
Symbolic-Numeric Computation D. Wang and L. Zhi, Eds.
Jeffrey, David
¨auser Verlag Basel/Switzerland A Symbolic-Numeric Approach to an Electric Field Problem David J. Jeffrey through an infinite fluid, or flow past a two-dimensional air- foil. In contrast, symbolic methods have the flow of a fluid around an object in a tube. The traditional symbolic methods of fluid mechanics were ap
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions Methods used The integration functions #12;hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions hp calculators - 2 - HP, #12;hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions hp calculators - 3 - HP 50g
Symbolic Mathematics Engines in Teaching Chemistry: A Symposium Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellison, Mark
2004-01-01
The use of Symbolic Mathematics Engines (SMEs) in chemical education as a part of the Division of Computers in Chemistry was discussed by a panel of educators at the Symbolic Calculation in Chemistry symposium in Philadelphia in 2004. The panelists agreed that many more topics in chemistry are amenable to SME's exploration and that symbolic…
Symbolic Model Checking of Tense Logics on Rational Kripke Models
Goranko, Valentin
Symbolic Model Checking of Tense Logics on Rational Kripke Models Wilmari Bekker1,2 and Valentin and study symbolic model checking of the basic tense logic Kt and some extensions of it on that class, pp. 220, 2009. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009 #12;Symbolic Model Checking of Tense Logics
Forgetting Concept and Role Symbols in ALCH-Ontologies
Schmidt, Renate A.
Forgetting Concept and Role Symbols in ALCH-Ontologies Patrick Koopmann and Renate A. Schmidt for forgetting con- cept and role symbols in ALCH ontologies, or for computing uniform interpolants in ALCH interpolation in expressive description logics limits attention to forgetting concept symbols, we believe most
The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Mary E.
Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…
Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James
2008-01-01
Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…
Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna
2012-01-01
This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…
Integration and Application Network: Conceptual Diagram Symbol Libraries
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The IAN symbol libraries contain over 1500 custom made symbols (in 32 categories) designed specifically for enhancing science communication skills. The aim of the IAN is to make these symbols a standard resource for scientists, resource managers, community groups and environmentalists worldwide. Site provides information on the Network, publications, and a wealth of additional project and informational resources.
Application of Symbolic Mathematics to Mathematics A. M. Odlyzko
Odlyzko, Andrew M.
Application of Symbolic Mathematics to Mathematics A. M. Odlyzko Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, New in formulating and testing hypothesis. My experience with symbolic mathematics goes back over ten years. Most applications of symbolic algebra, namely those to physics and celestial mechanics, which are listed
Knot symbols: A tool to describe and simplify knot diagrams
Bruschi, M. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)
1996-04-01
A convenient representation of knot diagrams by abstract symbols is introduced. A set of simple moves, which are convenient combinations of the classic Reidemeister moves, is also introduced. These moves can be applied directly to the symbols to obtain simplified symbols (and therefore simplified diagrams) for the knot.
(KAWAHIGASHI Yasuyuki) unitary 6j-symbol 3
Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki
of subfactors", in "Mathematical Physics in Mathematics and Physics", R. Longo ed., The Fields In- stitute(KAWAHIGASHI Yasuyuki) A. unitary 6j-symbol 3 topological quantum field theory Turaev-Viro-Ocneanu unitary 6j-symbol 3 uni- tary 6j-symbol Drinfel d quantum double Ocneanu modular tensor category
Symbolic dynamics and periodic orbits for the cardioid billiard
A. Bäcker; H. R. Dullin
1997-01-01
The periodic orbits of the strongly chaotic cardioid billiard are studied by introducing a binary symbolic dynamics. The corresponding partition is mapped to a topologically well ordered symbol plane. In the symbol plane the pruning front is obtained from orbits running either into or through the cusp. We show that all periodic orbits correspond to maxima of the Lagrangian and
NSL a Neuro-Symbolic Language for a Neuro-Symbolic Processor (NSP).
Burattini, Ernesto; De Francesco, Antonio; De Gregorio, Massimo
2003-04-01
A Neuro-Symbolic Language for monotonic and non-monotonic parallel logical inference by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. Both the language and its compiler have been designed and implemented in order to translate the neural representation of a given problem into a VHDL software, which in turn can set devices such as FPGA. The result of this operation leads to an electronic circuit that we call NSP (Neuro-Symbolic Processor). PMID:12923922
Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research
Kotarba, Joseph A.
2014-01-01
In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This component has also contributed to the basic social scientific literature on complex organizations and the self. PMID:25221375
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Boynton, Walter R.
on Twitter, or like on Facebook. The Libraries Include 2782 science/ecology symbols 56 albums in 6 categoriesOverview The IAN symbol libraries currently contain 2782 custom made vector symbols designed specifically for enhancing science communication skills. Download the complete set or create a custom packaged
Asymptotics of the Wigner 9j-Symbol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haggard, Hal; Littlejohn, Robert
2010-02-01
We present the asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j-symbol, valid when all quantum numbers are large. The formula is a generalization of the well known asymptotic formula of Ponzano and Regge (1968) for the Wigner 6j-symbol that has played a central role in discrete approaches to 3D quantum gravity. Analysis of the classically allowed region of the 9j-symbol reveals a geometrically rich structure. We conclude with a discussion of the extension of our methods to higher 3nj-symbols. Asymptotic formulas for the higher 3nj-symbols will clarify the semiclassical limit of spinfoam approaches to quantum gravity. )
Invited Paper SLMS In Optical Symbolic Computing Architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, John A.
1988-02-01
Many functions involving manipulations of symbolic information are capable of being performed in a parallel fashion. With the advent of new parallel multiprocessor architectures, the approach to symbolic computing is experiencing a change from complex heuristic approaches accomplished on serial machines to more brute-force, but much faster, approaches on parallel machines. Due to the heavy degree of interconnection required in such architectures and to their parallel nature, numerous optical processing techniques are under serious consideration for symbolic computing. This paper describes the multiprocessor approach to symbolic computing and discusses the central role of two-dimensional SLMs for optical symbolic computing.
Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad
1989-01-01
A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.
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Symbolic derivation of potential based constitutive equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.
1990-05-01
Structural alloys used in high temperature applications exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time dependent and hereditary, as the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but on the thermomechanical history. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved, and error-prone, thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious processes can be of significant benefit. Here a computerized package, running under MACSYMA, capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form (involving tensors, partial differentiation, invariants, and the like) is presented. Special purpose utility algorithms are designed and implemented to perform partial differentiation (chain rule), tensor manipulation, case distinction and simplification. Four constitutive theories reported in the literature are utilized to verify implementation accuracy. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.
The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.
Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B
1978-10-20
Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people. PMID:17817633
Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia
Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah
2014-01-01
The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356
Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2007-01-01
X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Barbara K.; Upton, Richard A.
1986-12-01
This paper describes a workstation and a software development environment designed to facilitate the investigation of integrated signal/symbol processing in image understanding and graphics processing. The workstation is comprised of two complementary, high-performance processors connected via a high-speed interface: the Pixar 2D Image computer and the Symbolics 36xx Lisp machine. Some of the current and potential applications of the system include developing and evaluating new image analysis and feature extraction algorithms, investigating the role of the extracted features in perceptual aggregation, object detection/identification and scene analysis, and assisting in the creation of prototypical image understanding systems.
Symbol interval optimization for molecular communication with drift.
Kim, Na-Rae; Eckford, Andrew W; Chae, Chan-Byoung
2014-09-01
In this paper, we propose a symbol interval optimization algorithm in molecular communication with drift. Proper symbol intervals are important in practical communication systems since information needs to be sent as fast as possible with low error rates. There is a trade-off, however, between symbol intervals and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from Brownian motion. Thus, we find proper symbol interval values considering the ISI inside two kinds of blood vessels, and also suggest no ISI system for strong drift models. Finally, an isomer-based molecule shift keying (IMoSK) is applied to calculate achievable data transmission rates (achievable rates, hereafter). Normalized achievable rates are also obtained and compared in one-symbol ISI and no ISI systems. PMID:25163067
An Interactive Programming Environment For Integrated Signal-Symbol Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upton, Richard A.; Lynch, Denis
1987-06-01
This paper describes an interactive programming environment and tools designed to facilitate the rapid implementation, testing and evaluation of algorithms and systems for image processing, image understanding, and 2- and 3-D graphics processing. The environment, termed Scope, is Lisp-based, resides on a Symbolics 36xx Lisp machine, and provides a tightly-coupled interface between the Symbolics Lisp machine and a Pixar 2D Image Computer. In particular, the environment provides an integrated set of utilities for program development and program maintenance based on the Symbolics Genera operating system. In addition, a wide range of near-real-time image and symbolic operations are provided, and a variety of image and symbolic representations are supported. The environment is specifically designed to facilitate crosstalk between numeric and symbolic data representations and processes. This paper discusses the major features of the environment and their use in developing and investigating selected image understanding capabilities.
Neuro-Symbolic Approaches for Knowledge Representation in Expert Systems
Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis; Jim Prentzas
2004-01-01
In this paper, we first present and compare existing categorization schemes for neuro-symbolic approaches. We then stress the point that not all hybrid neuro-symbolic approaches can be accommodated by existing categories. Such a case is rule-based neuro-symbolic approaches that propose a unified knowledge representation scheme suitable for use in expert systems. That kind of integrated schemes have the two component
Reduced complexity symbol detectors with parallel structure for ISI channels
Javan Erfanian; Subbarayan Pasupathy; Glenn Gulak
1994-01-01
The problem of practical realization of the optimal fixed-delay symbol-by-symbol detection algorithm, which is optimum in the sense of minimizing the symbol error probability, given a delay constraint D, is investigated. A fully-parallel structure is developed, and through systematic reformulations of the algorithm, the computational requirements are reduced considerably. In addition, the problems associated with a large dynamic range such
Perturbations of Pseudodifferential Operators with Negative Definite Symbol
Hoh, W. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)], E-mail: hoh@mathematik.uni-bielefeld.de
2002-06-05
Pseudodifferential operators with negative definite symbols appear as generators of jump-type Markov processes. The purpose of this paper is to treat the large jumps of the process by a perturbation approach for the generator. This is of particular interest since in this way the generators are made accessible to a symbolic calculus of pseudodifferential operators. The main auxiliary result consists of a characterization of tightness of the jump measures in terms of the symbol.
Symbolic dynamics for hydrogen in a magnetic field
Kai T. Hansen; Stefan Güttler
1997-01-01
We discuss symbolic dynamics for the Hamiltonian describing the classical motion of hydrogen in a uniform magnetic field with zero angular momentum. For a scaled energy above a critical value 0305-4470\\/30\\/10\\/019\\/img1, the Hamiltonian has a Cantor set repellor described by a three-lettered symbolic alphabet. For energies below 0305-4470\\/30\\/10\\/019\\/img1 it is not proven that a good symbolic dynamics description exists. We
The ALPAL Matrix Editor for symbolic Jacobians
Painter, J.F.
1990-04-01
ALPAL is a tool that automatically generates code to solve nonlinear integro-differential equations, given a very high-level specification of the equations to be solved and the numerical methods to be used. Its Matrix Editor is brought into play when an ALPAL user wants to use an implicit time-integration scheme. The Matrix Editor is a graphical, interactive tool for specifying the handling of Jacobian matrices and linear solvers. Such specification is done at a very high level of abstraction, and is applied to symbolically defined Jacobian matrices. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Rapten, Phuntsho
2001-01-01
.39 Patag-the Symbol of Heroes 107 A special hilt of paksam tenzin Process of Polishing Swords40 The stained and newly cast swords are rubbed on a shobda41 to remove stains and other marks. Then it is rubbed with hide and sand... used his right hand as hammer and left knee as anvil while casting sword. 6 The triple-bladed dagger, nail or spike-known as a kila in Sanskrit and a phurba in Tibetan and Bhutanese is used as ritual dagger. 7 Lopen Nado, Druk Karpo, p.164. 8...
Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.
Nayernouri, Touraj
2010-01-01
This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine. PMID:20039773
Two-year-olds' understanding of self-symbols.
Herold, Katherine; Akhtar, Nameera
2014-09-01
This study investigated 48 2.5-year-olds' ability to map from their own body to a two-dimensional self-representation and also examined relations between parents' talk about body representations and their children's understanding of self-symbols. Children participated in two dual-representation tasks in which they were asked to match body parts between a symbol and its referent. In one task, they used a self-symbol and in the other they used a symbol for a doll. Participants were also read a book about body parts by a parent. As a group, children found the self-symbol task more difficult than the doll-task; however, those whose parents explicitly pointed out the relation between their children's bodies and the symbols in the book performed better on the self-symbol task. The findings demonstrate that 2-year-old children have difficulty comprehending a self-symbol, even when it is two-dimensional and approximately the same size as them, and suggest that parents' talk about self-symbols may facilitate their understanding. PMID:24588085
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, Priscilla
In kindergarten, students learn the symbols of the alphabet and numeric symbols. This unit is designed to help students understand what patriotic symbols are and that the nation and the state have symbols and icons to represent thoughts, feelings, emotions, and physical objects. Exposure to different national and state symbols helps students…
... And-Facts.aspx. Accessed August 27, 2013. National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration. Bicycles. Available at: http:// ... nhtsa.gov/Bicycles. Accessed August 27, 2013. National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration. Kids and bicycle safety. ...
... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...
How Abstract Is Symbolic Thought? David Landy and Robert L. Goldstone
Landy, David
proposed. Keywords: symbolic processing, mathematics, embodied cognition, relational reasoning, perceptual- though notational mathematics is typically treated as a particularly abstract symbol system arrangements and physical contexts. These special symbols are seen far more often in certain physical patterns
A Symbolic Measure of Authoritarianism: An Exploratory Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hogan, H. Wayne
1970-01-01
Hypothesizes that the personality dimension of authoritarianism can be measured by means of symbols just as well as it is currently measured by Adorno's verbal F-scale. Pilot study confirms symbolic test of intolerance of ambiguity resulted in positive correlation. (Author/DB)
Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.
2008-01-01
"Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…
The Interpretation of Symbol Schemes in a Computational Medium.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ford, Michael; Frederickson, Ann; Martin, Lori
This study investigated the variation of meaning that may be assigned by students to instructional symbol systems. Toward this end, student interpretations of symbols employed to represent free fall in Boxer, a computational environment designed for innovative instructional activities in math and science, were analyzed. Four classes of…
Symbolic Computation versus Computer Algebra by Stephen M. Watt
Watt, Stephen M.
Symbolic Computation versus Computer Algebra by Stephen M. Watt Ontario Research Centre for Computer Algebra University of Western Ontario London, Canada We observe that "symbolic computation" and "computer algebra" are really two different things and that neither one sufficiently addresses the prob
Wyoming Tombstone Symbolism: A Reflection of Western Culture.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochenour, John; Rezabek, Landra L.
Eleven cemeteries in Wyoming are examined for visuals pertaining to life in the West. The purpose is to demonstrate the importance of Western culture tradition evidenced through tombstone symbolism--representations of the activities and environments of the living through the memory provided by the deceased. The visual symbols found on the…
Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt
Watt, Stephen M.
Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt Abstract This paper is a step to bring closer" and the view of "computer algebra." Symbolic computation may be seen as working with expression trees representing math- ematical formulae and applying various rules to transform them. Computer algebra may be seen
Introduction to Symbolic Computation: a Maple/MATLAB Course
Verschelde, Jan
Introduction to Symbolic Computation: a Maple/MATLAB Course Jan Verschelde #3; 17 May 2005 Abstract Virtually every student who chooses to learn how to do computations on a computer ends up taking a course level, introductory courses in symbolic computation will be just as common and essential. The MSCS
Introduction to Symbolic Computation: a Maple/MATLAB Course
Verschelde, Jan
Introduction to Symbolic Computation: a Maple/MATLAB Course Jan Verschelde 17 May 2005 Abstract Virtually every student who chooses to learn how to do computations on a computer ends up taking a course level, introductory courses in symbolic computation will be just as common and essential. The MSCS
A Parallel Symbolic-Numerical Approach to Algebraic Curve Plotting ?
A Parallel Symbolic-Numerical Approach to Algebraic Curve Plotting ? Christian Mittermaier://www.risc.uni-linz.ac.at Abstract. We describe a parallel hybrid symbolic-numerical solution to the problem of reliably plotting modern computer algebra systems provide functions for plotting and visu- alizing the real aÆne part
Multiple Instances and Symbolic Variables in Executable Sequence Charts
Harel, David
Multiple Instances and Symbolic Variables in Executable Sequence Charts Rami Marelly David Harel semantics. The extension involves support for instances that can bind to multiple objects and symbolic play-engine tool, with which one can execute the requirements directly with- out the need to build
"La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Back, Michele
2013-01-01
Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and…
134 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 26. EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4
Fitelson, Branden
134 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 26. EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 Directions: Translate each' should be symbolized as `~H' using `H' to stand for `I am hungry'. EXERCISE SET A 1. Although it is RAINING, I plan to go JOGGING this afternoon. 2. It is not RAINING, but it is still too WET to play. 3
Symbolic Play of Children with Language Impairment: A Critical Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Casby, Michael W.
1997-01-01
This paper reviews research on symbolic play gaps between children with and without language impairment (LI), arguing that these gaps should not be interpreted as demonstrative of marked deficits in general representational or specific symbolic play competence of children with LI. Frequent encroachment of language into testing procedures is cited…
On Symbolic Dynamics of Space--Time Chaotic Models
Just, Wolfram
On Symbolic Dynamics of Space--Time Chaotic Models Wolfram Just School of Mathematical Sciences of the microscopic equations of motion and the therÂ modynamic limit play a crucial role we will sketch of the motion. Such approaches which are summarised in the term symbolic dynamics use suitable partitions
Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?
Lawrence Bobo
1983-01-01
The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the
FunctionalObjects.h: Using Symbolic Syntax in C++ Programs
R. Nolty
2000-12-06
functionalObjects.h allows the C++ programmer performing common mathematical calculations to use a more symbolic syntax rather than an algorithmic syntax. This is not as ambitious as a symbolic manipulation program such as Mathematica; it is more like having the ability to drop a very simple Mathematica statement into a C++ program.
Perfectly Balanced Functions in Symbolic Dynamics Oleg A. Logachev1
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Perfectly Balanced Functions in Symbolic Dynamics Oleg A. Logachev1 , Alexei A. Salnikov2 of perfectly balanced Boolean functions. Based on the concept of Boolean function barrier, we propose a novel approach to construct large classes of perfectly balanced Boolean functions. Keywords: Symbolic dynamics
Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit
2009-01-01
The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…
Grad Assistant - a program for symbolic algebraic manipulation and Differentiation
John G. Fletcher
1966-01-01
The General Recursive Algebra and Differentiation Assistant (GRAD Assistant) now under development, is a LISP-based system which can perform symbolic algebraic manipulation and differentiation. It is designed to produce a simplified expression of the result of any, sequence of symbolic manipulations involving addition, multiplication, exponentiation, and their inverses, and differentiation. In particular, it will never over- look that an expression
The Impact of Congenital Deafblindness on the Struggle to Symbolism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruce, Susan M.
2005-01-01
Most children who are congenitally deafblind are severely delayed in their communication development and many will not achieve symbolic understanding and expression. This article discusses developmental markers cited in the research literature as predictive of or facilitative of the development of symbolism. These markers include the growth toward…
The sri chakra as a symbol of the human body.
Krishnakumar, P R
1993-01-01
Sri Chakra is the celebrated Yantra used in the worship of the primordial energy. The Chakra is conceived as a symbol of the human body. Some salient features of this symbolism are discussed in this article. An attempt has also been made to provide a short introduction to the Bhavanopanishad Prayogavidhi devised by Bhaskararaya, the doyen of Sri charka worshippers. PMID:22556608
Symbolic lumping of some catenary, mamillary and circular compartmental systems
Edith Egri; Janos Toth; Celine Brochot; Frederic Yves Bois
2008-01-01
Some of the most important compartmental systems, such as irreversible\\u000acatenary, mamillary and circular systems are symbolically simplified by the\\u000amethod of exact linear lumping. A few symbolically unmanageable systems are\\u000anumerically lumped. Transformation of the qualitative properties under lumping\\u000aare also traced.
A Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus
Schneider, Carsten
Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Flavia Stan Research Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Abstract Given a Feynman@physik.rwth-aachen.de (Sebastian Klein), cschneider@risc.jku.at (Carsten Schneider), fstan@risc.jku.at (Flavia Stan). #12
Symbolic analysis methods for averaged modeling of switching power converters
Jian Sun; Horst Grotstollen
1997-01-01
Symbolic analysis methods for the averaged modeling of switching power converters are presented in this paper. A general averaging method suitable for computer-aided modeling is discussed first. Then, a symbolic analysis package that uses this averaging method to automatically generate an analytical averaged model for a switching power converter is described. The package is implemented using the computer algebra system
Exploiting symmetry when verifying transistorlevel circuits by symbolic trajectory
Bryant, Randal E.
Exploiting symmetry when verifying transistorlevel circuits by symbolic trajectory evaluationlevel circuits by symbolic trajectory evaluation. We show that exploiting symmetry can allow one to verify to 1.5 Million transistors. 1 Introduction In this paper we have focussed on exploiting symmetry
Private-key Symbolic Encryption Schemes Naveed Ahmed1
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Private-key Symbolic Encryption Schemes Naveed Ahmed1 Christian D. Jensen1 Erik Zenner2 1 DTU-Informatics in formal security analysis aiming at the automated verifica- tion of network protocols. The naÂ¨ive use perspectives. These symbolic schemes can be seamlessly used in many existing formal security models. Keywords
Symbol Stream Combining in a Convolutionally Coded System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Swanson, L.
1985-01-01
Symbol stream combining has been proposed as a method for arraying signals received at different antennas. If convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding are used, it is shown that a Viterbi decoder based on the proposed weighted sum of symbol streams yields maximum likelihood decisions.
Math Expression Retrieval Using an Inverted Index Over Symbol Pairs
Zanibbi, Richard
Math Expression Retrieval Using an Inverted Index Over Symbol Pairs David Stalnaker and Richard and retrieving mathematical expressions, and a new protocol for evaluating math formula retrieval systems. The Tangent search engine uses an inverted index over pairs of symbols in math expressions. Each key
Improving Symbolic Execution for Statechart Formalisms Daniel Balasubramanian
Minnesota, University of
components of a large system is the Constellation program at NASA. While the use of multi- ple tools michael.r.lowry@nasa.gov ABSTRACT Symbolic execution is a program analysis technique that attempts to explore all possible paths through a program by using symbolic values rather than actual data values
Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota
2011-01-01
Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…
Integrating Symbolic and Geometric Planning for Mobile Manipulation
Teschner, Matthias
Integrating Symbolic and Geometric Planning for Mobile Manipulation Christian Dornhege and Marc manipulation requires to solve multiple sub- problems. One is planning in high-dimensional configuration spaces, that we approach in this work. We decompose the manipulation problem into a symbolic and a geometric part
On hypergeometric functions and Pochhammer $k$-symbol
Rafael Diaz; Eddy Pariguan
2005-04-19
We introduce the $k$-generalized gamma function $\\Gamma_k$, beta function $B_k$, and Pochhammer $k$-symbol $(x)_{n,k}$. We prove several identities generalizing those satisfied by the classical gamma function, beta function and Pochhammer symbol. We provided integral representation for the $\\Gamma_k$ and $B_k$ functions.
Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.
2013-01-01
Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…
SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.
1970-01-01
The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.
Practising English Phonetic Symbols in a Communicative Way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chu, Wai Ling
Classroom exercises designed to help students learn phonetic symbols more effectively are described. The exercises were developed for use in a Hong Kong school. The idea behind their creation was that use of the symbols in communicative situations would emphasize their utility for learning English pronunciation. Each exercise uses contextualized…
An introduction to computing modular forms using modular symbols
Stein, William
that involves the module of enhanced supersingular elliptic curves [17]. Another related method of Birch [2] is very fast, but gives only a piece of the full space of modular forms. The power of the modular symbols below. See also the author's Magma [4] package for computing with modular forms and modular symbols. 1
TECHNIQUES TO FACILITATE SYMBOLIC EXECUTION OF REAL-WORLD PROGRAMS
Pratt, Vaughan
TECHNIQUES TO FACILITATE SYMBOLIC EXECUTION OF REAL-WORLD PROGRAMS A Dissertation Presented TO FACILITATE SYMBOLIC EXECUTION OF REAL-WORLD PROGRAMS Approved by: Mary Jean Harrold, Committee Chair School Georgia Institute of Technology Date Approved: 04 May 2012 #12;To God iii #12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank
Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind Shayan G. Srinivasa
Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind an art Shayan G. Srinivasa Department of Electronic@math.iisc.ernet.in Abstract--Music signals comprise of atomic notes drawn from a musical scale. The creation of musical patterns. We develop an approach for music signal representation based on symbolic dynamics by translating
Symbolic processing methods for 3D visual processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tedder, Maurice; Hall, Ernest L.
2001-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe a theory that defines an open method for solving 3D visual data processing and artificial intelligence problems that is independent of hardware or software implementation. The goal of the theory is to generalize and abstract the process of 3D visual processing so that the method can be applied to a wide variety of 3D visual processing problems. Once the theory is described a heuristic derivation is given. Symbolic processing methods can be generalized into an abstract model composed of eight basic components. The symbolic processing model components are: input data; input data interface; symbolic data library; symbolic data environment space; relationship matrix; symbolic logic driver; output data interface and output data. An obstacle detection and avoidance experiment was constructed to demonstrate the symbolic processing method. The results of the robot obstacle avoidance experiment demonstrated that the mobile robot could successfully navigate the obstacle course using symbolic processing methods for the control software. The significance of the symbolic processing approach is that the method arrived at a solution by using a more formal quantifiable process. Some of the practical applications for this theory are: 3D object recognition, obstacle avoidance, and intelligent robot control.
1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A
Samet, Hanan
1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEM Aya Soffer@umiacs.umd.edu and hjs@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract: A method is presented for integrating images into the framework of a conventional database management system (DBMS). It is applicable to a class of images termed symbolic images
Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, C. G.; And Others
This report contains recommendations on chemical nomenclature, guidance on symbols, and terminology and units for physiochemical quantities. This report, intended to provide guidance to science teachers, consists of eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) introduction to symbols, terminology, and units for physiochemical quantities; (3)…
Invariant symbolic calculi and eigenvalues of invariant opertors on symmetric
Arazy, Jonathan
was carried over while the authors visited the Erwin Schr¨odinger Institute for Mathematical Physics (ESI[Page 1] Invariant symbolic calculi and eigenvalues of invariant opertors on symmetric domains Jonathan Arazy and Harald Upmeier \\Lambda Abstract. We study the structure of invariant symbolic calculi
Symbolic dynamics and computation in model gene networks R. Edwardsa)
Siegelmann , Hava T
Symbolic dynamics and computation in model gene networks R. Edwardsa) Department of Mathematics be represented symbolically. Starting from a point on the boundary between neighboring orthants, the equation both nonlinear dynamics and the theory of computation. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10
Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps Sergio Cabello1,
Cabello, Sergio
Kreveld3 Bettina Speckmann2 1 Department of Mathematics, Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics] for an extensive overview. Here we mention only three basic types of symbol scaling. The so-called mathematicalAlgorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps Sergio Cabello1, Herman Haverkort2 Marc van
The Gift Paradox: Complex Selves and Symbolic Good
Elias Khalil
2004-01-01
Symbolic utility involves appreciation and esteem and expressed by symbolic products (gifts), while substantive utility entails ordinary welfare satisfied by substantive products. For neoclassical theory, both utilities are symmetrical or fungible and, hence, substitutable along the uni-dimensional utility function. If they are substitutable, though, why would agents be judged as “crass” if they intentionally remind the recipient of the cost
Symbolic links in the Open Directory Project Saverio Perugini *
Perugini, Saverio
links are most common in large web directories such as Yahoo! Such directories, which are orga- nized Pages. Web directories represent one of three major paradigms of searching the web and, as a result understanding of symbolic links in web directories. A symbolic link is a hyperlink which makes a directed
Norris, Jade E; McGeown, William J; Guerrini, Chiara; Castronovo, Julie
2015-01-01
Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the number sense, is not well-known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25) and 25 older adults (60-77) participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly [RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w)]. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w) in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive, and embedded number sense. PMID:26236269
Norris, Jade E.; McGeown, William J.; Guerrini, Chiara; Castronovo, Julie
2015-01-01
Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the number sense, is not well-known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18–25) and 25 older adults (60–77) participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly [RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w)]. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w) in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive, and embedded number sense. PMID:26236269
Comments on snake symbolism and mind-body relations.
Eigen, M
1981-01-01
In summary, the symbolic use of an object in part depends on which of its functional-structural qualities is emphasized in a given moment. For example, the snake may take on different symbolic meanings when emphasis is given to its eyes, tongue, fangs, anatomical form, or movement. Its various aspects constitute a complex system of references to unconscious (and conscious) mental and body self-configurations. These references frequently undergo transformations which make use of structurally related symbols. In the present paper, various aspects of the snake symbol were related to one another and to other symbolic transformations, including the elevator and flying. The structural principles underlying these analyses may be found to organize a wide range of phenomena and were here applied to Tausk's "influencing machine." PMID:6169284
Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.
1986-01-01
The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.
A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.
Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar
2015-01-01
The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed. PMID:26294566
Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shihabi, Mazen M. (inventor.); Hinedi, Sami M. (inventor.); Shah, Biren N. (inventor.)
1995-01-01
A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.
Omega: An Object-Oriented Image/Symbol Processing Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlotto, Mark J.; Fong, Jennifer B.
1989-01-01
A Common Lisp software system to support integrated image and symbolic processing applications is described. The system, termed Omega is implemented on a Symbolics Lisp Machine and is organized into modules to facilitate the development of user applications and for software transportability. An object-oriented programming language similar to Symbolics Zetalisp/Flavors is implemented in Common Lisp and is used for creating symbolic objects known as tokens. Tokens are used to represent images, significant areas in images, and regions that define the spatial extent of the significant areas. The extent of point, line, and areal features is represented by polygons, label maps, boundary points, row- and column-oriented run-length encoded rasters, and bounding rectangles. Macros provide a common means for image processing functions and spatial operators to access spatial representations. The implementation of image processing, segmentation, and symbolic processing functions within Omega are described.
Tsai, Meng-Ju
2013-10-01
The purpose of the study was to determine whether significantly different preference exists in typical adults between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) frequently displayed on their AAC. A total of 56 participants participated in the study, including 15 participants in ages 20-35; 14 participants in ages 36-50; 13 participants in ages 51-60; and 14 participants in ages 66-80. Two tasks, an identification task and a preference task, were administered sequentially and individually. The results of this study suggest: (1) typical adults' preference between PCSs and GCSs did not show any significant difference; (2) the effect of age groups of typical adults did not have any significant effect on their preference between PCSs and GCSs. However, except the group of ages 51-65, the other three groups did consciously show their preferences for PCSs. Limitations and clinical implications of the current study have been concluded. PMID:23962601
Lenay, C
1995-12-01
A striking parallel may be drawn between the historical succession of explanatory theories of life and explanatory theories of cognitive phenomena. In both domains independently, approaches to understanding the problem of adaptation spawned the concept of formal representation: in biology the representation of hereditary characters by genes, and in psychology the symbolic representation of mental contents by computational states. Molecular biology and classical cognitivism now share the same problem of the origin of language (genetic code and language of thought) and the assignment of content to manipulated symbols. Such isomorphism of the problems and their modes of resolution could provide grounds for criticism of the naive way in which biology is used to solve the difficulties encountered in psychology, as in the teleological approach to intentionality. On the other hand, acceptance of the analogy implies that any solution or major revision in one domain should be able to inspire equivalent solutions or revisions in the other. PMID:24896036
Sun, Yi
UNIFORM GRADING SYMBOLS: GLOSSARY AND GUIDELINES I. The following glossary of uniform grading symbols shall be employed according to the interpretation provided below. Grades are assigned based. Quality points are to be used to calculate the grade point average (GPA) or index. A dash "--" indicates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.
2012-01-01
Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…
Collision Resolution by Exploiting Symbol Misalignment
Lu, Lu; Zhang, Shengli
2008-01-01
This paper presents CRESM, a novel collision resolution method for decoding collided packets in random-access wireless networks. In a collision, overlapping signals from several sources are received simultaneously at a receiver. CRESM exploits symbol misalignment among the overlapping signals to recover the individual packets. CRESM can be adopted in 802.11 networks without modification of the transmitter design; only a simple DSP technique is needed at the receiver to decode the overlapping signals. Our simulations indicate that CRESM has better BER performance than the simplistic Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) technique that treats interference as noise, for almost all SNR regimes. The implication of CRESM for random-access networking is significant: in general, using CRESM to resolve collisions of up to n packets, network throughput can be boosted by more than n times if the transmitters are allowed to transmit more aggressively in the MAC protocol.
Gated SSA-Based Demand-Driven Symbolic Analysis for Parallelizing Compilers *
Padua, David
of the symbolic analysis tech- nique to facilitate parallelism detection and program trans- formation. Several prop- agation detects symbolic variables that are equivalent to constants. Also, common subexpression
Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leonardo, Zeus; Porter, Ronald K.
2010-01-01
In education, it is common to put the condition of "safety" around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, "Safety for whom?" A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on…
Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.
Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia
2011-04-01
In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations. PMID:20729173
Quantifying heart rate dynamics using different approaches of symbolic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cysarz, D.; Porta, A.; Montano, N.; Leeuwen, P. V.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.
2013-06-01
The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series is able to retrieve information about dynamical properties of the underlying system that cannot be gained with standard methods like e.g. spectral analysis. Different approaches for the transformation of the original time series to the symbolic time series have been proposed. Yet the differences between the approaches are unknown. In this study three different transformation methods are investigated: (1) symbolization according to the deviation from the average time series, (2) symbolization according to several equidistant levels between the minimum and maximum of the time series, (3) binary symbolization of the first derivative of the time series. Furthermore, permutation entropy was used to quantify the symbolic series. Each method was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RR i and its difference ? RR I of 17 healthy subjects obtained during head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics of each method is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences ("words") of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), words with one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis showed that for method 1 0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle. For method 2 0V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle and method 3 showed changes for 0V% and 1V%. Furthermore, also the permutation entropy decreased with increasing tilt angle. In conclusion, all methods are capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during head-up tilt. All methods show that even the analysis of very short symbolic sequences is capable of tracking changes of the cardiac autonomic regulation during head-up tilt testing.
Computerized symbolic manipulation in structural mechanics Progress and potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.
1978-01-01
Status and recent applications of computerized symbolic manipulation to structural mechanics problems are summarized. The applications discussed include; (1) generation of characteristic arrays of finite elements; (2) evaluation of effective stiffness and mass coefficients of continuum models for repetitive lattice structures; and (3) application of Rayleigh-Ritz technique to free vibration analysis of laminated composite elliptic plates. The major advantages of using computerized symbolic manipulation in each of these applications are outlined. A number of problem areas which limit the realization of the full potential of computerized symbolic manipulation in structural mechanics are examined and some of the means of alleviating them are discussed.
Zeros of 6-j symbols: Atoms, nuclei, and bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamick, L.; Robinson, S. J. Q.
2011-10-01
The absence of certain LS states in atoms leads to the vanishing of several 6-j symbols. One of these vanishing 6-j's explains the absence of a certain jj coupling state in a nucleus, while the other explains the vanishing of a certain state for a system of three bosons. This is part of a continuing study of “companion problems.” It is noted that the vanishing 6-j's play an important role for establishing partial dynamical symmetries. Whenever possible we offer alternate explanations that do not involve 6-j symbols. Extensions to vanishing 9-j symbols are also shown. Regge symmetries help to make connections between different topics.
Tree coding of speech using variable length symbol release techniques
Goris, Andrew Clark
1979-01-01
. 51 A (3. 3) where A is a gain parameter adapted sample by sample according to whi. ch quantizer level was selected at time k-1. The rules for determining A are as follows: A = min(1. 6. A , 2000) if Ql or Q4 was selected at time k-l. Ak = max... are tested ? a fixed symbol release algorithm and a vari- able symbol release algorithm. The fixed release algorithm only de- graded the speech while the variable release technique produced a maximum of . 3 dB gain over conventional single symbol release...
The range test: A dependence test for symbolic, nonlinear expressions
Blume, W.; Eigenmann, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Center for Supercomputing Research and Development
1994-12-31
Most current data dependence tests cannot handle loop bounds or array subscripts that are symbolic, nonlinear expressions (e.g. A(n*i+j)), where (0 {<=} j {<=} n). In this paper, the authors describe a dependence test, called the range test, that can handle such expressions. Briefly, the range test proves independence by determining whether certain symbolic inequalities hold for a permutation of the loop nest. Powerful symbolic analyses and constraint propagation techniques were developed to prove such inequalities. The range test has been implemented in Polaris, a parallelizing compiler being developed at the University of Illinois.
An efficient algorithm for the Riemannian 10j symbols
J. Daniel Christensen; Greg Egan
2002-01-24
The 10j symbol is a spin network that appears in the partition function for the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity. Elementary methods of calculating the 10j symbol require order(j^9) or more operations and order(j^2) or more space, where j is the average spin. We present an algorithm that computes the 10j symbol using order(j^5) operations and order(j^2) space, and a variant that uses order(j^6) operations and a constant amount of space. An implementation has been made available on the web.
Religious symbols in dreams of analytical patients.
Hall, J A
1981-04-01
My purpose has been to call attention to the special meanings of religious images in dreams. It is neither possible nor desirable to make rigid rules as to their interpretation; some basic guidelines, however, may be helpful. For religious images that are active and meaningful in the conscious mind of the dreamer, interpretation may be unnecessary, since they may appear in such a way as to modify other contents of the psyche. If the consciously active religious image appears in a surprising way, this may indicate that the boundaries of value in the personal levels of the mind are under pressure for revision from deeper structures. Religious images that come from outside the conscious tradition of the dreamer may require little more than personal amplification if they are known in the conscious associations of the dreamer. If they are outside the personal associations, however, they may be difficult to amplify, although they frequently seem to be appropriately used by the dream-making function of the mind, the Self. Such unconscious but appropriate uses of verifiable archetypal images raise profound questions about the nature of the psyche, but do not greatly modify analytical practice, since images are frequently meaningful in their context alone. Contextual religious images indicate a high value in symbols that may have been consciously overlooked, like the "orphaned" philosopher's stone. Contextual religious images often indicate the need to consider revision of the conscious hierarchy of values. PMID:6166599
Modeling Manic-Depression with Symbolic Logic
Webster, Charles; Banks, Gordon
1989-01-01
We characterize manic-depression in terms of symbolic logic and dynamical systems, and describe a computer simulation used to develop our theory. A formal theory of cognitive deficit has four parts. (1) For a normal representation we use the concept of sound and complete “self-axioms.” (2) Normal processing occurs when changes in our personal environment trigger a search for a new set of sound and complete self-axioms. (3) Deficits can lead to unsound judgement in mania and incomplete judgement in depression. (4) Adaptation may consist of attempts to suppress or use the changes in reasoning style. Since manic-depression involves changes in the temporal organization of mood and judgement, it can be classified as a dynamical disease. Nonlinear dynamical systems exhibit transitions between steady state, periodic, and chaotic behavior. We illustrate our approach with a computer simulation that searches through a small set of “self-axioms” while exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior. In conclusion we conjecture that manic-depression may represent a bifurcation from the chaotic dynamics of normal emotional lability to the pathological periodicity of affective illness.
[Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].
Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer
2007-01-01
Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor. PMID:17585707
Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing.
Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A; Karp, Peter D
2013-01-01
Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. 'Groups' is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org. PMID:24037025
[Drawing up pedigrees: symbols and meanings].
Lin, Chia-Ni; Pan, Hui-Ping; Huang, Mei-Chih
2008-02-01
Inquiring of and gathering family history to establish a pedigree is the basic work to assess the health status of a whole family for clinical services or studies in genetics. Pedigrees, moreover, can show not only the disease circumstances of individuals but also the consanguinity/social relationships between the family members. They can be used to assist clinical professionals to make diagnoses and identify potential risk cases, to whom genetic counseling services could be provided. In addition, pedigrees can help researchers to discover novel genetic diseases and confirm the inheritance patterns and mechanisms. In education, through learning the skills for gathering the materials required to establish pedigree, students can develop the ability to assess the health status of each family member and identify the lifestyle or risk factors affecting health promotion. In addition, through their composition from simple symbols and lines, pedigrees are becoming an international language. Therefore, in 1995, the National Society of Genetic Counseling (USA) proposed recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature. This article provides a brief introduction to standard pedigrees, as well as an account of a case to illustrate how to apply the nomenclature in practice. With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001, standardized pedigrees have undoubtedly become the best language through which medical or genomic professionals can communicate and share the latest discoveries. PMID:18270937
Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance.
Léo Neto, Nivaldo A; Voeks, Robert A; Dias, Thelma L P; Alves, Rômulo R N
2012-01-01
Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523
Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance
2012-01-01
Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523
40 CFR 89.303 - Symbols/abbreviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.303 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The...
40 CFR 89.403 - Symbols/abbreviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.403 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The...
Zeros of 6j Symbols:Atoms:Nuclei and Bosons
Larry Zamick Shadow Robinson
2011-09-04
The same 6j symbols that explains the absence of a certain atomic state in LS coupling also explain the absence of certain states for a system of bosons and also for certain nuclear states in jj coupling.
Computational Soundness of Coinductive Symbolic Security under Active Attacks
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Computational Soundness of Coinductive Symbolic Security under Active Attacks Mohammad Hajiabadi. Keywords: Computational soundness, adaptive corruptions, coinduction, key-cyclic security, trace- based computational security analysis, even for small-sized protocols, can be a gruelingly te- dious task
50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...For other products such as print and video public service announcements, brochures...placement of symbols, etc. depends on space availability. The following order of priority dictates the order of use under limited space conditions: the pumpout...
TWO-SYMBOL PISOT SUBSTITUTIONS HAVE PURE DISCRETE SPECTRUM
Solomyak, Boris
on the Strong Coincidence Conjecture made by Barge and Diamond. 1. Introduction There is considerable interest. Recently, Barge and Diamond [3] proved the strong coincidence condition for all two-symbol Pisot
Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds
Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro
2015-01-01
Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741
Symbols for the General British English Vowel Sounds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, J. Windsor
1975-01-01
Deals with the critique of Hans G. Hoffmann saying that the new phonetic symbols contained in A. S. Hornby's "Advanced Learner's Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London, 1974) are harder to learn than the older system of transcription. (IFS/WGA)
Computationally Complete Symbolic Attacker in Action Gergei Bana1
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
-TULisbon, Portugal, pedro.adao@ist.utl.pt 3 NTT Communication Science Laboratories, Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan, sakurada.hideki@lab with Dolev-Yao adver- saries, a few rules (axioms) are listed that the symbolic adversary is not allowed
Approximately bisimilar symbolic models for nonlinear control systems
Pola, Giordano; Tabuada, Paulo
2007-01-01
Control systems are usually modeled by differential equations describing how physical phenomena can be influenced by certain control parameters or inputs. Although these models are very powerful when dealing with physical phenomena, they are less suitable to describe software and hardware interfacing the physical world. For this reason there is a growing interest in describing control systems through symbolic models that are abstract descriptions of the continuous dynamics, where each ``symbol'' corresponds to an ``aggregate'' of states in the continuous model. Since these symbolic models are of the same nature of the models used in computer science to describe software and hardware, they provide a unified language to study problems of control in which software and hardware interact with the physical world. Furthermore the use of symbolic models enables one to leverage techniques from supervisory control and algorithms from game theory for controller synthesis purposes. In this paper we show that every increm...
50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...3) The same rules governing the graphic reproduction of the pumpout symbol...recipients identified in § 85.11 should display the pumpout slogan on facilities...5) The same rules governing the graphic reproduction of the pumpout...
50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...3) The same rules governing the graphic reproduction of the pumpout symbol...recipients identified in § 85.11 should display the pumpout slogan on facilities...5) The same rules governing the graphic reproduction of the pumpout...
50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...3) The same rules governing the graphic reproduction of the pumpout symbol...recipients identified in § 85.11 should display the pumpout slogan on facilities...5) The same rules governing the graphic reproduction of the pumpout...
47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom) FAC—Airport control tower...
47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom) FAC—Airport control tower...
47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom) FAC—Airport control tower...
40 CFR 89.303 - Symbols/abbreviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.303 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The...
40 CFR 89.303 - Symbols/abbreviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.303 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The...
Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul
2013-01-01
The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.
Approaching the Symbol Grounding Problem with Probabilistic Graphical Models
Tellex, Stefanie A.
2011-01-01
In order for robots to engage in dialog with human teammates, they must have the ability to map between words in the language and aspects of the external world. A solution to this symbol grounding problem (Harnad, 1990) ...
A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hiebert, James
1988-01-01
Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)
Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols ...
Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols of the four seasons on the lamp's aluminum supports - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Efficient mAry Balanced Codes which Are Invariant under Symbol Permutation
Raffaele Mascella; Luca G. Tallini
2006-01-01
A symbol permutation invariant balanced (SPI-balanced) code over the alphabet Zopfm = {0, 1, ..., m - 1} is a block code over Zopfm such that each alphabet symbol occurs as many times as any other symbol in every codeword. For this reason, every permutation among the symbols of the alphabet changes an SPI-balanced code into an SPI-balanced code. This
Theory and design of m-ary balanced codes which are invariant under symbol permutation
Raffaele Mascella; Luca G. Talliniy
A symbol permutation invariant balanced (SPI-balanced) code over the alphabet Zm = f0, 1, . . . , m ¡ 1g is a block code over Zm such that each alphabet symbol occurs as many times as any other symbol in every codeword. For this reason every permutation among the symbols of the alphabet changes a SPI-balanced code into a
Verschelde, Jan
systems are created to solve problems in a specific branch of mathematics, physics or engineeringMCS 320 Introduction to Symbolic Computation Spring 2011 Maple Lecture 1. Introduction to Computer the algorithms for Symbolic Computation. In Symbolic Computation, one computes with symbols, rather than
... Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH AGRICULTURAL SAFETY Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Agriculture ... the NORA Agricultural, Forestry, and Fishing Sector activities. Agricultural Safety Resources Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structures (CROPS) ...
... at Side effects How it's manufactured Results of animal testing and clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying online from only legitimate pharmacies and taking your medicines correctly.
Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food safety practices can cause infection from a foodborne illness. Symptoms of foodborne illnesses vary, but they usually include ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)
2004-01-01
Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Rapunzel: the symbolism of the cutting of hair.
Andresen, J J
1980-01-01
I have adduced data to demonstrate that the act of cutting of hair is a symbol. The criterion of proof used is the traditional one in psychoanalysis: the idea carries constant meanings in separate areas of human experience and behavior. Such constant meanings are shown in a folk tale, the mental lives of patients, clinical studies by other authors, and certain practices of other cultures. The cutting of hair symbolizes separation from a mothering object, castration, and reparation. PMID:6155393
Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh.
Nayernouri, Touraj
2010-05-01
In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine. In this, the second part, I shall describe the evolution of the myth of the Simurgh and discuss the medical relevance of this bird in Iranian history. PMID:20433235
Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Dell, Linda Kay
The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.
Nominal symbols and their contribution to selected Guardian essays
Dunsford, Deborah Williams
1987-01-01
NOMINAL SYMBOLS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SELECTED GUARDIAN ESSAYS A Thesis by DEBORAH WILLIAMS DUNSFORD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS... December 1987 Major Subject: English NOMINAL SYMBOLS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SELECTED GUARDIAN ESSAYS A Thesis by DEBORAH WILLIAMS DUNSFORD Approved as to style and content by: Ha y P. Kroitor (Chair of Committee) Hamlin Hill (Head...
Symbolism of the Sun on Mediaeval Funeral Monuments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mijatovi?, V.; Vemi?, D.; Ninkovi?, Slobodan
2007-08-01
On the territory of mediaeval Bosnian and Serbian states of the XIV and XV centuries we can find necropoles with characteristic forms of the stone funeral monuments called “steæci”. There is a great number of ornamental motifs of different content and symbolism found on these monuments. The group of astral motifs (the Sun, the Moon, the stars) is the most common one. Here, we have considered the symbol of the Sun and presented various models used in its representation.
Sensitivity analysis of large linear networks using symbolic programs
P. M. Lin
1992-01-01
Partial derivatives of a network function H(x) with respect to the parameters x=(x1, x2,,,,xn) are useful in the design of linear networks by optimization and in tolerance analysis. Existing methods for calculating these derivatives include the sensitivity network method, the adjoint network method, and the symbolic network function method. In recent years, several new methods have been developed for symbolic
Multithreaded processor architecture for parallel symbolic computation. Technical report
Fujita, T.
1987-09-01
This paper describes the Multilisp Architecture for Symbolic Applications (MASA), which is a multithreaded processor architecture for parallel symbolic computation with various features intended for effective Multilisp program execution. The principal mechanisms exploited for this processor are multiple contexts, interleaved pipeline execution from separate instruction streams, and synchronization based on a bit in each memory cell. The tagged architecture approach is taken for Lisp program execution, and trap conditions are provided for future object manipulation and garbage collection.
MODULAR SYMBOLS AND THE COMPUTATION OF MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES
Cremona, John
MODULAR SYMBOLS AND THE COMPUTATION OF MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES J.E.CREMONA 1 Introduction 2 2 Modular curves and homology 2 2.1 The upper halfÂplane, the modular group and cusp forms 2 2.2 The duality between cusp forms and homology 4 2.3 Real structure 6 2.4 Modular symbol formalism 7 2.5 Rational
L. B. McClung
2003-01-01
All of general industry in the United States, represented by the participants in the IEEE\\/IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee Technical Conference (PCIC), is regulated by the federal government to have an electrical safety program. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) documents that drive the electrical safety of employees in the workplace is written in performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.
Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…
Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.
Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro
2014-06-01
A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning. PMID:24728912
Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Namhee; Sage, Daniel S.
2008-06-01
Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ["Multiplicity free representations of finite groups," Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.
Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols
Kwon, Namhee [Department of Mathematics, The University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Sage, Daniel S. [Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2008-06-15
Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.
Laurence Rousselle; Marie-Pascale Noël
2007-01-01
Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing collections (i.e., non-symbolic number magnitude). Moreover, they automatically processed number magnitude when comparing the physical size
A general symbolic method with physical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Gregory Michael
2000-10-01
This thesis derives general physical results by an entirely formal process. Beginning with a brief examination of the notion of language itself, it next explores Physics in a schematic fashion in order to arrive at conclusions on the relationship between experience and language. This investigation leads to the hypothesis that there is no separate reality to which language refers, and therefore to the test of constructing physical theory without reference to experiment: If experience is not to direct the interpretation of language then language must yield its own interpretation. To make such an idea acceptable it is next shown how references to such a presumably fictional entity such as an exterior reality may arise within language itself, and how such references may, and must, be retained. From this starting-point an entirely formal language is developed, along with an associated algebra and a Calculus, neither of which are restricted to finite quantities. With the completion of the general symbolic system the derivation of both Relativity Theory and Quantum Theory, as well as the formal structures to which they apply, including space-time and sums-over-histories, follows from a purely nonempirical and finitary basis. The dynamical and thermodynamical laws yielding the phenomenological aspects of experience, such as are described by variables for pressure, volume, and temperature, as well as the divisions comprising phases of matter, are also argued to naturally follow on this basis. It is therefore plausibly claimed that the formal approach has succeeded in yielding its own interpretation and in thus reproducing what has previously been asserted to be of necessarily empirical origin. It is, however, then found that this system is comprised of formally incompatible parts. It is thus apparently necessary to either reject the restriction to finite quantities or else accept the necessity of augmenting the formal system with a properly exterior reality, by which it is meant that ``experience'' must ``inform'' the system. Development of formal non-finitary theory is then argued to provide a plausible means of unifying the formalisms of Relativity and Quantum Theory.
Math expression retrieval using an inverted index over symbol pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stalnaker, David; Zanibbi, Richard
2015-01-01
We introduce a new method for indexing and retrieving mathematical expressions, and a new protocol for evaluating math formula retrieval systems. The Tangent search engine uses an inverted index over pairs of symbols in math expressions. Each key in the index is a pair of symbols along with their relative distance and vertical displacement within an expression. Matched expressions are ranked by the harmonic mean of the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the query, and the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the candidate expression. We have found that our method is fast enough for use in real time and finds partial matches well, such as when subexpressions are re-arranged (e.g. expressions moved from the left to the right of an equals sign) or when individual symbols (e.g. variables) differ from a query expression. In an experiment using expressions from English Wikipedia, student and faculty participants (N=20) found expressions returned by Tangent significantly more similar than those from a text-based retrieval system (Lucene) adapted for mathematical expressions. Participants provided similarity ratings using a 5-point Likert scale, evaluating expressions from both algorithms one-at-a-time in a randomized order to avoid bias from the position of hits in search result lists. For the Lucene-based system, precision for the top 1 and 10 hits averaged 60% and 39% across queries respectively, while for Tangent mean precision at 1 and 10 were 99% and 60%. A demonstration and source code are publicly available.
User trials on the colours and symbols for electronic charts.
Kaufmann, R; Eaton, R M
1994-12-01
The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) contributes to safe navigation by enabling the mariner to follow a planned route precisely, using positioning and radar information integrated on an electronic chart. The need to ensure that ECDIS is safe to use has prompted the development of performance standards for the presentation of information on electronic charts. As a step in working towards these presentation standards, user trials were conducted on shore and at sea using an ECDIS display to investigate presentation issues, which included colour combinations and symbols for ships and tracks, chart features, radar overlays, scale indicators and also display brightness for day and night viewing. Results of questionnaires indicated mariners' preferences and rated visibility of various colours and symbols. As a result of the shore trials, improvements were made to some of the symbols, which were then reevaluated during sea trials. Changes to the colours and symbols resulting from these trials will be included in the International Hydrographic Organization's Provisional Colour and Symbol Standards for ECDIS. PMID:15676988
Spatial and symbolic queries for 3D image data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Daniel C.; Zick, Gregory L.
1992-04-01
We present a query system for an object-oriented biomedical imaging database containing 3-D anatomical structures and their corresponding 2-D images. The graphical interface facilitates the formation of spatial queries, nonspatial or symbolic queries, and combined spatial/symbolic queries. A query editor is used for the creation and manipulation of 3-D query objects as volumes, surfaces, lines, and points. Symbolic predicates are formulated through a combination of text fields and multiple choice selections. Query results, which may include images, image contents, composite objects, graphics, and alphanumeric data, are displayed in multiple views. Objects returned by the query may be selected directly within the views for further inspection or modification, or for use as query objects in subsequent queries. Our image database query system provides visual feedback and manipulation of spatial query objects, multiple views of volume data, and the ability to combine spatial and symbolic queries. The system allows for incremental enhancement of existing objects and the addition of new objects and spatial relationships. The query system is designed for databases containing symbolic and spatial data. This paper discuses its application to data acquired in biomedical 3- D image reconstruction, but it is applicable to other areas such as CAD/CAM, geographical information systems, and computer vision.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sirota, Leonard B.
2007-01-01
NASA and the Aerospace community have traditionally included both risk to humans and hardware in the definition of "Safety". This leads to miscommunication with the public and can be an impediment to decision making. This paper offers two alternative aproaches: first, applying the term "safety" only to humans and referring to the risk of damage or loss of hardware as an element of "mission success" and second, using different notation for each type of "safety".
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into laboratory safety, and covers interacting with the lab environment and a new lab partner. Topics covered include proper dress, housekeeping, safety equipment, mixing, fire safety, and spills. When the module is completed, visitors will be able to demonstrate proper lab safety techniques.
Safety Verification of a Fault Tolerant Reconfigurable Autonomous Goal-Based Robotic Control System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braman, Julia M. B.; Murray, Richard M; Wagner, David A.
2007-01-01
Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System (MDS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbolic model checkers. An example task is simulated in MDS and successfully verified using HyTech, a symbolic model checking software for linear hybrid systems.
Levy, Ruggero
2012-08-01
This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552
Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals
Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique
2012-01-01
In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?100–60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60–40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717
On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution
Slabý, Ji?í; Trtík, Marek
2012-01-01
We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.
Semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Haggard, Hal M.; Hedeman, Austin; Jeevanjee, Nadir; Littlejohn, Robert G.; Yu, Liang
2012-02-01
The semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol is examined from the standpoint of WKB theory for multidimensional, integrable systems to explore the geometrical issues surrounding the Ponzano-Regge formula. The relations among the methods of Roberts and others for deriving the Ponzano-Regge formula are discussed, and a new approach, based on the recoupling of four angular momenta, is presented. A generalization of the Yutsis type of spin network is developed for this purpose. Special attention is devoted to symplectic reduction, the reduced phase space of the 6j-symbol (the 2-sphere of Kapovich and Millson) and the reduction of Poisson bracket expressions for semiclassical amplitudes. General principles for the semiclassical study of arbitrary spin networks are laid down; some of these were used in our recent derivation of the asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j-symbol.
Multiple Layer Identification Label Using Stacked Identification Symbols
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.
A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling
Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad
2009-01-01
Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520
Determination of eigenvalues of dynamical systems by symbolic computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, J. C.
1982-01-01
A symbolic computation technique for determining the eigenvalues of dynamical systems is described wherein algebraic operations, symbolic differentiation, matrix formulation and inversion, etc., can be performed on a digital computer equipped with a formula-manipulation compiler. An example is included that demonstrates the facility with which the system dynamics matrix and the control distribution matrix from the state space formulation of the equations of motion can be processed to obtain eigenvalue loci as a function of a system parameter. The example chosen to demonstrate the technique is a fourth-order system representing the longitudinal response of a DC 8 aircraft to elevator inputs. This simplified system has two dominant modes, one of which is lightly damped and the other well damped. The loci may be used to determine the value of the controlling parameter that satisfied design requirements. The results were obtained using the MACSYMA symbolic manipulation system.
Toolbox Safety Talk Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
Pawlowski, Wojtek
to as "Material Safety Data Sheets" (MSDS), communicate important information regarding the hazards of chemicalToolbox Safety Talk Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for all chemicals produced. "Safety Data Sheets", previously referred
What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism?
Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia
2015-03-01
Sound symbolism is a property of certain words which have a direct link between their phonological form and their semantic meaning. In certain instances, sound symbolism can allow non-native speakers to understand the meanings of etymologically unfamiliar foreign words, although the mechanisms driving this are not well understood. We examined whether sound symbolism might be mediated by the same types of cross-modal processes that typify synaesthetic experiences. Synaesthesia is an inherited condition in which sensory or cognitive stimuli (e.g., sounds, words) cause additional, unusual cross-modal percepts (e.g., sounds trigger colours, words trigger tastes). Synaesthesia may be an exaggeration of normal cross-modal processing, and if so, there may be a link between synaesthesia and the type of cross-modality inherent in sound symbolism. To test this we predicted that synaesthetes would have superior understanding of unfamiliar (sound symbolic) foreign words. In our study, 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 57 non-synaesthete controls were presented with 400 adjectives from 10 unfamiliar languages and were asked to guess the meaning of each word in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Both groups showed superior understanding compared to chance levels, but synaesthetes significantly outperformed controls. This heightened ability suggests that sound symbolism may rely on the types of cross-modal integration that drive synaesthetes' unusual experiences. It also suggests that synaesthesia endows or co-occurs with heightened multi-modal skills, and that this can arise in domains unrelated to the specific form of synaesthesia. PMID:25498744
Quantification of cardiorespiratory interactions based on joint symbolic dynamics.
Kabir, Muammar M; Saint, David A; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Abbott, Derek; Voss, Andreas; Baumert, Mathias
2011-10-01
Cardiac and respiratory rhythms are highly nonlinear and nonstationary. As a result traditional time-domain techniques are often inadequate to characterize their complex dynamics. In this article, we introduce a novel technique to investigate the interactions between R-R intervals and respiratory phases based on their joint symbolic dynamics. To evaluate the technique, electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory signals were recorded in 13 healthy subjects in different body postures during spontaneous and controlled breathing. Herein, the R-R time series were extracted from ECG and respiratory phases were obtained from abdomen impedance belts using the Hilbert transform. Both time series were transformed into ternary symbol vectors based on the changes between two successive R-R intervals or respiratory phases. Subsequently, words of different symbol lengths were formed and the correspondence between the two series of words was determined to quantify the interaction between cardiac and respiratory cycles. To validate our results, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was further studied using the phase-averaged characterization of the RSA pattern. The percentage of similarity of the sequence of symbols, between the respective words of the two series determined by joint symbolic dynamics, was significantly reduced in the upright position compared to the supine position (26.4 ± 4.7 vs. 20.5 ± 5.4%, p < 0.01). Similarly, RSA was also reduced during upright posture, but the difference was less significant (0.11 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.01 s, p < 0.05). In conclusion, joint symbolic dynamics provides a new efficient technique for the analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction that is highly sensitive to the effects of orthostatic challenge. PMID:21618043
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Judith Longfield
2006-02-01
Working with young children and chemicals requires attention to safety. This article details the experiences of a third-grade teacher who used a "disaster" to create a hands-on inquiry that introduces children to chemistry safety during a third-grade acid/base exploration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halligan, Tom
2009-01-01
Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rohal, R.
1991-01-01
The purpose of the NASA safety review process is to make sure that any system hazards that can endanger the manned flight system are precluded. The systems that address manned flight in a payload safety review process are discussed. The types of basic hazards that are normally addressed on any of the payloads are: contamination, electrical shock, explosions, radiation, and temperature extremes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Sandra S.
1991-01-01
In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taft, Darryl
2011-01-01
Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…
Asymptotics for Toeplitz determinants: Perturbation of symbols with a gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charlier, Christophe; Claeys, Tom
2015-02-01
We study the determinants of Toeplitz matrices as the size of the matrices tends to infinity, in the particular case where the symbol has two jump discontinuities and tends to zero on an arc of the unit circle at a sufficiently fast rate. We generalize an asymptotic expansion by Widom [Indiana Univ. Math. J. 21, 277-283 (1971)], which was known for symbols supported on an arc. We highlight applications of our results in the circular unitary ensemble and in the study of Fredholm determinants associated to the sine kernel.
One snake or two: the symbols of medicine.
Froman, Carol R; Skandalakis, John E
2008-04-01
In antiquity, Asklepios was portrayed with a stout staff around which was coiled a snake. Hermes (Mercury), the messenger of the gods, was portrayed with a wand, often with wings, around which were coiled two snakes. During the Renaissance and up to modern times, in varied locales, each icon has been termed the caduceus and afforded the status of the symbol of medicine. It is proposed that this confusion did not arise from ignorance, but from the loss of the deeper significance of the symbols, and from the replacement of religious iconographic constraints by aesthetic and decorative considerations. PMID:18453299
New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.
2012-01-01
DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.
Pathway databases: a case study in computational symbolic theories.
Karp, P D
2001-09-14
A pathway database (DB) is a DB that describes biochemical pathways, reactions, and enzymes. The EcoCyc pathway DB (see http://ecocyc.org) describes the metabolic, transport, and genetic-regulatory networks of Escherichia coli. EcoCyc is an example of a computational symbolic theory, which is a DB that structures a scientific theory within a formal ontology so that it is available for computational analysis. It is argued that by encoding scientific theories in symbolic form, we open new realms of analysis and understanding for theories that would otherwise be too large and complex for scientists to reason with effectively. PMID:11557880
The analysis of control trajectories using symbolic and database computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grossman, Robert
1995-01-01
This final report comprises the formal semi-annual status reports for this grant for the periods June 30-December 31, 1993, January 1-June 30, 1994, and June 1-December 31, 1994. The research supported by this grant is broadly concerned with the symbolic computation, mixed numeric-symbolic computation, and database computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. A review of work during the report period covers: trajectories and approximating series, the Cayley algebra of trees, actions of differential operators, geometrically stable integration algorithms, hybrid systems, trajectory stores, PTool, and other activities. A list of publications written during the report period is attached.
Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.
2013-06-01
Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.
Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig
2005-01-01
All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.
UNBC SAFETY CHECKLIST SAFETY CHECKLIST
Northern British Columbia, University of
safety responsibilities to your employees: WorkSafeBC WCA 117 General Duties of Supervisors, WCA PART 3 -DIVISION 10 Accident/Injury Reporting; Bill C-45 and Criminal Code section 217.1, WorkSafeBC Occupational awareness and ease when discussing specific safety topics that apply to your group. It is important
The effects of age on symbol comprehension in central rail hubs in Taiwan.
Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin-Heng
2012-11-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age and symbol design features on passengers' comprehension of symbols and the performance of these symbols with regard to route guidance. In the first experiment, 30 young participants and 30 elderly participants interpreted the meanings and rated the features of 39 symbols. Researchers collected data on each subject's comprehension time, comprehension score, and feature ratings for each symbol. In the second experiment, this study used a series of photos to simulate scenarios in which passengers follow symbols to arrive at their destinations. The length of time each participant required to follow his/her route and his/her errors were recorded. Older adults experienced greater difficulty in understanding particular symbols as compared to younger adults. Familiarity was the feature most highly correlated with comprehension of symbols and accuracy of semantic depiction was the best predictor of behavior in following routes. PMID:22424647
A real-time DSP GMSK modem with all-digital symbol synchronization
Lambert, Richard Paul
1998-01-01
In communication systems, a requirement of the receiver is to estimate symbol timing so that symbol decisions may be made at the instant of smallest intersymbol interference. Though there exist various analog techniques for synchronization...
Lueck, Kerstin; Steffen, Hayley
2011-01-01
work and symbolic exclusion, group rigidity, critical mass, and white consciousness.and white consciousness. The boundary work section examineswork, symbolic exclusion, group rigidity and group options, critical mass, and white consciousness.
Lueck, Kerstin; Steffen, Hayley
2011-01-01
and Symbolic Exclusion in High School Cliques and othertwo schools. Boundary Work and Symbolic Exclusion: “We AreExclusion, Boundary Work, Critical Mass, Cliques, Racial Groups, Public Urban High School
14 CFR 97.3 - Symbols and terms used in procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... false Symbols and terms used in procedures. 97.3 Section 97.3 Aeronautics...OPERATING RULES STANDARD INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES General § 97.3 Symbols and terms used in procedures. As used in the standard...
14 CFR 97.3 - Symbols and terms used in procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... false Symbols and terms used in procedures. 97.3 Section 97.3 Aeronautics...OPERATING RULES STANDARD INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES General § 97.3 Symbols and terms used in procedures. As used in the standard...
14 CFR 97.3 - Symbols and terms used in procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... false Symbols and terms used in procedures. 97.3 Section 97.3 Aeronautics...OPERATING RULES STANDARD INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES General § 97.3 Symbols and terms used in procedures. As used in the standard...
14 CFR 97.3 - Symbols and terms used in procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... false Symbols and terms used in procedures. 97.3 Section 97.3 Aeronautics...OPERATING RULES STANDARD INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES General § 97.3 Symbols and terms used in procedures. As used in the standard...
Effects of environmental sounds on the guessability of animated graphic symbols.
Harmon, Ashley C; Schlosser, Ralf W; Gygi, Brian; Shane, Howard C; Kong, Ying-Yee; Book, Lorraine; Macduff, Kelly; Hearn, Emilia
2014-12-01
Graphic symbols are a necessity for pre-literate children who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (including non-electronic communication boards and speech generating devices), as well as for mobile technologies using AAC applications. Recently, developers of the Autism Language Program (ALP) Animated Graphics Set have added environmental sounds to animated symbols representing verbs in an attempt to enhance their iconicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental sounds (added to animated graphic symbols representing verbs) in terms of naming. Participants included 46 children with typical development between the ages of 3;0 to 3;11 (years;months). The participants were randomly allocated to a condition of symbols with environmental sounds or a condition without environmental sounds. Results indicated that environmental sounds significantly enhanced the naming accuracy of animated symbols for verbs. Implications in terms of symbol selection, symbol refinement, and future symbol development will be discussed. PMID:25384797
Fuzzy Intervals for Designing Structural Signature: An Application to Graphic Symbol Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Delalandre, Mathieu; Brouard, Thierry; Ramel, Jean-Yves; Lladós, Josep
The motivation behind our work is to present a new methodology for symbol recognition. The proposed method employs a structural approach for representing visual associations in symbols and a statistical classifier for recognition. We vectorize a graphic symbol, encode its topological and geometrical information by an attributed relational graph and compute a signature from this structural graph. We have addressed the sensitivity of structural representations to noise, by using data adapted fuzzy intervals. The joint probability distribution of signatures is encoded by a Bayesian network, which serves as a mechanism for pruning irrelevant features and choosing a subset of interesting features from structural signatures of underlying symbol set. The Bayesian network is deployed in a supervised learning scenario for recognizing query symbols. The method has been evaluated for robustness against degradations & deformations on pre-segmented 2D linear architectural & electronic symbols from GREC databases, and for its recognition abilities on symbols with context noise i.e. cropped symbols.
The Great, Big List of LATEX Symbols David Carlisle Scott Pakin Alexander Holt
Lacoste, David
Phonetic Symbols . . . . . 12 43 wasysym Astrological and Zodiacal Symbols Commands for Using Zapf Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 47 marvosym Astrological and Zodiacal Signs . . . . . . . . . 15 50 marvosym Miscellaneous . . . . . . . 15 51 Math Alphabets
Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie
2012-01-01
Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted. PMID:21813821
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This high school activity from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges "your students' ability to identify safety hazards, as they play the role of a safety inspector." On this page, visitors will find a link to two company overview sheets, one with information about TECO, a company that generate and distributes electricity, and another with information about CF Industries, a fertilizer producer. The site also provides a lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation, and a student handout. This is a great resource to introduce students to hands-on practices in safety inspection in different industries.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY EMPLOYEE SAFETY ORIENTATION
Kavanagh, Karen L.
PREPAREDNESS 26740 FIRE PREVENTION Burnaby: 23867 Surrey: FS Vancouver: Ops FIRE SAFETY PLANS 23011 HAZARDOUSENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY EMPLOYEE SAFETY ORIENTATION SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY DEPARTMENT Discovery Park - MTF 8888 University Drive Burnaby, British Columbia Canada V5
Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention
... Prevention Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) Agricultural Safety and Injury Prevention Anthropometry Buy Quiet Cancer - ... Motor Vehicle Safety Chemical Safety Chest Radiography Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Construction Safety and Health Control Banding ...
Symbolic Approach to the Analysis of Security Protocols
Stéphane Lafrance
2004-01-01
The specification and validation of security protocols often requires view- ing function calls - like encryption\\/decryption and the generation of fake messages - explicitly as actions within the process semantics. Following this approach, this paper introduces a symbolic framework based on value-passing processes able to handle sym- bolic values like fresh nonces, fresh keys, fake addresses and fake messages. The
A symbolic approach to the analysis of security protocols
S. Lafrance; J. Mullins
2003-01-01
Abstract: The specification and validation of security protocols often requires view- ing function calls ? like encryption\\/decryption and the generation of fake messages ? explicitly as actions within the process semantics. Following this approach, this paper introduces a symbolic framework based on value-passing processes able to handle sym- bolic values like fresh nonces, fresh keys, fake addresses and fake messages.
EQUR 121 INTRODUCTION TO SYMBOLIC LOGIC Ko University, FALL 2015
Ozbagci, Burak
. LEARNINGOUTCOMES: Students completing Symbolic Logic course will 1. acquire critical thinking skills to talk about these features using analytical vocabulary. 3. Objective #3 (Learn how to formally test arguments): Students will learn how to use various mechanical tests to test propositions, sets
Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre
2013-01-01
Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an…
The Influence of Symbols and Equations on Understanding Mathematical Equivalence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.
2015-01-01
Students with mathematics difficulty demonstrate lower mathematics performance than typical-performing peers. One contributing factor to lower mathematics performance may be misunderstanding of mathematics symbols. In several studies related to the equal sign (=), students who received explicit instruction on the relational definition (i.e.,…
Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*
Wintner, Shuly
, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbioticallySymbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language* WENDY SANDLER Abstract Current with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between
Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration
Sathasivam, Saratha [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)
2010-12-23
New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.
Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing
Fernandez, Thomas
Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing Mark A and antibiotic concentrations of an industrial fermentation process. The models are developed using both for predicting the biomass and antibiotic concentrations of a fermentation process, which is based on Simulated
Experiencing SAX: a novel symbolic representation of time series
Jessica Lin; Eamonn J. Keogh; Li Wei; Stefano Lonardi
2007-01-01
Many high level representations of time series have been proposed for data mining, including Fourier transforms, wavelets, eigenwaves, piecewise polynomial models, etc. Many researchers have also considered symbolic rep- resentations of time series, noting that such representations would potentiality allow researchers to avail of the wealth of data structures and algorithms from the text processing and bioinformatics communities. While many
The rod and the serpent: history's ultimate healing symbol.
Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Learney, Robert; Granderath, Frank A; Antoniou, Athanasios I
2011-01-01
The snake has served as a medical emblem for more than 2400 years, since its association with the ancient Greek god of medicine and healing, Asclepius, in the 4th century BC. Its symbolic background can be traced further back to the worship of gods of earth's blossom in ancient Egypt and earth-related deities of the archaic period of Greek antiquity. It is featured entwined around a staff of knowledge and wisdom in most anaglyphs depicting Asclepius. The snake was impressed in the Old and the New Testament as well as in the Christian tradition as a symbol of sin, rejuvenation, death, resurrection, asthenia, and therapy. It is postulated that the double-snake motif was reintroduced by Renaissance philosophers as a medical emblem due to the symbolic connections of Hermes with deliverance and redemption. However, its use during the last two centuries seems to lack substantial historical background. The historical, mythological, and traditional retrospection of the snake's symbolism validates its appropriateness in the health-care field. PMID:20556606
3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Veenendaal, Michel
2011-01-01
The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…
Symbolic interactionist ethnography: implications for information systems research and practice
Michael T. K. Tan; Xinwei Wang; Lei Zhu
2003-01-01
This paper attempts to contribute to the positivist-interpretivist and rigor-relevance debates in IS research. We accomplish this by reflecting on the implications of symbolic interactionist ethnography for enriching interpretive research, and by highlighting how the adaptation of the \\
Enhanced Di erential Chaos Shift Keying Using Symbolic Dynamics
Galias, Zbigniew
symbol period, a portion of chaotic waveform (reference signal) is transmitted followed by its inverted or non-inverted copy (information-bearing signal) depending on the bit of information. At the re- ceiver be seen as an infor- mation source, which reveals more and more information about its initial state during
Verification of Synchronous Sequential Machines Based on Symbolic Execution
Olivier Coudert; Christian Berthet; Jean Christophe Madre
1989-01-01
This paper presents an original method to compare two synchronous sequential machines. The method consists in a breadth first traversal of the product machine during which symbolic expressions of its observable behaviour are computed. The method uses formal manipulations on boolean functions to avoid the state enumeration and diagram construction. For this purpose, new algorithms on boolean functions represented by
Symbolic Play and Literacy Learning: Classroom Materials and Teacher's Roles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Pei-Yu; Yawkey, Thomas D.
1998-01-01
Argues that literacy and pretend play are both representational activities that are facilitated in natural environments with sufficient literate materials and opportunities to play. Discusses similarity of process in symbolic play and literacy, and looks at their content. Describes literacy materials and teachers' roles that foster literacy and…
Symbolic Functioning and Language Development in Children with Down Syndrome
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'toole, Ciara; Chiat, Shula
2006-01-01
Background: Understanding the relationship between preverbal skills and language development has important implications for identifying communication delay/disorders and for early childhood intervention. In the case of children with Down syndrome, it is well established that symbolic play is associated with the emergence of language. However, the…
SYMBOLIC-NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE MULTIBODY SYSTEMS
H. Claus; W. Schiehlen
2002-01-01
The paper presents the vibration analysis and the evaluation of dynamic stresses in flexible multibody systems, and their parameter optimization using symbolic-numeric methods. Based on the fundamentals of multibody system modeling the force method and the deformation method are described and the latter one is extended to include the static and dynamic responses of the structure. Performance criteria are defined
An Introduction to Symbolic Data Analysis and the Sodas Software
Malerba, Donato
that they contain internal variation and are structured. Symbolic data arise from many sources, for instance in order to summarize huge Relational Data Bases by their underlying concepts. "Extracting knowledge" means in order to define queries of a Relational Data Base and propagate concepts between Data Bases. We define
Symbolic knowledge representation with artificial neural Sebastian Bader1
Hitzler, Pascal
Symbolic knowledge representation with artificial neural networks Sebastian Bader1 and Pascal neural networks can easily do logical reasoning. Why is it so difficult with artificial ones? NFORMATION 2004 · Tokyo · Japan · 11.2004 1 #12;£ ¢ ¡Some Other Motivation Artificial neural networks constitute
Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.
2011-01-01
Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate…
Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.
2008-01-01
American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…
Non-Symbolic Arithmetic in Adults and Young Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barth, Hilary; La Mont, Kristen; Lipton, Jennifer; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Spelke, Elizabeth
2006-01-01
Five experiments investigated whether adults and preschool children can perform simple arithmetic calculations on non-symbolic numerosities. Previous research has demonstrated that human adults, human infants, and non-human animals can process numerical quantities through approximate representations of their magnitudes. Here we consider whether…
Wishes and Riddles: Symbolic Imagery in Chinese Art.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.
This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the wishes and riddles found in myths and rebuses in Chinese art. The packet contains: (1) an introductory essay describing symbolism used in the art of various dynasties of China; (2) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (3) a…
Pseudo-randomness and partial information in symbolic security analysis
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Pseudo-randomness and partial information in symbolic security analysis Daniele Micciancio May 29 of partial information. Keywords: Computational soundness, formal methods for security, pseudo-random generators, partial information, greatest fix-points. 1 Introduction Formal methods for security analysis (e
Symbolic Computer Algebra: The Classroom Computer Takes a Quantum Jump.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kunkle, Dan; Burch, Charles I., Jr.
1984-01-01
Described is a software program with two components. One is muMATH, a package of functions that can perform a wide variety of symbolic manipulations. It is surrounded by, and written in, the accompanying language, muSIMP. A problem is described with a muMATH solution; another example uses the muSIMP language. (MNS)
Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, John R.
2005-01-01
This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…
The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tracy, Rita
2012-01-01
The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich…
Theories of Symbolism: A Pluralistic Approach to Teaching Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quina, James H., Jr.
In analyzing literary works within a conceptual framework, the student needs the freedom to choose from a variety of critical standpoints and to discover for himself various approaches to the literary symbol. To illustrate the necessity of movement from one theory to another, the theories are arranged in the following order: transcendental theory…
The Magic of Harry Potter: Symbols and Heroes of Fantasy
Sharon Black
2003-01-01
This article suggests that the worldwide, multiage appeal of Harry Potter may lie in the way these stories of magic meet the needs of readers to find meaning in today's unmagical contexts. The imaginative appeal and symbolic efficacy of the books for children are examined in terms of Bruno Bettelheim's The Uses of Enchantment. The development of Harry Potter as
Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale
2010-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two…
Symbolic Play in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanley, Gillian C.; Konstantareas, M. Mary
2007-01-01
The relationship between symbolic play and other domains, such as degree of autistic symptomatology, nonverbal cognitive ability, receptive language, expressive language, and social development, was investigated. The assessment files of 101 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were studied. Nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive language…
Symbolic dynamics and computation in model gene networks R. Edwardsa)
Glass, Leon
, the gene networks can be thought of as computational devices that generate lan- guages. Further, basedSymbolic dynamics and computation in model gene networks R. Edwardsa) Department of Mathematics, the model genes control the production rates of other genes by a logical function. The dynamics
Revitalized Undergraduate Mathematics with Symbol Manipulating Graphics Calculators. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LaTorre, Donald R.
Clemson University's Revitalized Undergraduate Mathematics with Symbol Manipulating Graphics Calculators Project introduced Hewlett-Packard HP-48S graphing calculators into undergraduate mathematics instruction to demonstrate that calculators can be effectively integrated into the undergraduate mathematics curriculum. This document reports the…
RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation
Middeldorp, Aart
#12;#12;RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Workshop Aart MIDDELDORP (editor) Castle of Hagenberg, Austria July 14, 2008 RISC-Linz Report Series No. 08-09 Editors: RISC-Linz Faculty B. Buchberger, R. Hemmecke, T. Jebelean, M. Kauers, T. Kutsia, G. Landsmann, F
Student Activism within Christian College Cultures: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cole, Brian E.
2014-01-01
This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their…
Symbolic coupling traces for causality analysis of cardiovascular control.
Wessel, N; Suhrbier, A; Riedl, M; Marwan, N; Malberg, H; Bretthauer, G; Penzel, T; Kurths, J
2011-01-01
Directional coupling analysis of time series is an important subject of current research. In this paper, a method based on symbolic dynamics for the detection of time-delayed coupling in biosignals is presented. The symbolic coupling traces, defined as the symmetric and diametric traces of the bivariate word distribution, allow for a more reliable quantification of coupling and are compared with established methods like mutual information and cross recurrence analysis. The symbolic coupling traces method is applied to appropriate model systems and cardiological data which demonstrate its advantages especially for nonstationary and noisy data. Moreover, the method of symbolic coupling traces is used to analyze and quantify time-delayed coupling of cardiovascular measurements during different sleep stages. Significant different regulatory mechanisms are detected not only between the deep sleep and the other sleep stages but also between healthy subjects and patients. The proposed method may help to indicate pathological changes in cardiovascular regulation and also effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on the cardiovascular system. PMID:22255691
Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond
Jerry R. Burch; Edmund Melson Clarke; Kenneth L. McMillan; L. J. Hwang
1990-01-01
Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining state-graph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolically instead of
Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Literal Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frost, Jodi L.
2012-01-01
There has been continuing pressure to incorporate algebraic thinking into K-12 education. Elementary teachers will be expected to incorporate and successfully execute algebra related lessons. This dissertation study examines pre-service elementary teachers' conceptions and content knowledge regarding literal symbols and their usage. A written…
Combining symbolic computation and theorem proving: some problems of Ramanujan
Clarke, Edmund M.
Combining symbolic computation and theorem proving: some problems of Ramanujan Edmund Clarke Xudong are taken from Chapter 2 of Ramanujan's Notebooks [1]. They were selected because they are non Ramanujan's ingenuity and cleverness.'' We suspect that several of the problems would prove quite
The Development of Symbolic Representation: The Case of Building Blocks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reifel, Stuart
The symbolic representational block constructions of twenty 4-year-olds and twenty 7-year-olds were analyzed from Werner and Kaplan's (1963) theoretical perspective. Each child was read a story and then asked to use the blocks to represent the story. Older children included in their representations a larger number of features that were central to…
Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masiki, Trent
2011-01-01
Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…
Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason
2008-01-01
This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…
Arti cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression
Kent, University of
Arti#12;cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression Colin G. Johnson Computing Immune Systems are computational algorithms which take their inspiration from the way in which natural immune systems learn to respond to attacks on an organism. This paper discusses how such a system can
Dead beat controllability of polynomial systems: symbolic computation approaches
Nesic, Dragan
Dead beat controllability of polynomial systems: symbolic computation approaches Dragan Nesi and Adaptive Systems RSISE ANU Canberra, ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA Keywords: polynomial systems, dead beat. - int + 61 + 6 + 2492456, fax. - int + 61 + 6 + 2798088 1 #12;Abstract State and output dead beat
Space telescope coordinate systems, symbols, and nomenclature definitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennel, H. F.
1976-01-01
The major coordinate systems as well as the transformations and transformation angles between them, for the Space Telescope are defined. The coordinate systems were primarily developed for use in pointing and control system analysis and simulation. Additional useful information (on nomenclature, symbols, quaternion operations, etc.) is also contained.
Policies & Procedures Uniform Grade Symbols: Glossary and Guidelines
Wolberg, George
Policies & Procedures Uniform Grade Symbols: Glossary and Guidelines Effective Fall 2013 DATE: August 27, 2013 TO: The Presidents of the Colleges The Dean of the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education The Dean of the School of Journalism The Dean of the School of Professional Studies The Dean
AACSB Accreditation: Symbol of Excellence or March toward Mediocrity?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francisco, William; Noland, Thomas G.; Sinclair, Debra
2008-01-01
Accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is supposed to be a symbol of excellence for business schools. However, the recent increase in the number of accredited schools and the creation of AACSB's "professionally qualified" (PQ) designation for faculty raises some concern in the academic community. Why has…
Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nigam, Ravi
2001-01-01
This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…
Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.
2003-01-01
Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…
The Social Fabric and Innovation Diffusion: Symbolic Adoption of Food
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sapp, Stephen G.; Korsching, Peter F.
2004-01-01
This study used a longitudinal, panel design to examine the effects of negative information acquisition, compliance with opinion leader endorsements, and social demographic characteristics on consumers' symbolic adoption of food irradiation. Data collection coincided with the first market test of irradiated food conducted by a commercial firm,…
Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.
2011-01-01
Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…
Insight and Outlook: Symbol and Metaphor in Phototherapy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krauss, David
Although the roots of phototherapy extend back to the late 1850's, it did not emerge as a distinct entity until the late 1970's. Growing interest has generated a substantial body of literature in the field. While photographs may be looked at concretely, as two-dimensional, their symbolic and metamorphic nature is a potentially powerful tool in…
Symbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks #
Tiwari, Ashish
Symbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks # Patrick Lincoln with their environment? We describe the modeling and analysis of dynamic and reactive biological systems involving both over time. Discrete components of models of biological systems arise from state transitions (e.g., from
Symbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks
Tiwari, Ashish
Symbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks Patrick Lincoln with their environment? We describe the modeling and analysis of dynamic and reactive biological systems involving both over time. Discrete components of models of biological systems arise from state transitions (e.g., from
Sport, Gender and Ethnicity: Practises of Symbolic Inclusion/exclusion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elling, Agnes; Knoppers, Annelies
2005-01-01
In this paper symbolic inclusion/exclusion processes in sport with respect to gender and ethnicity among adolescents (n = 1025) are analyzed from a social-critical perspective. It was found that sport participation preferences of young people are still influenced by dominant normative gendered and racial/ethnic images. Sport can serve not only as…
A non extensive approach to the entropy of symbolic sequences
Marco Buiatti; Paolo Grigolini; Luigi Palatella
1999-01-01
Symbolic sequences with long-range correlations are expected to result in a slow regression to a steady state of entropy increase. However, we prove that also in this case a fast transition to a constant rate of entropy increase can be obtained, provided that the extensive entropy of Tsallis with entropic index q is adopted, thereby resulting in a new form
Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software: Symbolic Computation, Combinatorial Species,
Stein, William
- ical libraries and software to create a powerful alternative to commercial mathematics software without combinatorial objects with minimal effort. Additionally, the core of the module could be written in pure Python uses Maxima, which is the 2 #12;best free symbolic computation package available. Maxima was created
Symbol use in a case of elective mutism.
Atlas, J A
1993-06-01
A case of elective mutism in a 4-yr.-old girl is discussed with reference to symbol use in the phenomenology and treatment of this disorder. Findings are related to current controversies regarding the classification of this rare disorder, which may be associated with more severe psychotic-spectrum disorders of childhood. PMID:7687765
Symbol-and-Arrow Diagrams in Teaching Pharmacokinetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayton, William L.
1990-01-01
Symbol-and-arrow diagrams are helpful adjuncts to equations derived from pharmacokinetic models. Both show relationships among dependent and independent variables. Diagrams show only qualitative relationships, but clearly show which variables are dependent and which are independent, helping students understand complex but important functional…
Symbolic Summation with SingleNested Sum Extensions Carsten Schneider #
Schneider, Carsten
nested ##extension over a given ##field in which the telescoping problem for f can be solved in terms to def inite summation: it can decide constructively if the creative telescoping problem for a fixed}. Then Prob lem PFLDE plays an important role in symbolic summation. Problem PFLDE: Solving Parameterized
Symbolic Summation with Single-Nested Sum Extensions Carsten Schneider
Schneider, Carsten
summation: it can decide constructively if the creative telescoping problem for a fixed order can be solved over a given -field in which the telescoping problem for f can be solved in terms that are not more an important role in symbolic summation. Problem PFLDE: Solving Parameterized First Order Linear Difference
Symbolism and Psychological Realism in "The Red Badge of Courage."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDermott, John J.
1968-01-01
In "The Red Badge of Courage," Stephen Crane overcomes serious artistic difficulties to depict a complicated psychological change in his protagonist, Henry Fleming, an unsophisticated and inarticulate farm boy. To embody the development of this protagonist, Crane uses a series of thematically-related incidents and a set of thematic symbols which…
Symbolic loss in American adolescents: mourning in teenage cinema.
Kramp, Joseph M
2014-04-01
I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre. PMID:22843337
Transforming Ourselves/Transforming Curriculum: Spiritual Education and Tarot Symbolism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Semetsky, Inna
2009-01-01
This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual "lessons" derived from collective human experiences across…
1: Computers and Symbols versus Nets and Neurons
Rodriguez, Carlos
1: Computers and Symbols versus Nets and Neurons Kevin Gurney 1 Dept. Human Sciences, Brunel interested in hearing about things that you found difficult to learn or that weren't adequately explained, but I am also interested in hearing about inaccuracies, typos, or any other constructive criticism you
The profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models
Tino, Peter
The profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models Christian of a pure volatility trading strategy which is deltaneutral and independent of an option pric ing model to the next trading day and to gain profits by buying or selling straddles accordingly. The trading
Symbolic Racism Versus Racial Threats to "The Good Life."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinder, Donald R.; Sears, David O.
The goals of this research were to identify the key political forms of contemporary white racism, to investigate their social psychological antecedents, and to do both in a way that discriminated among several theoretical approaches to understanding prejudice: realistic group conflict theory, displacement theory, and a "symbolic" analysis of…
Second Order Surface Analysis Using Hybrid Symbolic and Numeric Operators
for the creation of tool paths for NC (Numerically Con- trolled) code generation for freeform surfaces are usuallySecond Order Surface Analysis Using Hybrid Symbolic and Numeric Operators Gershon Elbery and Elaine the curvature of a surface can be used to improve the implementation, e ciency, and e ectiveness
Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2009-01-01
A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.
Foundations of Representation: Where Might Graphical Symbol Systems Come from?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garrod, Simon; Fay, Nicolas; Lee, John; Oberlander, Jon; MacLeod, Tracy
2007-01-01
It has been suggested that iconic graphical signs evolve into symbolic graphical signs through repeated usage. This article reports a series of interactive graphical communication experiments using a "pictionary" task to establish the conditions under which the evolution might occur. Experiment 1 rules out a simple repetition based account in…
Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romero, Deborah
2014-01-01
In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…
Toddlers' Emerging Symbolic Play: A First-Born Advantage?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kowalski, Helen; Wyver, Shirley; Masselos, Grace; De Lacey, Philip
2004-01-01
The influence of older peers on younger children's emerging symbolic play was examined for 24 young children in eight participating long-day child-care centres. Toddler participants (aged from 17 to 31 months) were observed and video-taped in three conditions in free play in the outdoor environment as follows: condition one, with their same-age…
Using Differential Evolution for Symbolic Regression and Numerical Constant Creation
Fernandez, Thomas
Using Differential Evolution for Symbolic Regression and Numerical Constant Creation Brian M. Cerny derivatives is numerical constant creation. Given a mathematical formula expressed as a tree structure for constant creation. Through the adoption of a robust, real-valued optimization algorithm known
Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.
Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…
A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features
Steven Salzberg
1993-01-01
In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from examples have worked best in domains in which all features had numeric values. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points and distance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains, a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. We introduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning
Algebraic Symbols and Technical Writing Concepts: A Pedagogy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minor, Doris A.
1986-01-01
Demonstrates that basic algebraic symbols can be used to illustrate fundamental concepts in technical writing, such as hierarchical organization, sentence structure, modification, and punctuation. Suggests that students in calculus, chemistry, and physics may benefit from this application of familiar concepts to those of technical writing. (HTH)
Convenient Chemical Symbols to Illustrate Electronic Excited States
Evguenii I. Kozliak
2007-01-01
The problem of poor comprehension of electronic spectra by chemistry students in upper level undergraduate classes is addressed by consistent application of vector addition to both spin and angular momentum. Using the upgraded box?and?arrow diagrams, both atomic and molecular electronic states may be described without the use of advanced mathematics. Simple chemical symbols and formulas are suggested for molecular excited
Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others
This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…
First Order Symbols on Surfaces and their multiplicity sets
Carlos Valero
2013-11-04
We study the multiplicity sets of first order symbols associated with differential operators on two dimensional surfaces. This work is inspired by the phenomenon of conical refraction explained by the existence of singularities in the Fresnel hyper-surface for Maxwell's equations on an anisotropic crystal.
A Unified Framework for Nonlinear Dependence Testing and Symbolic Analysis
van Engelen, Robert A.
A Unified Framework for Nonlinear Dependence Testing and Symbolic Analysis Robert A. van Engelen updated variables, value range analysis, array region analysis, and nonlinear dependence testing analysis, and nonlinear dependence testing. The analysis methods in this frame- work share a well
A Class of MAry Asymmetric Symbol Error Correcting Codes for Data Entry Devices
Haruhiko Kaneko; Eiji Fujiwara
2004-01-01
Nonbinary M-ary symbols such as alphanumeric characters are commonly used in data entry devices, e.g., keyboards and character recognition devices. The M-ary symbols processed by these devices are sometimes mistaken for other symbols due to errors such as mistyping in keyboards or misreading in character recognition systems. These errors are generally asymmetric, not symmetric. For example, the symbols corresponding to
Mapping the Meanings of Novel Visual Symbols by Youth with Moderate or Severe Mental Retardation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romski, Mary Ann; And Others
1996-01-01
The word-learning ability of 12 school-age subjects with moderate or severe mental retardation was assessed. Subjects used the System for Augmenting Language with visual-graphic symbols for communication. Ability to fast map novel symbols was found to relate to symbol achievement status. Implications for vocabulary acquisition by youth with mental…
ROLE OF AUTOMATED SYMBOLIC GENERATION OF PLANT MODELS IN CONTROL EDUCATION
Krovi, Venkat
-time symbolic model-based nonlinear controllers for the Quanser Inverted Pendulum Experiment. The traditional sensitivity analyses. However, the critical first step remains symbolic mathematical modeling of articulatedROLE OF AUTOMATED SYMBOLIC GENERATION OF PLANT MODELS IN CONTROL EDUCATION Sumit Tripathi, Hrishi
The Path to Symbolism. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 3
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malloy, Peggy
2008-01-01
Language involves the use of symbols in the form of words or signs that allow people to communicate their thoughts, ideas, and needs. Even without formal language, many children who are deaf-blind learn to communicate with gestures and object or picture symbols. Symbolic expression makes it possible to express thoughts and feelings about the…
EXE: A System for Automatically Generating Inputs of Death Using Symbolic Execution
Stanford University
generated test cases, EXE runs it on symbolic input that is initially free to be any value. As the codeEXE: A System for Automatically Generating Inputs of Death Using Symbolic Execution Cristian Cadar than running the code on manually-constructed concrete input, EXE instead runs it on symbolic input
The conormal symbolic structure of corner bound-ary value problems
Krainer, Thomas
;2 T. Krainer and B.-W. Schulze Conormal symbols also play an important role in the recent develoment of a corresponding symbolic hierarchy. Moreover, if the manifold W plays the role of a cross section of an infi- niteThe conormal symbolic structure of corner bound- ary value problems T. Krainer and B.-W. Schulze
Emergence of symbolic behavior from brain like memory with dynamic attention
Takashi Omori; Akiko Mochizuki; Kentaro Mizutani; M. Nishizaki
1999-01-01
An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no
The Schoolyard as a Stage: Missing Cultural Clues in Symbolic Fighting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arriaza, Gilberto
2003-01-01
Investigates how social conflict was enacted at one racially diverse, urban middle school. Discusses symbolic fighting, the use of body language, the location of symbolic fighting, and symbolic fighting as a source of transformation, proposing to redefine the socializing role of social conflict in the lives of students and adults in schools.…
Rotation-Robust Math Symbol Recognition and Retrieval Using Outer Contours and Image Subsampling
Zanibbi, Richard
Rotation-Robust Math Symbol Recognition and Retrieval Using Outer Contours and Image Subsampling the system with original Turning Function on the rotated InftyCDB-3 dataset. Keywords: Machine-Printed Math Symbol Recognition, Content-Based Math Symbol Retrieval 1. INTRODUCTION Recognition of math expression
Loop-Extended Symbolic Execution on Binary Programs Prateek Saxena Pongsin Poosankam
Zakhor, Avideh
and diagnos- ing buffer-overflow vulnerabilities in software given only in binary form. Our tool findsLoop-Extended Symbolic Execution on Binary Programs Prateek Saxena Pongsin Poosankam Stephen Mc, a generalization that broadens the coverage of symbolic results in programs with loops. It introduces symbolic
Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.
2006-01-01
Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…
Symbol Grounding and Meaning: A Comparison of High-Dimensional and Embodied Theories of Meaning
Arthur M. Glenberg; David A. Robertson
2000-01-01
Latent Semantic Analysis (Landauer & Dumais, 1997) and Hyperspace Analogue to Language (Burgess & Lund, 1997) model meaning as the relations among abstract symbols that are arbitrarily related to what they signify. These symbols are ungrounded in that they are not tied to perceptual experience or action. Because the symbols are ungrounded, they cannot, in principle, capture the meaning of
Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesic, I. M. Y. Mareels,
Nesic, Dragan
Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesi´c, I. M. Y. Mareels of this article is to highlight the effectiveness of symbolic computation software, or the so called computer algebra, in the analysis and design of control systems. Symbolic computation software should
3-jm, 6-j and isoscalar symbols for the icosahedral group
D. R. Pooler
1980-01-01
Using a complex base with a numerical system of labelling the author calculates symmetrised coupling symbols (the 3-jm symbols) for the icosahedral group. He makes full use of Racah's Lemma and explicitly states all the phase standardisations involved. The 3-jm symbols are chosen in a manner that leads to them possessing reordering symmetries that are almost as straightforward as in
A class of generalised 9-j symbols for Sp(2n)
B. R. Judd; G. M. S. Lister
1987-01-01
The symbolic method of Kramers (1930) is used to obtain an expression for a 9-j symbol in terms of multiple products of spinor invariants. This technique is generalised from the unitary (compact) symplectic group Sp(2) to Sp(2n), and a generating function is found for a class of multiplicity-free 9-( sigma ) symbols, where ( sigma ) denotes an irreducible representation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace safety. Topics include hazard communications, lockout/tagout, confined space entry, fall protection, PPE, firefighting and bloodborne pathogens.
... Scalds Carbon Monoxide Choking and Strangulation Falls Fire Guns Liquid Laundry Packets Medication Poison Sleep Safety and ... to Drive Apply Getting Ready to Drive filter Guns Apply Guns filter Halloween Apply Halloween filter Heatstroke ...
... in food handling, cooking, and storage can prevent foodborne illness. There are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture
... Safety Heating equipment is a leading cause of home fire deaths. Almost half of home heating equipment fires are reported during the months ... which is kept a safe distance from the home. • For wood burning stoves, install chimney connectors and ...
... that guards on farm equipment are replaced after maintenance. • Review and follow instructions in material safety data ... involve machinery. Proper machine guarding and doing equipment maintenance according to manufacturers’ recommendations can help prevent accidents. • ...
You are here Home / Audience / Children / Preschoolers Food Safety Error message Notice : Undefined index: title in cmp_responsive_preprocess_page() (line 136 of /app/mixingbowl/cmp_gov_build/docroot/sites/all/themes/ ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
James T. Biehle
2007-01-01
In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2009-11-12
This Wiki page provides a link to the recording of a webinar by Ken Roy. Join Ken Roy as he discusses the Dirty Dozen and the responsibilities of all educators in making science classrooms and activities safe[r] for students. Ken Roy is the National Science Teacher Association (NTSA) Science Safety Consultant and the Director of Environmental Health and Safety for Glastonbury Public Schools in Connecticut. Other links to the resources discussed in this webinar are also provided.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howard, Erica
2011-01-01
Written in accessible language, Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols is a comprehensive analysis of a topical subject that is being widely debated across Europe. The book provides an overview of emerging case law from the European Court of Human Rights as well as from national courts and equality bodies in European countries on the wearing of…