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1

Engaging Latino farmworkers in the development of symbols to improve pesticide safety and health education and risk communication.  

PubMed

The working and living environments of farmworkers put them and their families at risk for pesticide exposure and, consequently, immediate and long-term health effects. In this study, visual materials for a pesticide toxicology safety and health curriculum were constructed by engaging farmworkers in various stages of symbol development. Twenty-seven farmworkers in two states participated in this descriptive case study through focused small group discussions and interviews. Our findings support the importance of vivid and realistic symbols, the effectiveness of a traffic-light symbol in communicating technical information to farmworkers, and the need to engage low-literacy end-users in the production of educational materials. This work informs the development of curricula for other vulnerable populations pertaining to a variety of health-related topics, as well as discussions surrounding regulatory proposals to revise the United States Worker Protection Standard. PMID:22833257

LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Blanchard, Margaret R; Asuaje, Cesar R; Cope, W Gregory

2013-10-01

2

Sound Symbolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

3

Which Symbol?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem is designed to help young learners use the symbols plus, minus, multiplied by, divided by and equals to, meaningfully, in ten number statements. Students must drag two operational symbols to empty boxes to make a true statement. This problem also helps learners understand inverse operations and to look for alternate solutions. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, printable worksheet.

2009-12-01

4

Sixty Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever wondered about the symbols used by scientists? You're probably not alone, and this website created by a team at the University of Nottingham demystifies sixty prominent physics symbols via informative video segments. The videos are not necessarily meant to be lessons or lectures on the symbols, "The films are just fun chats with men and women who live their subject and know a lot about it!" The videos are quite fun, and the talk on "gamma" includes a discussion of cricket balls, while the "rho" video features paperclips in coffee cups. All of the videos can be accessed via the homepage, and visitors should plan on making several visits to check out all of the clips. At the bottom of the homepage, visitors can also view earlier videos created as part of the project, learn more about their scientists, and take a look at a list of other related sites.

5

Patriotic Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can click on a number of national symbols to get visual familiarity with them. Students who can read will be challenged with a limited amount of text. Children can x-out pictures on a worksheet to show they found each symbol. X-out the pictures on your worksheet as you find them on the computer. 1.Ben s Flag 2.Ben s St. of Lib 3.Ben s White House 4.Ben s Liberty Bell k-2 5.Ben s Independence Hall k-2 6.Bald Eagle k-2 7.Photo of Washington Monument 8. Photo-Back of White House 9. Photo of White House 10.Mt. Rushmore 11.Arlington Nat. Cemetary 12.Jefferson Memorial Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt, Lincoln: Some presidents of our country. 14.Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers 15.Color Ben s Flag ...

Anderson, J.

2007-02-09

6

Fuzzy symbolic sensors Fuzzy symbolic sensors  

E-print Network

Fuzzy symbolic sensors 1 Fuzzy symbolic sensors from concept to applications Gilles Mauris, Eric 85 Email : benoit@univ-savoie.fr, foulloy@univ-savoie.fr ABSTRACT: This paper deals with sensors which compute and report linguistic assessments of numerical acquired values. Such sensors, called

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Anchoring of semiotic symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents arguments for approaching the anchoring problem using semiotic symbols. Semiotic symbols are dened by a triadic relation between forms,meanings and referents, thus having an implicit relation to the real world. Anchorsare formed between these three elements rather than between `traditional'symbols and sensory images. This allows an optimization between the form (i.e.the `traditional' symbol) and the referent.

Paul Vogt

2003-01-01

8

Extending to Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students begin to use symbolic representations, they use variables as unknowns. To help their concept of symbolic representation to grow, they need to explore questions such as: What is an identity? and When are two symbolic representations equal? This activity engages students in work with an online algebraic balance. Questions as well as ideas for class discussion are included in the lesson plan.

Gary Martin

2000-01-01

9

Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

2011-01-01

10

Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

James, Mark

2006-01-01

11

Artificial intelligence and symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of massive parallelism and the renewed interest in neural networks gives a new need to evaluate the relationship of symbolic processing and artificial intelligence. The physical symbol hypothesis has encountered many difficulties coping with human concepts and common sense. Expert systems are showing more promise for the early stages of learning than for real expertise. There is a

Chris Moss; Liu Feng

1989-01-01

12

Symbolism in the Feature Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

Bakony, Edward

13

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what a topographic map is, how to read them, and what the symbols shown on maps and their legends mean. Contour lines, intervals, depth curves, and color meanings are discussed. There is also a legend showing examples of each symbol by category: elevation, boundaries, land surface features (mines, vegetation), water features (reefs, channels), buildings and related features (airports, schools), and roads, railroads and others (pipelines, bridges).

14

Discrete Symbol Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with efficient numerical representation and manipulation of differential and integral operators as symbols in phase-space, i.e., functions of space $x$ and frequency $\\\\xi$. The symbol smoothness conditions obeyed by many operators in connection to smooth linear partial differential equations allow to write fast-converging, non-asymptotic expansions in adequate systems of rational Chebyshev functions or hierarchical splines. The classical

Laurent Demanet; Lexing Ying

2008-01-01

15

Memoized Symbolic Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

2012-01-01

16

Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

2011-01-01

17

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

18

Optimal Symbol-by-Symbol Detection for Duobinary Signaling  

E-print Network

An optimal symbol-by-symbol detection scheme for duobinary signaling (Class I PRS) which exploits the inherent correlation properties of partial response signaling (PRS) is postulated. Analytical results indicate a maximum improvement...

Eggers, M.; Painter, John H.

19

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A consistent provider of high-quality online resources, the US Geological Survey (USGS) does not disappoint with this site. This site, announced this week, is an online version of its popular guide to topographic map symbols. Although a bit brief, the guide will prove helpful to general users of topographic maps and beginning geography students. The guide offers charts explaining map symbols in six different categories. A very short introduction to reading topographic maps and a list of related links are also provided.

20

THE SYMBOLS OF UTAH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Demonstrate respect for the state symbols of Utah. The State Flag of Utah DATES: You can begin this activity on March 5. You should complete it by March 9. OBJECTIVE: We have been studying the history of Utah this year. You can probably already name the state bird and describe the state flag. You have sung the ...

Mr. Hughes

2006-03-02

21

HMD symbol stabilization concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. Symbol stabilization is a key issue for HMDs. In current equipment, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. A set of standardized coordinate transformations are necessary for the development of HMD symbology and the control laws. Part of the problem is there is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A candidate set of coordinate definitions is proposed to address this issue.

Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

1995-05-01

22

Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols  

DOEpatents

The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

2014-09-16

23

Symbolic Deadlock Analysis in Concurrent Libraries and their Clients  

E-print Network

Symbolic Deadlock Analysis in Concurrent Libraries and their Clients Jyotirmoy Deshmukh Univ in clients causing thread safety violations by invoking methods in an unsafe manner. Given such a library, we execution for the methods in the library. The contracts also help client developers by documenting required

Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

24

SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable  

E-print Network

SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) Cost spent to build variation point i at time i = index over variation points #12;SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) ...adjusted by a factor

Duchowski, Andrew T.

25

Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

Pasareanu, Corina S.

2012-01-01

26

Shanahan on symbolization.  

PubMed

In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago. PMID:18293048

Lassčgue, Jean

2008-03-01

27

[Plastic image and symbolization].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the ontogenesis of the plastic image in its different pxychobiological aspects, in the background of the symbolization process. A reference is made to the maturing of perceptive processes, including the developments of Spitz, Wallon, Melanie Klein and Fontana. The analysis of the neurophysiological correlations of the image formation process is followed by a study of the functional role of the image in psychic dynamics, its genetic relationship with sensation and speech, its role in the communication functions, in the structuring of the relationship between the internal and the external world. The symbolizing faculty of the image is shown in the fact that it connects the body, the emotions and the sensations with the objects visually perceived, and makes up a unit with all that. According with the principle of genetic continuity, the effect of disturbances in the image formation process on speech is studied, and the way this is reflected in the forms of connexion and in the characteristic discourse of the different psychopathological structures. The image as a confluence of corporal and affective sensations constitutes a basic support in the projective identification process and in the problems of fusion-differentiation with the object as something external, the predominance of the image or of that which is perceived. The items in this paper offer a detailed description of the earliest stages of development, and is completed with references to aspects in the history of man and of culture where an evidence can be found of the role of the image insofar it reflects a certain orden in human dimensions in time and space. PMID:94970

Loschi, J A

1979-03-01

28

Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

2010-01-01

29

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

2006-01-01

30

Symbolic diagnosis for intelligent control  

E-print Network

The results of research intended to create a symbolic diagnostician to support intelligent control of numerical processors and/or processes are reported. Example applications include real-time signal processors, industrial automation, and aerospace...

Painter, John H.; Jowers, S.

1988-08-24

31

Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

Korns, Michael F.

32

Early Numerical Development and the Role of Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For learning math, non-symbolic quantity skills, symbolic skills and the mapping between number symbols and non-symbolic quantities are all important precursors. Little is known, however, about the interrelated development of these skills. The current study focuses on numerical development by: (a) investigating the structure of non-symbolic,…

Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

2013-01-01

33

Noncoherent DTTLs for Symbol Synchronization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noncoherent data-transition tracking loops (DTTLs) have been proposed for use as symbol synchronizers in digital communication receivers. [Communication- receiver subsystems that can perform their assigned functions in the absence of synchronization with the phases of their carrier signals ( carrier synchronization ) are denoted by the term noncoherent, while receiver subsystems that cannot function without carrier synchronization are said to be coherent. ] The proposal applies, more specifically, to receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signals generated by directly phase-modulating binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data streams onto carrier signals having known frequencies but unknown phases. The proposed noncoherent DTTLs would be modified versions of traditional DTTLs, which are coherent. The symbol-synchronization problem is essentially the problem of recovering symbol timing from a received signal. In the traditional, coherent approach to symbol synchronization, it is necessary to establish carrier synchronization in order to recover symbol timing. A traditional DTTL effects an iterative process in which it first generates an estimate of the carrier phase in the absence of symbol-synchronization information, then uses the carrier-phase estimate to obtain an estimate of the symbol-synchronization information, then feeds the symbol-synchronization estimate back to the carrier-phase-estimation subprocess. In a noncoherent symbol-synchronization process, there is no need for carrier synchronization and, hence, no need for iteration between carrier-synchronization and symbol- synchronization subprocesses. The proposed noncoherent symbolsynchronization process is justified theoretically by a mathematical derivation that starts from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method of estimation of symbol timing utilized in traditional, coherent DTTLs. In that MAP method, one chooses the value of a variable of interest (in this case, the offset in the estimated symbol timing) that causes a likelihood function of symbol estimates over some number of symbol periods to assume a maximum value. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified to fit within the space available for this article, it can be said that the mathematical derivation involves a modified interpretation of the likelihood function that lends itself to noncoherent DTTLs. The proposal encompasses both linear and nonlinear noncoherent DTTLs. The performances of both have been computationally simulated; for comparison, the performances of linear and nonlinear coherent DTTLs have also been computationally simulated. The results of these simulations show that, among other things, the expected mean-square timing errors of coherent and noncoherent DTTLs are relatively insensitive to window width. The results also show that at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), the performances of the noncoherent DTTLs approach those of their coherent counterparts at, while at low SNRs, the noncoherent DTTLs incur penalties of the order of 1.5 to 2 dB.

Simon, Marvin; Tkacenko, Andre

2007-01-01

34

Patera in Aere. Symbols of the goddess of health on coins and medals.  

PubMed

The numismatic record, coins and medals, portrays many of the symbols of health. The oldest symbol which portrays health, as a positive state of physical well-being, is the patera. First associated with Hygeia, it extended to that of the Roman Goddess of Health, Salus, imparting to the concept of health the additional themes of safety and security. Ancient and modern coins and medals, which portray the patera, are included in this account. PMID:11624589

Pearn, J

2000-06-01

35

Sexual symbolism, personality integration, and intellectual functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

30 male Ss were given a list of words and figures symbolizing sex organs. Also they were tested on the Shipley Institute of Living Test for intellectual functioning. Generalizations that emotional disturbances are accompanied by disorganized symbolic processes are invalid.

Rudolph Moos; Paul Mussen

1959-01-01

36

Evolution of symbolic communication : an embodied perspective   

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the emergence in human evolution of communication through symbols, or conventional, arbitrary signs. Previous work has argued that symbolic speech was preceded by communication through nonarbitrary ...

Brown, Jessica Erin

2012-11-28

37

Basic Symbols Used in Engineering Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners examine the drawing symbols used for counterbore, countersink, spotface, radius, diameter, and depth. In the quiz that completes the activity, they associate these symbols with machining applications. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students

Sokolowski, Glenn

2009-09-24

38

On symbolic analysis of cryptographic protocols  

E-print Network

The universally composable symbolic analysis (UCSA) framework layers Dolev-Yao style symbolic analysis on top of the universally composable (UC) secure framework to construct computationally sound proofs of cryptographic ...

Patil, Akshay (Akshay R.)

2005-01-01

39

78 FR 23508 - Use of Certain Symbols in Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...such symbol is explained in a symbols glossary that contemporaneously accompanies...C Act, as long as a ``symbols glossary'' contemporaneously accompanies the device. The term ``symbols glossary'' means a compiled listing of...

2013-04-19

40

BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

2013-08-01

41

Allegories and Symbols in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manuscript describes how counselors can facilitate self-awareness in clients and counselors-in-training through the use of metaphors. The use of metaphors and others symbols provide a creative, non-intrusive, and non-confrontational approach to counseling. Examples of stories and fables used during counseling sessions and instructional…

Alvarado, Victor I.; Cavazos, Lionel J.

2007-01-01

42

Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

Feldman, Jacob

2012-01-01

43

The Symbolic DNA of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding what causes terrorists to conduct mass-casualty attacks is essential. In this essay, we argue that religious terrorist groups and terrorist groups embracing an ideological\\/mythic pattern similar to religion that conduct such attacks are motivated by what we label the symbolic DNA of terrorism. Terrorist groups such as al Qaeda perceive that their identity is threatened, and believe that the

Robert C. Rowland; Kirsten Theye

2008-01-01

44

Students' Symbolization Processes in Algebra.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this document is on students' understanding of symbolization processes in algebra, and specifically their understanding of semantically laden letters. In the first four sections, four inappropriate ways in which many college students use semantically laden letters are described. Evidence from clinical interview protocols demonstrate…

Rosnick, Peter

45

Symbol manipulation and formula manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, Chinese research workers have noticed that there are systems for symbol manipulation and formula manipulation abroad. But use of computers in China is later. In early years, only assemblers, ALGOL, BASIC and FORTRAN languages were used, which were not suited to help manipulate formulas. Someone has considered extending FORTRAN by manipulation functions. Many people hope to use LISP

Chen Dongyue

1983-01-01

46

Symbolic Stiffness Optimization of Planar Tensegrity Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the design of mechanical systems one normally exploits numerical analysis and optimization tools. We make a plea for symbolic computation and give an example where structural displacements under load are computed symbolically. Geometrical design parameters enter in this computation. The set of equilibrium conditions, linear in the displacements, but nonlinear in the design parameters, is solved symbolically. The resulting

Bram de Jager; Robert E. Skelton

2004-01-01

47

Functions of Symbolizing Activity: A Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I propose that attending how symbolizing activity functions for teachers and students helps to characterize student-teacher communication, and allows for an investigation of how symbolizing activity contributes to learning. I begin this discussion by articulating four ideas-schemes, symbolizing activity, communication, and learning. Then I propose…

Tillema, Erik

2010-01-01

48

Information Extraction from Symbolically Compressed Document Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of information from symbolically compressed document images is an increasingly important problem as the related standard (JBIG2) and commercial products become available. Symbolic compression techniques work by clustering individual connected connected components (blobs) in a document image and storing the sequence of occurrence of blobs and representative blob templates, hence the name symbolic compression. These techniques are specifically

Dar-Shyang Lee; Jonathan J. Hull

1999-01-01

49

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or...

2014-01-01

50

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or...

2013-01-01

51

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or...

2012-01-01

52

Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

Auty, Geoff

2012-01-01

53

Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Sergio Cabello  

E-print Network

Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps Sergio Cabello Herman Haverkort Marc van Kreveld-CS-2008-008 www.cs.uu.nl ISSN: 0924-3275 #12;Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps Sergio@cs.uu.nl Abstract Proportional symbol maps visualize numerical data associated with point locations by plac- ing

Utrecht, Universiteit

54

Grounded Symbolic Communication between Heterogeneous Cooperating Robots  

E-print Network

in detail and attempt to understand them in terms of contemporary knowledge of human representation and symbolic communication. From this understanding, we propose the Adaptive Symbol Grounding Hypothesis for appropriate behavior in situated agents. We propose the Adaptive Symbol Grounding Hypothesis as a conception

55

Selforganization of Symbols and Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the spirit of the late John Nicolis, the purpose of this paper is to develop an evolutionary approach for the basic problem of generation, storage and dissipation of information in physical and biological systems via dynamical processes. After analysing the relation of entropy and information we develop our view that information is in general a nonphysical, emergent quantity, in spite of the fact that information transfer is always connected with flows of physical energy and entropy. We argue that information can have two basic forms: free information (like that of disks, tapes, books), that is what is transferred between sender and receiver, and bound information, that is a physical non-equilibrium structure which retains potential information reflecting the history of its formation (like fossils, geological strata or galaxies). As a basic concept we consider a kinetic phase transition of the second kind, termed the ritualization transition, which leads to the self-organized emergence of symbols, the key elements of free information. Ritualization occurs only in the context of life. Hence, the simplest physical example for a ritualization process is a system that starts as a physical and ends as a biological one, in other words, the origin of life. Our interest in this transition is focussed on the self-organization of information, on the way how a physical system can be enabled to create symbols and the related symbol-processing machinery out of ordinary pre-biological roots.

Ebeling, Werner; Feistel, Rainer

2014-12-01

56

Asymptotics of 10j symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Riemannian 10j symbols are spin networks that assign an amplitude to each 4-simplex in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity. This amplitude is a function of the areas of the ten faces of the 4-simplex, and Barrett and Williams have shown that one contribution to its asymptotics comes from the Regge action for all non-degenerate 4-simplices with the specified face areas. However, we show numerically that the dominant contribution comes from degenerate 4-simplices. As a consequence, one can compute the asymptotics of the Riemannian 10j symbols by evaluating a 'degenerate spin network', where the rotation group SO(4) is replaced by the Euclidean group of isometries of Bbb R3. We conjecture formulae for the asymptotics of a large class of Riemannian and Lorentzian spin networks in terms of these degenerate spin networks, and check these formulae in some special cases. Among other things, this conjecture implies that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are asymptotic to 1/16 times the Riemannian ones.

Baez, John C.; Christensen, J. Daniel; Egan, Greg

2002-12-01

57

Symbolic computation in system simulation and design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines some of the roles that symbolic computation plays in assisting system- level simulation and design. By symbolic computation, we mean programs like Mathematica that perform symbolic algebra and apply transformation rules based on algebraic identities. At a behavioral level, symbolic computation can compute parameters, generate new models, and optimize parameter settings. At the synthesis level, symbolic computation can work in tandem with synthesis tools to rewrite cascade and parallel combinations on components in sub- systems to meet design constraints. Symbolic computation represents one type of tool that may be invoked in the complex flow of the system design process. The paper discusses the qualities that a formal infrastructure for managing system design should have. The paper also describes an implementation of this infrastructure called DesignMaker, implemented in the Ptolemy environment, which manages the flow of tool invocations in an efficient manner using a graphical file dependency mechanism.

Evans, Brian L.; Gu, Steve X.; Kalavade, Asa; Lee, Edward A.

1995-06-01

58

Hand Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing a Ring News and Updates ... Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing a Ring News and Updates ...

59

Post-Doc Opening -2012 Symbolic Approaches to the Design of Cyber-Physical Systems  

E-print Network

Post-Doc Opening - 2012 Symbolic Approaches to the Design of Cyber-Physical Systems Starting of Cyber- Physical Systems) funded by the University of Grenoble. Cyber-physical systems are integrations efficient buildings...). Cyber-physical systems applications are often safety critical and therefore

Fradet, Pascal

60

Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

Morrison, J.L.

1984-01-01

61

A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning  

PubMed Central

People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures. PMID:24795662

Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

2014-01-01

62

Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality  

PubMed Central

Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

2014-01-01

63

Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

2008-01-01

64

Symbolic sensors : one solution to the numerical-symbolic interface E. Benoit L. Foulloy  

E-print Network

Symbolic sensors : one solution to the numerical-symbolic interface E. Benoit L. Foulloy, therefore there is a need for sensors which deliver this kind of information. This paper introduces the concept of symbolic sensor as an extension of the smart sensor one. Then, the links between the physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHRESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING

66

Symbolic trephinations and population structure.  

PubMed

The sample examined consists of 19 skulls with symbolic trephinations and 86 skulls without trepanations dated from the X century. Skulls were all excavated in the Great Hungarian Plain in the Carpathian Basin, which was occupied by the Hungarian conquerors at the end of the IX century. The variations of 12 cranial dimensions of the trephined skulls were investigated and compared to the skulls without trepanations after performing a discriminant analysis. The classification results evince that the variability of non-trephined skulls shows a more homogeneous and a more characteristic picture of their own group than the trephined samples, which corresponds to the notion, formed by archaeological evidence and written historical sources, of a both ethnically and socially differing population of the Hungarian conquerors. According to historical research, a part of the population was of Finno-Ugric origin, while the military leading layer of society can be brought into connection with Turkic ethnic groups. All the same, individuals dug up with rich grave furniture and supposed to belong to this upper stratum of society are primarily characterized by the custom of symbolic trephination, and, as our results demonstrate, craniologically they seem to be more heterogeneous. PMID:17308819

Szathmáry, László; Marcsik, Antónia

2006-12-01

67

46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol means that impression stamped on the...welding samples. (b) The impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and...

2012-10-01

68

46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol means that impression stamped on the...welding samples. (b) The impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and...

2010-10-01

69

46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol means that impression stamped on the...welding samples. (b) The impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and...

2011-10-01

70

46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol means that impression stamped on the...welding samples. (b) The impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and...

2013-10-01

71

Banking (on) Different Forms of Symbolic Capital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful symbolic capital formation in academia is commonly signified by the trappings of scholarly distinction or acknowledged status as a public intellectual. Compares three potential indices of symbolic capital: citation counts, Web hits, and media mentions. Findings, which are domain specific, suggest public intellectuals are notable by…

Cronin, Blaise; Shaw, Debora

2002-01-01

72

Symbolic Computation Group Annual Report 1996  

E-print Network

Hypergeometric Function Representations 2 2 Symbolic Integration 5 3 Elliptic Integration 9 4 Integral Transforms of F. Hypergeometric functions are applicable to symbolic integration, di erential equations, closed Computations 27 11 Tensor Computations 27 1 Hypergeometric Function Representations The hypergeometric function

Waterloo, University of

73

THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

LAFFAL, JULIUS

74

Verifying pipelined hardware using symbolic logic simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for automated verification of synchronous pipelined circuits, based on symbolic simulation and the well-known program verification concept of representation functions. The use of representation functions to allow straightforward formulation of readable and intuitive specifications is demonstrated, along with the use of a symbolic switch-level simulator to automatically prove that a circuit meets its specification. As an

Soumitra Bose; A. L. Fisher

1989-01-01

75

Advances in Nonlinear Waves and Symbolic Computation  

E-print Network

Advances in Nonlinear Waves and Symbolic Computation Edited By Zhenya Yan Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization Institute of Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, P. R. China Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York #12;#12;Contents 1 Direct Methods and Symbolic Software

Hereman, Willy A.M.

76

Symbolic Dynamics on Free Groups Steven Piantadosi  

E-print Network

theory has many deep connections to theoretical computer science, ergodic theory, information theory and number theory. Ideas from symbolic dynamics are applied in nu- merous scientific and engineering areas the intricacies of symbolic dynamics, ergodic theory, measure theory, and information theory. He has been

Makous, Walter

77

Optimizing Symbolic Model Checking for Statecharts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic model checking based on binary decision diagrams is a powerful formal verification technique for reactive systems. In this paper, we present various optimizations for improving the time and space efficiency of symbolic model checking for systems specified as statecharts. We used these techniques in our analyses of the models of a collision avoidance system and a fault- tolerant electrical

William Chan; Richard J. Anderson; Paul Beame; David H. Jones; David Notkin; William E. Warner

2001-01-01

78

Function Symbols in ASP: Overview and Perspectives  

E-print Network

Function Symbols in ASP: Overview and Perspectives Mario Alviano Francesco Calimeri Wolfgang Faber (ASP) is a highly expressive language that is widely used for knowledge representation and reasoning Intelligence. Tradition- ally, ASP has often been used as a first-order language without function symbols

Faber, Wolfgang

79

Quantum logic synthesis by symbolic reachability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible quantum logic plays an important role in quantum computing. In this paper, we propose an approach to optimally synthesize quantum circuits by symbolic reachability analysis where the primary inputs are purely binary. we use symbolic reachability analysis, a technique most commonly used in model checking (a way of formal verification), to synthesize the optimum quantum circuits. We present an

William N. N. Hung; Xiaoyu Song; Guowu Yang; Jin Yang; Marek A. Perkowski

2004-01-01

80

Symbolic walk in regular networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach.

Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.

2015-01-01

81

Operator method for calculating Q symbols and their relation to weyl-wigner symbols and symplectic tomogram symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for calculating Husimi symbols of operators. In contrast to the standard method, it does not require using the anti-normal-ordering procedure. According to this method, the coordinate and momentum operators and are assigned other operators and satisfying the same commutation relations. We then find the result of acting with the and operators and also polynomials in these operators on the Husimi function. After the obtained expression is integrated over the phase space coordinates, the integrand becomes a Husimi function times the symbol of the operator chosen to act on that function. We explicitly evaluate the Husimi symbols for operators that are powers of or.

Andreev, V. A.; Davidovi?, L. D.; Davidovi?, Milena D.; Davidovi?, Miloš D.; Manko, V. I.; Manko, M. A.

2014-05-01

82

Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.

Costello, D. J., Jr.

1983-01-01

83

Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality  

PubMed Central

Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

2011-01-01

84

Symbolic computations and their impact on mechanics  

SciTech Connect

The twenty-three papers contained in this volume document the strides made in a number of aspects of symbolic computations. The topic headings in the symposium are largely represented by the six section headings of this volume, namely: Construction of Symbolic Manipulation Systems and Commercial Systems; Coupling of Symbolic Manipulation and Numerical programs; Applications to Structural Mechanics and Material Modeling; Applications to Solid Mechanics; Multibody Dynamics and Control; Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics Applications; Applications to Mathematics. Electrical networks and Education.

Noor, A.K. (George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)); Elishakoff, I. (Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States)); Hulbert, G. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

85

Fire Safety Fire Safety  

E-print Network

Fire Safety Guidelines Fire Safety Guidelines Department of Environmental Health and Safety 2809;#12;3 The mission of Environmental Health and Safety's (EH&S) fire safety program is to provide a proactive fire, staff and visitors. This mis- sion is addressed through a comprehensive effort of fire safety education

Lin, Zhiqun

86

Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

2007-01-01

87

COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17, 49-59 (1993) Situativity and Symbols  

E-print Network

processes that are not symbolic, and that a theory of cognition should help us understand how symbolic processes are involved in individual and social cognitive processes. According to the symbolic processing symbolic structures; that is, every cognitive process is a sym- bolic process. Some cognitive processes

Coulson, Seana

88

Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

2014-01-01

89

7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...symbols are XL—lug side, PO—oxidized primings, XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized...medium-bodied nondescript, LP—lemon (primings side), and FP—orange (primings side), KK-excessively scorched....

2011-01-01

90

7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...symbols are XL—lug side, PO—oxidized primings, XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized...medium-bodied nondescript, LP—lemon (primings side), and FP—orange (primings side), KK-excessively scorched....

2010-01-01

91

Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers #  

E-print Network

Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers # RISC­Linz Johannes Kepler Universit Ë? at A­4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni­linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider # RISC­Linz Johannes Kepler

Schneider, Carsten

92

Matter and symbols of the artificial  

SciTech Connect

The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

Rocha, L.M.

1998-08-01

93

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied...

2010-01-01

94

7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied...

2011-01-01

95

Physical Concepts and Mathematical Symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to traditional empiricist philosophy of science, concepts and meaning grow out of sense experience, and the mathematical structure of a physical theory is nothing but a formalisation of a given meaning-content. This view seems to work well in classical mechanics. But it breaks down in quantum physics, where we have a self-supported mathematical structure which resists any conceptual or pictorial interpretation in the traditional sense. Thus, traditional empiricism is flawed. Quantum physics teaches us that mathematics is a language in itself which extends beyond ordinary language. To understand the meaning of this extended language, we have to explore how new concepts and intuitions grow out of mathematics, not the other way around. The symbolic structure is prior to its meaning. This point of view is called linguistic empiricism, to stress that the connection with experience is still crucial. As cases, I compare the concept of stiffness in classical mechanics and the concept of electron density in quantum mechanics. The last case demonstrates that the wave function has a richer interpretation than the probabilistic one concerning measurement of position.

Grelland, Hans Herlof

2007-12-01

96

Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.  

PubMed Central

After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

Barsalou, Lawrence W

2003-01-01

97

Algorithms for Symbolic Polynomials Stephen M. Watt  

E-print Network

- y2m = (xn + ym ) (xn - ym ) xn2 +3n - y2m = xn(n+3)/2 + ym xn(n+3)/2 - ym · Then extend to symbolicAlgorithms for Symbolic Polynomials Stephen M. Watt ORCCA, University of Western Ontario, London of ring operations. OK: xm2 +n - xn , (xm + 1) � (xn - 1) Not OK: n i=0 xi , (xn + 1)m · Arise frequently

Watt, Stephen M.

98

Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

Rungta, Neha Shyam

2010-01-01

99

Perception and view of consumers on food irradiation and the Radura symbol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was aimed at carrying out a survey on the knowledge and acceptance level of food irradiation. The work was carried out in Santiago, Chile. As an above-average level country in South and Central America, the results may give an indication about the situation in other countries. The survey could also provide an indication about the impression of the public regarding the international "Radura" symbol, indicating on a food product that has been irradiated. A total of 497 persons were interviewed. Among the interviewed people, 76.5% did not know that irradiation could be used as a method for food preservation; 46% expressed their belief that irradiated food means the same as radioactive food. Nevertheless, 91% claimed that they would become consumers of irradiated food if they knew that "irradiated" is not "radioactive" and that proper irradiation enhances food safety; 95.8% of the interviewed persons were not familiar with the "Radura" symbol. However, 55.8% expressed their opinion that they would buy irradiated food because of the symbol, affirming that the "Radura" symbol transmits the sensation of confidence and safety.

Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria P.; Galotto, Maria J.; Valenzuela, Ximena; Dinten, Carolina M.; Aguirre, Paulina; Miltz, Joseph

2011-01-01

100

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics A Hybrid Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Intelligent System  

E-print Network

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 A Hybrid Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Intelligent Engineering Psychologist, Human Research and Engineering Directorate. 2 Computer Scientist, Human ResearchTech@Aerospace Conference, Seattle, WA, April 6-9, 2009. AIAA Paper No. 2009-1976 #12;American Institute of Aeronautics

101

Media Symbolism; Media Richness; and Media Choice in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses symbolic interactionism to understand media choice processes during managerial communications--studying communication incidents involving face-to-face, telephone, electronic mail, and written media. Suggests that managers' choices are influenced by (1) ambiguity of the message content and richness of the communication medium, (2) symbolic

Trevino, Linda Klebe; And Others

1987-01-01

102

IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 12/8/2010 p 1/1 IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 6/10/2010 p 1/1  

E-print Network

IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 12/8/2010 p 1/1 IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 6/10/2010 p 1/1 The following symbols include all of the primary Petroleum Well Symbols used by the Indiana of the Petroleum Symbol Set. Trenton well; only available information is an uncertain location Symbol Modifiers

Polly, David

103

Artificial symbols and the essence of intelligent computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenge for intelligent computing is translating the skills of innovation into mathematical theory and persistent learning algorithms. Computational intelligence differs from artificial intelligence in that artificial intelligence reasons over symbols while computational intelligence reasons over sub-symbolic data and information. Natural symbos arise from shared human experiences. The creative quality of human interaction suggests symbol generation involves a collection of cooperative agents capable of representing relative experience, negotiating innovation, and---finally---building consensus. As hybrids of sub-symbolic and symbolic reasoning become the norm, it is necessary to formalize the design and evaluation of artificial symbols. In this paper, we delineate the difference between sub-symbolic patterns and symbolic experience. Further, we propose fundamental theory supporting the autonomous construction of artificial symbols which---we assert---is the ultimate culmination of an intelligent computation. We apply this theory to model selection among neural networks.

Magnus, Amy L.; Oxley, Mark E.

2003-08-01

104

On the symbolism of the white coat.  

PubMed

The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry. PMID:25480273

Nash, David A

2014-12-01

105

Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration  

SciTech Connect

Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.

Carlson, B.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

1997-12-31

106

Symbolic-numeric interface: A review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

Ng, E. W.

1980-01-01

107

Spatial bias in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical comparison in neglect.  

PubMed

When asked to bisect mentally numerical intervals, neglect patients show a displacement of the numerical midpoint similar to the one observed in physical line bisection. This spatial-numerical bias has been taken as evidence of the spatial nature of numerical magnitude representations. However, to date, neuropsychological studies in neglect patients have only used symbolic numerical material. Here, we compare the results of patients with right-hemisphere damage with and without unilateral left neglect and age-matched healthy control participants in two numerical comparison tasks using symbolic and non-symbolic materials, in order to determine whether the representation of non-symbolic numerosities was altered or not by the presence of neglect. When asked to judge if an Arabic digit or a sequence of flashed dots was smaller or larger than a reference value (i.e., 5), the responses of neglect patients to smaller magnitudes (i.e., 4) were impaired. Moreover, only neglect patients presented an asymmetrical distance effect (i.e., an enhanced effect only for stimuli of smaller numerical magnitude than the reference). These results provide the first direct evidence of a spatial bias in non-symbolic numerosity in neglect patients, and support the existence of common processing mechanisms and/or a representational system for symbolic and non-symbolic inputs. PMID:23774183

Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro; Dormal, Valérie

2013-08-01

108

Saccadic Compression of Symbolic Numerical Magnitude  

PubMed Central

Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities. PMID:23166720

Binda, Paola; Morrone, M. Concetta; Bremmer, Frank

2012-01-01

109

A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

Smith, Gregory M.

2000-06-01

110

Asymptotics and 6j-symbols  

E-print Network

Recent interest in the Kashaev-Murakami-Murakami hyperbolic volume conjecture has made it seem important to be able to understand the asymptotic behaviour of certain special functions arising from representation theory -- for example, of the quantum 6j-symbols for SU(2). In 1998 I worked out the asymptotic behaviour of the classical 6j-symbols, proving a formula involving the geometry of a Euclidean tetrahedron which was conjectured by Ponzano and Regge in 1968. In this note I will try to explain the methods and philosophy behind this calculation, and speculate on how similar techniques might be useful in studying the quantum case.

Justin Roberts

2002-01-18

111

Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

Lindsey, W. C.

1976-01-01

112

Online Tester for a Symbol Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 95 percent of faults detected. Programable instrument periodically checks for failures in system that generates alphanumerical and other symbol voltages for cathode-ray-tube displays. Symbol-generator tester compares gated test-point voltages with predetermined voltage limits while circuit under test performs commanded operation. A go/no-go indication given, depending on whether test voltage is or is not within its specification. Tester in plug-in modular form, temporarily wired to generator test points, or permanently wired to these points.

Juday, D.; Mcconaugy, K.

1985-01-01

113

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

114

Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University  

E-print Network

RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz-Unification for Unranked Terms and Hedges Temur Kutsia Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC) Johannes Kepler

Schneider, Carsten

115

7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification of Commodities Officially Tested By AMS § 91.102 Form of official identification symbols. Two information symbols in the form of AMS shields indicate commodity testing at an AMS laboratory listed in § 91.5 of this part....

2010-01-01

116

Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

2012-01-01

117

Studies in Symbolic Interaction, Volume 35  

Microsoft Academic Search

This vibrant volume is a refreshing piece of work full of cutting-edge contributions on popular music and interaction, with seminal essays on music and identity, the spaces of musical interaction (subcultures, scenes, communities), and music in and as interaction. It explores the positive impact popular music has on the field of symbolic interaction and how it helps us to revitalize

Norman K. Denzin; Chistopher J. Schneider; Robert Owen Gardner; John Bryce Merrill

2010-01-01

118

Non symbolic methods to register SONAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

To register side-scan SONAR images we have adapted some non-symbolic methods, using similarity measures based on phase correlation, mutual information or correlation ratio. The purpose is to correct the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle's (AUV) position by compensating the spatial drift induced by the Inertial Navigation System (INS). These methods, based on pixels intensites, or their statistical distributions, provide many advantages; (1)

Cyril Chailloux; B. Zerr

2005-01-01

119

A symbol calculus for Toeplitz operators  

PubMed Central

We give a complete characterization of those functions on 2n-dimensional Euclidean space for which the Berezin-Toeplitz quantizations admit a symbol calculus modulo the compact operators. The functions in question are characterized by a condition of “small oscillation at infinity.” PMID:16593695

Berger, C. A.; Coburn, L. A.

1986-01-01

120

Syntax of symbolic logic and transformational grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the language of symbolic logic a sentence or, as the logicians call it, a well-formed formula is constructed according to recursive rules. The idea that the rules of syntax of a language must be formulated recursively has been taken over by Chomsky and other transformational grammarians of natural languages. There is, accordingly, a kind of similarity between the procedure

Erik Stenius

1973-01-01

121

Symbolic Computational Algebra Applied to Picard Iteration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses muMATH to illustrate the step-by-step process in translating mathematical theory into the symbolic manipulation setting. Shows an application of a Picard iteration which uses a computer to generate a sequence of functions which converge to a solution. (MVL)

Mathews, John

1989-01-01

122

Mathematics for Chemistry with Symbolic Computation  

E-print Network

Mathematics for Chemistry with Symbolic Computation J. F. Ogilvie @ 2013 February 8 The software. This interactive electronic book is organised into several separate computer files, each called a Maple worksheet, comprising a single chapter that contains text, and commands executable on a computer operating software

123

Commodifying Fido: pets as status symbols  

E-print Network

How are pets being used as status symbols to display social position and wealth? This paper seeks to theoretically examine pet owners and their use of animals to convey a message of social status, position and wealth. This will be done through...

Plemons, April

2009-05-15

124

The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

Hardy, Donna Dee

125

7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

2014-01-01

126

7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

2013-01-01

127

7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

2012-01-01

128

7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

2010-01-01

129

7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

2011-01-01

130

VAX DEBUG: An interactive, symbolic, multilingual debugger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX-11 Debugger, usually called VAX DEBUG or simply DEBUG, is an interactive, symbolic, and multilingual debugger which runs on the VAX-11 series of computers under the VMS operating system. The following gives an overview of VAX DEBUG and examines how it solves some of the problems inherent in the design of any such debugger. Particular attention is

Bert Beander

1983-01-01

131

Symbolic execution of oating-point computations?  

E-print Network

Symbolic execution of oating-point computations? Bernard Botellaa , Arnaud Gotliebb; , Claude of the extracted path conditions as well as to derive test data. Whenever path conditions contain oating can compromise correctness: a path can be labelled as in- feasible although there exists oating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

2011-01-01

133

Social Validation of Symbolic Play Training for Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the social significance of changes resulting from teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Qualitatively obtained results from a previous study indicated that, following symbolic play training, children with autism increased their symbolic play behaviors and play…

Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Schreibman, Laura; Powell, Nicole Palardy

2006-01-01

134

Integration and Application Network: Conceptual Diagram Symbol Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IAN symbol libraries contain over 1500 custom made symbols (in 32 categories) designed specifically for enhancing science communication skills. The aim of the IAN is to make these symbols a standard resource for scientists, resource managers, community groups and environmentalists worldwide. Site provides information on the Network, publications, and a wealth of additional project and informational resources.

135

Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University  

E-print Network

RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz Symposium Proceedings July 5-6, 2013 Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes-Kepler University Computation Johannes-Kepler University Linz, Austria #12;Preface Symbolic Computation is the science

Schneider, Carsten

136

A Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus  

E-print Network

Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Flavia Stan Research Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Abstract Given a FeynmanA Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus Johannes Bl¨umlein Deutsches Elektronen

Schneider, Carsten

137

Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

2012-01-01

138

Symbolic Mathematics Engines in Teaching Chemistry: A Symposium Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Symbolic Mathematics Engines (SMEs) in chemical education as a part of the Division of Computers in Chemistry was discussed by a panel of educators at the Symbolic Calculation in Chemistry symposium in Philadelphia in 2004. The panelists agreed that many more topics in chemistry are amenable to SME's exploration and that symbolic

Ellison, Mark

2004-01-01

139

Prototype Pruning by Feature Extraction for Handwritten Mathematical Symbol Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful mathematical handwriting recognition will require recognizers for large sets of handwritten symbols. This paper presents a recognition system for such hand- written mathematical symbols. The recognizer can provide a component of a hand- written interface for computer algebra systems such as Maple. Large sets of similar symbols present new challenges in the area of handwriting recognition, and we address

Stephen M. Watt; Xiaofang Xie

140

Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

2008-01-01

141

Drawing Particle Symbols and Feynman Diagrams with Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle symbols and Feynman diagrams often used in particle physics can be generated by a word document processor. Standard office packages have their built in symbols such as solid-line, dashed-line, arrows, etc. which are also used in particle physics. Three symbols corresponding to photon, gluon and fermion line are not present in the standard office packages. By importing these two

Orhan Cakir

2004-01-01

142

Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

1989-01-01

143

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

1997-10-09

144

Symbolic blender-horseshoes and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study partially hyperbolic skew-product maps over the Bernoulli shift with Hölder dependence on the base points. In the case of contracting fibre maps, symbolic blender-horseshoe is defined as an invariant set which meets any almost horizontal disc in a robust sense. These invariant sets are understood as blenders with a centre stable bundle of any dimension. We then give necessary conditions (covering property) on an iterated function system such that the relevant skew-product has a symbolic blender-horseshoe. We use this local plug to yield robustly non-hyperbolic transitive diffeomorphisms and robust heterodimensional cycles of co-index equal to the dimension of the central direction.

Barrientos, Pablo G.; Ki, Yuri; Raibekas, Artem

2014-12-01

145

A novel symbolic ordinary differential equation solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a symbolic ordinary differential equation solver written as a package for the muMATH computer algebra system. The novel features of this solver are:1. Whereas previous ODE solvers generally require the equation to be quasi-linear and generally yield only implicit results, this new solver is highly integrated with an algebraic equation solver before, during and after solution. In

Woon Cheung Chan

1981-01-01

146

Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia  

PubMed Central

The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

2014-01-01

147

Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

James, Mark

2007-01-01

148

Symbol interval optimization for molecular communication with drift.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a symbol interval optimization algorithm in molecular communication with drift. Proper symbol intervals are important in practical communication systems since information needs to be sent as fast as possible with low error rates. There is a trade-off, however, between symbol intervals and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from Brownian motion. Thus, we find proper symbol interval values considering the ISI inside two kinds of blood vessels, and also suggest no ISI system for strong drift models. Finally, an isomer-based molecule shift keying (IMoSK) is applied to calculate achievable data transmission rates (achievable rates, hereafter). Normalized achievable rates are also obtained and compared in one-symbol ISI and no ISI systems. PMID:25163067

Kim, Na-Rae; Eckford, Andrew W; Chae, Chan-Byoung

2014-09-01

149

Reduced complexity symbol detectors with parallel structure for ISI channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of practical realization of the optimal fixed-delay symbol-by-symbol detection algorithm, which is optimum in the sense of minimizing the symbol error probability, given a delay constraint D, is investigated. A fully-parallel structure is developed, and through systematic reformulations of the algorithm, the computational requirements are reduced considerably. In addition, the problems associated with a large dynamic range such

Javan Erfanian; Subbarayan Pasupathy; Glenn Gulak

1994-01-01

150

Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

2009-01-01

151

From Fish Food to Pictures to Symbols: <, >, and =  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students build upon their understanding of greater than, less than, and equal to by observing quantities and making comparisons using various instructional materials. The fish cut-out, with its mouth open, represents the greater than or less than symbol; the clam cut-out represents the equal to symbol. Using fish lips as a transition point, students will apply their understanding of greater, less, and equal to the standard symbols as you introduce symbolic notation at a developmentally appropriate level. Students will: • Compare a set of quantities and determine greater than, less than, and equal to • Construct visual and written equations using quantities and numerals • Learn and use correct math vocabulary

Illuminations NCTM

2012-03-14

152

Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

2012-01-01

153

Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

154

Practising English Phonetic Symbols in a Communicative Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom exercises designed to help students learn phonetic symbols more effectively are described. The exercises were developed for use in a Hong Kong school. The idea behind their creation was that use of the symbols in communicative situations would emphasize their utility for learning English pronunciation. Each exercise uses contextualized…

Chu, Wai Ling

155

Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt  

E-print Network

Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt Abstract This paper is a step to bring closer" and the view of "computer algebra." Symbolic computation may be seen as working with expression trees representing math- ematical formulae and applying various rules to transform them. Computer algebra may be seen

Watt, Stephen M.

156

Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

2009-01-01

157

Symbolic interactionist and neurophysiological models of action towards an integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposal introduces an integrated study of action and human conduct from the perspectives of symbolic interaction and neurophysiology. Because of their traditionally disparate subject matter, the fields of sociological social psychology and the neurosciences seldom meet; however, I have found significant common ground to justify an integrated approach to the study of action. Symbolic interactionists study human group

David Spencer Fearon

1989-01-01

158

Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

2011-01-01

159

Multiple symbol decoding of differential space-time codes  

E-print Network

computational complexity is exponential in N . A fast algorithm for implementing the MD-STDC in block-fading channels with complexity O(N 4) is developed. Its performance in both block-fading and symbol-by-symbol fading channels is demonstrated through...

Singhal, Rohit

2004-09-30

160

The Impact of Congenital Deafblindness on the Struggle to Symbolism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most children who are congenitally deafblind are severely delayed in their communication development and many will not achieve symbolic understanding and expression. This article discusses developmental markers cited in the research literature as predictive of or facilitative of the development of symbolism. These markers include the growth toward…

Bruce, Susan M.

2005-01-01

161

SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.

Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.

1970-01-01

162

Kindergarten Children's Representation and Understanding of Written Number Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two samples of kindergarten children's representation and understanding of written number symbols were examined in two time points in one academic year. About 85% of Chinese five year olds (mean = 5 years 10 months) were able to use conventional number symbols to represent the quantity of 30 or larger. At the end of the kindergarten year, 94% of…

Zhou, Xin; Wang, Yefang; Wang, Luodan; Wang, Bin

2006-01-01

163

Computerized Symbol Processors for Individuals with Severe Communication Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated the feasibility of using two commonly available peripheral devices (Apple Graphics Tablet and Power Pad) and specially developed software to help 12 moderately and severely retarded individuals to use written communication (Rebus symbols). Students learned the symbol processing system and used it effectively for personal…

Osguthorpe, Russell T.; Chang, Linda Li

1987-01-01

164

Cognitive pragmatics relations in product symbol accepted process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present systemic cognitive pragmatics relations between product symbol and user for product symbol innovation. According to the theories of cognitive pragmatics, the cognitive pragmatics theory in product design was established. Combining with elements of semiotics, the work presented in this paper analyzed cognitive process with `denotation-connotation-functionż and cognitive methods with `analogical relationship, logic

Zhi-jun Wu; Cheng-ai Na; Zhao-hui Bao

2008-01-01

165

Symbolic Natural Language 3.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155  

E-print Network

155 CHAPTER 3 Symbolic Natural Language Processing 3.0 Introduction Combinatorics on Words, Lothaire (Ed.) (2005) 164-209" #12;156 Symbolic Natural Language Processing some . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 3.0. Introduction Fundamental notions of combinatorics on words underlie natural language pro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Below Middling Yellow Stained) BG 85 (b) Symbols and Code Numbers used for Leaf Grades of American Upland Cotton. Leaf grade Symbol Code No. Leaf Grade 1 LG1 1 Leaf Grade 2 LG2 2 Leaf Grade 3 LG3 3 Leaf Grade...

2013-01-01

167

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Below Middling Yellow Stained) BG 85 (b) Symbols and Code Numbers used for Leaf Grades of American Upland Cotton. Leaf grade Symbol Code No. Leaf Grade 1 LG1 1 Leaf Grade 2 LG2 2 Leaf Grade 3 LG3 3 Leaf Grade...

2014-01-01

168

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Below Middling Yellow Stained) BG 85 (b) Symbols and Code Numbers used for Leaf Grades of American Upland Cotton. Leaf grade Symbol Code No. Leaf Grade 1 LG1 1 Leaf Grade 2 LG2 2 Leaf Grade 3 LG3 3 Leaf Grade...

2011-01-01

169

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Below Middling Yellow Stained) BG 85 (b) Symbols and Code Numbers used for Leaf Grades of American Upland Cotton. Leaf grade Symbol Code No. Leaf Grade 1 LG1 1 Leaf Grade 2 LG2 2 Leaf Grade 3 LG3 3 Leaf Grade...

2012-01-01

170

Symbolic Heuristic Search Value Iteration for Factored POMDPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose Symbolic heuristic search value iteration (Symbolic HSVI) algorithm, which extends the heuris- tic search value iteration (HSVI) algorithm in order to handle factored partially observable Markov decision processes (factored POMDPs). The idea is to use al- gebraic decision diagrams (ADDs) for compactly rep- resenting the problem itself and all the relevant inter- mediate computation results in the algorithm.

Hyeong Seop Sim; Kee-eung Kim; Jin Hyung Kim; Du-seong Chang; Myoung-wan Koo

2008-01-01

171

On the application of Array Processors to symbol manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past general purpose programs for symbol manipulation have been written for traditional Von Neumann machine architectures. The design and implementation of a simple prototype symbol manipulation system for the ICL Distributed Array Processor (DAP), is described. The system is restricted to monovariate polynomials with single precision integer coefficients. The algorithms and data structure are discussed and the design

R. Beardsworth

1981-01-01

172

The Role of Submicroscopic and Symbolic Representations in Chemical Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemistry is commonly portrayed at three different levels of representation--macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic--that combine to enrich the explanations of chemical concepts. In this article, we examine the use of submicroscopic and symbolic representations in chemical explanations and ascertain how they provide meaning. Of specific interest…

Treagust, David F.; Chittleborough, Gail; Mamiala, Thapelo L.

2003-01-01

173

Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind Shayan G. Srinivasa  

E-print Network

Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind an art Shayan G. Srinivasa Department of Electronic@math.iisc.ernet.in Abstract--Music signals comprise of atomic notes drawn from a musical scale. The creation of musical patterns. We develop an approach for music signal representation based on symbolic dynamics by translating

174

On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

Krupski, Vladimir N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-05-31

175

Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

2013-01-01

176

Integrating Symbolic and Geometric Planning for Mobile Manipulation  

E-print Network

that was used in NIST's response robot evaluation in Disaster City. Keywords: mobile manipulation, symbolic is the manipulator dexterity test proposed by NIST [1] and used in the response robot evalua- tion in Disaster City in a reconstruction of this scenario. We approach the manipulation problem by decomposing it into a symbolic

Nebel, Bernhard

177

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b) Symbols and Code Numbers used for Leaf Grades of American Upland Cotton. Leaf grade Symbol Code No. Leaf Grade 1 LG1 1 Leaf Grade 2 LG2 2 Leaf Grade 3 LG3 3 Leaf Grade 4 LG4 4 Leaf Grade 5 LG5 5 Leaf Grade 6...

2010-01-01

178

The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

Helgeland, John

1985-01-01

179

Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

180

Symbolic decision support in medical care.  

PubMed

Symbolic decision procedures offer a flexible alternative to classical quantitative procedures for decision making, particularly when precise parameters (such as probabilities) are hard to estimate. One such procedure, based on a logic of argumentation, is described. Specifications of inference methods for such functions as proposing and refining decision options, deducing and inheriting arguments for and against options, and selecting among alternatives are presented. These exploit declarative models for patient data, domain and task knowledge. A simple method for translating the specifications into executable Prolog is described. A practical and efficient toolset for using the procedure in a wide range of clinical environments is being developed within the DILEMMA project of the European Commission's Advanced Informatics in Medicine research programme. PMID:8004142

Huang, J; Fox, J; Gordon, C; Jackson-Smale, A

1993-10-01

181

Symbolic representation of recurrent neural network dynamics.  

PubMed

Simple recurrent error backpropagation networks have been widely used to learn temporal sequence data, including regular and context-free languages. However, the production of relatively large and opaque weight matrices during learning has inspired substantial research on how to extract symbolic human-readable interpretations from trained networks. Unlike feedforward networks, where research has focused mainly on rule extraction, most past work with recurrent networks has viewed them as dynamical systems that can be approximated symbolically by finite-state machine (FSMs). With this approach, the network's hidden layer activation space is typically divided into a finite number of regions. Past research has mainly focused on better techniques for dividing up this activation space. In contrast, very little work has tried to influence the network training process to produce a better representation in hidden layer activation space, and that which has been done has had only limited success. Here we propose a powerful general technique to bias the error backpropagation training process so that it learns an activation space representation from which it is easier to extract FSMs. Using four publicly available data sets that are based on regular and context-free languages, we show via computational experiments that the modified learning method helps to extract FSMs with substantially fewer states and less variance than unmodified backpropagation learning, without decreasing the neural networks' accuracy. We conclude that modifying error backpropagation so that it more effectively separates learned pattern encodings in the hidden layer is an effective way to improve contemporary FSM extraction methods. PMID:24808009

Huynh, Thuan Q; Reggia, James A

2012-10-01

182

The symbolism of salt in paintings.  

PubMed

Many artists have used the symbol of salt in both religious and profane works, yet very few studies have explored the symbolism of salt as used in works of art. In this study, Panofsky's method has been adopted to evaluate works of art through an organic process articulated into three stages: (1) pre-iconographic, (2) iconographic and (3) iconological. The method was used for (a) religious paintings of the Old and New Testaments and (b) mythological and profane themes. Various salt-cellars were also studied. In particular, the paper examines the following themes: Isaac blessing Jacob, the return of Esau, Samuel consecrating David, the Last Supper, the suppers at Emmaus and at the house of Simon, the birth of St. John the Baptist, the Baptism of Constantine, the prodigal son, Bacchus-Apollo, the nuptial banquet of Love and Psyche, the death of the Cavalier of Celano, the king drinks, the landlord's visit, 'Phitopolis faisant servir des mets en or au roi Pithčs', certain still life paintings and various salt-cellars including those of Cellini and Giulio Romano. The paper discusses the works of many artists including Raphael, Leonardo and his school (Boltraffio, Giampietrino, d'Oggiono, Solario), Hendricksz, Corenzio, Jean-Baptiste and Philippe de Champaigne, Damaskinos, Tintoretto, Titian, Romanino, Rubens, Bellini, Bloemaert, Veronese, Sustris, Just of Ghent, Jan Van Hemessen, Poussin, Loir, Giotto, Jordaens, Brueghel and Mimmo Paladino with his enchanted mountain. From the data examined it emerged that salt is a primary iconological presence in various works of art. PMID:9189253

Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; De Santo, D; Bellini, L; De Santo, N G

1997-01-01

183

Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation in Theoretical Chemistry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unimolecular isomerisation of CH_3 NC to CH_3CN is studied according to the quantum theory of unimolecular reactions proposed by H. O. Pritchard. In order to calculate the infinite pressure rate constant for the reaction, the eigenvalues for the bending vibrational mode are calculated up to 40,000 cm^{-1} by the method of Buenker. As an approximation, the methyl group of CH _3NC is treated as a point mass. The effect of quantum mechanical tunnelling on the reaction rate is studied, and was found to be insignificant. A Laplace transform solution to the time-independent Schrodinger equation is derived that can be applied to any potential that can be expressed as a finite Fourier series. The solution is implemented using the symbolic algebra system MACSYMA, and the method is compared to other analytical methods of solving Hill's equation. The inverse Laplace transform algorithm of MACSYMA is extended to include a greater range of symbolic functions, and the Lisp code to effect this extension is published. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the experimental results of Rabinovitch and co-workers. The infinite pressure rate constant is accurately predicted within the experimental error over the temperature range of 450 to 600^circ{rm K }. The isotopic shift for deuterated methyl isocyanide is also correctly predicted. A less successful attempt is made to predict the rate of the C_2 H_5NC to C_2H_5CN isomerisation, but the treatment of the ethyl group as a point mass proved to be too restrictive for accurate results.

Clarkson, Michael E.

184

Drug Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

185

Pedestrian Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Espańol Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety Pedestrian Safety Main Points Emergency physicians treat ... patients each year who are injured by motor vehicles while walking. Sixty-eight thousand pedestrians were injured ...

186

Vaccine Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... in history. CDC's Immunization Safety Office identifies possible vaccine side effects and conducts studies to determine whether a health problem is caused by a specific vaccine. About Vaccine Safety Vaccines Safety Basics Vaccines: Hib, ...

187

ELABORAÇĂO DE SÍMBOLOS MILITARES PARA AMBIENTE DE VISUALIZAÇĂO TRIDIMENSIONAL Elaboration of military symbols for three-dimensional visualization environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methodology construction for elaboration of military symbols to be used in a three- dimensional visualization environment, based in the Manual of C21-30 Campaign Abbreviations, Symbols and Cartographic Conventions. Fifteen symbols had been chosen in order to elaborate four versions: symbols in 2D (the printed symbol), symbols in 3D (symbol with a three-dimensional vision), symbols in 2D

Evânia Alves da Silva

188

Fixing the broken system of genetic locus symbols  

PubMed Central

Originally, locus symbols (e.g., DYT1) were introduced to specify chromosomal regions that had been linked to a familial disorder with a yet unknown gene. Symbols were systematically assigned in a numerical series to designate mapped loci for a specific phenotype or group of phenotypes. Since the system of designating and using locus symbols was originally established, both our knowledge and our techniques of gene discovery have evolved substantially. The current system has problems that are sources of confusion, perpetuate misinformation, and misrepresent the system as a useful reference tool for a list of inherited disorders of a particular phenotypic class. These include erroneously assigned loci, duplicated loci, missing symbols, missing loci, unconfirmed loci in a consecutively numbered system, combining causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we describe these problems and their impact, and propose solutions. The system could be significantly improved by creating distinct lists for clinical and research purposes, creating more informative locus symbols, distinguishing disease-causing mutations from risk factors, raising the threshold of evidence prior to assigning a locus symbol, paying strict attention to the predominant phenotype when assigning symbols lists, and having a formal system for reviewing and continually revising the list that includes input from both clinical and genetics experts. PMID:22454269

Lohmann, Katja; Lang, Anthony; Klein, Christine

2012-01-01

189

Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice  

PubMed Central

Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care. PMID:20147827

Kennedy, Holly Powell

2010-01-01

190

Color and symbology: symbolic systems of color ordering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color has been used symbolically in various different fields, such as Heraldry, Music, Liturgy, Alchemy, Art and Literature. In this study, we shall investigate and analyse the structures of relationships that have taken shape as symbolic systems within each specific area of analysis. We shall discuss the most significant symbolic fields and their systems of color ording, considering each one of them as a topological model based on a logic that determines the total organization, according to the scale of reciprocities applied, and the cultural context that gives it meaning.

Varela, Diana

2002-06-01

191

Symbolic dynamics of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the symbolic dynamics analysis was used to analyze the complexity of normal heartbeat signal (NSR), Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) signals. By calculating the information entropy value of symbolic sequences, the complexities were quantified. Based on different information entropy values, NSR, VT and VF signals were distinguished with satisfactory results. The study showed that a sudden drop of symbolic sequence’s entropy value indicated that the patients most likely entered the episode of ventricular tachycardia and this was a crucial episode for the clinical treatment of patients. It had important clinical significance for the automatic diagnosis.

Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie

2010-05-01

192

Pedagogy of fear: toward a Fanonian theory of ‘safety’ in race dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In education, it is common to put the condition of ‘safety’ around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, ‘Safety for whom?’ A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on race, which must

Zeus Leonardo; Ronald K. Porter

2010-01-01

193

Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, it is common to put the condition of "safety" around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, "Safety for whom?" A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on…

Leonardo, Zeus; Porter, Ronald K.

2010-01-01

194

Automated symbolic calculations in nonequilibrium thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We cast the Jacobi identity for continuous fields into a local form which eliminates the need to perform any partial integration to the expense of performing variational derivatives. This allows us to test the Jacobi identity definitely and efficiently and to provide equations between different components defining a potential Poisson bracket. We provide a simple Mathematica TM notebook which allows to perform this task conveniently, and which offers some additional functionalities of use within the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics: reversible equations of change for fields, and the conservation of entropy during the reversible dynamics. Program summaryProgram title: Poissonbracket.nb Catalogue identifier: AEGW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 227 952 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 268 918 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica TM 7.0 Computer: Any computer running Mathematica TM 6.0 and later versions Operating system: Linux, MacOS, Windows RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 4.2, 5, 23 Nature of problem: Testing the Jacobi identity can be a very complex task depending on the structure of the Poisson bracket. The Mathematica TM notebook provided here solves this problem using a novel symbolic approach based on inherent properties of the variational derivative, highly suitable for the present tasks. As a by product, calculations performed with the Poisson bracket assume a compact form. Solution method: The problem is first cast into a form which eliminates the need to perform partial integration for arbitrary functionals at the expense of performing variational derivatives. The corresponding equations are conveniently obtained using the symbolic programming environment Mathematica TM. Running time: For the test cases and most typical cases in the literature, the running time is of the order of seconds or minutes, respectively.

Kröger, Martin; Hütter, Markus

2010-12-01

195

On the utilization of embedded symbol for CCSK BER improvement in TDCS dynamic spectrum access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose the novel concept of embedding extra symbol to the CCSK modulation based TDCS signal. The embedded symbol is derived from the PSK mapping. The results show that as the constellation size of the PSK mapping increases, the CCSK BER performance improves tremendously. The embedded symbol improves the TDCS symbol SNR and consequently enhances the cross-correlation

I. Budiarjo; H. Nikookar; L. P. Ligthart

2008-01-01

196

TECHNICAL NOTES & EPHEMERA Self-Adjusting Legends for Proportional Symbol Maps  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTES & EPHEMERA Self-Adjusting Legends for Proportional Symbol Maps Bernhard Jenny Proportional symbol maps are frequently used to repre- sent numerical data. Commonly used symbols are squares or circles that are area-proportional to the numerical values. Proportional-symbol mapping is included

Jenny, Bernhard

197

Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols of the four seasons on the lamp's aluminum supports - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

198

Lectures on Religion and Ritual ('Symbolic and Real')  

E-print Network

Eight lectures in the field of religion, ritual, symbolism, ideology given by Dr. Hugh-Jones to first year students in Archaeology and Anthropology and Social and Political Sciences at Cambridge University....

Hugh-Jones, Stephen

2006-01-18

199

Celestial Symbolism of the Vu?edol Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ornamental art of the Late Copper Age Vu?edol culture is outstanding. The consistent use of starlike motifs and their arrangement might symbolize cosmological notions which show surprising similarities with the Eurasian belief system involving the starry sky.

Pásztor, Emília

200

Symbolic analysis of non-stationary time series  

E-print Network

/control of period doubling bifurcations in internal combustion engines, classification of dynamics of fluidized bed;Sherwood Meeting, Atlanta, March 1999 10 Search for changes in fluctuations: · Sample symbol stats w

Tracy, Eugene R.

201

First Steps in Symbolization 1 The sentential connectives  

E-print Network

important. `~' is the familiar tilde symbol from typewriter or computer keyboards; `' is called the wedge typewriter or computer keyboards; `' is called the arrow; and `' is called the double-arrow. In other logic

Fitelson, Branden

202

40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...

2014-07-01

203

40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...

2013-07-01

204

40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...

2011-07-01

205

40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...

2012-07-01

206

Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University  

E-print Network

RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz, University of Porto, Portugal 2 RISC, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria 3 VIAM, Ivane Javakhishvili

Schneider, Carsten

207

Approaching the Symbol Grounding Problem with Probabilistic Graphical Models  

E-print Network

In order for robots to engage in dialog with human teammates, they must have the ability to map between words in the language and aspects of the external world. A solution to this symbol grounding problem (Harnad, 1990) ...

Tellex, Stefanie A.

2011-01-01

208

Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.

Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

2013-01-01

209

Symbolic Assume-Guarantee Reasoning through BDD Tsinghua University, China  

E-print Network

Symbolic Assume-Guarantee Reasoning through BDD Learning Fei He Tsinghua University, China Bow-Yaw Wang Academia Sinica, Taiwan Liangze Yin Tsinghua University, China Lei Zhu Tsinghua University, China

Wang, Bow-Yaw

210

Symbol IC-Evaluation as an Aid to Program Synthesis  

E-print Network

Symbolic-evaluation is the process which abstractly evaluates an actor program and checks to see whether the program fulfills its contract (specification). In this paper, a formalism based on the conceptual representation ...

Yonezawa, Akinori

211

E cient Symbolic Detection of Global Properties in Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

E cient Symbolic Detection of Global Properties in Distributed Systems Scott D. Stoller and Yanhong. This leads to an obvious di culty for detecting whether a global property (i.e., a predicate on global states

Stoller, Scott

212

Symbolic Dynamic Analysis of Transient Time Series for Fault  

E-print Network

test-case generator. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4007699] Keywords: transient time-series analysis, symbolic dynamics, fault detection, aircraft gas turbine engines 1 Introduction Performance monitoring of aircraft

Ray, Asok

213

Using Differential Evolution for Symbolic Regression and Numerical Constant Creation  

E-print Network

Using Differential Evolution for Symbolic Regression and Numerical Constant Creation Brian M. Cerny Programming-- program synthesis General Terms Algorithms Keywords Differential Evolution, Constant Creation derivatives is numerical constant creation. Given a mathematical formula expressed as a tree structure

Fernandez, Thomas

214

The Fifth European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches  

E-print Network

ecsqaru99 The Fifth European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty London: 5 ­ 9 July 1999 Call for papers Uncertainty is in an increasingly important research topic

Hunter, Anthony

215

Application of Symbolic Mathematics to Mathematics A. M. Odlyzko  

E-print Network

advantage over people in some other fields in not having to devote too much effort into translating these problems into a form suitable for symbolic manipulation programs. The theme of this paper is reflected

Odlyzko, Andrew M.

216

[Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].  

PubMed

The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225

Suaud, Charles

2014-03-01

217

[Drawing up pedigrees: symbols and meanings].  

PubMed

Inquiring of and gathering family history to establish a pedigree is the basic work to assess the health status of a whole family for clinical services or studies in genetics. Pedigrees, moreover, can show not only the disease circumstances of individuals but also the consanguinity/social relationships between the family members. They can be used to assist clinical professionals to make diagnoses and identify potential risk cases, to whom genetic counseling services could be provided. In addition, pedigrees can help researchers to discover novel genetic diseases and confirm the inheritance patterns and mechanisms. In education, through learning the skills for gathering the materials required to establish pedigree, students can develop the ability to assess the health status of each family member and identify the lifestyle or risk factors affecting health promotion. In addition, through their composition from simple symbols and lines, pedigrees are becoming an international language. Therefore, in 1995, the National Society of Genetic Counseling (USA) proposed recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature. This article provides a brief introduction to standard pedigrees, as well as an account of a case to illustrate how to apply the nomenclature in practice. With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001, standardized pedigrees have undoubtedly become the best language through which medical or genomic professionals can communicate and share the latest discoveries. PMID:18270937

Lin, Chia-Ni; Pan, Hui-Ping; Huang, Mei-Chih

2008-02-01

218

[Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].  

PubMed

Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor. PMID:17585707

Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer

2007-01-01

219

Match graph generation for symbolic indirect correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbolic indirect correlation (SIC) is a new approach for bringing lexical context into the recognition of unsegmented signals that represent words or phrases in printed or spoken form. One way of viewing the SIC problem is to find the correspondence, if one exists, between two bipartite graphs, one representing the matching of the two lexical strings and the other representing the matching of the two signal strings. While perfect matching cannot be expected with real-world signals and while some degree of mismatch is allowed for in the second stage of SIC, such errors, if they are too numerous, can present a serious impediment to a successful implementation of the concept. In this paper, we describe a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of SIC match graph generation and examine the relatively simple, controlled cases of synthetic images of text strings typeset, both normally and in highly condensed fashion. We quantify and categorize the errors that arise, as well as present a variety of techniques we have developed to visualize the intermediate results of the SIC process.

Lopresti, Daniel; Nagy, George; Joshi, Ashutosh

2006-01-01

220

Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance  

PubMed Central

Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Ităs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523

2012-01-01

221

Safety & Environment Unit Safety Contest  

E-print Network

for a disordered lab Orderly laboratory 40 positive points for each safety initiative Initiatives implementationAwards Safety & Environment Unit Safety Contest & We hope that this contest will improve the awareness and the safety of all WIS personnel. First prize Second prize Third prize $5000 $3000 $2000 Dear

Maoz, Shahar

222

Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.

O'Dell, Linda Kay

223

Symbolic Dynamics of Coupled Map Lattices Shawn D. Pethel,1  

E-print Network

.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, AMSRD-AMR-WS-ST, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898, USA 2 Department symbolic signal with associated transition rules. The study of such signals is called symbolic dynamics [2) as introduced by Kaneko is written as xi n1 1 Ăż fixi n =2fiĂż1xiĂż1 n fi1xi1 n ; (1) along with rules

Bollt, Erik

224

Comparative Study of Pilot Symbol Assisted Modem Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a range of 1, 2 and 4 bit\\/symbol pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM)1, 3 arrange- ments employing first-order linear, low pass, polynomial and optimum higher-order linear interpolation schemes is analysed in contrast to that of the equivalent non- coherent modems. Both the non-coherent modems as well as the coherent PSAM schemes exhibited a residual bit error rate

J. M. Torrance; L. Hanzo

1995-01-01

225

Symbolic control of a multi-tasking signal processor  

E-print Network

but trinal problem solving models, be it a filter system designed for brain wave research or a multi- channel signal analyzer for searching extraterrestrial intelligence [3]. In order to make both functional relationships and dynamic state changes... Committee: Dr. John H. Painter Symbolic control for numerical models, such as a radio signal processor, is investigated. The concept of symbolic control is adopted from Intelligent Control for machine learning and industrial automation. Three important...

Lin, Shih-Kang

2012-06-07

226

Antenna arraying of Voyager telemetry signals by symbol stream combining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telemetry signals received from the Voyager 2 spacecraft at Deep Space Stations at Parkes and Canberra, Australia, on February 6, 1986, were combined by the method of symbol stream combining. This second demonstration of symbol stream combining followed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) demonstration at Giacobini-Zinner encounter in September 1985. The Voyager demonstration was at a symbol rate of 43.2 ksymb/s, compared to 2 ksymb/s for ICE. Recording, playback, and combining at this higher rate were demonstrated. The average symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the combined data was 2.84 dB, or 0.23 dB less than the sum of the SNRs of the two imput symbol streams. This 0.23 loss from ideal combining was due to use of 4-bit quantization of the input symbol stream and imperfect scaling. A practical implementation with 8-bit quantization could achieve combining losses of under 0.05 dB over a wide dynamic range of input signal levels.

Hurd, W. J.; Rabkin, J.; Russell, M. D.; Siev, B.; Cooper, H. W.; Anderson, T. O.; Winter, P. U.

1986-01-01

227

Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.  

PubMed

A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning. PMID:24728912

Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

2014-06-01

228

A dissociation between symbolic number knowledge and analogue magnitude information.  

PubMed

Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what / means). In this article, the authors describe a patient (MC) who exhibits a dissociation between tasks that require symbolic number knowledge (e.g., knowledge of arithmetic symbols including numbers, knowledge of concepts related to numbers such as rounding) and tasks that require an analogue magnitude representation (e.g., comparing size or frequency). MC is impaired on a variety of tasks that require symbolic number knowledge, but her ability to represent and process analogue magnitude information is intact. Her deficit in symbolic number knowledge extends to a variety of concepts related to numbers (e.g., decimal points, Roman numerals, what a quartet is) but not to any other semantic categories that we have tested. These findings suggest that symbolic number knowledge is a functionally independent component of the number processing system, that it is category specific, and that it is anatomically and functionally distinct from magnitude representations. PMID:11748908

Polk, T A; Reed, C L; Keenan, J M; Hogarth, P; Anderson, C A

2001-12-01

229

Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols  

SciTech Connect

Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.

Kwon, Namhee [Department of Mathematics, The University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Sage, Daniel S. [Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

2008-06-15

230

Safety Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

231

Safety Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

232

Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

Martin, James P.

1991-12-01

233

Spatial and symbolic queries for 3D image data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a query system for an object-oriented biomedical imaging database containing 3-D anatomical structures and their corresponding 2-D images. The graphical interface facilitates the formation of spatial queries, nonspatial or symbolic queries, and combined spatial/symbolic queries. A query editor is used for the creation and manipulation of 3-D query objects as volumes, surfaces, lines, and points. Symbolic predicates are formulated through a combination of text fields and multiple choice selections. Query results, which may include images, image contents, composite objects, graphics, and alphanumeric data, are displayed in multiple views. Objects returned by the query may be selected directly within the views for further inspection or modification, or for use as query objects in subsequent queries. Our image database query system provides visual feedback and manipulation of spatial query objects, multiple views of volume data, and the ability to combine spatial and symbolic queries. The system allows for incremental enhancement of existing objects and the addition of new objects and spatial relationships. The query system is designed for databases containing symbolic and spatial data. This paper discuses its application to data acquired in biomedical 3- D image reconstruction, but it is applicable to other areas such as CAD/CAM, geographical information systems, and computer vision.

Benson, Daniel C.; Zick, Gregory L.

1992-04-01

234

Biological Safety Cabinets Biological Safety  

E-print Network

Biological Safety Cabinets Biological Safety General Biosafety Practices (GBP) Why You Should Care The Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) protects you (the user), your research materials and your colleagues through whenever you anticipate these activities while working with potentially infectious biological materials

Pawlowski, Wojtek

235

From symbolizing to non-symbolizing within the scope of a link: from dreams to shouts of terror caused by an absent presence.  

PubMed

This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552

Levy, Ruggero

2012-08-01

236

Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals  

PubMed Central

In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?100–60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60–40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

Morin, Eugčne; Laroulandie, Véronique

2012-01-01

237

Combining Automated Theorem Provers with Symbolic Algebraic Systems: Position Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to pure mathematical applications where automated theorem provers (ATPs) are quite capable, proof tasks arising form real-world applications from the area of Software Engineering show quite different characteristics: they usually do not only contain much arithmetic (albeit often quite simple one), but they also often contain reasoning about specific structures (e.g. graphics, sets). Thus, an ATP must be capable of performing reasoning together with a fair amount of simplification, calculation and solving. Therefore, powerful simplifiers and other (symbolic and semi-symbolic) algorithms seem to be ideally suited to augment ATPs. In the following we shortly describe two major points of interest in combining SASs (symbolic algebraic systems) with top-down automated theorem provers (here: SETHEO [Let92, GLMS94]).

Schumann, Johann; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

238

Classical 6j-symbols and the tetrahedron  

E-print Network

A classical 6j-symbol is a real number which can be associated to a labelling of the six edges of a tetrahedron by irreducible representations of SU(2). This abstract association is traditionally used simply to express the symmetry of the 6j-symbol, which is a purely algebraic object; however, it has a deeper geometric significance. Ponzano and Regge, expanding on work of Wigner, gave a striking (but unproved) asymptotic formula relating the value of the 6j-symbol, when the dimensions of the representations are large, to the volume of an honest Euclidean tetrahedron whose edge lengths are these dimensions. The goal of this paper is to prove and explain this formula by using geometric quantization. A surprising spin-off is that a generic Euclidean tetrahedron gives rise to a family of twelve scissors-congruent but non-congruent tetrahedra.

Justin Roberts

1998-12-15

239

A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling  

PubMed Central

Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520

Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

2009-01-01

240

State Joining and Splitting for the Symbolic Execution of Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbolic execution can be used to explore the possible run-time states of a program. It makes use of a concept of “state” where a variable’s value has been replaced by an expression that gives the value as a function of program input. Additionally, a state can be equipped with a summary of control-flow history: a “path constraint” keeps track of the class of inputs that would have caused the same flow of control. But even simple programs can have trillions of paths, so a path-by-path analysis is impractical. We investigate a “state joining” approach to making symbolic execution more practical and describe the challenges of applying state joining to the analysis of unmodified Linux x86 executables. The results so far are mixed, with good results for some code. On other examples, state joining produces cumbersome constraints that are more expensive to solve than those generated by normal symbolic execution.

Hansen, Trevor; Schachte, Peter; Sřndergaard, Harald

241

Determination of eigenvalues of dynamical systems by symbolic computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symbolic computation technique for determining the eigenvalues of dynamical systems is described wherein algebraic operations, symbolic differentiation, matrix formulation and inversion, etc., can be performed on a digital computer equipped with a formula-manipulation compiler. An example is included that demonstrates the facility with which the system dynamics matrix and the control distribution matrix from the state space formulation of the equations of motion can be processed to obtain eigenvalue loci as a function of a system parameter. The example chosen to demonstrate the technique is a fourth-order system representing the longitudinal response of a DC 8 aircraft to elevator inputs. This simplified system has two dominant modes, one of which is lightly damped and the other well damped. The loci may be used to determine the value of the controlling parameter that satisfied design requirements. The results were obtained using the MACSYMA symbolic manipulation system.

Howard, J. C.

1982-01-01

242

What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism?  

PubMed

Sound symbolism is a property of certain words which have a direct link between their phonological form and their semantic meaning. In certain instances, sound symbolism can allow non-native speakers to understand the meanings of etymologically unfamiliar foreign words, although the mechanisms driving this are not well understood. We examined whether sound symbolism might be mediated by the same types of cross-modal processes that typify synaesthetic experiences. Synaesthesia is an inherited condition in which sensory or cognitive stimuli (e.g., sounds, words) cause additional, unusual cross-modal percepts (e.g., sounds trigger colours, words trigger tastes). Synaesthesia may be an exaggeration of normal cross-modal processing, and if so, there may be a link between synaesthesia and the type of cross-modality inherent in sound symbolism. To test this we predicted that synaesthetes would have superior understanding of unfamiliar (sound symbolic) foreign words. In our study, 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 57 non-synaesthete controls were presented with 400 adjectives from 10 unfamiliar languages and were asked to guess the meaning of each word in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Both groups showed superior understanding compared to chance levels, but synaesthetes significantly outperformed controls. This heightened ability suggests that sound symbolism may rely on the types of cross-modal integration that drive synaesthetes' unusual experiences. It also suggests that synaesthesia endows or co-occurs with heightened multi-modal skills, and that this can arise in domains unrelated to the specific form of synaesthesia. PMID:25498744

Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia

2015-03-01

243

Intermittent chaos and sliding window symbol sequence statistics-based early fault diagnosis for hydraulic pump on hydraulic tube tester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure the safety, continuity of production, make a reasonable maintenance plan, save the cost of maintenance for hydraulic tube tester, it is needed to quickly identify an assignable cause of a fault. This paper is concerned with early fault diagnosis of hydraulic pump which are the heart of hydraulic tube tester. Considering that the signal of the hydraulic pump early fault is a periodic weak signal, an intermittent chaos, sliding window symbol sequence statistics-based method is proposed to detect the early fault of one single piston loose shoes of hydraulic pump on a hydraulic tube tester. The approach presented is based on the insight that the phase transition of chaos oscillator, for example, the Duffing oscillator, is very sensitive to a periodic weak signal having little angular frequency difference with the referential signal of the oscillator. While observing the intermittent chaos phenomenon through figure is not easy for computer, a sliding window symbol sequence statistics is developed to realize real-time computer observation of this phenomenon. Rather more, this paper takes a trick to decreasing the computational complexity of the sliding window symbol sequence statistics method, also analyzes the influences of different window size, depths of the symbol tree on the information entropy. At last, a control limit is introduced to realize automatic early fault alarm. The resultant approach is experimented with data simulated from an AMESim model of hydraulic tube tester. The results indicate that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the signal of hydraulic pump early fault on hydraulic tube tester.

Zhao, Zhen; Jia, Mingxing; Wang, Fuli; Wang, Shu

2009-07-01

244

Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

2013-06-01

245

Tate tame symbol and the joint torsion of commuting operators.  

E-print Network

We investigate determinants of Koszul complexes of holomorphic functions of a commuting tuple of bounded operators acting on a Hilbert space. Our main result shows that the analytic joint torsion, which compares two such determinants, can be computed by a local formula which involves a tame symbol of the involved holomorphic functions. As an application we are able to extend the classical tame symbol of meromorphic functions on a Riemann surface to the more involved setting of transversal functions on a complex analytic curve. This follows by spelling out our main result in the case of Toeplitz operators acting on the Hardy space over the polydisc.

Jens Kaad; Ryszard Nest

246

Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig

2005-01-01

247

Safety Verification of a Fault Tolerant Reconfigurable Autonomous Goal-Based Robotic Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System (MDS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbolic model checkers. An example task is simulated in MDS and successfully verified using HyTech, a symbolic model checking software for linear hybrid systems.

Braman, Julia M. B.; Murray, Richard M; Wagner, David A.

2007-01-01

248

Lab Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into laboratory safety, and covers interacting with the lab environment and a new lab partner. Topics covered include proper dress, housekeeping, safety equipment, mixing, fire safety, and spills. When the module is completed, visitors will be able to demonstrate proper lab safety techniques.

2012-11-06

249

Skateboard Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

Della-Giustina, Daniel

1979-01-01

250

21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the panel of the commercial container normally displayed to dispensers of any controlled substance. The symbol on labels shall...controlled substance upon inspection without removal from the dispenser's shelf. The symbol on all other labeling shall be...

2010-04-01

251

21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the panel of the commercial container normally displayed to dispensers of any controlled substance. The symbol on labels shall...controlled substance upon inspection without removal from the dispenser's shelf. The symbol on all other labeling shall be...

2012-04-01

252

21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the panel of the commercial container normally displayed to dispensers of any controlled substance. The symbol on labels shall...controlled substance upon inspection without removal from the dispenser's shelf. The symbol on all other labeling shall be...

2011-04-01

253

The effects of age on symbol comprehension in central rail hubs in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age and symbol design features on passengers' comprehension of symbols and the performance of these symbols with regard to route guidance. In the first experiment, 30 young participants and 30 elderly participants interpreted the meanings and rated the features of 39 symbols. Researchers collected data on each subject's comprehension time, comprehension score, and feature ratings for each symbol. In the second experiment, this study used a series of photos to simulate scenarios in which passengers follow symbols to arrive at their destinations. The length of time each participant required to follow his/her route and his/her errors were recorded. Older adults experienced greater difficulty in understanding particular symbols as compared to younger adults. Familiarity was the feature most highly correlated with comprehension of symbols and accuracy of semantic depiction was the best predictor of behavior in following routes. PMID:22424647

Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin-Heng

2012-11-01

254

Effects of environmental sounds on the guessability of animated graphic symbols.  

PubMed

Graphic symbols are a necessity for pre-literate children who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (including non-electronic communication boards and speech generating devices), as well as for mobile technologies using AAC applications. Recently, developers of the Autism Language Program (ALP) Animated Graphics Set have added environmental sounds to animated symbols representing verbs in an attempt to enhance their iconicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental sounds (added to animated graphic symbols representing verbs) in terms of naming. Participants included 46 children with typical development between the ages of 3;0 to 3;11 (years;months). The participants were randomly allocated to a condition of symbols with environmental sounds or a condition without environmental sounds. Results indicated that environmental sounds significantly enhanced the naming accuracy of animated symbols for verbs. Implications in terms of symbol selection, symbol refinement, and future symbol development will be discussed. PMID:25384797

Harmon, Ashley C; Schlosser, Ralf W; Gygi, Brian; Shane, Howard C; Kong, Ying-Yee; Book, Lorraine; Macduff, Kelly; Hearn, Emilia

2014-12-01

255

Foundations of Representation: Where Might Graphical Symbol Systems Come from?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that iconic graphical signs evolve into symbolic graphical signs through repeated usage. This article reports a series of interactive graphical communication experiments using a "pictionary" task to establish the conditions under which the evolution might occur. Experiment 1 rules out a simple repetition based account in…

Garrod, Simon; Fay, Nicolas; Lee, John; Oberlander, Jon; MacLeod, Tracy

2007-01-01

256

A Numeric Symbolic Solution for Impedance Response of Electrochemical Devices  

E-print Network

The electrode is in contact with the bulk-liquid at x = 0 and the electrochemical behavior is governedA Numeric Symbolic Solution for Impedance Response of Electrochemical Devices I. Introduction response of electrochemical devices. The proposed method is numerical in the spatial coordinates and yields

Subramanian, Venkat

257

A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from examples have worked best in domains in which all features had numeric values. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points and distance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains, a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. We introduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning

Steven Salzberg

1993-01-01

258

Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an…

McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

2013-01-01

259

Moral medicine: Symbolic content in 19th century Shaker therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the symbolic meanings implicit in an ostensibly empirical therapeutic system. The Shakers, a celibate communal religious order founded in New York State in the mid 1770s, were practitioners of botanic medicine, as were many other Americans in the nineteenth century. This study analyzes the therapeutic properties of the herbs they produced (such as diuretic,

Ellen L. Idler

1989-01-01

260

Edit Distance with Single-Symbol Combinations and Splits  

E-print Network

as Levenshtein distance, as a credit to Vladimir Levenshtein who first mentioned it [4]). The edit distanceEdit Distance with Single-Symbol Combinations and Splits Manolis Christodoulakis1 and Gerhard Brey2 introduce new variants of the edit distance string similarity measure, where apart from the traditional

Christodoulakis, Manolis

261

Symbols and Formulas for a Few Bibliometric Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbols for bibliometric concepts like "half life,""impact factor,""normalized impact factor," and "immediacy index" are proposed and formulas for the determination of their values are provided. The features of the bibliometric concepts are also highlighted. (Author/AEF)

Sen, B. K.

1999-01-01

262

Animal Symbols in the Art of the Hodensaunee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of the main animal symbols incorporated into the social, cultural, artistic, and spiritual fabric of the Hodenosaunee (the People of the Longhouse) also known as the Six Nations Iroquois: the eagle, turtle, bear, wolf, hawk, heron, snipe, eel, deer, beaver, moose, snake, and serpent. (NEC)

Hill, Richard

1987-01-01

263

Probabilistic Symbolic Model Checking with PRISM: A Hybrid Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce PRISM, a probabilistic model checker, and describe the ecient symbolic techniques we have devel- oped during its implementation. PRISM is a tool for analysing proba- bilistic systems. It supports three models: discrete-time Markov chains, continuous-time Markov chains and Markov decision processes. Analysis is performed through model checking specifications in the probabilis- tic temporal logics PCTL

Marta Z. Kwiatkowska; Gethin Norman; David Parker

2002-01-01

264

Verification of Synchronous Sequential Machines Based on Symbolic Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an original method to compare two synchronous sequential machines. The method consists in a breadth first traversal of the product machine during which symbolic expressions of its observable behaviour are computed. The method uses formal manipulations on boolean functions to avoid the state enumeration and diagram construction. For this purpose, new algorithms on boolean functions represented by

Olivier Coudert; Christian Berthet; Jean Christophe Madre

1989-01-01

265

Children's use of brand symbolism : A consumer culture theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to offer a critique of the Piagetian developmental cognitive psychology model which dominates research into children and brand symbolism, and to propose consumer culture theory as an alternative approach. The paper also aims to present the design and interpretation of an empirical study into the roles brands play in the everyday lives of junior school

Agnes Nairn; Christine Griffin; Patricia Gaya Wicks

2008-01-01

266

Students’ Microscopic, Macroscopic, and Symbolic Representations of Chemical Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the mental representations of chemical reactions used by six students (three male, three female) who achieved above-average grades in a college freshman chemistry class at a large midwestern university. The representations expressed by the students in structured interviews were categorized as microscopic, macroscopic, or symbolic representations of chemical reactions. The study revealed that the participants did make

Michael E. Hinton; Mary B. Nakhleh

1999-01-01

267

A Dissociation between Symbolic Number Knowledge and Analogue Magnitude Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what ÷ means). In this

Thad A. Polk; Catherine L. Reed; Janice M. Keenan; Penelope Hogarth; C. Alan Anderson

2001-01-01

268

Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

2008-01-01

269

Massively parallel symbolic induction of protein structure\\/function relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports the development and implementation of efficient algorithms for several symbolic machine learning induction operators on a massively parallel computer. The authors invoke these operators as hardware induction subroutines under the control of a higher-level front-end LISP program. For them, the key contribution of this work is its demonstration of the scalability of the algorithms involved. The time complexity of

Richard H. Lathrop; Teresa A. Webster; T. F. Smith; P. H. Winston

1991-01-01

270

Non-Symbolic Arithmetic in Adults and Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated whether adults and preschool children can perform simple arithmetic calculations on non-symbolic numerosities. Previous research has demonstrated that human adults, human infants, and non-human animals can process numerical quantities through approximate representations of their magnitudes. Here we consider whether…

Barth, Hilary; La Mont, Kristen; Lipton, Jennifer; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Spelke, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

271

Applying Statistical English Language Modeling to Symbolic Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PANGLOSS Mark III system (Frederking et al. 94) was from the outset de- signed to be a symbolic, human-aided machine translation (MT) system. The need arose to rapidly adapt it for use as a fully-automated MT system. Our solution to this problem was to add a statistical English language model (ELM) to replace the most significant user activity, selecting

Ralf Brown; Robert Frederking

1995-01-01

272

Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University  

E-print Network

RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz Voronkov for his EasyChair conference management system. Workshop Chairs Temur Kutsia RISC, Johannes Kepler Fernandez King's College London Temur Kutsia RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz Christopher Lynch

Schneider, Carsten

273

Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University  

E-print Network

RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz.) Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria September 28-29, 2009 RISC-Linz Report Series No. 09-14 Editors #12;3rd Austrian Grid Symposium, September 28th ­ 29th , 2009 Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria

274

Online Social Shopping: The Functions and Symbols of Design Artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results from a study investigating online shoppers' perceptions and evaluations of online social shopping design artifacts. To do so, we use the framework developed by Markus and Silver (2008) for studying information technology artifacts and their effects. Hence, we examine the functional affordances, i.e., the potential uses, and the symbolic expressions, i.e., the underlying message guiding use,

Camille Grange; Izak Benbasat

2010-01-01

275

Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications

Andreas Pommert; Rainer Schubert; Martin Riemer; Thomas Schiemann; Ulf Tiede; Karl H. Hoehne

1994-01-01

276

Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…

Masiki, Trent

2011-01-01

277

Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

Johnson, Karen S.

278

Web Applications Design and Maintenance Using Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach to automatic checking of the correctness of Web applications structure during their lifecycle. The approach adopts the well-established symbolic model checking technique and the associated tool SMV. A formalism allows the designer to describe the model of a Web-based system. Computation Tree Logic (CTL) is adopted as language to define the properties to be verified. The

Eugenio Di Sciascio; Francesco M. Donini; Marina Mongiello; Giacomo Piscitelli

2003-01-01

279

Rona's Story and the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a method for teaching the theory of symbolic interactionism in a high-school course--Introduction to Sociology. The role-playing game used as a method for teaching the theory is grounded on a philosophy of education whose principles call for meaningful and relevant learning, based on experiential activity and investigation of…

Naveh, Nissan

2010-01-01

280

Symbols of State Ideology: The Samurai in Modern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the Meiji period (1868-1912) and the end of the Pacific War in 1945, the Japanese state systematically created and propagated a nationalistic ideology in order to foster a coherent, unified identity among the newly nationalised population and mobilise support for its agenda. This ideology was represented by a series of discursive symbols, of which I examine the particular image

Lisa Narroway

281

Recognition for Large Sets of Handwritten Mathematical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and convenient mathematical handwriting recogni- tion requires recognizers for large sets of handwritten sym- bols. This paper presents a recognition system for such handwritten mathematical symbols. We use a pre-classification strategy, in combination with elastic matching, to improve recognition speed. Elastic matching is a model-based method that involves computation proportional to the set of candi- date models. To solve

Stephen M. Watt; Xiaofang Xie

2005-01-01

282

Generalization Capacity of Handwritten Outlier Symbols Rejection with Neural Network  

E-print Network

Generalization Capacity of Handwritten Outlier Symbols Rejection with Neural Network Harold Mouch. Introduction In handwriting recognition problems the distance re- jection of outliers allows to not recognize of dedicated classifiers. These classi- fiers must then have the capacity to reject the shapes they must

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

HLS: combining statistical and symbolic simulation to guide microprocessor designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As microprocessors continue to evolve, many optimizations reach a point of diminishing returns. We introduce HLS, a hybrid processor simulator which uses statistical models and symbolic execution to evaluate design alternatives. This simulation methodology allows for quick and accurate contour maps to be generated of the performance space spanned by design parameters. We validate the accuracy of HLS through correlation

Mark Oskin; Frederic T. Chong; Matthew K. Farrens

2000-01-01

284

3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

van Veenendaal, Michel

2011-01-01

285

The Share 709 System: Machine Implementation of Symbolic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As emphasized in the preceding paper, a fundamental requirement for effective utilization of high speed computing devices such as the 709 is a man-machine communication link that is at once rapid and unambiguous. Use of symbolic languages with conventional conversion techniques has resulted in reasonable initial specification of computational problems, but excess input handling has made such procedures uneconomical for

E. M. Boehm; Thomas B. Steel Jr.

1959-01-01

286

Symbolic Functioning and Language Development in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding the relationship between preverbal skills and language development has important implications for identifying communication delay/disorders and for early childhood intervention. In the case of children with Down syndrome, it is well established that symbolic play is associated with the emergence of language. However, the…

O'toole, Ciara; Chiat, Shula

2006-01-01

287

Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…

Nigam, Ravi

2001-01-01

288

Generalized Symbolic Execution for Model Checking and Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern software systems, which often are concurrent and manipulate complex data structures must be extremely reliable. We present a novel framework based on symbolic execution, for automated checking of such systems. We provide a two-fold generalization of traditional symbolic execution based approaches: one, we define a program instrumentation, which enables standard model checkers to perform symbolic execution; two, we give a novel symbolic execution algorithm that handles dynamically allocated structures (e.g., lists and trees), method preconditions (e.g., acyclicity of lists), data (e.g., integers and strings) and concurrency. The program instrumentation enables a model checker to automatically explore program heap configurations (using a systematic treatment of aliasing) and manipulate logical formulae on program data values (using a decision procedure). We illustrate two applications of our framework: checking correctness of multi-threaded programs that take inputs from unbounded domains with complex structure and generation of non-isomorphic test inputs that satisfy a testing criterion. Our implementation for Java uses the Java PathFinder model checker.

Khurshid, Sarfraz; Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem; Kofmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

289

Prefrontal Cortex and Flexible Cognitive Control: Rules Without Symbols  

E-print Network

explanation for the development of cognitive flexibility. This model shows how neurobiological mechanismsPrefrontal Cortex and Flexible Cognitive Control: Rules Without Symbols Nicolas P. Rougier1@princeton.edu, oreilly@psych.colorado.edu Human cognitive control is uniquely flexible, and has been shown to depend

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Symbolism and Psychological Realism in "The Red Badge of Courage."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "The Red Badge of Courage," Stephen Crane overcomes serious artistic difficulties to depict a complicated psychological change in his protagonist, Henry Fleming, an unsophisticated and inarticulate farm boy. To embody the development of this protagonist, Crane uses a series of thematically-related incidents and a set of thematic symbols which…

McDermott, John J.

1968-01-01

291

Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

2003-01-01

292

Faster and Symbolic CTMC Model Checking Joost-Pieter Katoena  

E-print Network

Faster and Symbolic CTMC Model Checking Joost-Pieter Katoena , Marta Kwiatkowskab , Gethin Normanb.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands b School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom Abstract. This paper reports on the implementation

Oxford, University of

293

Symbolic Computer Algebra: The Classroom Computer Takes a Quantum Jump.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a software program with two components. One is muMATH, a package of functions that can perform a wide variety of symbolic manipulations. It is surrounded by, and written in, the accompanying language, muSIMP. A problem is described with a muMATH solution; another example uses the muSIMP language. (MNS)

Kunkle, Dan; Burch, Charles I., Jr.

1984-01-01

294

ACCURACY OF THEMATIC MAPS / IMPLICATIONS OF CHOROPLETH SYMBOLIZATION  

E-print Network

ACCURACY OF THEMATIC MAPS / IMPLICATIONS OF CHOROPLETH SYMBOLIZATION ALAN M MACEACHREN University: planimetricaccura- cy and data representation accuracy. The first is of only minor concern for thematic maps. Data representation accuracy, however, is at least as significant to map effectiveness as are the perceptual

Klippel, Alexander

295

Student Activism within Christian College Cultures: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their…

Cole, Brian E.

2014-01-01

296

An Empirical Symbolic Approach to Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical methods in the field of natural language processing (NLP) are usually based on a probabilistic model of language. These methods recently gained popularity because of the claim that they provide a better coverage of language phenomena. Though this claim is not entirely proved, empirical methods certainly outperform in this regard rationalist, or symbolic, methods. However, empirical methods provide a

Roberto Basili; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Paola Velardi

1996-01-01

297

Arti cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression  

E-print Network

Arti#12;cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression Colin G. Johnson Computing Immune Systems are computational algorithms which take their inspiration from the way in which natural immune systems learn to respond to attacks on an organism. This paper discusses how such a system can

Kent, University of

298

The Magic of Harry Potter: Symbols and Heroes of Fantasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the worldwide, multiage appeal of Harry Potter may lie in the way these stories of magic meet the needs of readers to find meaning in today's unmagical contexts. The imaginative appeal and symbolic efficacy of the books for children are examined in terms of Bruno Bettelheim's The Uses of Enchantment. The development of Harry Potter as

Sharon Black

2003-01-01

299

The Social Fabric and Innovation Diffusion: Symbolic Adoption of Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a longitudinal, panel design to examine the effects of negative information acquisition, compliance with opinion leader endorsements, and social demographic characteristics on consumers' symbolic adoption of food irradiation. Data collection coincided with the first market test of irradiated food conducted by a commercial firm,…

Sapp, Stephen G.; Korsching, Peter F.

2004-01-01

300

Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

2014-01-01

301

Implementing Feedback in a Digital Tool for Symbol Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on research at the crossroads of on the one hand the procedural-conceptual cut in algebra in the transition from secondary education to higher education, and on the other hand the potential of ICT. Three key topics come together: algebra didactics (symbol sense), theories on tool use (instrumental genesis) and assessment…

Bokhove, Christian

2010-01-01

302

A Symbolic Model of the Nonconscious Acquisition of Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges Smolensky's theory that human intuitive/nonconscious cognitive processes can only be accurately explained in terms of subsymbolic computations in artificial neural networks. Symbolic learning models of two cognitive tasks involving nonconscious acquisition of information are presented: learning production rules and artificial finite…

Ling, Charles X.; Marinov, Marin

1994-01-01

303

Insight and Outlook: Symbol and Metaphor in Phototherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the roots of phototherapy extend back to the late 1850's, it did not emerge as a distinct entity until the late 1970's. Growing interest has generated a substantial body of literature in the field. While photographs may be looked at concretely, as two-dimensional, their symbolic and metamorphic nature is a potentially powerful tool in…

Krauss, David

304

Impact of Symbolic Gesturing on Early Language Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect on verbal language development of purposefully encouraging hearing infants to use simple gestures as symbols for objects, requests, and conditions. To this end, 103, 11-month-old infants were divided into three groups, all of whom were seen in the laboratory for a variety of assessments, including standardized language tests at

Susan W. Goodwyn; Linda P. Acredolo; Catherine A. Brown

2000-01-01

305

The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich…

Tracy, Rita

2012-01-01

306

Police Regulation of Illegal Gambling: Frustrations of Symbolic Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines problems presented to the police by their gambling enforcement responsibilities during the four decades follow ing Prohibition's repeal. In this period repeated gambling corruption scan dals put the police in disrepute. These scandals accurately reflected the underlying corruption of an effort that was essentially symbolic and not supported by a significant element of the otherwise law-abiding popula

Peter Reuter

1984-01-01

307

Symbols and the Bifurcation between Procedural and Conceptual Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbols occupy a pivotal position between processes to be carried out and concepts to be thought about. They allow us both to do mathematical problems and to think about mathematical relationships. In this presentation, the discontinuities that occur in the learning path taken by different students, leading to a divergence between conceptual and…

Tall, David; Gray, Eddie; Bin Ali, Maselan; Crowley, Lillie; DeMarois, Phil; McGowen, Mercedes; Pitta, Demetra; Pinto, Marcia; Thomas, Michael; Yusof, Yudariah

308

The Development of Symbolic Representation: The Case of Building Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The symbolic representational block constructions of twenty 4-year-olds and twenty 7-year-olds were analyzed from Werner and Kaplan's (1963) theoretical perspective. Each child was read a story and then asked to use the blocks to represent the story. Older children included in their representations a larger number of features that were central to…

Reifel, Stuart

309

Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software: Symbolic Computation, Combinatorial Species,  

E-print Network

Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software: Symbolic Computation, Combinatorial Species, Backtracking March 21, 2008 1 Introduction Sage brings together Python and the best existing open source mathemat to fund work by four students on Sage. Each of the four students (two graduate and two undergraduate) have

Stein, William

310

Perceptions of Criminal Injustice, Symbolic Racism, and Racial Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationships between perceptions of criminal injustice, symbolic racism, and political outcomes. Building on a group conflict theory of social control and a group position theory of contemporary racism, the authors hypothesize that perceptions of criminal injustice against blacks undermines the legitimacy of social institutions, such as free markets and the legal system, and encourages support for

Ross L. Matsueda; Kevin Drakulich

2009-01-01

311

Wishes and Riddles: Symbolic Imagery in Chinese Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the wishes and riddles found in myths and rebuses in Chinese art. The packet contains: (1) an introductory essay describing symbolism used in the art of various dynasties of China; (2) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (3) a…

Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

312

Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

Anderson, John R.

2005-01-01

313

Representing circuits more efficiently in symbolic model checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We significantly reduce the complexity of BDD-based symbolic verification by using partitioned transition relations to represent state transition graphs. On an example pipeline circuit, this technique reduced the verification time by an order of magnitude and the storage requirements for the transition relation by two orders of magnitude. We were also able to handle example pipelines with over 10120 reachable

Jerry R. Burch; Edmund M. Clarke; David E. Long

1991-01-01

314

Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Literal Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been continuing pressure to incorporate algebraic thinking into K-12 education. Elementary teachers will be expected to incorporate and successfully execute algebra related lessons. This dissertation study examines pre-service elementary teachers' conceptions and content knowledge regarding literal symbols and their usage. A written…

Frost, Jodi L.

2012-01-01

315

Symbolic distance between numerosity and identity modulates Stroop interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty undergraduates participated in an experiment investigating the effect of the arithmetic difference between stimulus identity and stimulus numerosity in a numerical version of the Stroop task. It was found that digits symbolically close to the enumeration response reliably produced larger interference than digits that were farther from the enumeration response. This semantic distance effect (SDE) was found with differ-

Antonella Pavese; Carlo Umiltŕ

1998-01-01

316

Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration  

SciTech Connect

New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

Sathasivam, Saratha [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

2010-12-23

317

2 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 1. WHAT IS LOGIC?  

E-print Network

2 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 1. WHAT IS LOGIC? Logic may be defined as the science of reasoning. However, this is not to suggest that logic is an empirical (i.e., experimental or observational) science like physics, biology, or psychology. Rather, logic is a non-empirical science like mathematics. Also

Fitelson, Branden

318

Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…

Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

2011-01-01

319

Probabilistic Construction of Semantic Symbols in Building Automation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the automatic discrimination of sensor and system behavior and construction of symbols with semantic meaning in a building automation system is introduced - SCRS (semantic concept recognition system). The automated method is based on statistical modelling of sensor behavior. A model of a sensor's value sequences is automatically constructed. The model's structure and parameters are optimized using

Dietmar Bruckner; Brian Sallans; Gerhard Russ

2006-01-01

320

Space telescope coordinate systems, symbols, and nomenclature definitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major coordinate systems as well as the transformations and transformation angles between them, for the Space Telescope are defined. The coordinate systems were primarily developed for use in pointing and control system analysis and simulation. Additional useful information (on nomenclature, symbols, quaternion operations, etc.) is also contained.

Kennel, H. F.

1976-01-01

321

Working with Numbers and Symbols. CAP Job Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Job Function Booklet (Working with Numbers and Symbols) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

322

Symbolic Boolean manipulation with ordered binary-decision diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordered Binary-Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satisfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as graph algorithms on OBDD data structures. Using OBDDs, a wide variety of problems can be solved through symbolic analysis. First, the possible

Randal E. Bryant

1992-01-01

323

Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…

Moriarty, M. Wyn

2009-01-01

324

Symbolic Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis and Control of a General  

E-print Network

Symbolic Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis and Control of a General Stewart Parallel Manipulator these advantages, the kinematic and dynamic analyses are extremely complicated. Such models are important in terms of qualitative analysis of the required actuator forces to realize certain end-effector task (inverse dynamics

Krovi, Venkat

325

Toolbox Safety Talk Safety Data Sheets (SDS)  

E-print Network

to as "Material Safety Data Sheets" (MSDS), communicate important information regarding the hazards of chemicalToolbox Safety Talk Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for all chemicals produced. "Safety Data Sheets", previously referred

Pawlowski, Wojtek

326

Environmental Health & Safety Safety in the Workplace  

E-print Network

needle directly from patient - available from Retractable Technologies MagellanTM Safety Blood CollectionEnvironmental Health & Safety Safety in the Workplace Safety-Engineered Sharps What is a safety-engineered sharp? The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defines a safety-engineered sharp

Jawitz, James W.

327

Lab Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

West, Sandra S.

1991-01-01

328

Safety Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

Halligan, Tom

2009-01-01

329

Safety First  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

Taft, Darryl

2011-01-01

330

Constructing Public Opinion and Manipulating Symbols: China's Press Coverage of the Student Movement in 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis of Chinese newspapers before and after the Tiananmen Square protest examines the symbolic representation of the Student Movement of 1989 in China. The study reveals that top leaders manipulated symbols given to the media and that these symbols rigorously highlighted the dominant ideology of the Chinese Communist Party and isolated the movement participants. Officials attempted to legitimize

Guo-Qiang Zhang; Sidney Kraus

1995-01-01

331

SAPEC-a personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of electric circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of lumped, linear, time-invariant networks is presented. The program, written in Microsoft Lisp, utilizes methods of symbolic manipulation of algebraic expressions. The proposed approach is based on modified nodal analysis and an algorithm developed by the authors for the completely symbolic solution of the related linear systems. A useful property of the

A. Liberatore; S. Manetti

1988-01-01

332

Clustering and Symbolic Analysis of Cardiovascular Signals: Discovery and Visualization of Medically Relevant Patterns in  

E-print Network

: Symbolization #12;Example #12;ECG data Long-term monitoring yields increasing amount of data Human analysis is error prone Repetitive structure of ECG data makes it a good candidate for symbolization #12;Symbolization of ECG data Segment ECG signal into individual beats Partition beats to classes based

Tian, Qi

333

A new clustering method for large symbolic data sets based on Kohonen maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic data analysis (Bock and Diday (2000)) is concerned with the extension of classical data analysis and statistical methods to more complex data called symbolic data. In this paper we're interested in a new strategy (Baune (2006)) for clustering large symbolic quantitative data sets, based on two steps. The goal of the first step of the procedure is to reduce

Joffray Baune; Andre Hardy

334

Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

2013-01-01

335

Open logic computation on self-referential symbols with application to environmental complexity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computation scheme is presented for simulating interactive perception process. The scheme projects a fixed set of formal proposition onto object codes. Through iterations of projection, the scheme generates a network of self-referential symbols as a representation of context. In the symbol network, indicatable symbols are detected to estimate process complexity. A parallel distributed version of the scheme is implemented

Kohji Kamejima

1995-01-01

336

Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesic, I. M. Y. Mareels,  

E-print Network

Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesi´c, I. M. Y. Mareels of this article is to highlight the effectiveness of symbolic computation software, or the so called computer algebra, in the analysis and design of control systems. Symbolic computation software should

Nesic, Dragan

337

A new symbol synchronizer with reduced timing jitter for QAM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and simple symbol synchronizer for QAM systems with reduced timing jitter is proposed. In the symbol synchronization loop, the timing error detection algorithm proposed by Gardner (1986) is used and a first order PLL is used for tracking optimal sampling instants. In a common first order PLL used in a symbol synchronizer, the loop filter gain is a

Zhang Hang; Markku Renfors

1995-01-01

338

Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

2014-01-01

339

LAND OF SYMBOLS: CACTUS, POPPIES, ORANGE AND OLIVE TREES IN PALESTINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the ways in which Palestinians experience belonging to a place and how these experiences and their related ideas and symbols inform social organization through their representation, performance, and manipulations over time. In particular, I explore the articulation of symbols and symbolic representations in relation to the Palestinian encounter with the Zionist project in Palestine starting from the

Nasser Abufarha

2008-01-01

340

A Dialogue about Mythological Symbols from the Campfire to the Digital Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the role of myths and symbols in society through the use of a hypothetical dialogue. The paper begins by explaining what myths are and the functions they serve. Mythology and mythical symbols of past and present are compared. These changes in the nature of mythological symbols are explored through a dialogue between an artist…

Seels, Barbara; Fredette, Barbara

341

Dorsal and ventral attention systems underlie social and symbolic cueing  

PubMed Central

Eye gaze is a powerful cue for orienting attention in space. Studies examining whether gaze and symbolic cues recruit the same neural mechanisms have found mixed results. We tested whether there is a specialized attentional mechanism for social cues. We separately measured BOLD activity during orienting and reorienting attention following predictive gaze and symbolic cues. Results showed that gaze and symbolic cues exerted their influence through the same neural networks, but also produced some differential modulations. Dorsal fronto-parietal regions in left IPS and bilateral MT+/lateral occipital cortex only showed orienting effects for symbolic cues while right pIPS showed larger validity effects following gaze cues. Both exceptions may reflect the greater automaticity of gaze cues: symbolic orienting may require more effort, while disengaging attention during reorienting may be more difficult following gaze cues. Face-selective regions, identified with a face localizer, showed selective activations for gaze cues reflecting sensory processing but no attentional modulations. Therefore, no evidence was found linking face-selective regions to a hypothetical, specialized mechanism for orienting attention to gaze cues. However, a functional connectivity analysis showed greater connectivity between face-selective regions and right pIPS, pSTS and IFG during gaze cueing, consistent with proposals that face-selective regions may send gaze signals to parts of the DAN and VAN. Finally, although the default-mode network is thought to be involved in social cognition, this role does not extend to gaze orienting as these regions were more deactivated following gaze cues and showed less functional connectivity with face-selective regions during gaze cues. PMID:23937692

Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

2013-01-01

342

Software safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

Leveson, Nancy

1987-01-01

343

Safety - PPE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school activity from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges "your students' ability to identify safety hazards, as they play the role of a safety inspector." On this page, visitors will find a link to two company overview sheets, one with information about TECO, a company that generate and distributes electricity, and another with information about CF Industries, a fertilizer producer. The site also provides a lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation, and a student handout. This is a great resource to introduce students to hands-on practices in safety inspection in different industries.

344

Aerospace Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace safety. Topics include hazard communications, lockout/tagout, confined space entry, fall protection, PPE, firefighting and bloodborne pathogens.

2010-10-18

345

Agricultural Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... on injuries associated with agriculture, as well as pesticide exposure, pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and stress. ... Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & ... Injury Surveillance NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z ...

346

Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... at 350 °F Water boils at 212 °F Fireworks Safety Fireworks are often used to mark special ... fireworks NFPA is opposed to consumer use of fireworks. This includes sparklers and firecrackers. Even sparklers burn ...

347

Child Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... steps to keep your children safe: Install the right child safety seat in your car Teach children how to cross the street safely Make sure they wear the right gear and equipment for sports Install and test ...

348

Safety Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.

Biehle, James T.; Motz, Lamoine L.; West, Sandra S.

2007-01-01

349

Laboratory Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wiki page provides a link to the recording of a webinar by Ken Roy. Join Ken Roy as he discusses the Dirty Dozen and the responsibilities of all educators in making science classrooms and activities safe[r] for students. Ken Roy is the National Science Teacher Association (NTSA) Science Safety Consultant and the Director of Environmental Health and Safety for Glastonbury Public Schools in Connecticut. Other links to the resources discussed in this webinar are also provided.

2009-11-12

350

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY MANUAL  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY MANUAL May 10, 2002 #12;i Acknowledgements Environmental Health and Safety gratefully acknowledges the assistance provided by the University Safety Council extremely helpful. #12;ii Environmental Health and Safety General Safety Manual Table of Contents Section

Maroncelli, Mark

351

System safety education focused on flight safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

Holt, E.

1971-01-01

352

Combinatorics of symbolic Rees algebras of edge ideals of clutters  

E-print Network

Let C be a clutter and let I be its edge ideal. We present a combinatorial description of the minimal generators of the symbolic Rees algebra Rs(I) of I. It is shown that the minimal generators of Rs(I) are in one to one correspondence with the irreducible parallelizations of C. From our description some major results on symbolic Rees algebras of perfect graphs and clutters will follow. As a byproduct, we give a method, using Hilbert bases, to compute all irreducible parallelizations of C along with all the corresponding vertex coveringnumbers. In particular, we can decide whether any given clutter is irreducible and compute all irreducible induced subclutters of C. If C is a graph, we obtain all odd holes and antiholes of C.

Martinez-Bernal, Jose; Villarreal, Rafael H

2009-01-01

353

Symbols of menarche identified by African American females.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify and describe symbolic themes of menarche. The qualitative case study design was used with a purposive sample of 30 participants (15 mothers and their 15 daughters) in answering 2 questions: (a) How do 9- and 10-year-old African American girls view the meaning of their menarcheal flow?, and (b) How do African American mothers view the meaning of menarche? Data were collected through interviews 2 to 5 days after completion of menarche. A cross-case comparison analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes: (a) vaginal bleeding, (b) sexual maturation, (c) premenarcheal sexual activity, and (d) sexual payback to fathers. With the exception of the latter all themes were supported in earlier studies of Euro-American girls. These findings indicate the need for further research addressing self-concept at menarche, impact of menarche on family relationships, and views of fathers about sexual payback as a symbol of menarche. PMID:12148831

Hawthorne, Dorothy J

2002-08-01

354

Tree coding of speech using variable length symbol release techniques  

E-print Network

is given, and the three components of tree coders are identified. - the code generator, the error criterion, and the tree search algorithm. A problem with pre- sent tree coding techniques called path switching is described, in which the tree coder... continually identifies the optimal path, but never attains it. To control this problem, the tree coder is modified to include a fourth component ? the symbol release algorithm. This algorithm prevents undesirable path switching by forcing the coder...

Goris, Andrew Clark

1979-01-01

355

Probabilistic symbolic model checking with PRISM: a hybrid approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In this paper we introduce PRISM, a probabilistic model checker, and describe the ecient symbolic techniques we have devel- oped during its implementation. PRISM is a tool for analysing proba- bilistic systems. It supports three models: discrete-time Markov chains, continuous-time Markov chains and Markov decision processes. Analysis is performed through model,checking specifications in the probabilis- tic temporal logics PCTL

Marta Z. Kwiatkowska; Gethin Norman; David Parker

2004-01-01

356

Optical AI symbolic correlators - Architecture and filter considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical correlators provide the unique capability to simultaneously search all regions of an input scene with distortion-invariance, high performance in noise and with the ability to handle multiple objects. This paper examines initial concepts and architectures for correlators in the decomposition of an entire scene to achieve the identification and location of its major constituent parts. The role for such processors in symbolic AI will be emphasized.

Casasent, David

1986-01-01

357

A Symbolic Execution Framework for JavaScript  

Microsoft Academic Search

As AJAX applications gain popularity, client-side JavaScript code is becoming increasingly complex. However, few automated vulnerability analysis tools for JavaScript exist. In this paper, we describe the first system for exploring the execution space of JavaScript code using symbolic execution. To handle JavaScript code’s complex use of string operations, we design a new language of string constraints and implement a

Prateek Saxena; Devdatta Akhawe; Steve Hanna; Feng Mao; Stephen McCamant; Dawn Song

2010-01-01

358

ALHEP symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics  

E-print Network

ALHEP is the symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics. It deals with amplitudes calculation, matrix element squaring, Wick theorem, dimensional regularization, tensor reduction of loop integrals and simplification of final expressions. The program output includes: Fortran code for differential cross section, Mathematica files to view results and intermediate steps and TeX source for Feynman diagrams. The PYTHIA interface is available. The project website http://www.hep.by/alhep contains up-to-date executables, manual and script examples.

V. Makarenko

2007-04-13

359

Required Concepts from Electronics: Electric Circuit Symbols and Terminology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by Mathematics on Web, helps explain some of the basic concepts that need to be learned for studying electronics. These include such things as: circuit symbols, principle nodes, junctions and branches, electric current, electric voltage, Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Voltage Law,and Kirchhoff's Current Law. The site is very basic in design, but still provides nice diagrams, solid explanations and an accessible format. The site is perfect for both students and teachers in any technical education classroom.

2008-10-30

360

Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored

Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani

2001-01-01

361

Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.

Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.

2003-01-01

362

Symbolic Model Checking for Real-time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We describe finite-state programs over real-numbered time in a guardedcommandlanguage with real-valued clocks or, equivalently, as finite automata withreal-valued clocks. Model checking answers the question which states of a real-timeprogram satisfy a branching-time specification (given in an extension of CTL with clockvariables). We develop an algorithm that computes this set of states symbolically as afixpoint of a functional on

Thomas A. Henzingert; Xavier Nicollin; Joseph Sifakis; Sergio Yovine

1992-01-01

363

Nominal symbols and their contribution to selected Guardian essays  

E-print Network

: Dr. Harry P. Kroitor Nominal symbols were commonly used in periodical essays during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and the Guardian, written primarily by Sir Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, is no exception. Characters... times, to eighteenth-century British essayists, the name often made the man. In the Guardian, a series of 175 essays presented by the controlling persona Nestor Ironside and written by Sir Richard Steele, Joseph Addison, and some...

Dunsford, Deborah Williams

2012-06-07

364

Identifying delayed directional couplings with symbolic transfer entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a straightforward extension of symbolic transfer entropy to enable the investigation of delayed directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from time series. Analyzing time series from chaotic model systems, we demonstrate the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings obtained from applying our method to infer delayed directed interactions in the human epileptic brain underline the importance of our approach for improving the construction of functional network structures from data.

Dickten, Henning; Lehnertz, Klaus

2014-12-01

365

Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications in our 3D anatomical atlas are presented and discussed.

Pommert, Andreas; Schubert, Rainer; Riemer, Martin; Schiemann, Thomas; Tiede, Ulf; Hoehne, Karl H.

1994-09-01

366

Symbolic description of periodic orbits for the quadratic Zeeman effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization of the periodic orbits of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field is studied. It is shown that the dynamics is qualitatively different from that for weak fields and negative energies. The orbits can be mapped one-to-one onto a ternary symbolic tree, an organization which turns out to be applicable for all values of energy and field strength. The results indicate that the field-free hydrogen atom has a purely chaotic limit for positive energies.

Eckhardt, Bruno; Wintgen, Dieter

1990-01-01

367

Can We Predict Mathematical Learning Disabilities from Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Comparison Tasks in Kindergarten? Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The ability to compare numbers, as the most basic form of number sense, has been related to arithmetical achievement. Aims: The current study addressed the predictive value of non-symbolic and symbolic (number word (NW) and Arabic number (AN)) comparison for arithmetics by means of a longitudinal design. Sample: Sixteen children with…

Desoete, Annemie; Ceulemans, Annelies; De Weerdt, Frauke; Pieters, Stefanie

2012-01-01

368

Neural connectivity patterns underlying symbolic number processing indicate mathematical achievement in children.  

PubMed

In early childhood, humans learn culturally specific symbols for number that allow them entry into the world of complex numerical thinking. Yet little is known about how the brain supports the development of the uniquely human symbolic number system. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging along with an effective connectivity analysis to investigate the neural substrates for symbolic number processing in young children. We hypothesized that, as children solidify the mapping between symbols and underlying magnitudes, important developmental changes occur in the neural communication between the right parietal region, important for the representation of non-symbolic numerical magnitudes, and other brain regions known to be critical for processing numerical symbols. To test this hypothesis, we scanned children between 4 and 6 years of age while they performed a magnitude comparison task with Arabic numerals (numerical, symbolic), dot arrays (numerical, non-symbolic), and lines (non-numerical). We then identified the right parietal seed region that showed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in the numerical versus the non-numerical conditions. A psychophysiological interaction method was used to find patterns of effective connectivity arising from this parietal seed region specific to symbolic compared to non-symbolic number processing. Two brain regions, the left supramarginal gyrus and the right precentral gyrus, showed significant effective connectivity from the right parietal cortex. Moreover, the degree of this effective connectivity to the left supramarginal gyrus was correlated with age, and the degree of the connectivity to the right precentral gyrus predicted performance on a standardized symbolic math test. These findings suggest that effective connectivity underlying symbolic number processing may be critical as children master the associations between numerical symbols and magnitudes, and that these connectivity patterns may serve as an important indicator of mathematical achievement. PMID:24267664

Park, Joonkoo; Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M

2014-03-01

369

Science Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by specialists at the Baylor College of Medicine's BioEd Online team, the Science Safety site brings together videos, pamphlets, and other instructional resources designed to help students and educators learn about lab safety. The site contains three key videos: "Tools and Equipment of Science," "Using a Bright Field Light Microscope," and "Using a Micropipettor." Demonstrators include scientists and teachers from around Texas and the tone of the films is erudite, age-appropriate, and accessible. Additionally, the site includes links to Lesson Demonstrations, which address subjects such as ecology, forces and motion, and microorganisms.

Vu, Michael

370

Motorcycle Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... way to protect motorcycle riders, state-by-state data on motorcycle-related deaths and economic costs, and what you can do to increase motorcycle safety. The Guide and state-based fact sheets are available online. Preventing serious injuries and deaths ...

371

Auto Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... tall enough ride with just a seatbelt. Air Bags and Kids When combined with safety belts, air bags protect adults and teens from injury during a ... in the front passenger seat when an air bag opens. Air bags were designed with adults in ...

372

MMSE equalization for forward link in 3G CDMA: symbol-level versus chip-level  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a “symbol-level” MMSE equalizer for the CDMA downlink over a frequency-selective multipath channel meant to improve on the recently proposed “chip-level” downlink equalizers. Indeed the symbol-level equalizer performs better than the chip-level, but is computationally more demanding. The symbol-level equalizer is optimal for “saturated cells” where all Walsh-Hadamard channel codes are in use and have equal power. It

Thomas P. Krauss; William J. Hillery; Michael D. Zoltowski

2000-01-01

373

Symbols of Terror: The Witch\\/Vampire, the Spider, and the Shark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three symbols of terror are examined as representations of preoedipal conflicts that intrude upon conscious awareness and interfere with current functioning. To understand each of these symbols and their origins in a state of chronic terror, it is necessary to understand the complete life history of the patient. All three symbols—the witch\\/vampire, the spider, and the shark—relate to earliest experiences

Saralea E. Chazan

1989-01-01

374

Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal decision-feedback mechanism is introduced to truncate the channel memory "seen" by the MAPSD section. Also, simpler gradient-based updates for the channel estimates, and a metric pruning technique are used to further reduce the MAPSD complexity. Spatial diversity MAP combiners are developed to enhance the error rate performance and combat channel fading. As a first application of the MAPSD algorithm, dual-mode recovery techniques for TDMA (time-division multiple access) mobile radio signals are presented. Combined estimation of the symbol timing and the multipath parameters is proposed, using an auxiliary extended Kalman filter during the training cycle, and then tracking of the fading parameters is performed during the data cycle using the blind MAPSD algorithm. For the second application, a single-input receiver is employed to jointly recover cochannel narrowband signals. Assuming known channels, this two-stage joint MAPSD (JMAPSD) algorithm is compared to the optimal joint maximum likelihood sequence estimator, and to the joint decision-feedback detector. A blind MAPSD algorithm for the joint recovery of cochannel signals is also presented. Computer simulation results are provided to quantify the performance of the various algorithms proposed in this dissertation.

Giridhar, K.

375

Incidental recall on WAIS-R digit symbol discriminates Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how Alzheimer's (n = 37) and Parkinson's (n = 21) patients perform on the incidental recall adaptation to the Digit Symbol of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and how such performance is related to established cognitive efficiency and memory measures. This adaptation requires the examinee to complete the entire subtest and then, without warning, to immediately recall the symbols associated with each number. Groups did not differ significantly on standard Digit Symbol administration (90 seconds), but on recall Parkinson's patients recalled significantly more symbols and symbol-number pairs than Alzheimer's patients. Using only the number of symbols recalled, discriminate function analysis correctly classified 76% of these patients. Correlations between age-corrected scaled score, symbols incidentally recalled, and established measures of cognitive efficiency and memory provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Age-corrected scaled scores were more consistently and strongly related to cognitive efficiency, whereas symbols recalled were more consistently and strongly related to memory measures. These findings suggest that the Digit Symbol recall adaptation is actually assessing memory and that it can be another useful way to detect memory impairment. PMID:11241368

Demakis, G J; Sawyer, T P; Fritz, D; Sweet, J J

2001-03-01

376

Thematic Matching as Remedial Teaching for Symbolic Matching for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

PubMed

Matching-to-sample (MTS) is often used to teach symbolic relationships between spoken or printed words and their referents to children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. However, many children have difficulty learning symbolic matching, even though they may demonstrate generalized identity matching. The current study investigated whether training on symbolic MTS tasks in which the stimuli are physically dissimilar but members of familiar categories (i.e., thematic matching) can remediate an individual's difficulty learning symbolic MTS tasks involving non-representative stimuli. Three adolescent males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were first trained on symbolic MTS tasks with unfamiliar, non-representative form stimuli. Thematic matching was introduced after the participants failed to learn 0, 2 or 4 symbolic MTS tasks and before additional symbolic MTS tasks were introduced. After exposure to thematic matching, accuracy on symbolic MTS tasks with novel stimuli increased to above chance for all participants. For two participants, high accuracy (> 90%) was achieved on a majority of these sessions. Thus, thematic matching may be an effective intervention for students with limited verbal repertoires and who have difficulty learning symbolic MTS tasks. Possible explanations for the facilitative effect of thematic matching are considered and warrant further investigation. PMID:24634695

Lionello-Denolf, Karen M; Farber, Rachel; Jones, B Max; Dube, William V

2014-05-01

377

Verification of Java Programs using Symbolic Execution and Invariant Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software verification is recognized as an important and difficult problem. We present a norel framework, based on symbolic execution, for the automated verification of software. The framework uses annotations in the form of method specifications an3 loop invariants. We present a novel iterative technique that uses invariant strengthening and approximation for discovering these loop invariants automatically. The technique handles different types of data (e.g. boolean and numeric constraints, dynamically allocated structures and arrays) and it allows for checking universally quantified formulas. Our framework is built on top of the Java PathFinder model checking toolset and it was used for the verification of several non-trivial Java programs.

Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem

2004-01-01

378

Symbolic landforms created by ancient earthworks near Lake Titicaca  

E-print Network

Interesting landforms created by an ancient network of earthworks are shown, using Google satellite imagery enhanced by an image processing. This network covers a large part of the land near the Titicaca Lake. Satellite images clearly display the slopes of hills criss-crossed with terrace walls and the surfaces of the plains covered with raised fields, indicating that this was once a highly productive agricultural place for the south central Andes. Some of the landforms are rather remarkable, having a clear symbolic function. Among them, there are structures which seem to represent birds, where ponds are their eyes.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2010-01-01

379

Safety and Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

1982-01-01

380

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  

E-print Network

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Department of Occupational Health and Safety Revised December 2009 #12;Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management System 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 3 2.2 Management of Health and Safety

381

First Aid and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... what to do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for ... to Choose & Use Sunscreen Playground Safety Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Safety Tips: Baseball Safety Tips: Basketball Safety ...

382

Child safety seats  

MedlinePLUS

... to install child safety seats, visit the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration online. ... safety. Pediatrics . 2011; 127(4):e1050-e1066. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Car seats . Accessed March 29, ...

383

Safety harness  

DOEpatents

A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sand Pit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

1993-01-01

384

Safety valve  

DOEpatents

The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

Bergman, Ulf C. (Malmoe, SE)

1984-01-01

385

Farm Safety  

PubMed Central

Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

Wilson, G. S.

1966-01-01

386

Sound symbolic naming of novel objects is a graded function.  

PubMed

Although linguistic traditions of the last century assumed that there is no link between sound and meaning (i.e., arbitrariness), recent research has established a nonarbitrary relation between sound and meaning (i.e., sound symbolism). For example, some sounds (e.g., /u/ as in took) suggest bigness whereas others (e.g., /i/ as in tiny) suggest smallness. We tested whether sound symbolism only marks contrasts (e.g., small versus big things) or whether it marks object properties in a graded manner (e.g., small, medium, and large things). In two experiments, participants viewed novel objects (i.e., greebles) of varying size and chose the most appropriate name for each object from a list of visually or auditorily presented nonwords that varied incrementally in the number of "large" and "small" phonemes. For instance, "wodolo" contains all large-sounding phonemes, whereas "kitete" contains all small-sounding phonemes. Participants' choices revealed a graded relationship between sound and size: The size of the object linearly predicted the number of large-sounding phonemes in its preferred name. That is, small, medium, and large objects elicited names with increasing numbers of large-sounding phonemes. The results are discussed in relation to cross-modal processing, gesture, and vocal pitch. PMID:21895561

Thompson, Patrick D; Estes, Zachary

2011-12-01

387

Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language.  

PubMed

Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill's criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

Sandler, Wendy

2009-04-01

388

Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. Here, using three Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based measures of brain activity, we establish that preverbal 11-month-old infants are sensitive to the non-arbitrary correspondences between language sounds and concepts, that is, to sound symbolism. In each trial, infant participants were presented with a visual stimulus (e.g., a round shape) followed by a novel spoken word that either sound-symbolically matched ("moma") or mismatched ("kipi") the shape. Amplitude increase in the gamma band showed perceptual integration of visual and auditory stimuli in the match condition within 300 msec of word onset. Furthermore, phase synchronization between electrodes at around 400 msec revealed intensified large-scale, left-hemispheric communication between brain regions in the mismatch condition as compared to the match condition, indicating heightened processing effort when integration was more demanding. Finally, event-related brain potentials showed an increased adult-like N400 response - an index of semantic integration difficulty - in the mismatch as compared to the match condition. Together, these findings suggest that 11-month-old infants spontaneously map auditory language onto visual experience by recruiting a cross-modal perceptual processing system and a nascent semantic network within the first year of life. PMID:25282057

Asano, Michiko; Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Thierry, Guillaume

2015-02-01

389

Lower bounds for symbolic complexity of iceberg dynamical systems  

E-print Network

The symbolic complexity of an infinite word $W$ is the function $p_W(l)$ counting the number of different subwords in $W$ of length $l$. In this paper our main purpose is to study the complexity for a class of topological dynamical systems, called iceberg systems, given by the following symbolic procedure. Starting from a given finite word $w_1$ we construct a sequence of words $w_{n+1} = w_n \\rho_{a_n(1)}(w_n)...\\rho_{a_n(q_n-1)}(w_n)$, where $\\rho_a(u)$ is the cyclic rotations of the word $u$ by $a$ positions, and consider an infinite word $W$ extending each $w_n$ to the right. It is shown that for iceberg systems given by the randomized parameters $a_n(j)$ the complexity function almost surely satisfies the estimate $p_W(l) > l^{3-\\epsilon}$ for any $\\epsilon > 0$ and $l \\ge l_0(\\epsilon)$, and at the same time it is observed that this estimate represents up to a small correction the optimal lower bound for the complexity function, namely, $p_{w_{n+1}}(l_n) \\le l_n^3$ along the subsequence $l_n = |w_n|+1$.

Prikhod'ko, A A

2012-01-01

390

Non-symbolic halving in an Amazonian indigene group  

PubMed Central

Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an intuition of a more complex calculation, division, exists in an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, whose language includes no words for large numbers. Mundurucu children were presented with a video event depicting a division transformation of halving, in which pairs of objects turned into single objects, reducing the array's numerical magnitude. Then they were tested on their ability to calculate the outcome of this division transformation with other large-number arrays. The Mundurucu children effected this transformation even when non-numerical variables were controlled, performed above chance levels on the very first set of test trials, and exhibited performance similar to urban children who had access to precise number words and a surrounding symbolic culture. We conclude that a halving calculation is part of the suite of intuitive operations supported by the ANS. PMID:23587042

McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

2014-01-01

391

HEALTH, SAFETY & INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

reporting · DSE Assessments · Risk Assessments · Electrical Safety #12;HEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING POLICYHEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING NEW STAFF INDUCTION #12;INTRODUCTION · University Health, Safety and Wellbeing Policy · The role of the Health & Safety Office · School/Unit Health & Safety Management

Sussex, University of

392

The International Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation is the premier conference spanning all areas of research in symbolic mathematical computation. The  

E-print Network

for Solving Systems of Linear Ordinary Differential Equations JĂĽrgen Gerhard: Asymptotically Fast Algorithms; summation, recurrence equations, integration, solution of ODE & PDE; symbolic methods in other areas of pure interface issues, including collaborative computing and new methods for inpu

Watt, Stephen M.

393

Scope on Safety: Proactive safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horrifying stories of accidents in the science lab abound. You may think that such accidents could never happen in your lab, but accidents do happen even in the most controlled environments. So, the best thing you can do to protect yourselves and your students is to implement and document proactive safety procedures. The following actions are recommended to reduce accidents in the lab and litigation in the courtroom.

Roy, Ken

2006-09-01

394

Constructing Public Opinion and Manipulating Symbols: China's Press Coverage of the Student Movement in 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a content analysis of Chinese newspapers before and after the Tiananmen Square protest. Shows that top leaders manipulated symbols given to the media and that these symbols rigorously highlighted the dominant ideology of the Chinese Communist Party and isolated participants of the 1989 Student Movement to legitimize the military…

Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Kraus, Sidney

1995-01-01

395

EPTCS ??, 2009, pp. 115. A Fully Abstract Symbolic Semantics for Psi-Calculi  

E-print Network

EPTCS ??, 2009, pp. 1­15. A Fully Abstract Symbolic Semantics for Psi-Calculi Magnus Johansson Bj¨orn Victor Joachim Parrow We present a symbolic transition system and bisimulation equivalence for psi. A psi-calculus is an extension of the pi-calculus with nominal data types for data structures

Parrow, Joachim

396

PRISM: A Language for Symbolic-Statistical Modeling3 Taisuke SATOy  

E-print Network

PRISM: A Language for Symbolic-Statistical Modeling3 Taisuke SATOy and Yoshitaka KAMEYAz Dept present an overview of symbolic-statistical modeling language PRISM whose programs are not only modeling formalisms, the hidden Markov model and Bayesian networks, are de- scribed by PRISM programs. 1

Sato, Taisuke

397

PRISM: A Language for SymbolicStatistical Modeling 3 Taisuke SATO y and Yoshitaka KAMEYA z  

E-print Network

PRISM: A Language for Symbolic­Statistical Modeling 3 Taisuke SATO y and Yoshitaka KAMEYA z Dept present an overview of symbolic­statistical modeling language PRISM whose programs are not only modeling formalisms, the hidden Markov model and Bayesian networks, are de­ scribed by PRISM programs. 1

Sato, Taisuke

398

The Influence of Religious Symbols on the Digit Span Performance of Roman Catholic Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested parochial school students with an examiner who wore a moderately proportioned gold cross, a gold Star of David, or no symbol. Results indicated scores varied as a function of the presence and type of symbol that was displayed. Discusses implications for practioners. (Author/JAC)

Saigh, Philip A.

1981-01-01

399

A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

2012-01-01

400

Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

2010-01-01

401

Animated Movie Genre Detection using Symbolic Fusion of Text and Image Descriptors  

E-print Network

Animated Movie Genre Detection using Symbolic Fusion of Text and Image Descriptors Gregory Pa¨is(1@alpha.imag.pub.ro Abstract This paper addresses the automatic movie genre classifi- cation in the specific case of animated movies. Two types of information are used. The first one are movie synopsis. For each genre, a symbolic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

At Issue: The Jewish Community in Germany: Living with Recognition, Anti-Semitism, and Symbolic Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the diverse images of Jews in Germany: which roles they take upon themselves and which symbolic roles German society sees in the Jewish community. The author tries to unfold the origins and the meaning of these roles including Jews as victims, as sensors toward anti-Semitism and right-wing extremism. The symbolic roles of Jews in Germany cannot

Susanne Y. Urban

2009-01-01

403

SAPWIN-a symbolic simulator as a support in electrical engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaining an insight into circuit properties in electrical engineering classes can be achieved by using computer based tools. A computer program which combines symbolic and numerical simulation capabilities is of great help, because such a program provides students with automatic analysis tools. This paper presents the program SAPWIN, which has been developed to perform an automatic symbolic and numerical analysis

A. Luchetta; S. Manetti; A. Reatti

2001-01-01

404

A Spatio-Pedagogical Approach to Symbolic Play as Kindergarten Activity in Early Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the symbolic play that occurs in activity corners set up around toy-objects in Greek kindergartens. Found notable differences in levels of symbolism and complexity of the play. Concluded that the most favored groups were those in which: (1) classroom space was polyvalent, permitting its informal re-organization; and (2) the teacher was an…

Michalopoulou, Aikaterini

2001-01-01

405

Edinburgh Research Explorer Public views of minority languages as communication or symbol  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Public views of minority languages as communication or symbol: the case of minority languages as communication or symbol: the case of Gaelic in Scotland' Journal of Multilingual immediately and investigate your claim. Download date: 11. Dec. 2014 #12;Public views of minority languages

Millar, Andrew J.

406

Routes to Symbolization: Intentionality and Correspondence in Early Understanding of Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the extent and nature of the informational support that enables young children to understand pictures as symbols. Two experiments were conducted using an object-retrieval task. The first experiment varied the amount (complete and no instructions) and kind of information (intended function of the symbol and…

Salsa, Analia M.; Peralta de Mendoza, Olga

2007-01-01

407

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics H. Qin, W. M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt  

E-print Network

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics H. Qin, W. M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08543­451 Many problems in plasma physics involve to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given

408

The Design of Pictorial Databases Based Upon the Theory of Symbolic Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology for pictorial database design, based upon a new spatial knowledge structure. This spatial knowledge structure consists of an image database, symbolic projections representing the spatial relations among objects or sub-objects in an image, and rules to derive complex spatial relations from the generalized 2D string representation of the symbolic projections. The most innovative aspect of this

Shi-kuo Chang; Erland Jungert; Y. Li

1989-01-01

409

NUMERICAL SOLUTION of MARKOV CHAINS, p. 167189 Symbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical Analysis of  

E-print Network

: Multi-valued Decision Diagrams, Matrix Diagrams, Numerical Analysis, Symbolic State-space Exploration. This fact has been exploited to facilitate model-based numerical analysis. Likewise, recent results on modelNUMERICAL SOLUTION of MARKOV CHAINS, p. 167­189 Symbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

410

A Is for "Apple": Mnemonic Symbols Hinder the Interpretation of Algebraic Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how literal symbols affect students' understanding of algebraic expressions. Middle school students (N = 322) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions in which they were asked to interpret an expression (e.g., 4c + 3b) in a story problem. Each literal symbol represented the price of an item. In the c-and-b condition, the…

McNeil, Nicole M.; Weinberg, Aaron; Hattikudur, Shanta; Stephens, Ana C.; Asquith, Pamela; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.

2010-01-01

411

"Oh, Say Can You See?" Visualizing American Symbols in the Fifth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbols have always had an important role in shaping our identity as a nation. The American flag, the Statue of Liberty, the White House, and the bald eagle all help to convey American values such as liberty, freedom, democracy, and independence. But how do elementary students understand these symbols and the values behind them? In this article,…

Brugar, Kristy A.; Dickman, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

412

Channel symbol expansion diversity-improved coded modulation for the Rayleigh fading channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncorrelated Rayleigh channel can be regarded a worst case channel for digital radio communication. Crucial for the detection performance on this channel is the diversity order of the communication system, which shall be as large as possible. For trellis coded modulation (TCM) with symbol-interleaving the diversity order is the smallest number of distinct channel symbols along any error event.

Ulf Hansson; Tor Aulin

1996-01-01

413

Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

2013-01-01

414

Language Acquisition and Symbol Grounding Transfer with Neural Networks and Cognitive Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks have been proposed as an ideal cognitive modeling methodology to deal with the symbol grounding problem. More recently, such neural network approaches have been incorporated in studies based on cognitive agents and robots. In this paper we present a new model of symbol grounding transfer in cognitive robots. Language learning simulations demonstrate that robots are able to acquire

Angelo Cangelosi; Emmanouil Hourdakis; Vadim Tikhanoff

2006-01-01

415

ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus  

E-print Network

ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA Abstract A new ASCII encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet a large number of languages with phonemic and phonetic symbols, these were found to be inadequate

Hosom, John-Paul

416

ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus  

E-print Network

ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA Abstract A new ASCII encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet. When an attempt was made to label a large number of languages with phonemic and phonetic symbols

Penn, Gerald

417

The Effects of Computerized Symbol Processor Instruction on the Communication Skills of Nonspeaking Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized symbol processor system using an Apple IIe computer and a Power Pad graphics tablet was tested with 22 nonspeaking, multiply disabled students. The students were taught to express themselves independently in writing, and they did significantly better than control students on measures of language comprehension and symbol recognition.…

Osguthorpe, Russell T.; Li Chang, Linda

1988-01-01

418

Evaluating Maintenance Performance: A Video Approach to Symbolic Testing of Electronics Maintenance Tasks. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume reports an effort to use the video media as an approach for the preparation of a battery of symbolic tests that would be empirically valid substitutes for criterion referenced Job Task Performance Tests. The graphic symbolic tests require the storage of a large amount of pictorial information which must be searched rapidly for display.…

Shriver, Edgar L.; And Others

419

Deterministic Parsing of English: A Case for Sub-Symbolic Learning  

E-print Network

Deterministic Parsing of English: A Case for Sub-Symbolic Learning Kanaan A. Faisal Information parsing rules. Learning is achieved in the neural network through backward error propagation . A more and Southwestern Bell Telephone Company. #12;Deterministic Parsing of English: A Case for Sub-Symbolic Learning

Faisal, Kanaan Abed

420

Accepted Manuscript 1 BoR: Bag-of-Relations for Symbol Retrieval*  

E-print Network

Accepted Manuscript 1 BoR: Bag-of-Relations for Symbol Retrieval* K.C. SANTOSH US National Library for symbol retrieval based on bag-of-relations (BoRs) which are computed between extracted visual primitives topological relation information indexed in bags-of-relations and use this for recognition. As a consequence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

2012-01-01

422

Effect of Translucency on Transparency and Symbol Learning for Children with and without Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the concept of iconicity, the iconicity hypothesis was emphasized for decades. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy. Twenty children with cerebral palsy and forty typical peers participated in the study. Ten symbols with high…

Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Ming-Chung

2011-01-01

423

Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.

Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru

1993-01-01

424

Symbolic Immortality and the Management of the Terror of Death: The Moderating Role of Attachment Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were designed to examine the contribution of R. J. Lifton's (1979) symbolic immortality construct to the management of the terror of death and to investigate whether attachment style may underlie this contribution. Using a sample of 420 Israeli students, Study 1 revealed an inverse correlation between self-reports of symbolic immortality and fear of personal death. This finding was

Victor Florian; Mario Mikulincer

1998-01-01

425

The ideologies of despair: A symbolic interpretation of punks and skinheads' usage of barbiturates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a symbolic approach will be used to explain the high rate of barbiturate misuse among two modern youth movements namely punks and skinheads. It will be argued that punks and skinheads are youth social protest movements which have channelled their social protest through subcultural 'style' and symbolism. Neither group has developed an articulate coherent philosophy at the

A. Burr

1984-01-01

426

The Contribution of Symbolic Skills to the Development of an Explicit Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists have speculated about the symbolic underpinnings of theory of mind (ToM), but no study has examined them across the main developmental span of ToM. Here, the onset of symbolic understandings in three domains (pretend play, language, and understanding representations) and ToM was examined. Fifty-eight children were tested on batteries of…

Lillard, Angeline S.; Kavanaugh, Robert D.

2014-01-01

427

Using Symbols in International Business Presentations: How Well Are They Understood?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to measure how well business and professional people from various cultures interpret symbols commonly used in international business presentations. Questionnaires contained 15 black and white symbols, selected from the clip art collection of Harvard Graphics business graphics software. Respondents from the United…

Griffin, Robert E.; And Others

428

Dams as Symbols of Modernization: The Urbanization of Nature Between Geographical Imagination and Materiality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article offers an analysis of the iconography and symbolism of dam constructions at three levels: first, as embodiments of the dialectics between geographical imaginations and material practices in the process of modernization; second, as symbols of modernity's quest to conquer and urbanize nature; and third, as the catalysts for reconfiguring the relationship between nature and the city. The article

Maria Kaika

2006-01-01

429

Poisson-Lie group of pseudodifferential symbols and fractional KP-KdV hierarchies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lie algebra of pseudodifferential symbols on the circle has a nontrivial central extension (by the ``logarithmic'' 2-cocycle) generalizing the Virasoro algebra. The corresponding extended subalgebra of integral operators generates the Lie group of classical symbols of all real (or complex) degrees. It turns out that this group has a natural Poisson-Lie structure whose restriction to differential operators of an

Boris Khesin; Ilya Zakharevich

1993-01-01

430

Web 2.0 als Mythos, Symbol und Erwartung Christian Maa  

E-print Network

Web 2.0 als Mythos, Symbol und Erwartung Christian MaaĂ? und Gotthard Pietsch Diskussionsbeitrag Nr* Web 2.0 als Mythos, Symbol und Erwartung 1 Einleitung.................................................................... 1 2 Vom Web 1.0 zum Web 2.0...................................................................... 2

GĂĽting, Ralf Hartmut

431

Identification of statistical patterns in complex systems via symbolic time series analysis  

E-print Network

of Symbolic Dynamics, Automata Theory, and Information Theory. To this end, a symbolic time series analysis. For example, no existing model can capture the dynamical behavior of fatigue damage at the grain level solely conditions and critical parameters of the system may eventually produce large bifurcations and chaotic

Ray, Asok

432

Linguistic Mediation of Children's Performance in a New Symbolic Understanding Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of language on symbolic functioning were examined using the "boxes task," a new symbolic understanding task based on DeLoache's model task. Children ("N" = 32; ages 2;4--3;8) observed an object being hidden in a stack of four boxes and were then asked to retrieve a similar object in the same location from a set…

Homer, Bruce D.; Petroff, Natalya; Hayward, Elizabeth O.

2013-01-01

433

Electrosurgical safety.  

PubMed

Technological advances in safety and the performance of electrosurgical units (ESUs) have made the ESU the most common piece of electrical equipment in the OR. The constant presence of the ESU in the OR increases the potential for patient injury that is associated with the use of any piece of electrical equipment. To prevent injuries related to the use of an ESU, the perioperative nurse must understand the types of current used, types of ESUs available, and potential complications and have a working knowledge of safe practices for using this equipment in the perioperative setting. PMID:9829132

Hutchisson, B; Baird, M G; Wagner, S

1998-11-01

434

Parameter Unit Name Unit Symbol Capacitance (C) Farad F  

E-print Network

Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply UV Ultraviolet VSS Vital Safety Systems dB Power (P) Watt, or Volt-Ampere W, VA Pressure pounds force/in2 lbf/in2 Time (t) second, minute

435

Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

Li, Jinpeng; Mouchčre, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

2012-01-01

436

SYMBMAT: Symbolic computation of quantum transition matrix elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a set of Mathematica notebooks to compute symbolically quantum transition matrices relevant for atomic ionization processes. The utilization of a symbolic language allows us to obtain analytical expressions for the transition matrix elements required in charged-particle and laser induced ionization of atoms. Additionally, by using a few simple commands, it is possible to export these symbolic expressions to standard programming languages, such as Fortran or C, for the subsequent computation of differential cross sections or other observables. One of the main drawbacks in the calculation of transition matrices is the tedious algebraic work required when initial states other than the simple hydrogenic 1s state need to be considered. Using these notebooks the work is dramatically reduced and it is possible to generate exact expressions for a large set of bound states. We present explicit examples of atomic collisions (in First Born Approximation and Distorted Wave Theory) and laser-matter interactions (within the Dipole and Strong Field Approximations and different gauges) using both hydrogenic wavefunctions and Slater-Type Orbitals with arbitrary nlm quantum numbers as initial states. Catalogue identifier: AEMI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 71 628 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 444 195 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica Computer: Single machines using Linux or Windows (with cores with any clock speed, cache memory and bits in a word) Operating system: Any OS that supports Mathematica. The notebooks have been tested under Windows and Linux and with versions 6.x, 7.x and 8.x Classification: 2.6 Nature of problem: The notebooks generate analytical expressions for quantum transition matrix elements required in diverse atomic processes: ionization by ion, electron, or photon impact and ionization within the framework of strong field physics. In charged-particle collisions approaches based on perturbation theory enjoy widespread utilization. Accordingly, we have chosen the First Born Approximation and Distorted Wave theories as examples. In light-matter interactions, the main ingredient for many types of calculations is the dipole transition matrix in its different formulations, i.e. length, velocity, and acceleration gauges. In all these cases the transitions of interest occur between a bound state and a continuum state which can be described in different ways. With the notebooks developed in the present work it is possible to calculate transition matrix elements analytically for any set of quantum numbers nlm of initial hydrogenic states or Slater-Type Orbitals and for plane waves or Coulomb waves as final continuum states. Solution method: The notebooks employ symbolic computation to generate analytical expressions for transition matrix elements used in both collision and light-matter interaction physics. fba_hyd.nb - This notebook computes analytical expressions for the transition matrix of collision-induced ionization in the First Born Approximation (FBA). The transitions considered are from a bound hydrogenic state with arbitrary quantum numbers nlm to a continuum state represented by a plane wave (PW) or a Coulomb wave (CW). distorted_hyd.nb - This notebook computes analytical expressions for the transition matrix of collision-induced ionization in Distorted Wave (DW) theories. The transitions considered are from a (distorted) bound hydrogenic state with arbitrary quantum numbers nlm to a distorted-wave continuum state. The computations are based on scalar and vectorial integrals (see the text for details). dipoleLength_hyd.nb - This notebook computes analytical expressions for the dipole transition matrix in length gauge. The transitions considered are from a bound h

Ciappina, M. F.; Kirchner, T.

2012-08-01

437

General purpose symbolic simulation tools for electric networks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents research results on the use of computers to solve simulation problems in a way closer to human thinking. With the aid of techniques in AI (Artificial Intelligence), DB (Data Base Systems), and Computer Graphics, a set of general purpose LISP and PASCAL based simulation tools have been developed. Each of these tools solves a specific problem in some stage of simulation. Rule-based and object-oriented symbolic manipulations are extensively used. The tools provide more powerful and accurate modelling capability for complex objects, and permit simplicity and flexibility in implementation. The tools are used to study electrical transient problems, optimal load flow problems, linear control systems, and other simulation problems.

Alvarado, F.L.; Lui, Y.

1988-05-01

438

Ordinal judgments of numerical symbols by macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned that the arabic numerals 0 through 9 represented corresponding quantities of food pellets. By manipulating a joystick, the monkeys were able to make a selection of paired numerals presented on a computer screen. Although the monkeys received a corresponding number of pellets even if the lesser of the two numerals was selected, they learned generally to choose the numeral of greatest value even when pellet delivery was made arrhythmic. In subsequent tests, they chose the numerals of greater value when presented in novel combinations or in random arrays of up to five numerals. Thus, the monkeys made ordinal judgments of numerical symbols in accordance with their absolute or relative values.

Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1991-01-01

439

Principal Component Analysis for Normal-Distribution-Valued Symbolic Data.  

PubMed

This paper puts forward a new approach to principal component analysis (PCA) for normal-distribution-valued symbolic data, which has a vast potential of applications in the economic and management field. We derive a full set of numerical characteristics and variance-covariance structure for such data, which forms the foundation for our analytical PCA approach. Our approach is able to use all of the variance information in the original data than the prevailing representative-type approach in the literature which only uses centers, vertices, etc. The paper also provides an accurate approach to constructing the observations in a PC space based on the linear additivity property of normal distribution. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by simulated numerical experiments. At last, our method is applied to explain the puzzle of risk-return tradeoff in China's stock market. PMID:25095276

Wang, Huiwen; Chen, Meiling; Shi, Xiaojun; Li, Nan

2014-07-29

440

The Symbolic World of the Bilingual Child: Digressions on Language Acquisition, Culture and the Process of Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we explore the relationship between language acquisition, and the construction of a symbolic world. According to Bowers (1989) language is a collection of patterns regulating social life. This conception is close to that of Symbolic Interactionists (Charon, 1989) who see society as made up of interacting individuals who are symbol

Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Shkandrij, Miroslav

2004-01-01

441

Rebuilding a safety culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk\\/assessment\\/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

George A. Rodney

1991-01-01

442

Rebuilding a safety culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

Rodney, George A.

1991-11-01

443

Rebuilding a safety culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

Rodney, George A.

1991-01-01

444

AEROSPACE SAFETY ADVISORY PANEL  

E-print Network

AEROSPACE SAFETY ADVISORY PANEL ANNUAL REPORT FOR 20! 3 #12;. #12;NASA AEROSPACE SAFETY ADVISORY and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-155), the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP. Dyer, USN (Ret.) Chair, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Enclosure #12;NASA AEROSPACE SAFETY ADVISORY

Waliser, Duane E.

445

Electrical Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Electrical Safety, is the third chapter in Volume I. Topics covered in this chapter include: shock current path, Ohmâ??s law, safe practices, emergence response, safe circuit design, safe meter usage, and electric shock data. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

446

Laser safety.  

PubMed

The use of lasers in medical practice has seen great expansion in the past decades. However, these devices may also pose a significant hazard. Laser hazards are generally divided into beam hazards and nonbeam hazards. Beam hazards inflict ocular and cutaneous injury, whereas nonbeam hazards stem from the laser device itself or its interaction with materials within the surgical environment. The latter include laser plume hazards, fire hazards, and electrical hazards inherent in a high-voltage system that is a laser device. Therefore, a thorough understanding of these hazards along with methods to reduce their risk is of paramount importance in order to ensure maximal safety for the surgeon, the staff, and the patient. PMID:21865796

Dudelzak, Jacob; Goldberg, David J

2011-01-01

447

Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.  

PubMed

Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

2014-10-01

448

Strategies of symbolization in cardiovascular time series to test individual gestational development in the fetus.  

PubMed

The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series retrieves dynamical properties of the underlying regulation which are robust against the symbolic transformation. In this study, three different transformations to produce a symbolic series were applied to fetal RR interval series to test whether they reflect individual changes of fetal heart rate variability in the course of pregnancy. Each transformation was applied to 215 heartbeat datasets obtained from 11 fetuses during the second and the third trimester of pregnancy (at least 10 datasets per fetus, median 17). In the symbolic series, the occurrence of symbolic sequences of length 3 was categorized according to the amount of variations in the sequence: no variation of the symbols, one variation, two variations. Linear regression with respect to gestational age showed that the individual course during pregnancy performed best using a binary transformation reflecting whether the RR interval differences are below or above a threshold. The median goodness of fit of the individual regression lines was 0.73 and also the variability among the individual slopes was low. Other transformations to symbolic dynamics performed worse but were still able to reflect the individual progress of fetal cardiovascular regulation. PMID:25548263

Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Van Leeuwen, Peter

2015-02-13

449

Top-down processing of symbolic meanings modulates the visual word form area.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on humans have identified a region in the left middle fusiform gyrus consistently activated by written words. This region is called the visual word form area (VWFA). Recently, a hypothesis, called the interactive account, is proposed that to effectively analyze the bottom-up visual properties of words, the VWFA receives predictive feedback from higher-order regions engaged in processing sounds, meanings, or actions associated with words. Further, this top-down influence on the VWFA is independent of stimulus formats. To test this hypothesis, we used fMRI to examine whether a symbolic nonword object (e.g., the Eiffel Tower) intended to represent something other than itself (i.e., Paris) could activate the VWFA. We found that scenes associated with symbolic meanings elicited a higher VWFA response than those not associated with symbolic meanings, and such top-down modulation on the VWFA can be established through short-term associative learning, even across modalities. In addition, the magnitude of the symbolic effect observed in the VWFA was positively correlated with the subjective experience on the strength of symbol-referent association across individuals. Therefore, the VWFA is likely a neural substrate for the interaction of the top-down processing of symbolic meanings with the analysis of bottom-up visual properties of sensory inputs, making the VWFA the location where the symbolic meaning of both words and nonword objects is represented. PMID:22933809

Song, Yiying; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

2012-08-29

450

Medical Device Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail ... Medical Product Safety Network Emergency Situations (Medical Devices) Medical Device Safety Search the Medical Device Safety Section Medical ...

451

ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY  

E-print Network

representatives, health and safety technicians, occupational health specialists and nurses, risk managers, union representatives, health and safety technicians, occupational health specialists and nurses, riskENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMS SPRING 2012 Including: Free Information Session New

California at Davis, University of

452

ETE Electrical Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a collection of safety topics that may be discussed in electrical safety meetings or classes. Topics include fuse removal, GFCIs, electrical shock, first aid, LOTO, PPE, fire safety, and hazardous locations.

2013-06-13

453

National Patient Safety Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Joint Commission Journal Focus Archive Stand Up for Patient Safety Welcome Stand Up Members Stand Up e-News ... PLS Webcast Archives Stand Up Templates and Logos Patient Safety Coalition Patient Safety Coalition Members Partnership Compact Stand ...

454

Checklist for Environmental Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... A Checklist for Environmental Safety A Checklist for Environmental Safety Making facilities and programs and activities safe ... Email Print Like (8 Likes) A Checklist for Environmental Safety Back to : Living with Low Vision Directory ...

455

Postmarket Drug Safety Information  

MedlinePLUS

... postmarket drug safety information to improve transparency and communication to patients and healthcare providers. Studies and Clinical Trials of ... Safety Information Index to Drug-Specific Information For ... News & Events Includes drug safety announcements from CDER ...

456

Laser Safety Introduction  

E-print Network

use Integrated Safety Management here at the lab to reduce risk and workLaser Safety #12;Introduction · A Laser is a device that controls the way (greater in size than wavelength) #12;Integrated Safety Management Remember, we

McQuade, D. Tyler

457

Fire safety at home  

MedlinePLUS

... healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/all-around/pages/Fire-Safety.aspx. Accessed August 27, 2013. United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. Fireworks information center. Available at: http://www.cpsc.gov/fireworks. ...

458

Paper Shredder Safety Alert  

MedlinePLUS

Paper Shredder Safety Alert Consumer model paper shredders are very popular. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission ( ... offers the following safety tips when using a paper shredder: ? Never allow children to operate paper shredders, ...

459

Surveying Science Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of a National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) study that analyzed science classroom safety. Examines the potential need for a national safety indexing system to rank states with regard to science safety. (DDR)

Gerlovich, Jack A.; Parsa, Rahul

2002-01-01

460

Integration of symbolic and algorithmic hardware and software for the automation of space station subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert systems that require access to data bases, complex simulations and real time instrumentation have both symbolic as well as algorithmic computing needs. These needs could both be met using a general computing workstation running both symbolic and algorithmic code, or separate, specialized computers networked together. The later approach was chosen to implement TEXSYS, the thermal expert system, developed to demonstrate the ability of an expert system to autonomously control the thermal control system of the space station. TEXSYS has been implemented on a Symbolics workstation, and will be linked to a microVAX computer that will control a thermal test bed. Integration options are explored and several possible solutions are presented.

Gregg, Hugh; Healey, Kathleen; Hack, Edmund; Wong, Carla

1987-01-01

461

Safety analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

Knight, John C.

1995-01-01

462

Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of utilizing information available in the constraints imposed by a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code has been proposed as a means of aiding the recovery of symbol timing in the reception of a binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signal representing such a code in the presence of noise, timing error, and/or Doppler shift between the transmitter and the receiver. This method and the receiver architecture in which it would be implemented belong to a class of timing-recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. Acquisition and tracking of a signal of the type described above have traditionally been performed upstream of, and independently of, decoding and have typically involved utilization of a phase-locked loop (PLL). However, the LDPC decoding process, which is iterative, provides information that can be fed back to the timing-recovery receiver circuits to improve performance significantly over that attainable in the absence of such feedback. Prior methods of coupling LDPC decoding with timing recovery had focused on the use of output code words produced as the iterations progress. In contrast, in the present method, one exploits the information available from the metrics computed for the constraint nodes of an LDPC code during the decoding process. In addition, the method involves the use of a waveform model that captures, better than do the waveform models of the prior methods, distortions introduced by receiver timing errors and transmitter/ receiver motions. An LDPC code is commonly represented by use of a bipartite graph containing two sets of nodes. In the graph corresponding to an (n,k) code, the n variable nodes correspond to the code word symbols and the n-k constraint nodes represent the constraints that the code places on the variable nodes in order for them to form a valid code word. The decoding procedure involves iterative computation of values associated with these nodes. A constraint node represents a parity-check equation using a set of variable nodes as inputs. A valid decoded code word is obtained if all parity-check equations are satisfied. After each iteration, the metrics associated with each constraint node can be evaluated to determine the status of the associated parity check. Heretofore, normally, these metrics would be utilized only within the LDPC decoding process to assess whether or not variable nodes had converged to a codeword. In the present method, it is recognized that these metrics can be used to determine accuracy of the timing estimates used in acquiring the sampled data that constitute the input to the LDPC decoder. In fact, the number of constraints that are satisfied exhibits a peak near the optimal timing estimate. Coarse timing estimation (or first-stage estimation as described below) is found via a parametric search for this peak. The present method calls for a two-stage receiver architecture illustrated in the figure. The first stage would correct large time delays and frequency offsets; the second stage would track random walks and correct residual time and frequency offsets. In the first stage, constraint-node feedback from the LDPC decoder would be employed in a search algorithm in which the searches would be performed in successively narrower windows to find the correct time delay and/or frequency offset. The second stage would include a conventional first-order PLL with a decision-aided timing-error detector that would utilize, as its decision aid, decoded symbols from the LDPC decoder. The method has been tested by means of computational simulations in cases involving various timing and frequency errors. The results of the simulations ined in the ideal case of perfect timing in the receiver.

Jones, Christopher; Villasnor, John; Lee, Dong-U; Vales, Esteban

2008-01-01

463

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office 130 DeSoto Street G-7 Parran with sources of ionizing radiation are required to be instructed in the basic principles of radiation protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide

Sibille, Etienne

464

Environmental Health & Safety Office of Radiological Safety  

E-print Network

Information: Department: Building: Room: Lab Phone: #12;Environmental Health & Safety Office of Radiological Supervisor I shall notify the Laser Safety Officer in writing of my intention to move my laser/laser lab or disposal of lasers in my lab(s). 8. I have read and understand the Georgia Tech Laser Safety Policy Manual

Houston, Paul L.

465

National Ag Safety Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. Spanish materials are included.

2007-01-15

466

Farm Health and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

467

SymGF: A Symbolic Tool for Quantum Transport Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I report the development and application of a symbolic derivation tool named "SymGF'' - standing for Symbolic Green's Function, that can automatically and analytically derive quantum transport expressions and the associated Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). Quantum transport happens in open systems consisting of a scattering region coupled to external electrodes. When there are strong electron-electron interactions in the scattering region, analytical derivations of the Green's functions can be very tedious and error prone. Running on a personal computer, SymGF derives the necessary analytical formulas at a level of correlation specified by the user, using the equation of motion (EOM) method. The input to SymGF are the second quantized form the device Hamiltonian, the (anti)commutators of the operators that appear in the Hamiltonian, and a truncation rule for the correlators which determines the accuracy of the final outcome. The output of SymGF are the analytical expressions of transport properties such as electric current and conductance in terms of various Green's functions; as well as the Green's functions themselves in terms of the unperturbed non-interacting Green's functions that can be obtained straightforwardly. For systems where electron-electron interaction can be neglected, the transport problems can be easily solved and SymGF is not necessary - even though SymGF gives the same answer; but for interacting systems SymGF drastically reduces the mathematical burden of analytical derivations. We have tested SymGF for several transport problems involving Kondo resonances where analytical derivations were done by humans: exactly the same results were obtained by SymGF but in a tiny fraction of time. We have applied SymGF to new and very hard problems that resist analytical derivations by hand, including quantum transport in a double quantum dot system; transport through a single quantum dot in parallel to a direct lead-to-lead tunneling. Finally, at the post-analysis level, we have combined SymGF with an ab initio numerical modeling method to calculate quantum transport features involving atomistic degrees of freedom.

Feng, Zi Min

468

Bromine Safety  

SciTech Connect

The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

Meyers, B

2001-04-09

469

50 CFR 80.99 - Are symbols available to identify projects?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS General Grant Administration...b) The symbol of the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act follows:...

2014-10-01

470

75 FR 63800 - Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulations authorizes the Chief of the Forest Service to approve commercial use of...help young children discover the natural world and join in life- long actions to care for that world. The USDA Forest Service National Symbols Program...

2010-10-18

471

The Ironist and Hypocrite as Presidential Symbols: A Nixon-Kennedy Analog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the self-disparaging ironist and the hypocrite as symbols of power in contemporary American politics. Contrasts the presidential images of Richard Nixon and John Kennedy who exemplify, respectively, hypocritical and ironical power-holders. (PD)

Kaufer, David S.

1979-01-01

472

When moral identity symbolization motivates prosocial behavior: the role of recognition and moral identity internalization.  

PubMed

This article examines the role of moral identity symbolization in motivating prosocial behaviors. We propose a 3-way interaction of moral identity symbolization, internalization, and recognition to predict prosocial behavior. When moral identity internalization is low, we hypothesize that high moral identity symbolization motivates recognized prosocial behavior due to the opportunity to present one's moral characteristics to others. In contrast, when moral identity internalization is high, prosocial behavior is motivated irrespective of the level of symbolization and recognition. Two studies provide support for this pattern examining volunteering of time. Our results provide a framework for predicting prosocial behavior by combining the 2 dimensions of moral identity with the situational factor of recognition. PMID:23751218

Winterich, Karen Page; Aquino, Karl; Mittal, Vikas; Swartz, Richard

2013-09-01

473

36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except as provided under §§ 271.2, 271.3, or 271.4 is...

2013-07-01

474

36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except as provided under §§ 271.2, 271.3, or 271.4 is...

2014-07-01

475

36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except as provided under §§ 271.2, 271.3, or 271.4 is...

2010-07-01

476

36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except as provided under §§ 271.2, 271.3, or 271.4 is...

2012-07-01

477

36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except as provided under §§ 271.2, 271.3, or 271.4 is...

2011-07-01

478

40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and...

2010-07-01

479

40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and...

2011-07-01

480

40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and...

2012-07-01

481

music21: A Toolkit for Computer-Aided Musicology and Symbolic Music Data  

E-print Network

Music21 is an object-oriented toolkit for analyzing, searching, and transforming music in symbolic (score- based) forms. The modular approach of the project allows musicians and researchers to write simple scripts rapidly ...

Cuthbert, Michael Scott

482

Calculation of stress intensity factors in an isotropic multicracked plate: Part 2: Symbolic/numeric implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical derivations of stress intensity factors (SIF's) of a multicracked plate can be complex and tedious. Recent advances, however, in intelligent application of symbolic computation can overcome these difficulties and provide the means to rigorously and efficiently analyze this class of problems. Here, the symbolic algorithm required to implement the methodology described in Part 1 is presented. The special problem-oriented symbolic functions to derive the fundamental kernels are described, and the associated automatically generated FORTRAN subroutines are given. As a result, a symbolic/FORTRAN package named SYMFRAC, capable of providing accurate SIF's at each crack tip, was developed and validated. Simple illustrative examples using SYMFRAC show the potential of the present approach for predicting the macrocrack propagation path due to existing microcracks in the vicinity of a macrocrack tip, when the influence of the microcrack's location, orientation, size, and interaction are taken into account.

Arnold, S. M.; Binienda, W. K.; Tan, H. Q.; Xu, M. H.

1992-01-01

483

Application of symbolic computation to the analysis of mechanical systems, including robot arms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper illustrates the application of symbolic computation in connection with three aspects of mechanical systems: (1) The derivation of dynamical equations by Lagrangian methods; (2) The analysis and synthesis of kinematic mechanisms; and (3) A robot manipulator arm.

Hussain, M. A.; Noble, B.

1984-01-01

484

Integration of symbolic and algorithmic hardware and software for the automation of space station subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional expert systems, such as diagnostic and training systems, interact with users only through a keyboard and screen, and are usually symbolic in nature. Expert systems that require access to data bases, complex simulations and real-time instrumentation have both symbolic as well as algorithmic computing needs. These needs could both be met using a general purpose workstation running both symbolic and algorithmic code, or separate, specialized computers networked together. The latter approach was chosen to implement TEXSYS, the thermal expert system, developed by NASA Ames Research Center in conjunction with Johnson Space Center to demonstrate the ability of an expert system to autonomously monitor the thermal control system of the space station. TEXSYS has been implemented on a Symbolics workstation, and will be linked to a microVAX computer that will control a thermal test bed. This paper will explore the integration options, and present several possible solutions.

Gregg, Hugh; Healey, Kathleen; Hack, Edmund; Wong, Carla

1987-01-01

485

APPLICATION OF SYMBOLIC PIECEWISE AGGREGATE APPROXIMATION (PAA) ANALYSIS TO ECG SIGNALS  

E-print Network

with C.R. Shalzi and K.L.Shalzi. Asok Ray has performed some other important studies in the field. He (Symbolic Aggregate Approximation) is invented by Eamonn Keogh and Jessica Lin, which is also employed

Kumova, Bora

486

Natural language parsing in a hybrid connectionist-symbolic architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most connectionist parsers either cannot guarantee the correctness of their derivations or have to simulate a serial flow of control. In the first case, users have to restrict the tasks (e.g. parse less complex or shorter sentences) of the parser or they need to believe in the soundness of the result. In the second case, the resulting network has lost most of its attractivity because seriality needs to be hard-coded into the structure of the net. We here present a hybrid symbolic connectionist parser, which was designed to fulfill the following goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free grammar, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network. Our hybrid architecture consists of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. BrainC (Backtracking and Backpropagation in C) combines the well known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent the typical properties of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN- Workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. We discuss how BrainC reached its design goals and what results we observed.

Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

1991-03-01

487

Universal Symbolic Expression for Radial Distance of Conic Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, a universal symbolic expression for radial distance of conic motion in recursive power series form is developed. The importance of this analytical power series representation is that it is invariant under many operations because the result of addition, multiplication, exponentiation, integration, differentiation, etc. of a power series is also a power series. This is the fact that provides excellent flexibility in dealing with analytical, as well as computational developments of problems related to radial distance. For computational developments, a full recursive algorithm is developed for the series coefficients. An efficient method using the continued fraction theory is provided for series evolution, and two devices are proposed to secure the convergence when the time interval (t-t_0) is large. In addition, the algorithm does not need the solution of Kepler's equation and its variants for parabolic and hyperbolic orbits. Numerical applications of the algorithm are given for three orbits of different eccentricities; the results showed that it is accurate for any conic motion.

Sharaf, M. A.; Saad, A. S.; Alshaery, A. A.

2014-12-01

488

Semiclassical Approximations for Hamiltonians with Operator-Valued Symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the semiclassical limit of quantum systems with a Hamiltonian given by the Weyl quantization of an operator valued symbol. Systems composed of slow and fast degrees of freedom are of this form. Typically a small dimensionless parameter {\\varepsilon ? 1} controls the separation of time scales and the limit {\\varepsilonto 0} corresponds to an adiabatic limit, in which the slow and fast degrees of freedom decouple. At the same time {\\varepsilonto 0} is the semiclassical limit for the slow degrees of freedom. In this paper we show that the {\\varepsilon} -dependent classical flow for the slow degrees of freedom first discovered by Littlejohn and Flynn (Phys Rev A (3) 44(8):5239-5256, 1991), coming from an {\\varepsilon} -dependent classical Hamilton function and an {\\varepsilon} -dependent symplectic form, has a concrete mathematical and physical meaning: Based on this flow we prove a formula for equilibrium expectations, an Egorov theorem and transport of Wigner functions, thereby approximating properties of the quantum system up to errors of order {\\varepsilon^2} . In the context of Bloch electrons formal use of this classical system has triggered considerable progress in solid state physics (Xiao et al. in Rev Mod Phys 82(3):1959-2007, 2010). Hence we discuss in some detail the application of the general results to the Hofstadter model, which describes a two-dimensional gas of non-interacting electrons in a constant magnetic field in the tight-binding approximation.

Stiepan, Hans-Michael; Teufel, Stefan

2013-06-01

489

Toward physics of the mind: Concepts, emotions, consciousness, and symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical approaches to modeling the mind since the 1950s are reviewed, including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, and neural networks. I analyze difficulties faced by these algorithms and neural networks and relate them to the fundamental inconsistency of logic discovered by Gödel. Mathematical discussions are related to those in neurobiology, psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy. Higher cognitive functions are reviewed including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination, intuition, consciousness. Then, I describe a mathematical formulation, unifying the mind mechanisms in a psychologically and neuro-biologically plausible system. A mechanism of the knowledge instinct drives our understanding of the world and serves as a foundation for higher cognitive functions. This mechanism relates aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty to “everyday” functioning of the mind. The article reviews mechanisms of human symbolic ability. I touch on future directions: joint evolution of the mind, language, consciousness, and cultures; mechanisms of differentiation and synthesis; a manifold of aesthetic emotions in music and differentiated instinct for knowledge. I concentrate on elucidating the first principles; review aspects of the theory that have been proven in laboratory research, relationships between the mind and brain; discuss unsolved problems, and outline a number of theoretical predictions, which will have to be tested in future mathematical simulations and neuro-biological research.

Perlovsky, Leonid I.

2006-03-01

490

Sakura: Cherry Blossoms as Living Symbols of Friendship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1912, the city of Tokyo made a wonderful gift to the citizens of Washington, D.C. when they sent along 3,000 cherry trees. Every spring since, these sakura (cherry blossoms) have enlivened the area around the Tidal Basin: the National Cherry Blossom Festival draws more than one million visitors each year from all corners of the globe. This fine digital collection from the Library of Congress tells the story of these landmark trees and offers insight into the historical significance of cherry blossoms in Japan. Visitors can start by clicking on the Themes area to look over original paintings, postcards, and other documents related to topics such as Watercolors of the Original Sakura and Sakura: Cherry Blossoms in Japanese Cultural History. One very moving item here is an editorial cartoon by Herbert Block which depicts President Franklin D. Roosevelt tending to withering olive branches as fragile symbols of peace while the cherry trees blossom in the background. Also, visitors can click on the Exhibition Items area to view a chart of all the items included on the site.

491

The effects of status symbols and leaders' race upon subordinates' attitudes across race: a cognitive explanation  

E-print Network

racial differences in organizations to predisposed beliefs, values, or psychological states. Since socialization of school, work, and social behaviors are different for whites and blacks, it may be expected that attitudes and perceptions toward..., 1983). The study of organizational symbolism recognizes the importance of understanding human action and attitude in organizations. Frequently the symbolism is wrapped up in meanings which are created, sustained, challenged and sometimes changed...

Nottingham, Derrick Andre,?

1991-01-01

492

Performance evaluation of Go-Back-i-symbol ARQ scheme applicable to meteor burst communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new ARQ scheme, named Go-Back-i-symbol (GBi) ARQ scheme which is suitable to Meteor Burst Communications (MBC). The scheme is based on the Viterbi decoding algorithm for convolutional codes and can achieve symbol-wise retransmission, so that it has high throughput performance for packet communication systems over time varying short burst channels such as MBC channels.

Shinsuke Nagata; Kaiji Mukumoto; Tadahiro Wada; Koji Ishibashi

2010-01-01

493

National symbols and nation-building in the post-apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbols such as the Rainbow Nation and new national flag have been hailed worldwide as representative of optimism that the new political dispensation would bring reconciliation and unity in the diverse South African society. This article investigates issues of nation-building, national symbols and awareness of distinctive group membership in post-apartheid South Africa. The results of a survey in October\\/November 1998

Elirea Bornman

2006-01-01

494

Optimum Binary to Symbol Coding for 6PSK and Bit Error Rate Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the optimum binary to symbol coding for 6PSK (senary PSK) that minimizes bit errors. 6PSK is expected to be able to transmit data at a higher information rate than QPSK with lower required Eb\\/N0 compared with 8PSK. In this paper, after discussing general principles of 6PSK, the authors propose the optimum 5 bit to 2 symbol coding

Seiichi NODA; S. Koike

2007-01-01

495

Exact constructions of square-root Helmholtz operator symbols: The focusing quadratic profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operator symbols play a pivotal role in both the exact, well-posed, one-way reformu- lation of solving the (elliptic) Helmholtz equation and the construction of the gener- alized Bremmer coupling series. The inverse square-root and square-root Helmholtz operator symbols are the initial quantities of interest in both formulations, in addition to providing the theoretical framework for the development and implementation of

Louis Fishman; Maarten V. de Hoop; Mattheus J. N. van Stralen

1999-01-01

496

Safety Standards for Projectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

Wyman, Raymond

1979-01-01

497

Lessons in Shooter Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Lessons in Shooter Safety You can prevent hearing loss: Always wear ear protection while shooting. OK, listen up. Firearm safety ... audiologist . 3 ways to protect and preserve your hearing when shooting … 1. Wear ... 3. Wear Combination Ear & Eye Safety Glasses Contact the National Institute on ...

498

School Bus Safety Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

499

Radiation Safety September 2013  

E-print Network

Radiation Safety Manual September 2013 Office of Environment, Health & Safety #12;RADIATION SAFETY of ionizing radiation as a valuable tool to extend fundamental knowledge. These activities are an important of radiation-producing machines and radioactive materials attests to the success of its radiation safety

California at Irvine, University of

500

Safety: Preventive Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

1985-01-01