Science.gov

Sample records for symbols safety

  1. Inferred threat and safety: symbolic generalization of human avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Simon; Schlund, Michael W; Roche, Bryan; Whelan, Robert; Richards, Jennifer; Davies, Cara

    2011-10-01

    Symbolic generalization of avoidance may underlie the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate inferred threat-avoidance and safety (non-avoidance) behaviours that occur in the presence of stimuli indirectly related to learned threat and safety cues. A laboratory experiment was conducted involving two symbolic stimulus equivalence relations consisting of three physically dissimilar stimuli (avoidance cues: AV1-AV2-AV3 and neutral cues: N1-N2-N3). During avoidance learning involving aversive images and sounds, a key-press avoidance response was trained for one member of one of the relations (AV2) and non-avoidance for another (N2). Inferred threat and safety behaviour and ratings of the likelihood of aversive events were tested with presentations of all remaining stimuli. Findings showed a significantly high percentage of avoidance to both the learned and inferred threat cues and less avoidance to both the learned and inferred safety cues. Ratings in the absence of avoidance were high during training and testing to threat cues and low to safety cues and were generally lower in the presence of avoidance. Implications for associative and behavioural accounts of avoidance, and modern therapies for anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:21767825

  2. Cultural ergonomics in Ghana, West Africa: a descriptive survey of industry and trade workers' interpretations of safety symbols.

    PubMed

    Smith-Jackson, Tonya L; Essuman-Johnson, Abeeku

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and technology transfer have led to the diffusion of risk communications to users from cultures that were not initially viewed as the target users. This study examined industry and trade workers' overall impressions of symbols used to convey varying degrees of hazardousness. Six symbols, including symbols from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z535 Standard (ANSI, 1998) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3864:1984 Standard (ISO, 1984) were selected. With the exception of the SKULL symbol, results showed wide discrepancies between users' perceptions of the symbols and their intended meanings. Implications for cross-cultural research on warning components and risk communications are discussed. PMID:11895581

  3. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

  4. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  5. Discrete Symbol Calculus

    E-print Network

    Demanet, Laurent

    This paper deals with efficient numerical representation and manipulation of differential and integral operators as symbols in phase-space, i.e., functions of space $x$ and frequency $\\xi$. The symbol smoothness conditions ...

  6. Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  12. The symbol grounding problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnad, Stevan

    1990-06-01

    There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. This paper describes the “symbol grounding problem”: How can the semantic interpretation of a formal symbol system be made intrinsic to the system, rather than just parasitic on the meanings in our heads? How can the meanings of the meaningless symbol tokens, manipulated solely on the basis of their (arbitrary) shapes, be grounded in anything but other meaningless symbols? The problem is analogous to trying to learn Chinese from a Chinese/Chinese dictionary alone. A candidate solution is sketched: Symbolic representations must be grounded bottom-up in nonsymbolic representations of two kinds: (1) iconic representations, which are analogs of the proximal sensory projections of distal objects and events, and (2) categorical representations, which are learned and innate feature detectors that pick out the invariant features of object and event categories from their sensory projections. Elementary symbols are the names of these object and event categories, assigned on the basis of their (nonsymbolic) categorical representations. Higher-order (3) symbolic representations, grounded in these elementary symbols, consist of symbol strings describing category membership relations (e.g. “An X is a Y that is Z”). Connectionism is one natural candidate for the mechanism that learns the invariant features underlying categorical representations, thereby connecting names to the proximal projections of the distal objects they stand for. In this way connectionism can be seen as a complementary component in a hybrid nonsymbolic/symbolic model of the mind, rather than a rival to purely symbolic modeling. Such a hybrid model would not have an autonomous symbolic “module,” however; the symbolic functions would emerge as an intrinsically “dedicated” symbol system as a consequence of the bottom-up grounding of categories' names in their sensory representations. Symbol manipulation would be governed not just by the arbitrary shapes of the symbol tokens, but by the nonarbitrary shapes of the icons and category invariants in which they are grounded.

  13. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  14. Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols, and Notation Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols, and Notation

    E-print Network

    on the Effects of Atomic Radiation #12;A.4 A.2.0 List of Symbols for the Elements and Corresponding Names Symbol Element Symbol Element Symbol Element Ac Actinium Ag Silver Al Aluminum Am Americium Ar Argon As Arsenic Copper Dy Dysprosium Er Erbium Es Einsteinium Eu Europium F Fluorine Fe Iron Fm Fermium Fr Francium Ga

  15. Sound Symbolism and Synaesthesia 

    E-print Network

    Bankieris, Kaitlyn

    2011-11-20

    Sound symbolism is the phenomenon of cross-modal correspondences non-arbitrarily linking phonological components and semantic meanings in language (e.g., words meaning round contain a high proportion of rounded vowels such as /u/; Mathur, 2010). Our...

  16. Symbolism in the Feature Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakony, Edward

    A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

  17. Symbols: historic and current uses.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Emilee

    2008-01-01

    From hieroglyphs to barcodes, symbols have been used throughout history. Symbols can be observed on traffic signs, warning signs that are affixed to building fronts, doors of public restrooms to show gender-specific usage, and caution signs on caustic or poisonous chemicals; even Braille, a system of writing and printing for the blind, is a symbol form. This article includes a brief discussion on the psychology of symbols, history of symbols, symbols used by alchemists and pharmacists, and the current use of symbols. PMID:23969927

  18. Memoized Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

  19. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  20. The Presence of a Symbol 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Andy

    1992-01-01

    The image of the presence of symbols in an inner code pervades recent debates in cognitive science. Classicists worship in the presence. Connectionists revel in the absence. However, the very ideas of code and symbol are ...

  1. Optical Symbolic Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, John A.

    1989-12-01

    Experiments originating from Gestalt psychology have shown that representing information in a symbolic form provides a more effective means to understanding. Computer scientists have been struggling for the last two decades to determine how best to create, manipulate, and store collections of symbolic structures. In the past, much of this struggling led to software innovations because that was the path of least resistance. For example, the development of heuristics for organizing the searching through knowledge bases was much less expensive than building massively parallel machines that could search in parallel. That is now beginning to change with the emergence of parallel architectures which are showing the potential for handling symbolic structures. This paper will review the relationships between symbolic computing and parallel computing architectures, and will identify opportunities for optics to significantly impact the performance of such computing machines. Although neural networks are an exciting subset of massively parallel computing structures, this paper will not touch on this area since it is receiving a great deal of attention in the literature. That is, the concepts presented herein do not consider the distributed representation of knowledge.

  2. ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Boyle, Mike

    on SFT's, the Kim­Roush­Wagoner Factorization Theorem, and the Kim­Roush counterex­ amples to Williams introduction to the symbolic dynamics around SFT's, see the very fine introduction [LM] D. Lind and B. Marcus characterization 3.5 Applications 4. SFT­like subshifts 4.1 Sofic shifts 4.2 Specification 4.3 Synchronized systems

  3. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  4. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  5. Textures as Communication Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Branch, Jamie; Bailey, Brent R.; Poff, Lisa E., Ed.

    Designed for teaching the related services staff, residential care providers, and families of individuals with severe hearing and vision impairments, this booklet explains the issues related to developing a communication system using textures. The texture symbols described are intended for use by individuals with dual sensory and multiple…

  6. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  7. Optimal Symbol-by-Symbol Detection for Duobinary Signaling 

    E-print Network

    Eggers, M.; Painter, John H.

    1983-01-01

    limited to: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 12:58:04 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 1078 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. COM-31, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1983 TABLE I JOINT OUTPUT PROBABILITIES -1 k- 1 -2 118 1...: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 12:58:04 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. EGGERS AND PAINTER: SYMBOL-BY-SYMBOL DETECTION 1079 The derivation of the optimal symbol-by-symbol detector Case 11: ;k- = &2 = 0 follows...

  8. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  9. International Icon Symbols: How Well Are These Symbols Understood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E.; Gibbs, William J.

    There is a great reliance on symbolic messages in our society, but the success of these messages depends on how they are interpreted. The variability of subjects' interpretations of commonly used visual symbols was investigated by comparing the interpretations of a U.S. audience and a Jamaican audience. Responses of 27 executive master's in…

  10. How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…

  11. SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) Cost spent to build variation point i at time i = index over variation points #12;SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) ...adjusted by a factor

  12. Symbolic Communication Between Two Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Through the use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one and requested specific food of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. (Author/MA)

  13. The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.

  14. Self Symbolizing and Self Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; And Others

    Symbolic self-completion theory suggests that people who are committed to a certain self-definitional goal, e.g., "psychologist,""parent,""dancer," are not willing to give up this goal when facing a shortcoming. Such individuals often engage in self-symbolizing or positive self-descriptions designed to coverup the shortcoming. To examine whether…

  15. APPENDIX A Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols, and Notation

    E-print Network

    for the Elements and Corresponding Names Symbol Element Symbol Element Symbol Element Ac Actinium Ag Silver Al Fluorine Fe Iron Fm Fermium Fr Francium Ga Gallium Gd Gadolinium Ge Germanium H Hydrogen He Helium Hf

  16. Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

  17. Shanahan on symbolization.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago. PMID:18293048

  18. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  19. Symbolic representation of probabilistic worlds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-04-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of symbolic representation, and develops formal constraints under which such representation is in fact warranted. The effectiveness of symbolic representation hinges on the probabilistic structure of the environment that is to be represented. For arbitrary probability distributions (i.e., environments), symbolic representation is generally not warranted. But in modal environments, defined here as those that consist of mixtures of component distributions that are narrow ("spiky") relative to their spreads, symbolic representation can be shown to represent the environment with a relatively negligible loss of information. Modal environments support propositional forms, logical relations, and other familiar features of symbolic representation. Hence the assumption that our environment is, in fact, modal is a key tacit assumption underlying the use of symbols in cognitive science. PMID:22270145

  20. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  1. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  2. Symbolic diagnosis for intelligent control 

    E-print Network

    Painter, John H.; Jowers, S.

    1988-08-24

    The results of research intended to create a symbolic diagnostician to support intelligent control of numerical processors and/or processes are reported. Example applications include real-time signal processors, industrial automation, and aerospace...

  3. Solving Symbolic Equations with PRESS 

    E-print Network

    Sterling, L.; Bundy, Alan; Byrd, L.; O'Keefe, R.; Silver, B.

    1982-01-01

    We outline a program, PRESS (PRolog Equation Solving System) for solving symbolic, transcendental, non-differential equations. The methods used for solving equations are described, together with the service facilities. The ...

  4. Evolution of symbolic communication : an embodied perspective 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Jessica Erin

    2012-11-28

    This thesis investigates the emergence in human evolution of communication through symbols, or conventional, arbitrary signs. Previous work has argued that symbolic speech was preceded by communication through nonarbitrary ...

  5. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  6. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY...Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant alien within one of the classes described...show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law...

  7. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY...Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant alien within one of the classes described...show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law...

  8. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY...Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant alien within one of the classes described...show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law...

  9. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY...Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant alien within one of the classes described...show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law...

  10. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY...Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant alien within one of the classes described...show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law...

  11. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  12. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  13. Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

  14. Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

  15. Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

  16. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section...Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  11. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  20. Grounded Symbolic Communication between Heterogeneous Cooperating Robots

    E-print Network

    a symbolic relationship between positions consistently. We show that this enables symbolic communicationGrounded Symbolic Communication between Heterogeneous Cooperating Robots DAVID JUNG Center communication of locations in a behavior-based system. We also examine the perceived shortcomings of the system

  1. Symbolic Execution Enhanced System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Misty D.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Raman, Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    We describe a testing technique that uses information computed by symbolic execution of a program unit to guide the generation of inputs to the system containing the unit, in such a way that the unit's, and hence the system's, coverage is increased. The symbolic execution computes unit constraints at run-time, along program paths obtained by system simulations. We use machine learning techniques treatment learning and function fitting to approximate the system input constraints that will lead to the satisfaction of the unit constraints. Execution of system input predictions either uncovers new code regions in the unit under analysis or provides information that can be used to improve the approximation. We have implemented the technique and we have demonstrated its effectiveness on several examples, including one from the aerospace domain.

  2. MOPS: Multivariate Orthogonal Polynomials (symbolically)

    E-print Network

    Ioana Dumitriu; Alan Edelman; Gene Shuman

    2004-09-24

    In this paper we present a Maple library (MOPs) for computing Jack, Hermite, Laguerre, and Jacobi multivariate polynomials, as well as eigenvalue statistics for the Hermite, Laguerre, and Jacobi ensembles of Random Matrix theory. We also compute multivariate hypergeometric functions, and offer both symbolic and numerical evaluations for all these quantities. We prove that all algorithms are well-defined, analyze their complexity, and illustrate their performance in practice. Finally, we also present a few of the possible applications of this library.

  3. Selforganization of Symbols and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Werner; Feistel, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    Following the spirit of the late John Nicolis, the purpose of this paper is to develop an evolutionary approach for the basic problem of generation, storage and dissipation of information in physical and biological systems via dynamical processes. After analysing the relation of entropy and information we develop our view that information is in general a nonphysical, emergent quantity, in spite of the fact that information transfer is always connected with flows of physical energy and entropy. We argue that information can have two basic forms: free information (like that of disks, tapes, books), that is what is transferred between sender and receiver, and bound information, that is a physical non-equilibrium structure which retains potential information reflecting the history of its formation (like fossils, geological strata or galaxies). As a basic concept we consider a kinetic phase transition of the second kind, termed the ritualization transition, which leads to the self-organized emergence of symbols, the key elements of free information. Ritualization occurs only in the context of life. Hence, the simplest physical example for a ritualization process is a system that starts as a physical and ends as a biological one, in other words, the origin of life. Our interest in this transition is focussed on the self-organization of information, on the way how a physical system can be enabled to create symbols and the related symbol-processing machinery out of ordinary pre-biological roots.

  4. Symbolic computation in system simulation and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Brian L.; Gu, Steve X.; Kalavade, Asa; Lee, Edward A.

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines some of the roles that symbolic computation plays in assisting system- level simulation and design. By symbolic computation, we mean programs like Mathematica that perform symbolic algebra and apply transformation rules based on algebraic identities. At a behavioral level, symbolic computation can compute parameters, generate new models, and optimize parameter settings. At the synthesis level, symbolic computation can work in tandem with synthesis tools to rewrite cascade and parallel combinations on components in sub- systems to meet design constraints. Symbolic computation represents one type of tool that may be invoked in the complex flow of the system design process. The paper discusses the qualities that a formal infrastructure for managing system design should have. The paper also describes an implementation of this infrastructure called DesignMaker, implemented in the Ptolemy environment, which manages the flow of tool invocations in an efficient manner using a graphical file dependency mechanism.

  5. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  10. Efficient blind symbol rate estimation and data symbol detection algorithms for linearly modulated signals 

    E-print Network

    Park, Sang Woo

    2009-05-15

    Blind estimation of unknown channel parameters and data symbol detection represent major open problems in non-cooperative communication systems such as automatic modulation classification (AMC). This thesis focuses on estimating the symbol rate...

  11. How much of symbolic manipulation is just symbol pushing? David H. Landy (dhlandy@gmail.com)

    E-print Network

    Landy, David

    @gmail.com) Psychology, 603 E. Daniel Street University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61820 Robert L. Goldstone-symbolic or incompletely symbolic perceptual manipulations and simulations (Barsalou, 1999; Clark, 1998; Dennett, 1994

  12. Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

  13. Symbolic play in autism: a review.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, C; Boucher, J; Smith, P

    1993-06-01

    Experimental research into the symbolic play of autistic children is reviewed in an attempt to outline the nature of their deficit in this area. While many studies can be criticized on methodological grounds, there is good evidence for an impairment in the spontaneous symbolic play of autistic children, an impairment that appears to extend to cover spontaneous functional play also. However studies that have investigated elicited and instructed play have indicated that autistic children may have a capacity for symbolic play that they do not spontaneously exhibit. The implications of these findings for various hypotheses concerning a symbolic play deficit in autism are considered and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:7687245

  14. Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

  15. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Identifying and Marking Products § 592.310 Form...

  16. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  17. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  18. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  19. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG...

  20. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  1. Symbolic Execution and Program Testing [1] Christoph Reiter

    E-print Network

    AK-SWT Symbolic Execution and Program Testing [1] Christoph Reiter November 25, 2013 Reiter Symbolic Execution and Program Testing [1] #12;AK-SWT Symbolic Execution Instead of values, use symbols related to normal execution Reiter Symbolic Execution and Program Testing [1] #12;AK-SWT Example Example

  2. Hitzler Neural-Symbolic Integration Osnabrck Germany November 2007 Neural-Symbolic Integration

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    Hitzler Neural-Symbolic Integration Osnabrück Germany November 2007 1/49 AIFBAIFB Neural-Symbolic Integration PD Dr. Pascal Hitzler AIFB, Universität Karlsruhe Osnabrück, Germany, November 2007 #12;Hitzler Neural-Symbolic Integration Osnabrück Germany November 2007 2/49 AIFBAIFB PD Dr. Pascal Hitzler

  3. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  4. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  5. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  7. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  8. MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver ODE2 is described. The code for this routine is delineated, which is of interest because it is written in top-level MACSYMA language, and may serve as a good example of programming in that language. Other symbolic ordinary differential equation solvers are mentioned.

  9. THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAFFAL, JULIUS

    A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

  10. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section...Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types...Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  15. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  16. Language, Affect and the Symbolization of Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, William J.

    Traditional philosophy and psychology have given greater attention to the cognitive than to the affective side of the human person. A more holistic approach shifts the emphasis to feeling as a guide to value objectivity. Values are apprehended and symbolized before a judgment is made as to their worthwhileness. The symbolizing process, that is,…

  17. A human performance evaluation of graphic symbol-design features.

    PubMed

    Samet, M G; Geiselman, R E; Landee, B M

    1982-06-01

    16 subjects learned each of two tactical display symbol sets (conventional symbols and iconic symbols) in turn and were then shown a series of graphic displays containing various symbol configurations. For each display, the subject was asked questions corresponding to different behavioral processes relating to symbol use (identification, search, comparison, pattern recognition). The results indicated that: (a) conventional symbols yielded faster pattern-recognition performance than iconic symbols, and iconic symbols did not yield faster identification than conventional symbols, and (b) the portrayal of additional feature information (through the use of perimeter density or vector projection coding) slowed processing of the core symbol information in four tasks, but certain symbol-design features created less perceptual interference and had greater correspondence with the portrayal of specific tactical concepts than others. The results were discussed in terms of the complexities involved in the selection of symbol design features for use in graphic tactical displays. PMID:6180374

  18. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525...AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative...

  19. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525...AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative...

  20. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525...AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative...

  1. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525...AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative...

  2. Goal oriented symbolic propagation in Bayesian networks

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, E.; Gutierrez, J.M.; Hadi, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents an efficient goal oriented algorithm for symbolic propagation in Bayesian networks. The proposed algorithm performs symbolic propagation using numerical methods. It first takes advantage of the independence relationships among the variables and produce a reduced graph which contains only the relevant nodes and parameters required to compute the desired propagation. Then, the symbolic expression of the solution is obtained by performing numerical propagations associated with specific values of the symbolic parameters. These specific values are called the canonical components. Substantial savings are obtained with this new algorithm. Furthermore, the canonical components allow us to obtain lower and upper bounds for the symbolic expressions resulting from the propagation. An example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  3. Distraction of symbolic behavior in regular classrooms.

    PubMed

    Billinger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students' abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student's capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students' shifts from the use of "non-symbolic" to "symbolic" behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11-13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?symbolic behavior in relation to contextual factors in regular classroom. The main conclusion to be drawn from the results is that the observational procedure used in this study seems to have a potential to be used to explore the interaction between contextual factors and more complex student behavior such as cognition and the pragmatic use of language in regular classroom. PMID:23189068

  4. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  5. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]? bound.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]? error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]?-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]?-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ? error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]?-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]? error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]? metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]? error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates. PMID:24144660

  6. Physical Concepts and Mathematical Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelland, Hans Herlof

    2007-12-01

    According to traditional empiricist philosophy of science, concepts and meaning grow out of sense experience, and the mathematical structure of a physical theory is nothing but a formalisation of a given meaning-content. This view seems to work well in classical mechanics. But it breaks down in quantum physics, where we have a self-supported mathematical structure which resists any conceptual or pictorial interpretation in the traditional sense. Thus, traditional empiricism is flawed. Quantum physics teaches us that mathematics is a language in itself which extends beyond ordinary language. To understand the meaning of this extended language, we have to explore how new concepts and intuitions grow out of mathematics, not the other way around. The symbolic structure is prior to its meaning. This point of view is called linguistic empiricism, to stress that the connection with experience is still crucial. As cases, I compare the concept of stiffness in classical mechanics and the concept of electron density in quantum mechanics. The last case demonstrates that the wave function has a richer interpretation than the probabilistic one concerning measurement of position.

  7. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  8. Commodifying Fido: pets as status symbols 

    E-print Network

    Plemons, April

    2009-05-15

    How are pets being used as status symbols to display social position and wealth? This paper seeks to theoretically examine pet owners and their use of animals to convey a message of social status, position and wealth. This ...

  9. Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

  10. Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

  11. Intrinsic representation : bootstrapping symbols from experience

    E-print Network

    Larson, Stephen David, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    If we are to understand human-level intelligence, we need to understand how meanings can be learned without explicit instruction. I take a step toward that understanding by focusing on the symbol-grounding problem, showing ...

  12. Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler Universit¨at A-4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni-linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler Universit

  13. Application of Unspecified Sequences in Symbolic Summation

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Application of Unspecified Sequences in Symbolic Summation Manuel Kauers RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler Universit¨at A-4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni-linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider RISC-Linz Johannes Kepler

  14. Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers #

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers # RISC­Linz Johannes Kepler Universit Ë? at A­4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni­linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider # RISC­Linz Johannes Kepler

  15. On the Probabilistic Symbolic Analysis of Software

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Edmund M.

    that the probability of an unmanned aerial vehicle turning too fast is less than 10^-6 ­ analyze the vehicle's controlOn the Probabilistic Symbolic Analysis of Software Corina Pasareanu CMU-SV NASA Ames #12

  16. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols...Restoration Act and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on...

  17. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative convenience, the symbols...

  18. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative convenience, the symbols...

  19. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative convenience, the symbols...

  20. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative convenience, the symbols...

  1. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative convenience, the symbols...

  2. Hand Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  3. The spread of fear: symbolic generalization mediates graded threat-avoidance in specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Simon; Schlund, Michael W; Roche, Bryan; Whelan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Overgeneralization of fear and threat-avoidance represents a formidable barrier to successful clinical treatment of anxiety disorders. While stimulus generalization along quantifiable physical dimensions has been studied extensively, less consideration has been given to symbolic generalization, in which stimuli are indirectly and arbitrarily related. The present study examined whether the magnitude and extent of symbolic generalization of threat-avoidance and threat-beliefs differed between spider-phobic and nonphobic individuals. Initially, participants learned two sets of stimulus equivalence relations (A1?=?B1?=?C1; A2?=?B2?=?C2). Next, one cue (B1) was established as a conditioned stimulus (CS?+?; threat) that signalled onset of spider images and prompted avoidance, and another cue (B2) was established as a CS- (safety cue) that signalled the absence of such images. Subsequent testing showed that phobics compared to nonphobics exhibited greater symbolic generalization of threat-avoidance to threat cues A1 and C1 (indirect CS+ threat cues related via symmetry and equivalence, respectively), while all individuals showed nonavoidance to indirect safety cues A2 and C2. The enhanced symbolic generalization of threat-beliefs and avoidance behaviour observed in spider phobics warrants further investigation. PMID:23701662

  4. Symbolic Neural Networks Derived from Stochastic Grammar Domain Models 1 Symbolic Neural Networks Derived from Stochastic

    E-print Network

    Mjolsness, Eric

    Symbolic Neural Networks Derived from Stochastic Grammar Domain Models 1 Symbolic Neural Networks neural network architectures with some of the expressive power of a semantic network and also some of the pattern recognition and learning capabilities of more conventional neural networks. For example

  5. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Equivalence Tasks: The Influence of Symbols on Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…

  6. 2558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 1999 Symbol-by-Symbol APP Decoding of the Golay Code and

    E-print Network

    Ping, Li

    2558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 1999 Symbol-by-Symbol APP, and Kwan L. Yeung, Member, IEEE Abstract-- An efficient coset based symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP decoding, turbo codes, turbo decoding. I. INTRODUCTION The symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP (a

  7. Symbolic-numeric interface: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

  8. The Impact of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantity on Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    McCrink, Koleen; Galamba, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An implicit mapping of number to space via a “mental number line” occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers) and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left) on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number—especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high—and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner. PMID:25748826

  9. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    E-print Network

    Gregory M. Smith

    2000-06-28

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  10. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  11. Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

  12. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...

  13. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...

  14. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...

  15. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...

  16. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...

  17. A Framework for Connecting Natural Language and Symbol Sense ...

    E-print Network

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09

    mathematical word problems for English language learners. Submitted to .... For example, symbols name, label, signify, communicate, simplify .... This allows for a more direct translation from the natural language to the symbolic form, which ...

  18. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232...Submissions § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. ...inclusion of a document that is in a foreign language, a party must submit...

  19. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232...Submissions § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. ...inclusion of a document that is in a foreign language, a party must submit...

  20. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232...Submissions § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. ...inclusion of a document that is in a foreign language, a party must submit...

  1. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232...Submissions § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. ...inclusion of a document that is in a foreign language, a party must submit...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... or variegated, G—green, GL—light green, and GD—dark green....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... or variegated, G—green, GL—light green, and GD—dark green....

  4. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... or variegated, G—green, GL—light green, and GD—dark green....

  6. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... or variegated, G—green, GL—light green, and GD—dark green....

  7. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols. We have prescribed distinctive...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on which taxes and duties have been collected to support...

  8. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498

  9. Seitz symbols for crystallographic symmetry operations.

    PubMed

    Glazer, A Michael; Aroyo, Mois I; Authier, André

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the Seitz notation for symmetry operations adopted by the Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature as the standard convention for Seitz symbolism of the International Union of Crystallography. The established notation follows the existing crystallographic conventions in the descriptions of symmetry operations. PMID:24815978

  10. The Development of Symbol Processing Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham-Diggory, Sylvia

    Visual and auditory stimuli were presented to children to measure symbol processing abilities. Slides which required matching the similarities in two objects in a group of three were presented. At times the matching criteria varied between function, color, and form. Reaction time was quicker when matching by color than by function, which was…

  11. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  12. Application of Unspecified Sequences in Symbolic Summation

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    ­Linz Johannes Kepler Universit Ë? at A­4040 Linz, Austria cschneid@risc.uni­linz.ac.at ABSTRACT We considerApplication of Unspecified Sequences in Symbolic Summation Manuel Kauers # RISC­Linz Johannes Kepler Universit Ë? at A­4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni­linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider # RISC

  13. UncorrectedProof Symbolic Computation for Nonlinear

    E-print Network

    UncorrectedProof Symbolic Computation for Nonlinear Wave Resonances E. Kartashova, C. Raab, Ch concentration in a few chosen waves/modes. Frequency modulation due to the nonlinear resonances is one, music, etc. Resonance causes an object to oscillate, sometimes the oscillation is easy to see (vibration

  14. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  4. Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

  5. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  6. General Astronomical Constants Name Symbol Value Units

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    General Astronomical Constants Name Symbol Value Units Speed of light in vacuum c 299 792 458 m s-1) joule J kg m2 s-2 Radiant Power watt W J s-1 Pressure (stress) pascal Pa N m-2 Plane Angle radian rad ... Solid Angle steradian sr ... Celsius Temperature Celsius °C K Electric Charge coulomb C A s Electrical

  7. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  8. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  9. APPLICATION OF SYMBOLIC PIECEWISE AGGREGATE APPROXIMATION (PAA) ANALYSIS TO ECG SIGNALS

    E-print Network

    Kumova, Bora

    Approximation (PAA), Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX), ECG, Coarse Graining 1. Introduction The studiesAPPLICATION OF SYMBOLIC PIECEWISE AGGREGATE APPROXIMATION (PAA) ANALYSIS TO ECG SIGNALS Burcu, and anomaly detection. This study involves symbolization through Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX

  10. Symbolic Execution for (Almost) Free: Hijacking an Existing Implementation to Perform Symbolic Execution

    E-print Network

    Near, Joseph P.

    2014-04-22

    Symbolic execution of a language is traditionally achieved by replacing the language s interpreter with an entirely new interpreter. This may be an unnecessary burden, and it is tempting instead to try to use as much of ...

  11. Symbolic links in the Open Directory Project Saverio Perugini *

    E-print Network

    Perugini, Saverio

    Symbolic links in the Open Directory Project Saverio Perugini * Department of Computer Science understanding of symbolic links in web directories. A symbolic link is a hyperlink which makes a directed links are ubiquitous in web directories such as Yahoo!, they are under-studied and, as a result

  12. "They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols

  13. Young Children's Symbol Use: Common Principles and Cognitive Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    1998-01-01

    Reviews selected literature on child development about children's symbol use in performance of spatial and mathematical tasks. Describes the musical development of a child over a period of 16 months and shows how principles of symbol use from outside music can guide interpretations of children's symbol acquisition. (CMK)

  14. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  15. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  16. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  19. A Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Flavia Stan Research Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Abstract Given a FeynmanA Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus Johannes Bl¨umlein Deutsches Elektronen

  20. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  5. Symbolic Mathematics Engines in Teaching Chemistry: A Symposium Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The use of Symbolic Mathematics Engines (SMEs) in chemical education as a part of the Division of Computers in Chemistry was discussed by a panel of educators at the Symbolic Calculation in Chemistry symposium in Philadelphia in 2004. The panelists agreed that many more topics in chemistry are amenable to SME's exploration and that symbolic

  6. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  7. Compositional Symbolic Execution using Fine-Grained Summaries

    E-print Network

    Miller, Tim

    Compositional Symbolic Execution using Fine-Grained Summaries Yude Lin Computing and Information Victoria 3010, Australia Email: harald@unimelb.edu.au Abstract--Compositional symbolic execution has been pro- posed as a way to increase the efficiency of symbolic execution. Essentially, when a function

  8. Symbolic Execution for Software Testing: Three Decades Later Cristian Cadar

    E-print Network

    Sen, Koushik

    Symbolic Execution for Software Testing: Three Decades Later Cristian Cadar Imperial College London Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in symbolic execution for software testing, due to its. In this article, we give an overview of modern symbolic execution techniques, discuss their key challenges

  9. Type-dependence Analysis and Program Transformation for Symbolic Execution

    E-print Network

    Orso, Alessandro "Alex"

    Type-dependence Analysis and Program Transformation for Symbolic Execution Saswat Anand, Alessandro,orso,harrold}@cc.gatech.edu Abstract. Symbolic execution can be problematic when applied to real applications. This paper addresses two of these problems: (1) the con- straints generated during symbolic execution may be of a type not han- dled

  10. Heap Cloning: Enabling Dynamic Symbolic Execution of Java Programs

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Heap Cloning: Enabling Dynamic Symbolic Execution of Java Programs Saswat Anand Georgia Institute Atlanta, U.S.A. Email: harrold@cc.gatech.edu Abstract--The dynamic symbolic-execution technique can au- tomatically perform symbolic execution of programs that use problematic features of Java, such as native

  11. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  12. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This component has also contributed to the basic social scientific literature on complex organizations and the self. PMID:25221375

  13. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  14. Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1989-01-01

    A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

  15. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Julia F.; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed. PMID:26579012

  16. Graph determined symbolic dynamics and hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Kimberly Danielle

    In this paper we explore the concept of symbolic dynamical systems whose structure is determined by a directed graph, and then discrete-continuous hybrid systems that arise from such dynamical systems. Typically, symbolic dynamics involve the study of a left shift of a bi-infinite sequence. We examine the case when the bi-infinite system is dictated by a graph; that is, the sequence is a bi-infinite path of a directed graph. We then use the concept to study a system of dynamical systems all on the same compact space M, where "switching" between the systems occurs as given by the bi-infinite sequence in question. The concepts of limit sets, chain recurrent sets, chaos, and Morse sets for these systems are explored.

  17. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  18. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  19. Symbolic Regression of Conditional Target Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines techniques for improving symbolic regression systems in cases where the target expression contains conditionals. In three previous papers we experimentedwith combining high performance techniques fromthe literature to produce a large scale, industrial strength, symbolic regression-classification system. Performance metrics across multiple problems show deterioration in accuracy for problems where the target expression contains conditionals. The techniques described herein are shown to improve accuracy on such conditional problems. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in accuracy. A previously published regression system combining standard genetic programming with abstract expression grammars, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution, context aware crossover and age-layered populations is tested on the nine base test cases. The regression system is enhanced with these additional techniques: pessimal vertical slicing, splicing of uncorrelated champions via abstract conditional expressions, and abstract mutation and crossover. The enhanced symbolic regression system is applied to the nine base test cases and an improvement in accuracy is observed.

  20. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  1. Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

  2. Going home: migration as enactment and symbol.

    PubMed

    Wright, Susanna

    2009-09-01

    The concepts of home and migration are briefly explored. Reference is made to the reflections of several writers on migration suggesting that migrants may experience alienation, even permanent melancholia. There is discussion of the need to mourn what has been lost and left behind, and of the challenge in analytic work with a migrant to relate to the pain of the individual's core self amid environmental and cultural losses. The paper outlines the history of an individual before her migration from Latin America to London, and tendency to idealize as a new arrival. The symbolization process is discussed and it is suggested that repetitive enactment in the analytic transference may have been needed for her internal reality of estrangement to be confirmed and differentiated from her culturally and socially isolated external life as a migrant. Only then could she mourn losses and symbolize her inner reality. It is suggested that through mourning and symbolization the significance of migration for the patient was worked with and transformed so that, following a second migration, an ordinary, good enough home could be made in a new place. PMID:19765137

  3. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  4. [Developmental dysphasia and the use of symbols in play].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K; Hoffmann, W; Süss, H

    1985-01-01

    In the present study symbolic play behavior was examined in eight dysphasic children and eight mentally retarded children matched for expressive language ability. Significant correlations between symbolic play and expressive language ability were found for the mentally retarded children but not for those of normal intelligence with dysphasia. Consequently, the developmental disorder of the dysphasic children cannot be attributed to a generalized deficit in representational symbolic ability. PMID:2426868

  5. q-entropy for symbolic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Pesin, Yakov

    2015-12-01

    For symbolic dynamical systems we use the Carathéodory construction as described in (Pesin 1997 Dimension Theory in Dynamical Systems, ConTemporary Views and Applications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)) to introduce the notions of q-topological and q-metric entropies. We describe some basic properties of these entropies and in particular, discuss relations between q-metric entropy and local metric entropy. Both q-topological and q-metric entropies are new invariants respectively under homeomorphisms and metric isomorphisms of dynamical systems.

  6. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  7. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  8. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  11. Performance of the split-symbol moments SNR estimator in the presence of inter-symbol interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) is an algorithm that is designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The performance of the SSME algorithm in band-limited channels is examined. The effects of the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI) are quantified. All results obtained are in closed form and can be easily evaluated numerically for performance prediction purposes. Furthermore, they are validated through digital simulations.

  12. Home Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Global Road Safety Sponsors Recalls Media ... All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Main Content You are here Safety ...

  13. Combining Symbolic Representations for Solving Timed Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Rüdiger; Mattmüller, Robert; Peter, Hans-Jörg

    We present a general approach to combine symbolic state space representations for the discrete and continuous parts in the synthesis of winning strategies for timed reachability games. The combination is based on abstraction refinement where discrete symbolic techniques are used to produce a sequence of abstract timed game automata. After each refinement step, the resulting abstraction is used for computing an under- and an over-approximation of the timed winning states. The key idea is to identify large relevant and irrelevant parts of the precise weakest winning strategy already on coarse, and therefore simple, abstractions. If neither the existence nor nonexistence of a winning strategy can be established in the approximations, we use them to guide the refinement process. Based on a prototype that combines binary decision diagrams[7,9] and difference bound matrices[5], we experimentally evaluate the technique on standard benchmarks from timed controller synthesis. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the new approach concerning running time and memory consumption compared to the classical on-the-fly algorithm implemented in Uppaal-Tiga [10,4].

  14. FunctionalObjects.h: Using Symbolic Syntax in C++ Programs

    E-print Network

    R. Nolty

    2000-12-06

    functionalObjects.h allows the C++ programmer performing common mathematical calculations to use a more symbolic syntax rather than an algorithmic syntax. This is not as ambitious as a symbolic manipulation program such as Mathematica; it is more like having the ability to drop a very simple Mathematica statement into a C++ program.

  15. Integration Testing of Software Product Lines Using Compositional Symbolic Execution

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Myra

    a traditional directed symbolic execution technique. 1 Introduction Software product line (SPL) engineeringIntegration Testing of Software Product Lines Using Compositional Symbolic Execution Jiangfan Shi-Lincoln Lincoln, NE 68588-0115 Abstract. Software product lines are families of products defined by feature

  16. Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorantas, Raymond

    Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

  17. Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind Shayan G. Srinivasa

    E-print Network

    Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind an art Shayan G. Srinivasa Department of Electronic@math.iisc.ernet.in Abstract--Music signals comprise of atomic notes drawn from a musical scale. The creation of musical patterns. We develop an approach for music signal representation based on symbolic dynamics by translating

  18. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    E-print Network

    Wintner, Shuly

    Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language* WENDY SANDLER Abstract Current, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures

  19. Wyoming Tombstone Symbolism: A Reflection of Western Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John; Rezabek, Landra L.

    Eleven cemeteries in Wyoming are examined for visuals pertaining to life in the West. The purpose is to demonstrate the importance of Western culture tradition evidenced through tombstone symbolism--representations of the activities and environments of the living through the memory provided by the deceased. The visual symbols found on the…

  20. Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

  1. Symbolic Play in the Treatment of Autism in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyat, Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Explores the role of symbolic play in the cognitive and psychic development of the normal child and describes the autistic child. Reviews a model treatment program for autism developed at the City College of New York, discussing the therapeutic role of symbolic play in that model. (Author/MJL)

  2. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  3. A Sub-Symbolic Artificial Chemistry Adam Faulconbridge1

    E-print Network

    Stepney, Susan

    -world chemistry in that indivisible building blocks (atoms) bond together to produce larger structures (molecules for a sub- symbolic artificial chemistry due to their rich dynamical structure5 . In this workRBN-World A Sub-Symbolic Artificial Chemistry Adam Faulconbridge1 , Susan Stepney2 , Julian F

  4. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations and symbols. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS § 1.2 Abbreviations and symbols. In Subchapters A through K of this chapter: AFM means airplane flight manual. AGL...

  5. Computationally Complete Symbolic Attacker in Action Gergei Bana1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Computationally Complete Symbolic Attacker in Action Gergei Bana1 , Pedro Ad~ao2 , and Hideki Sakurada3 1 MSR-INRIA Joint Centre, Palaiseau, France bana@math.upenn.edu 2 SQIG-IT and IST.hideki@lab.ntt.co.jp Abstract. We show that the recent technique of computationally complete symbolic attackers proposed by Bana

  6. Practising English Phonetic Symbols in a Communicative Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Wai Ling

    Classroom exercises designed to help students learn phonetic symbols more effectively are described. The exercises were developed for use in a Hong Kong school. The idea behind their creation was that use of the symbols in communicative situations would emphasize their utility for learning English pronunciation. Each exercise uses contextualized…

  7. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  8. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  9. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  10. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  11. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  12. A Symbolic Model Checker for Testing ASTRAL Realtime Specifications

    E-print Network

    Dang, Zhe

    A Symbolic Model Checker for Testing ASTRAL Real­time Specifications Zhe Dang Richard A. Kemmerer,kemmg@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract ASTRAL is a high­level formal specification language for real­time (infinite state) systems of the ASTRAL symbolic model checker, which is a component of the ASTRAL Software De­ velopment Environment

  13. Hardware Implementation of Symbol Synchronization for Underwater FSK

    E-print Network

    Kastner, Ryan

    and efficient symbol synchronizer suitable for a short-range, low-power underwater FSK acoustic modem, but none provide a hardware based implementation suitable for low-cost, low-power, short range acoustic of an underwater acoustic modem. Without accurate symbol synchronization, higher bit error rates incur thus

  14. Symbolic Execution for Software Testing in Practice Preliminary Assessment

    E-print Network

    Cadar, Cristian

    Project Focus Area" on the topic of symbolic execution as used in software testing. Symbolic execution. INTRODUCTION The ACM-SIGSOFT Impact Project is documenting the impact that software engineering research has [29], YOGI7 and PREfix [10]), IBM (Apollo [2]), NASA and Fujitsu (Sym- bolic PathFinder), and also

  15. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  16. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  17. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  18. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  19. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  20. 1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A

    E-print Network

    Samet, Hanan

    1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEM Aya Soffer@umiacs.umd.edu and hjs@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract: A method is presented for integrating images into the framework of a conventional database management system (DBMS). It is applicable to a class of images termed symbolic images

  1. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  2. 78 FR 23508 - Use of Certain Symbols in Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Federal Register of February 25, 1998 (63 FR 9561). Modifications to the initial and previous lists of... modifications, was published in the Federal Register on January 15, 2013 (78 FR 2998). In addition, the Agency....'' (See 67 FR 4904; February 1, 2002.) The symbol in the symbol statement ``Rx only'' or the...

  3. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupski, Vladimir N

    2011-05-31

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  4. SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.

    1970-01-01

    The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.

  5. Dimensions of Neural-symbolic Integration --A Structured Survey

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    on purely symbolic approaches. The power of machine learning using artificial neural networking Knowledge Refined Knowledge ReasoningReasoning Figure 1. Neural-symbolic learning cycle the acquired network the context of artificial neural networks. Already in the pioneering days of computational models of neural

  6. On Norm Residue Symbols and Conductors Romyar T. Sharifi

    E-print Network

    Sharifi, Romyar

    On Norm Residue Symbols and Conductors Romyar T. Sharifi April 1998 Abstract Using the norm residue symbol and a reciprocity law of Artin-Hasse, we determine the conductors of Kummer extensions of the form in earlier proofs of the case K = Qp. 1 Introduction We are interested in determining the conductors

  7. Symbolic Interactionism and Ethnomethodology: A Perspective on Qualitiative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloski, John; Daley, Patrick J.

    Methods employed in social science research must be true to the phenomena under investigation. Both symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology take everyday life as their fundamental premise. Symbolic interactionism, based primarily on the work of George Herbert Mead, is the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place…

  8. Scene understanding based on network-symbolic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2005-05-01

    New generations of smart weapons and unmanned vehicles must have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. Instead of precise computations of 3-dimensional models, a network-symbolic system converts image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in the Network-Symbolic models and used for the disambiguation of visual information. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation that can be better interpreted by higher-level knowledge structures. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views.

  9. Symbolic Time-Series Analysis of Engine Combustion Measurements

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    980624 Symbolic Time-Series Analysis of Engine Combustion Measurements C.E.A. Finney University Engineers, Inc. ABSTRACT We present techniques of symbolic time-series analysis which are useful in spark-ignition engines under lean fueling exhibit pat- terns that can be explained as the result

  10. Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their mutual relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui

    2006-10-01

    Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their mutual relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their mutual relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.

  11. A Parallel Symbolic-Numerical Approach to Algebraic Curve Plotting ?

    E-print Network

    A Parallel Symbolic-Numerical Approach to Algebraic Curve Plotting ? Christian Mittermaier://www.risc.uni-linz.ac.at Abstract. We describe a parallel hybrid symbolic-numerical solution to the problem of reliably plotting modern computer algebra systems provide functions for plotting and visu- alizing the real aÆne part

  12. "La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and…

  13. Recycling Symbol Recognition CHEN Xutong CSIT 6910 Independent Project, Fall 2013 1

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yunhao

    Recycling Symbol Recognition CHEN Xutong CSIT 6910 Independent Project, Fall 2013 1 CSIT 6910A Report Recycling Symbol Recognition System Student: CHEN Xutong Supervisor: Prof. David Rossiter #12;Recycling Symbol

  14. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade E.; McGeown, William J.; Guerrini, Chiara; Castronovo, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the number sense, is not well-known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18–25) and 25 older adults (60–77) participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly [RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w)]. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w) in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive, and embedded number sense. PMID:26236269

  15. Mental symbols and genetic symbols: Analogies between theoretical perspectives in biology and cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Lenay, C

    1995-12-01

    A striking parallel may be drawn between the historical succession of explanatory theories of life and explanatory theories of cognitive phenomena. In both domains independently, approaches to understanding the problem of adaptation spawned the concept of formal representation: in biology the representation of hereditary characters by genes, and in psychology the symbolic representation of mental contents by computational states. Molecular biology and classical cognitivism now share the same problem of the origin of language (genetic code and language of thought) and the assignment of content to manipulated symbols. Such isomorphism of the problems and their modes of resolution could provide grounds for criticism of the naive way in which biology is used to solve the difficulties encountered in psychology, as in the teleological approach to intentionality. On the other hand, acceptance of the analogy implies that any solution or major revision in one domain should be able to inspire equivalent solutions or revisions in the other. PMID:24896036

  16. Adults' preferences between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) used in AAC.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether significantly different preference exists in typical adults between Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs) and Gus Communication Symbols (GCSs) frequently displayed on their AAC. A total of 56 participants participated in the study, including 15 participants in ages 20-35; 14 participants in ages 36-50; 13 participants in ages 51-60; and 14 participants in ages 66-80. Two tasks, an identification task and a preference task, were administered sequentially and individually. The results of this study suggest: (1) typical adults' preference between PCSs and GCSs did not show any significant difference; (2) the effect of age groups of typical adults did not have any significant effect on their preference between PCSs and GCSs. However, except the group of ages 51-65, the other three groups did consciously show their preferences for PCSs. Limitations and clinical implications of the current study have been concluded. PMID:23962601

  17. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  18. Susycal - Symbolic computations in supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzberger, T.; Kummer, W.; Schweda, M.

    1990-02-01

    The calculation of supergraphs within the superfield-formalism entails complex expressions and numerous divergent integrals. This is even more so for non-covariant supergauges. SUSYCAL is a package of PASCAL procedures which is able to manipulate formulae and perform these calculations. The algebra of the non-covariant operators of the FD-gauge and the covariant derivatives is included in SUSYCAL as a fixed set of rules. This first version of SUSYCAL to be presented comprises also the (symbolic) evaluation of several divergent non-covariant self-energies. The method of dimensional regularization is used for all computations by SUSYCAL. Because of the universal applicability of the non-covariant operators, SUSYCAL is a tool for calculations in all N = 1 supersymmetric theories.

  19. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation?

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called R???-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics.

  20. A dynamical systems perspective on the relationship between symbolic and non-symbolic computation.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Whitney

    2009-12-01

    It has been claimed that connectionist (artificial neural network) models of language processing, which do not appear to employ "rules", are doing something different in kind from classical symbol processing models, which treat "rules" as atoms (e.g., McClelland and Patterson in Trends Cogn Sci 6(11):465-472, 2002). This claim is hard to assess in the absence of careful, formal comparisons between the two approaches. This paper formally investigates the symbol-processing properties of simple dynamical systems called affine dynamical automata, which are close relatives of several recurrent connectionist models of language processing (e.g., Elman in Cogn Sci 14:179-211, 1990). In line with related work (Moore in Theor Comput Sci 201:99-136, 1998; Siegelmann in Neural networks and analog computation: beyond the Turing limit. Birkhäuser, Boston, 1999), the analysis shows that affine dynamical automata exhibit a range of symbol processing behaviors, some of which can be mirrored by various Turing machine devices, and others of which cannot be. On the assumption that the Turing machine framework is a good way to formalize the "computation" part of our understanding of classical symbol processing, this finding supports the view that there is a fundamental "incompatibility" between connectionist and classical models (see Fodor and Pylyshyn 1988; Smolensky in Behav Brain Sci 11(1):1-74, 1988; beim Graben in Mind Matter 2(2):29--51,2004b). Given the empirical successes of connectionist models, the more general, super-Turing framework is a preferable vantage point from which to consider cognitive phenomena. This vantage may give us insight into ill-formed as well as well-formed language behavior and shed light on important structural properties of learning processes. PMID:19898957

  1. Fixing the broken system of genetic locus symbols

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Katja; Lang, Anthony; Klein, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Originally, locus symbols (e.g., DYT1) were introduced to specify chromosomal regions that had been linked to a familial disorder with a yet unknown gene. Symbols were systematically assigned in a numerical series to designate mapped loci for a specific phenotype or group of phenotypes. Since the system of designating and using locus symbols was originally established, both our knowledge and our techniques of gene discovery have evolved substantially. The current system has problems that are sources of confusion, perpetuate misinformation, and misrepresent the system as a useful reference tool for a list of inherited disorders of a particular phenotypic class. These include erroneously assigned loci, duplicated loci, missing symbols, missing loci, unconfirmed loci in a consecutively numbered system, combining causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we describe these problems and their impact, and propose solutions. The system could be significantly improved by creating distinct lists for clinical and research purposes, creating more informative locus symbols, distinguishing disease-causing mutations from risk factors, raising the threshold of evidence prior to assigning a locus symbol, paying strict attention to the predominant phenotype when assigning symbols lists, and having a formal system for reviewing and continually revising the list that includes input from both clinical and genetics experts. PMID:22454269

  2. Color and symbology: symbolic systems of color ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Diana

    2002-06-01

    Color has been used symbolically in various different fields, such as Heraldry, Music, Liturgy, Alchemy, Art and Literature. In this study, we shall investigate and analyse the structures of relationships that have taken shape as symbolic systems within each specific area of analysis. We shall discuss the most significant symbolic fields and their systems of color ording, considering each one of them as a topological model based on a logic that determines the total organization, according to the scale of reciprocities applied, and the cultural context that gives it meaning.

  3. Space partitioning via Hilbert transform for symbolic time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbu, Aparna; Ray, Asok

    2008-02-01

    Symbol sequence generation is a crucial step in symbolic time series analysis of dynamical systems, which requires phase-space partitioning. This letter presents analytic signal space partitioning (ASSP) that relies on Hilbert transform of the observed real-valued data sequence into the corresponding complex-valued analytic signal. ASSP yields comparable performance as other partitioning methods, such as symbolic false nearest neighbor partitioning (SFNNP) and wavelet-space partitioning (WSP). The execution time of ASSP is several orders of magnitude smaller than that of SFNNP. Compared to WSP, the ASSP algorithm is analytically more rigorous and is approximately five times faster.

  4. Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance.

    PubMed

    Léo Neto, Nivaldo A; Voeks, Robert A; Dias, Thelma L P; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2012-01-01

    Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523

  5. Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523

  6. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    PubMed

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225

  7. Symbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials

    E-print Network

    Labahn, George

    Symbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials Mark Giesbrecht David R. Cheriton, Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium Abstract We consider the problem of sparse interpolation of an approximate). Multivariate polynomial interpolation is a component in recent approximate multivariate factorization

  8. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741

  9. Symbol IC-Evaluation as an Aid to Program Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Yonezawa, Akinori

    Symbolic-evaluation is the process which abstractly evaluates an actor program and checks to see whether the program fulfills its contract (specification). In this paper, a formalism based on the conceptual representation ...

  10. Complex Library Mapping for Embedded Software Using Symbolic Algebra

    E-print Network

    Simunic, Tajana

    specification to a library of complex software elements. This library-mapping step is automated by using, Design, Experimentation, Theory. Keywords Embedded software optimization, Automated library mappingComplex Library Mapping for Embedded Software Using Symbolic Algebra Armita Peymandoust Computer

  11. 47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom) FAC—Airport control tower...

  12. 47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom) FAC—Airport control tower...

  13. Symbolic Computation 13.1 Computer algebra systems

    E-print Network

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    - ample, integration of rational functions would require one to sit down and work out a partial fraction decomposition--a tedious procedure. Instead, we can get answers immediately using symbolic computation software

  14. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2009, § 1.2 was amended by adding the abbreviations PMA and TSO , effective Apr. 14, 2010. For the convenience of the user...Abbreviations and symbols. PMA means parts manufacturer approval. TSO means technical standard...

  15. Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols of the four seasons on the lamp's aluminum supports - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM ...symbol, slogan, 1-800-ASK-FISH telephone number and Sport Fish Restoration crediting logo. Add other...

  17. Measuring an Individual's Investment in the Future: Symbolic Immortality, Sensation Seeking, and Psychic Numbness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Robert C.; Mister, Rena D.

    1988-01-01

    Operationalized Lifton's constructs of symbolic immortality and developed instrument to measure individual's needs for symbolic immortality in Lifton's five modes (biological, religious, nature, creative, experiential) in study which also examined age effects on needs for symbolic immortality and relation between sensation seeking and symbolic

  18. Lazy Symbolic Execution for Enhanced Learning Duc-Hiep Chu, Joxan Jaffar, and Vijayaraghavan Murali

    E-print Network

    Jaffar, Joxan

    Lazy Symbolic Execution for Enhanced Learning Duc-Hiep Chu, Joxan Jaffar, and Vijayaraghavan Murali National University of Singapore hiepcd,joxan,m.vijay@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract. Symbolic execution of the symbolic states proved so far. Symbolic execution by default is eager, that is, execution along a sym

  19. Symbolism of the Sun on Mediaeval Funeral Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatovi?, V.; Vemi?, D.; Ninkovi?, Slobodan

    2007-08-01

    On the territory of mediaeval Bosnian and Serbian states of the XIV and XV centuries we can find necropoles with characteristic forms of the stone funeral monuments called “steæci”. There is a great number of ornamental motifs of different content and symbolism found on these monuments. The group of astral motifs (the Sun, the Moon, the stars) is the most common one. Here, we have considered the symbol of the Sun and presented various models used in its representation.

  20. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.

  1. Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.

    PubMed

    Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning. PMID:24728912

  2. Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Namhee; Sage, Daniel S.

    2008-06-15

    Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.

  3. From bad to worse: Symbolic equivalence and opposition in fear generalisation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Marc; Hermans, Dirk; Dymond, Simon; Vervoort, Ellen; Baeyens, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of symbolic equivalence and opposition relations on fear generalisation. In a procedure using nonsense words, some stimuli became symbolically equivalent to an aversively conditioned stimulus while others were symbolically opposite. The generalisation of fear to symbolically related stimuli was then measured using behavioural avoidance, retrospective unconditioned stimulus expectancy and stimulus valence ratings. Equivalence relations facilitated fear generalisation while opposition relations constrained generalisation. The potential clinical implications of symbolic generalisation are discussed. PMID:25347279

  4. Diversity Analysis of Symbol-by-Symbol Linear Ali Tajer, Member, IEEE, Aria Nosratinia, Fellow, IEEE, and Naofal Al-Dhahir, Fellow, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    1 Diversity Analysis of Symbol-by-Symbol Linear Equalizers Ali Tajer, Member, IEEE, Aria Nosratinia, Princeton Univer- sity, Princeton, NJ 08544. Aria Nosratinia and Naofal Al-Dhahir are with the Electrical

  5. Math expression retrieval using an inverted index over symbol pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalnaker, David; Zanibbi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new method for indexing and retrieving mathematical expressions, and a new protocol for evaluating math formula retrieval systems. The Tangent search engine uses an inverted index over pairs of symbols in math expressions. Each key in the index is a pair of symbols along with their relative distance and vertical displacement within an expression. Matched expressions are ranked by the harmonic mean of the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the query, and the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the candidate expression. We have found that our method is fast enough for use in real time and finds partial matches well, such as when subexpressions are re-arranged (e.g. expressions moved from the left to the right of an equals sign) or when individual symbols (e.g. variables) differ from a query expression. In an experiment using expressions from English Wikipedia, student and faculty participants (N=20) found expressions returned by Tangent significantly more similar than those from a text-based retrieval system (Lucene) adapted for mathematical expressions. Participants provided similarity ratings using a 5-point Likert scale, evaluating expressions from both algorithms one-at-a-time in a randomized order to avoid bias from the position of hits in search result lists. For the Lucene-based system, precision for the top 1 and 10 hits averaged 60% and 39% across queries respectively, while for Tangent mean precision at 1 and 10 were 99% and 60%. A demonstration and source code are publicly available.

  6. The role of computerized symbolic manipulation in rotorcraft dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo Da Silva, Marcelo R. M.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1986-01-01

    The potential role of symbolic manipulation programs in development and solution of the governing equations for rotorcraft dynamics problems is discussed and illustrated. Nonlinear equations of motion for a helicopter rotor blade represented by a rotating beam are developed making use of the computerized symbolic manipulation program MACSYMA. The use of computerized symbolic manipulation allows the analyst to concentrate on more meaningful tasks, such as establishment of physical assumptions, without being sidetracked by the tedious and trivial details of the algebraic manipulations. Furthermore, the resulting equations can be produced, if necessary, in a format suitable for numerical solution. A perturbation-type solution for the resulting dynamical equations is shown to be possible with a combination of symbolic manipulation and standard numerical techniques. This should ultimately lead to a greater physical understanding of the behavior of the solution than is possible with purely numerical techniques. The perturbation analysis of the flapping motion of a rigid rotor blade in forward flight is presented, for illustrative purposes, via computerized symbolic manipulation with a method that bypasses Floquet theory.

  7. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vaccine Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Back to School: Vaccines for Preteens Learn about the safety of Tdap, ...

  8. Drug Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How it's manufactured Results of animal testing and clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying online from only legitimate pharmacies and taking your medicines correctly.

  9. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  10. Dilogarithme Quantique et 6j-Symboles Cycliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseilhac, Stephane

    2002-02-01

    Let {W}_N be a quantized Borel subalgebra of U_q(sl(2,mc)), specialized at a primitive root of unity omega = exp(2i?/N) of odd order N >1. One shows that the 6j-symbols of cyclic representations of {W}_N are representations of the canonical element of a certain extension of the Heisenberg double of {W}_N. This canonical element is a twisted q-dilogarithm. In particular, one gives explicit formulas for these 6j-symbols, and one constructs partial symmetrizations of them, the c-6j-symboles. The latters are at the basis of the construction of the quantum hyperbolic invariants of 3-manifolds.

  11. State Joining and Splitting for the Symbolic Execution of Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Trevor; Schachte, Peter; Søndergaard, Harald

    Symbolic execution can be used to explore the possible run-time states of a program. It makes use of a concept of “state” where a variable’s value has been replaced by an expression that gives the value as a function of program input. Additionally, a state can be equipped with a summary of control-flow history: a “path constraint” keeps track of the class of inputs that would have caused the same flow of control. But even simple programs can have trillions of paths, so a path-by-path analysis is impractical. We investigate a “state joining” approach to making symbolic execution more practical and describe the challenges of applying state joining to the analysis of unmodified Linux x86 executables. The results so far are mixed, with good results for some code. On other examples, state joining produces cumbersome constraints that are more expensive to solve than those generated by normal symbolic execution.

  12. Analysis of epileptic EEG signals in children by symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Paternoster, Luca; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Melia, Umberto; Clariá, Francisco; Voss, Andreas; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders among children. The study of surface EEG signals in patients with epilepsy by techniques based on symbolic dynamics can provide new insights into the epileptogenic process and may have considerable utility in the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. The goal of this work was to find patterns from a methodology based on symbolic dynamics to characterize seizures on surface EEG in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy. A total of 76 seizures were analyzed by their pre-ictal, ictal and post-ictal phases. An analytic signal envelope algorithm was applied to each EEG segment and its performance was evaluated. Several variables were defined from the distribution of words constructed on the EEG transformed into symbols. The results showed strong evidences of detectable non-linear changes in the EEG dynamics from pre-ictal to ictal phase and from ictal to post-ictal phase, with an accuracy higher than 70%. PMID:24110699

  13. Multiple layer identification label using stacked identification symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

  14. A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling

    PubMed Central

    Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

    2009-01-01

    Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520

  15. Combining Automated Theorem Provers with Symbolic Algebraic Systems: Position Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to pure mathematical applications where automated theorem provers (ATPs) are quite capable, proof tasks arising form real-world applications from the area of Software Engineering show quite different characteristics: they usually do not only contain much arithmetic (albeit often quite simple one), but they also often contain reasoning about specific structures (e.g. graphics, sets). Thus, an ATP must be capable of performing reasoning together with a fair amount of simplification, calculation and solving. Therefore, powerful simplifiers and other (symbolic and semi-symbolic) algorithms seem to be ideally suited to augment ATPs. In the following we shortly describe two major points of interest in combining SASs (symbolic algebraic systems) with top-down automated theorem provers (here: SETHEO [Let92, GLMS94]).

  16. Determination of eigenvalues of dynamical systems by symbolic computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A symbolic computation technique for determining the eigenvalues of dynamical systems is described wherein algebraic operations, symbolic differentiation, matrix formulation and inversion, etc., can be performed on a digital computer equipped with a formula-manipulation compiler. An example is included that demonstrates the facility with which the system dynamics matrix and the control distribution matrix from the state space formulation of the equations of motion can be processed to obtain eigenvalue loci as a function of a system parameter. The example chosen to demonstrate the technique is a fourth-order system representing the longitudinal response of a DC 8 aircraft to elevator inputs. This simplified system has two dominant modes, one of which is lightly damped and the other well damped. The loci may be used to determine the value of the controlling parameter that satisfied design requirements. The results were obtained using the MACSYMA symbolic manipulation system.

  17. Symbolic Effects on Color Preferences in China and the US.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen; Schloss, Karen; Guo, Tianquan; Wung, Vivian; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-09-01

    We investigated a prediction of the Ecological Valence Theory (EVT; Palmer & Schloss, 2010) that differences in people's color preferences can be explained in part by their preferences for ecological objects. We measured preferences for 32 chromatic colors in China and the US and found both similarities - e.g., a maximum around saturated-blue and a minimum around brown (dark-orange) and olive (dark-yellow) - and various differences. To test the EVT's cross-cultural prediction, we measured object-based Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (O-WAVEs) from people's liking/disliking ratings of color-associated objects separately in China and the US. Consistent with EVT predictions, O-WAVEs measured in the US correlated more highly with US preferences (.89) than with Chinese preferences (.63), but contrary to EVT predictions, O-WAVEs measured in China correlated less highly with Chinese preferences (.59) than with US preferences (.78). We hypothesized that the discrepancy might arise from symbolic effects on color preference in China (e.g., red is the color of good-fortune). To test this hypothesis, we performed analogous symbolic S-WAVE measurements from people's liking/disliking ratings of color-associated symbols and abstract concepts separately in China and the US. In China, symbolic S-WAVEs correlated better with color preferences (.76) than did object-based O-WAVEs (.59), with combined C-WAVEs correlating highest of all (.80). In the US, both symbolic S-WAVEs and combined C-WAVEs correlated worse with color preferences (.58 and .75, respectively) than did object-based O-WAVEs (.89). We discuss these differences as reflecting greater cultural "melting pot" effects that dilute color symbolism in the US more than in China. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327000

  18. What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism?

    PubMed

    Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Sound symbolism is a property of certain words which have a direct link between their phonological form and their semantic meaning. In certain instances, sound symbolism can allow non-native speakers to understand the meanings of etymologically unfamiliar foreign words, although the mechanisms driving this are not well understood. We examined whether sound symbolism might be mediated by the same types of cross-modal processes that typify synaesthetic experiences. Synaesthesia is an inherited condition in which sensory or cognitive stimuli (e.g., sounds, words) cause additional, unusual cross-modal percepts (e.g., sounds trigger colours, words trigger tastes). Synaesthesia may be an exaggeration of normal cross-modal processing, and if so, there may be a link between synaesthesia and the type of cross-modality inherent in sound symbolism. To test this we predicted that synaesthetes would have superior understanding of unfamiliar (sound symbolic) foreign words. In our study, 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 57 non-synaesthete controls were presented with 400 adjectives from 10 unfamiliar languages and were asked to guess the meaning of each word in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Both groups showed superior understanding compared to chance levels, but synaesthetes significantly outperformed controls. This heightened ability suggests that sound symbolism may rely on the types of cross-modal integration that drive synaesthetes' unusual experiences. It also suggests that synaesthesia endows or co-occurs with heightened multi-modal skills, and that this can arise in domains unrelated to the specific form of synaesthesia. PMID:25498744

  19. Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for reading symbols on highly reflective surfaces. By use of beam splitters, the visible and infrared collimated lights are introduced along the optical path of the telecentric lens, so that the target is illuminated and viewed from the same direction.

  20. New Symbolic Tools for Differential Geometry, Gravitation, and Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Anderson, I M

    2011-01-01

    DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors and other tensorial invariants, algebraic classification of curvature, and symmetry reduction of field equations.

  1. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

  2. Detecting Recurrence Domains of Dynamical Systems by Symbolic Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graben, Peter beim; Hutt, Axel

    2013-04-01

    We propose an algorithm for the detection of recurrence domains of complex dynamical systems from time series. Our approach exploits the characteristic checkerboard texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots. In phase space, recurrence plots yield intersecting balls around sampling points that could be merged into cells of a phase space partition. We construct this partition by a rewriting grammar applied to the symbolic dynamics of time indices. A maximum entropy principle defines the optimal size of intersecting balls. The final application to high-dimensional brain signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal.

  3. Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig

    2005-01-01

    All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

  4. The analysis of control trajectories using symbolic and database computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This final report comprises the formal semi-annual status reports for this grant for the periods June 30-December 31, 1993, January 1-June 30, 1994, and June 1-December 31, 1994. The research supported by this grant is broadly concerned with the symbolic computation, mixed numeric-symbolic computation, and database computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. A review of work during the report period covers: trajectories and approximating series, the Cayley algebra of trees, actions of differential operators, geometrically stable integration algorithms, hybrid systems, trajectory stores, PTool, and other activities. A list of publications written during the report period is attached.

  5. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  6. Safety & Environment Unit Safety Contest

    E-print Network

    Awards Safety & Environment Unit Safety Contest & We hope that this contest will improve students & post-doctoral fellows, The Safety & Environment Unit announces a new initiative intended all research groups working in labs. The first contest started on November 15th , 2009. The three

  7. The benefit of symbols: monkeys show linear, human-like, accuracy when using symbols to represent scalar value

    PubMed Central

    Srihasam, Krishna; Morocz, Istvan A.

    2010-01-01

    When humans and animals estimate numbers of items, their error rate is proportional to the number. To date, however, only humans show the capacity to represent large numbers symbolically, which endows them with increased precision, especially for large numbers, and with tools for manipulating numbers. This ability depends critically on our capacity to acquire and represent explicit symbols. Here we show that when rhesus monkeys are trained to use an explicit symbol system, they too show more precise, and linear, scaling than they do using a one-to-one corresponding numerosity representation. We also found that when taught two different types of representations for reward amount, the monkeys systematically undervalued the less precise representation. The results indicate that monkeys, like humans, can learn alternative mechanisms for representing a single value scale and that performance variability and relative value depend on the distinguishability of each representation. PMID:20443126

  8. The benefit of symbols: monkeys show linear, human-like, accuracy when using symbols to represent scalar value.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Margaret S; Srihasam, Krishna; Morocz, Istvan A

    2010-09-01

    When humans and animals estimate numbers of items, their error rate is proportional to the number. To date, however, only humans show the capacity to represent large numbers symbolically, which endows them with increased precision, especially for large numbers, and with tools for manipulating numbers. This ability depends critically on our capacity to acquire and represent explicit symbols. Here we show that when rhesus monkeys are trained to use an explicit symbol system, they too show more precise, and linear, scaling than they do using a one-to-one corresponding numerosity representation. We also found that when taught two different types of representations for reward amount, the monkeys systematically undervalued the less precise representation. The results indicate that monkeys, like humans, can learn alternative mechanisms for representing a single value scale and that performance variability and relative value depend on the distinguishability of each representation. PMID:20443126

  9. The Great, Big List of LATEX Symbols David Carlisle Scott Pakin Alexander Holt

    E-print Network

    Lacoste, David

    Phonetic Symbols . . . . . 12 43 wasysym Astrological and Zodiacal Symbols Commands for Using Zapf Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 47 marvosym Astrological and Zodiacal Signs . . . . . . . . . 15 50 marvosym Miscellaneous . . . . . . . 15 51 Math Alphabets

  10. A real-time DSP GMSK modem with all-digital symbol synchronization 

    E-print Network

    Lambert, Richard Paul

    1998-01-01

    In communication systems, a requirement of the receiver is to estimate symbol timing so that symbol decisions may be made at the instant of smallest intersymbol interference. Though there exist various analog techniques for synchronization...

  11. Maximum-likelihood decoding of device-specific multi-bit symbols for reliable key generation

    E-print Network

    Yu, Meng-Day

    We present a PUF key generation scheme that uses the provably optimal method of maximum-likelihood (ML) detection on symbols derived from PUF response bits. Each device forms a noisy, device-specific symbol constellation, ...

  12. Computationally Sound Symbolic Security Reduction Analysis of Group Key Exchange Protocol using

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Computationally Sound Symbolic Security Reduction Analysis of Group Key Exchange Protocol using and com- putationally sound symbolic analysis. Furthermore, Canetti and Gajek have analyzed Diffie. This provides computationally sound and fully automated analysis. Second, we reduce the security of multiple

  13. MISC: Merging Incorrect Symbols using Constellation Diversity for 802.11 Retransmission

    E-print Network

    Liu, Wenyin

    MISC: Merging Incorrect Symbols using Constellation Diversity for 802.11 Retransmission Jiajue Ou proactively creates constellation diversity by rearranging the constellation maps in retransmissions. MISC, which merges incorrect symbols leverag- ing constellation diversity to improve packet retransmission

  14. Effects of environmental sounds on the guessability of animated graphic symbols.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Ashley C; Schlosser, Ralf W; Gygi, Brian; Shane, Howard C; Kong, Ying-Yee; Book, Lorraine; Macduff, Kelly; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    Graphic symbols are a necessity for pre-literate children who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (including non-electronic communication boards and speech generating devices), as well as for mobile technologies using AAC applications. Recently, developers of the Autism Language Program (ALP) Animated Graphics Set have added environmental sounds to animated symbols representing verbs in an attempt to enhance their iconicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental sounds (added to animated graphic symbols representing verbs) in terms of naming. Participants included 46 children with typical development between the ages of 3;0 to 3;11 (years;months). The participants were randomly allocated to a condition of symbols with environmental sounds or a condition without environmental sounds. Results indicated that environmental sounds significantly enhanced the naming accuracy of animated symbols for verbs. Implications in terms of symbol selection, symbol refinement, and future symbol development will be discussed. PMID:25384797

  15. Facilitating Children’s Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted. PMID:21813821

  16. Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two…

  17. Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

  18. Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

    2008-01-01

    This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

  19. Symbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials

    E-print Network

    Giesbrecht, Mark

    algorithms for the sparse interpolation problem for approximate black-box polynomi- als: how to reconstructSymbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials [Extended Abstract] Mark interpolation of an ap- proximate multivariate black-box polynomial in floating-point arithmetic. That is, both

  20. Symbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials

    E-print Network

    Labahn, George

    Symbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials [Extended Abstract] Mark. In this paper we demonstrate effective numerical algorithms for the sparse interpolation problem for approximate interpolation of an ap- proximate multivariate black-box polynomial in floating-point arithmetic. That is, both

  1. Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masiki, Trent

    2011-01-01

    Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…

  2. HIGHLY PARALLEL EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION, SYMBOLIC INFERENCE AND

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    , 6928 Manno, Switzerland ABSTRACT This work describes massively parallel genetic algorithms as a means and Symbolic Inference of Formulae There is great scope for parallelism in genetic algorithms single individuals. A convenient algorithm architecture for the latter model makes use of a so

  3. Symbolic identification for fault detection in aircraft gas turbine engines

    E-print Network

    Ray, Asok

    Symbolic identification for fault detection in aircraft gas turbine engines S Chakraborty, S Sarkar and computationally inexpensive technique of component-level fault detection in aircraft gas-turbine engines the NASA C-MAPSS model of a generic commercial aircraft engine. Keywords: fault detection, model

  4. SYMBOLIC-COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN COMBINATORIAL GAME THEORY AND RAMSEY

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    , symbolic programming, and philosophy of learning and teaching, from him. He is not only a great Program in Mathematics Written under the direction of Doron Zeilberger and approved by New Brunswick, New as case studies in this budding methodology. We now proceed to described the specific results presented

  5. An HPF Symbolic Debugging System Concepts and Design \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Brezany, Peter

    An HPF Symbolic Debugging System Concepts and Design \\Lambda Peter Brezany and Krzysztof Sowa tools for the software development. The design and im­ plementation of a source­level debugging system and clear way in terms of the source program to the user. To be practical, the debugger has to support

  6. Insight and Outlook: Symbol and Metaphor in Phototherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, David

    Although the roots of phototherapy extend back to the late 1850's, it did not emerge as a distinct entity until the late 1970's. Growing interest has generated a substantial body of literature in the field. While photographs may be looked at concretely, as two-dimensional, their symbolic and metamorphic nature is a potentially powerful tool in…

  7. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  8. The Development of a Universal Tangible Symbol System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, Ellen; Bruce, Susan M.; Cascella, Paul W.; Ivy, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Tangible symbols are objects or partial objects with qualities, such as shape, texture, and consistency, that can be used to represent a person, place, object, activity, or concept. They can be handled and share a perceptual relationship with what they represent, known as the referent. This article presents a study on the development of a…

  9. Symbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks

    E-print Network

    Tiwari, Ashish

    Introduction The completion of the Human Genome project, the initial elucidation of many important biologicalSymbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks Patrick Lincoln.650.859.2844, {lincoln,tiwari}@csl.sri.com Abstract. How do living cells compute and control themselves, and communicate

  10. Symbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks #

    E-print Network

    Tiwari, Ashish

    Introduction The completion of the Human Genome project, the initial elucidation of many important biologicalSymbolic Systems Biology: Hybrid Modeling and Analysis of Biological Networks # Patrick Lincoln.650.859.2844, {lincoln,tiwari}@csl.sri.com Abstract. How do living cells compute and control themselves, and communicate

  11. Automated behaviour recognition in mobile robots using symbolic dynamic filtering

    E-print Network

    Ray, Asok

    Automated behaviour recognition in mobile robots using symbolic dynamic filtering G Mallapragada, I-driven method for signature detection in mobile robots. The core concept of the paper is built upon dynamical systems. The objective here is to identify the robot behaviour in real time as accurately

  12. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign language documents and... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by paragraph (d) of this section. If a filing...

  13. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign language documents and... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by paragraph (d) of this section. If a filing...

  14. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign language documents and... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by paragraph (d) of this section. If a filing...

  15. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign language documents and... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by paragraph (d) of this section. If a filing...

  16. Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate…

  17. Symbolic loss in American adolescents: mourning in teenage cinema.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2014-04-01

    I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre. PMID:22843337

  18. Wishes and Riddles: Symbolic Imagery in Chinese Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the wishes and riddles found in myths and rebuses in Chinese art. The packet contains: (1) an introductory essay describing symbolism used in the art of various dynasties of China; (2) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (3) a…

  19. 47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the aviation services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AVW—Audio visual warning systems AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS DLT—Aircraft data link land test FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAC—Airport control tower FAE—Aeronautical enroute FAM—Aeronautical...

  20. EQUR 121 INTRODUCTION TO SYMBOLIC LOGIC Ko University, FALL 2015

    E-print Network

    Ozbagci, Burak

    to English. 2. Objective #2 (Learn key analytical skills & vocabulary): Students will learn how to use languages, we will examine how these artificial languages relate to English (a natural language), different OBJECTIVES: 1. Objective #1 (Learn two symbolic languages): Students will learn the vocabulary, syntax

  1. Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…

  2. Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…

  3. Combining symbolic computation and theorem proving: some problems of Ramanujan

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Edmund M.

    Combining symbolic computation and theorem proving: some problems of Ramanujan Edmund Clarke Xudong are taken from Chapter 2 of Ramanujan's Notebooks [1]. They were selected because they are non Ramanujan's ingenuity and cleverness.'' We suspect that several of the problems would prove quite

  4. A Genetic Approach for Conjunction Scheduling in Symbolic Equivalence Checking

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    A Genetic Approach for Conjunction Scheduling in Symbolic Equivalence Checking Lun Li, Mitchell A checking algorithms is image computation. Conjunction scheduling is a strategy to keep the size of BDDs small for the intermediate results of image computation. Conjunction scheduling consists of ordering bit

  5. Arti cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Arti#12;cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression Colin G. Johnson Computing Immune Systems are computational algorithms which take their inspiration from the way in which natural immune systems learn to respond to attacks on an organism. This paper discusses how such a system can

  6. Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

  7. The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich…

  8. Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigam, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…

  9. Dead beat controllability of polynomial systems: symbolic computation approaches

    E-print Network

    Nesic, Dragan

    Dead beat controllability of polynomial systems: symbolic computation approaches Dragan Nesi and Adaptive Systems RSISE ANU Canberra, ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA Keywords: polynomial systems, dead beat. - int + 61 + 6 + 2492456, fax. - int + 61 + 6 + 2798088 1 #12;Abstract State and output dead beat

  10. Symbolic Immortality in Ordinary Contexts: Impediments to the Nuclear Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Raymond L.

    1982-01-01

    Lifton's writings indicate that fear of nuclear holocaust has severely impaired and threatens to negate traditional modes of symbolic immortality in America. Lifton's research, however, has been limited to extreme contexts. Data were triangulated in four distinctive American contexts. Found substantial negative evidence of Lifton's suspicions in…

  11. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sathasivam, Saratha

    2010-12-23

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  12. Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software: Symbolic Computation, Combinatorial Species,

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software: Symbolic Computation, Combinatorial Species, Backtracking March 21, 2008 1 Introduction Sage brings together Python and the best existing open source mathemat to fund work by four students on Sage. Each of the four students (two graduate and two undergraduate) have

  13. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  14. What is Communication? Communication is the study of human symbolic

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    What is Communication? Communication is the study of human symbolic behavior. Communication courses train students to communicate more effectively; to understand and use various formats of communication including oral, written, nonverbal and visual; and to analyze human communication patterns in educational

  15. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Abbreviations and symbols. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS... indicated airspeed. ICAO means International Civil Aviation Organization. IFR means instrument flight...

  16. Animal Symbols in the Art of the Hodensaunee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Explains the significance of the main animal symbols incorporated into the social, cultural, artistic, and spiritual fabric of the Hodenosaunee (the People of the Longhouse) also known as the Six Nations Iroquois: the eagle, turtle, bear, wolf, hawk, heron, snipe, eel, deer, beaver, moose, snake, and serpent. (NEC)

  17. AACSB Accreditation: Symbol of Excellence or March toward Mediocrity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, William; Noland, Thomas G.; Sinclair, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is supposed to be a symbol of excellence for business schools. However, the recent increase in the number of accredited schools and the creation of AACSB's "professionally qualified" (PQ) designation for faculty raises some concern in the academic community. Why has…

  18. Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing Mark A and antibiotic concentrations of an industrial fermentation process. The models are developed using both for predicting the biomass and antibiotic concentrations of a fermentation process, which is based on Simulated

  19. Symbolic Numeric Index Analysis Algorithm for Differential Algebraic Equations

    E-print Network

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    engineering practice, index analysis requires computational procedures. This paper presents a new approach. For the numerical solution of BVPs, global methods such as orthogonal collocation,1 finite elements,2 or spectralSymbolic Numeric Index Analysis Algorithm for Differential Algebraic Equations Shantanu Chowdhry

  20. Sport, Gender and Ethnicity: Practises of Symbolic Inclusion/exclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elling, Agnes; Knoppers, Annelies

    2005-01-01

    In this paper symbolic inclusion/exclusion processes in sport with respect to gender and ethnicity among adolescents (n = 1025) are analyzed from a social-critical perspective. It was found that sport participation preferences of young people are still influenced by dominant normative gendered and racial/ethnic images. Sport can serve not only as…

  1. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,…

  2. Faster and Symbolic CTMC Model Checking Joost-Pieter Katoena

    E-print Network

    Norman, Gethin

    Faster and Symbolic CTMC Model Checking Joost-Pieter Katoena , Marta Kwiatkowskab , Gethin Normanb-bounded until-formulas, where N is the number of states in the CTMC under con- sideration. This result yields a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) as underlying stochastic process. While the analysis of CTMCs focuses

  3. Neural Versus Symbolic Rap Battle Bots Human Language Technology Center

    E-print Network

    Chen, Lei

    of music, rap and hip hop remains sur- prisingly underexplored in computer music. This may be as- cribed to rap battle: a symbolic probabilistic approach based on induction of stochastic transduction gram- mars, versus a neural network approach based on backprop- agation through unconventional transduction recursive

  4. Dynamic Symbolic Database Application Testing Chengkai Li, Christoph Csallner

    E-print Network

    Csallner, Christoph

    Dynamic Symbolic Database Application Testing Chengkai Li, Christoph Csallner Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Texas at Arlington Arlington, TX 76019, USA {cli,csallner}@uta.edu ABSTRACT A database application differs form regular applications in that some of its inputs may

  5. COMBINING PRIOR SYMBOLIC KNOWLEDGE AND CONSTRUCTIVE NEURAL NETWORK LEARNING

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    and machine learning are combined by integrating an expert system and a constructive neural networks learningCOMBINING PRIOR SYMBOLIC KNOWLEDGE AND CONSTRUCTIVE NEURAL NETWORK LEARNING Justin Fletcher Zoran AND CONSTRUCTIVE NEURAL NETWORK LEARNING Justin Fletcher Zoran Obradovicy j etche@eecs.wsu.edu zoran

  6. Policies & Procedures Uniform Grade Symbols: Glossary and Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Wolberg, George

    Policies & Procedures Uniform Grade Symbols: Glossary and Guidelines Effective Fall 2013 DATE: August 27, 2013 TO: The Presidents of the Colleges The Dean of the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education The Dean of the School of Journalism The Dean of the School of Professional Studies The Dean

  7. Infinite-vertex free profinite semigroupoids and symbolic dynamics

    E-print Network

    Costa, Alfredo

    and of the Centro de Matem´atica da Universidade de Coimbra, financed by FCT through the programmes POCTI and POSI, University of Coimbra, 3001- 454 Coimbra, Portugal. E-mail: amgc@mat.uc.pt 1 #12;Symbolic dynamics first came

  8. Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University

    E-print Network

    RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz.) Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria September 28-29, 2009 RISC-Linz Report Series No. 09-14 Editors #12;3rd Austrian Grid Symposium, September 28th ­ 29th , 2009 Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria

  9. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

  10. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  11. Evolution with Material Symbol Systems LUIS MATEUS ROCHA

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Luis

    , Evolutionary Algorithms, Artificial Life, Biosemiotics, Genetic Algorithms, Fuzzy Set Theory, Agent solely on the symbolic nature of genes, miss the material constraints observed by any physical system that this principle often encounters in Theoretical Biology, Artificial Life, and Complex Systems research lies both

  12. Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an…

  13. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND...

  14. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND...

  15. Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, M. Wyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…

  16. The Influence of Symbols and Equations on Understanding Mathematical Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students with mathematics difficulty demonstrate lower mathematics performance than typical-performing peers. One contributing factor to lower mathematics performance may be misunderstanding of mathematics symbols. In several studies related to the equal sign (=), students who received explicit instruction on the relational definition (i.e.,…

  17. Applying SMT in Symbolic Execution of Microcode Anders Franzen

    E-print Network

    Sebastiani, Roberto

    Applying SMT in Symbolic Execution of Microcode Anders Franz´en anders@disi.unitn.eu FBK-irst and DISI-Univ.Trento Trento, Italy Alessandro Cimatti cimatti@fbk.eu FBK-irst Trento, Italy Alexander Nadel alexander.nadel@intel.com Intel Corp. Israel Roberto Sebastiani rseba@disi.unitn.it DISI-Univ.Trento Italy

  18. Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesic, I. M. Y. Mareels,

    E-print Network

    Nesic, Dragan

    Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesi´c, I. M. Y. Mareels of this article is to highlight the effectiveness of symbolic computation software, or the so called computer algebra, in the analysis and design of control systems. Symbolic computation software should

  19. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  20. Sensor-to-symbol Reasoning for Embedded Intelligence David Kortenkamp and Patrick Beeson

    E-print Network

    Beeson, Patrick

    under- researched. As an example, suppose an apple is placed in front of the system's sensors and the symbol "apple" is generated or linked to. The sensor-to-symbol architecture maintains the coherence of the symbol over time. For example, if something temporarily occludes the apple from the sensors

  1. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  2. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: $U.S. dollars. CFRCode...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  4. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  5. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: $U.S. dollars. CFRCode...

  6. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  8. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  9. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  10. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  11. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  12. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  13. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  14. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  15. Alchemy Symbols on the Lash Miller Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto

    E-print Network

    Chan, Hue Sun

    Alchemy Symbols on the Lash Miller Building Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto © Bryan Jones 2015 The alchemy symbols on the outer walls of the Lash Miller Building at the corner of St George of the significant role the alchemy symbols played in the early days of chemistry, I have prepared this synopsis

  16. File /home/robert/thuis/diff.s % Purpose: Symbolic differentiation and linearization

    E-print Network

    van Engelen, Robert A.

    File /home/robert/thuis/diff.s % diff.s % % Purpose: Symbolic differentiation and linearization Package'') message(``Usage : `diff(Expression; Coordinate) 0 '') message(``mode(diff; full) : full symbolic differentiation'') message(``mode(diff; chain) : chain \\Gamma rule for symbolic differentiation

  17. Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…

  18. Rotation-Robust Math Symbol Recognition and Retrieval Using Outer Contours and Image Subsampling

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    Rotation-Robust Math Symbol Recognition and Retrieval Using Outer Contours and Image Subsampling the system with original Turning Function on the rotated InftyCDB-3 dataset. Keywords: Machine-Printed Math Symbol Recognition, Content-Based Math Symbol Retrieval 1. INTRODUCTION Recognition of math expression

  19. Lean Blow-Out Prediction in Gas Turbine Combustors Using Symbolic Time Series Analysis

    E-print Network

    Ray, Asok

    Lean Blow-Out Prediction in Gas Turbine Combustors Using Symbolic Time Series Analysis Achintya of lean blowout in gas turbine combustors based on symbolic analysis of time series data from optical the data point. Thus,the set of time series datais convertedto a symbol string. The (estimated) state

  20. Generalizing Symbolic Execution to Library Classes Sarfraz Khurshid and Yuk Lai Suen

    E-print Network

    Khurshid, Sarfraz

    Generalizing Symbolic Execution to Library Classes Sarfraz Khurshid and Yuk Lai Suen Dept 78712 {khurshid, suen}@ece.utexas.edu ABSTRACT Forward symbolic execution is a program analysis technique that allows using symbolic inputs to explore program executions. The traditional applications

  1. A Case Study of the Application of Dynamic Symbolic Execution to Real-World Binary Programs

    E-print Network

    A Case Study of the Application of Dynamic Symbolic Execution to Real-World Binary Programs Duc Bui. In this paper we developed a binary symbolic execution engine based on BitBlaze. We applied the engine discussed lessons learned from applying dynamic symbolic execution on real-world programs. Keywords: Binary

  2. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  3. Basic Numerical Skills in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Symbolic vs Non-Symbolic Number Magnitude Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing…

  4. Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols: European Bans on the Wearing of Religious Symbols in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Written in accessible language, Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols is a comprehensive analysis of a topical subject that is being widely debated across Europe. The book provides an overview of emerging case law from the European Court of Human Rights as well as from national courts and equality bodies in European countries on the wearing of…

  5. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  6. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  7. Heating Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    Heating Safety Heating equipment is a leading cause of home fire deaths. Almost half of home heating equipment fires are reported during the months of ... and February. Some simple steps can prevent most heating-related fires from happening. Safety Tips • Keep anything ...

  8. Symbolic, ritual and social dynamics of spiritual healing.

    PubMed

    Glik, D C

    1988-01-01

    Participant observation among white, middle class spiritual healing groups in the Baltimore area (1981-1983) revealed distinct sociocultural and interpersonal patterns of action and influence among two types of groups found. Types of groups were (1) Christian, Pentecostal, neo-Pentecostal or 'charismatic' healing groups and (2) 'New Age', or 'metaphysical' healing groups. Qualitative findings highlight similarities and differences between these two types of groups through examination of organizational characteristics, leadership patterns, ideological systems, and ritual processes. Illness and social characteristics of participants are also compared. Analysis of characteristics of groups and participants shows how the incorporation of explanatory models, social roles, myths, and symbols into the social, ideational, and ritual context of spiritual healing is essential to its therapeutic effect, and that spiritual healing exemplifies a symbolic healing system. Finally, a substantive theoretical model for healing research is suggested. PMID:2462751

  9. A Multi-Encoding Approach for LTL Symbolic Satisfiability Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Formal behavioral specifications written early in the system-design process and communicated across all design phases have been shown to increase the efficiency, consistency, and quality of the system under development. To prevent introducing design or verification errors, it is crucial to test specifications for satisfiability. Our focus here is on specifications expressed in linear temporal logic (LTL). We introduce a novel encoding of symbolic transition-based Buchi automata and a novel, "sloppy," transition encoding, both of which result in improved scalability. We also define novel BDD variable orders based on tree decomposition of formula parse trees. We describe and extensively test a new multi-encoding approach utilizing these novel encoding techniques to create 30 encoding variations. We show that our novel encodings translate to significant, sometimes exponential, improvement over the current standard encoding for symbolic LTL satisfiability checking.

  10. A Scalable Distribution Network Risk Evaluation Framework via Symbolic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jian; Liu, Kaipei; Tan, Tianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of electric power distribution network risks must address the problems of incomplete information and changing dynamics. A risk evaluation framework should be adaptable to a specific situation and an evolving understanding of risk. Methods This study investigates the use of symbolic dynamics to abstract raw data. After introducing symbolic dynamics operators, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy are used to quantitatively evaluate relationships between risk sub-factors and main factors. For layered risk indicators, where the factors are categorized into four main factors – device, structure, load and special operation – a merging algorithm using operators to calculate the risk factors is discussed. Finally, an example from the Sanya Power Company is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusion Distribution networks are exposed and can be affected by many things. The topology and the operating mode of a distribution network are dynamic, so the faults and their consequences are probabilistic. PMID:25789859

  11. Quantifying sudden changes in dynamical systems using symbolic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoller, Cristina; Hong, Yanhua; Ayad, Sarah; Gustave, Francois; Barland, Stephane; Pons, Antonio J.; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-02-01

    We characterize the evolution of a dynamical system by combining two well-known complex systems’ tools, namely, symbolic ordinal analysis and networks. From the ordinal representation of a time series we construct a network in which every node weight represents the probability of an ordinal pattern (OP) to appear in the symbolic sequence and each edge's weight represents the probability of transitions between two consecutive OPs. Several network-based diagnostics are then proposed to characterize the dynamics of different systems: logistic, tent, and circle maps. We show that these diagnostics are able to capture changes produced in the dynamics as a control parameter is varied. We also apply our new measures to empirical data from semiconductor lasers and show that they are able to anticipate the polarization switchings, thus providing early warning signals of abrupt transitions.

  12. Quantifying sudden changes in dynamical systems using symbolic networks

    E-print Network

    Masoller, Cristina; Ayad, Sarah; Gustave, Francois; Barland, Stephane; Pons, Antonio J; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We characterise the evolution of a dynamical system by combining two well-known complex systems' tools, namely, symbolic ordinal analysis and networks. From the ordinal representation of a time-series we construct a network in which every node weights represents the probability of an ordinal patterns (OPs) to appear in the symbolic sequence and each edges weight represents the probability of transitions between two consecutive OPs. Several network-based diagnostics are then proposed to characterize the dynamics of different systems: logistic, tent and circle maps. We show that these diagnostics are able to capture changes produced in the dynamics as a control parameter is varied. We also apply our new measures to empirical data from semiconductor lasers and show that they are able to anticipate the polarization switchings, thus providing early warning signals of abrupt transitions.

  13. Concurrency in a System for Symbolic and Algebraic Computations 

    E-print Network

    Mai, Stefan

    2009-06-09

    AND ALGEBRAIC COMPUTATIONS A Senior Scholars Thesis by STEFAN MAI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation of UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR April 2009 Major: Computer... Engineering CONCURRENCY IN A SYSTEM FOR SYMBOLIC AND ALGEBRAIC COMPUTATIONS A Senior Scholars Thesis by STEFAN MAI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation...

  14. Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.

  15. Symbolic description of periodic orbits for the quadratic Zeeman effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Wintgen, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    The organization of the periodic orbits of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field is studied. It is shown that the dynamics is qualitatively different from that for weak fields and negative energies. The orbits can be mapped one-to-one onto a ternary symbolic tree, an organization which turns out to be applicable for all values of energy and field strength. The results indicate that the field-free hydrogen atom has a purely chaotic limit for positive energies.

  16. Identifying delayed directional couplings with symbolic transfer entropy.

    PubMed

    Dickten, Henning; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    We propose a straightforward extension of symbolic transfer entropy to enable the investigation of delayed directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from time series. Analyzing time series from chaotic model systems, we demonstrate the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings obtained from applying our method to infer delayed directed interactions in the human epileptic brain underline the importance of our approach for improving the construction of functional network structures from data. PMID:25615128

  17. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  18. Symbolic Quantum Computation Simulation in SymPy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugini, Addison; Curry, Matt; Granger, Brian

    2010-10-01

    Quantum computing is an emerging field which aims to use quantum mechanics to solve difficult computational problems with greater efficiency than on a classical computer. There is a need to create software that i) helps newcomers to learn the field, ii) enables practitioners to design and simulate quantum circuits and iii) provides an open foundation for further research in the field. Towards these ends we have created a package, in the open-source symbolic computation library SymPy, that simulates the quantum circuit model of quantum computation using Dirac notation. This framework builds on the extant powerful symbolic capabilities of SymPy to preform its simulations in a fully symbolic manner. We use object oriented design to abstract circuits as ordered collections of quantum gate and qbit objects. The gate objects can either be applied directly to the qbit objects or be represented as matrices in different bases. The package is also capable of performing the quantum Fourier transform and Shor's algorithm. A notion of measurement is made possible through the use of a non-commutative gate object. In this talk, we describe the software and show examples of quantum circuits on single and multi qbit states that involve common algorithms, gates and measurements.

  19. Efficient Implementation of a Symbol Timing Estimator for Broadband PLC

    PubMed Central

    Nombela, Francisco; García, Enrique; Mateos, Raúl; Hernández, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Broadband Power Line Communications (PLC) have taken advantage of the research advances in multi-carrier modulations to mitigate frequency selective fading, and their adoption opens up a myriad of applications in the field of sensory and automation systems, multimedia connectivity or smart spaces. Nonetheless, the use of these multi-carrier modulations, such as Wavelet-OFDM, requires a highly accurate symbol timing estimation for reliably recovering of transmitted data. Furthermore, the PLC channel presents some particularities that prevent the direct use of previous synchronization algorithms proposed in wireless communication systems. Therefore more research effort should be involved in the design and implementation of novel and robust synchronization algorithms for PLC, thus enabling real-time synchronization. This paper proposes a symbol timing estimator for broadband PLC based on cross-correlation with multilevel complementary sequences or Zadoff-Chu sequences and its efficient implementation in a FPGA; the obtained results show a 90% of success rate in symbol timing estimation for a certain PLC channel model and a reduced resource consumption for its implementation in a Xilinx Kyntex FPGA. PMID:26307999

  20. Summertime Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... choose to search for a specific topic . Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  1. Antibiotic Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Copyright © 2005 by The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). www.apic.org Antibiotic Safety What are Antibiotics? Antibiotics are powerful medicines that help stop bacterial infections. They are used to kill germs that cause ...

  2. Fireworks Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at 350 °F Water boils at 212 °F Fireworks Safety Fireworks are often used to mark special ... fireworks NFPA is opposed to consumer use of fireworks. This includes sparklers and firecrackers. Even sparklers burn ...

  3. Facilitating Children's Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by…

  4. A Survey of New Trends in Symbolic Execution for Software Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a well-known program analysis technique which represents values of program inputs with symbolic values instead of concrete (initialized) data and executes the program by manipulating program expressions involving the symbolic values. Symbolic execution has been proposed over three decades ago but recently it has found renewed interest in the research community, due in part to the progress in decision procedures, availability of powerful computers and new algorithmic developments. We provide a survey of some of the new research trends in symbolic execution, with particular emphasis on applications to test generation and program analysis. We first describe an approach that handles complex programming constructs such as input data structures, arrays, as well as multi-threading. We follow with a discussion of abstraction techniques that can be used to limit the (possibly infinite) number of symbolic configurations that need to be analyzed for the symbolic execution of looping programs. Furthermore, we describe recent hybrid techniques that combine concrete and symbolic execution to overcome some of the inherent limitations of symbolic execution, such as handling native code or availability of decision procedures for the application domain. Finally, we give a short survey of interesting new applications, such as predictive testing, invariant inference, program repair, analysis of parallel numerical programs and differential symbolic execution.

  5. Individual differences in non-symbolic numerical abilities predict mathematical achievements but contradict ATOM

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant debate surrounds the nature of the cognitive mechanisms involved in non-symbolic number estimation. Several studies have suggested the existence of the same cognitive system for estimation of time, space, and number, called “a theory of magnitude” (ATOM). In addition, researchers have proposed the theory that non-symbolic number abilities might support our mathematical skills. Despite the large number of studies carried out, no firm conclusions can be drawn on either topic. Methods In the present study, we correlated the performance of adults on non-symbolic magnitude estimations and symbolic numerical tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude abilities were assessed by asking participants to estimate which auditory tone lasted longer (time), which line was longer (space), and which group of dots was more numerous (number). To assess symbolic numerical abilities, participants were required to perform mental calculations and mathematical reasoning. Results We found a positive correlation between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical abilities. On the other hand, no correlation was found among non-symbolic estimations of time, space, and number. Conclusions Our study supports the idea that mathematical abilities rely on rudimentary numerical skills that predate verbal language. By contrast, the lack of correlation among non-symbolic estimations of time, space, and number is incompatible with the idea that these magnitudes are entirely processed by the same cognitive system. PMID:23815866

  6. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-01-01

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. PMID:25092666

  7. Older Consumers Safety Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Guides / Home Older Consumers Safety Test This is a quiz on consumer product safety for older adults. What comes to mind when you think of Safety for the Older ...

  8. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Outdoors A Safe and Spooktacular Halloween All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety Auto Safety Backpack Safety Booster Seat ... the Whole Family Play It Safe All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety Bike Safety How to Choose & Use ...

  9. Lectures on Religion and Ritual ('Symbolic and Real')

    E-print Network

    Hugh-Jones, Stephen

    2006-01-18

    Quarterly (1): 6-48. Benson, S (1997) ‘The body, health and eating disorders’ in L. Jaynes & K Woodward eds. Culture, Media and Identity (Open University) Douglas, M. (1966) Purity and Danger (Routledge) - ch. 7. x Leach, E. (19 58) ‘Magical hair’, in S... such as sacrifice may be the only occasion when people X get to eat meat. The symbolic aspects of culture are often manifested in ritual; the course discusses what ritual is, why all cultures have ritual, and how it is organised. Conversely, it is often...

  10. Learning fuzzy information in a hybrid connectionist, symbolic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romaniuk, Steve G.; Hall, Lawrence O.

    1993-01-01

    An instance-based learning system is presented. SC-net is a fuzzy hybrid connectionist, symbolic learning system. It remembers some examples and makes groups of examples into exemplars. All real-valued attributes are represented as fuzzy sets. The network representation and learning method is described. To illustrate this approach to learning in fuzzy domains, an example of segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain is discussed. Clearly, the boundaries between human tissues are ill-defined or fuzzy. Example fuzzy rules for recognition are generated. Segmentations are presented that provide results that radiologists find useful.

  11. SYMBOLS OF CONSERVATISM AT A TIME OF UNCERTAINTY 

    E-print Network

    Moti, Danish

    2007-09-17

    of the most symbolic ads that showed actor Michael J. Fox who has Parkinson?s, ask for the support of Missourians so that there one day may be a cure for his as well as others illness. This ad shown in FIGURE 7 made the viewers uneasy as they watched a man... endure the effects of Parkinson?s disease (McCaskill, 2006). The stem cell issue divided voters as they questioned when life begins and is it ethical to discard an embryo to make another person?s life more fruitful. Talent, the incumbent Republican...

  12. Weighted symbolic analysis of human behavior for event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosani, A.; Boato, G.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2013-03-01

    Automatic video analysis and understanding has become a high interest research topic, with applications to video browsing, content-based video indexing, and visual surveillance. However, the automation of this process is still a challenging task, due to clutters produced by low-level processing operations. This common problem can be solved by embedding signi cant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between actual sequences and models. In this context we propose a novel framework that employs a symbolic representation of complex activities through sequences of atomic actions based on a weighted Context-Free Grammar.

  13. Symbol calculus and zeta-function regularized determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O. Teoman

    2007-11-15

    In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for nonpositive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action, one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose, we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate the determinant as a derivative expansion. The technique is applied both to a spin-0 bosonic operator and to the Dirac operator coupled to a scalar field.

  14. Symbol calculus and zeta--function regularized determinants

    E-print Network

    Burak Tevfik Kaynak; O. Teoman Turgut

    2007-12-07

    In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for non--positive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate the determinant as a derivative expansion. The technique is applied both to a spin--0 bosonic operator and to the Dirac operator coupled to a scalar field.

  15. Classifying cardiac biosignals using ordinal pattern statistics and symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Parlitz, U; Berg, S; Luther, S; Schirdewan, A; Kurths, J; Wessel, N

    2012-03-01

    The performance of (bio-)signal classification strongly depends on the choice of suitable features (also called parameters or biomarkers). In this article we evaluate the discriminative power of ordinal pattern statistics and symbolic dynamics in comparison with established heart rate variability parameters applied to beat-to-beat intervals. As an illustrative example we distinguish patients suffering from congestive heart failure from a (healthy) control group using beat-to-beat time series. We assess the discriminative power of individual features as well as pairs of features. These comparisons show that ordinal patterns sampled with an additional time lag are promising features for efficient classification. PMID:21511252

  16. Efficient hybrid-symbolic methods for quantum mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, T. C.; Zhang, Wenxing

    2015-06-01

    We present hybrid symbolic-numerical tools to generate optimized numerical code for rapid prototyping and fast numerical computation starting from a computer algebra system (CAS) and tailored to any given quantum mechanical problem. Although a major focus concerns the quantum chemistry methods of H. Nakatsuji which has yielded successful and very accurate eigensolutions for small atoms and molecules, the tools are general and may be applied to any basis set calculation with a variational principle applied to its linear and non-linear parameters.

  17. Verification of Java Programs using Symbolic Execution and Invariant Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Software verification is recognized as an important and difficult problem. We present a norel framework, based on symbolic execution, for the automated verification of software. The framework uses annotations in the form of method specifications an3 loop invariants. We present a novel iterative technique that uses invariant strengthening and approximation for discovering these loop invariants automatically. The technique handles different types of data (e.g. boolean and numeric constraints, dynamically allocated structures and arrays) and it allows for checking universally quantified formulas. Our framework is built on top of the Java PathFinder model checking toolset and it was used for the verification of several non-trivial Java programs.

  18. 36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except...

  19. 36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except...

  20. 36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except...

  1. 36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except...

  2. 36 CFR 261.22 - Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.22 Unauthorized use of “Smokey Bear” and “Woodsy Owl” symbol. (a) Manufacture, importation, reproduction, or use of “Smokey Bear” except...

  3. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols,...

  4. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols,...

  5. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols,...

  6. 40 CFR 1066.705 - Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...1066.705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Definitions and Other Reference Material § 1066.705 Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms,...

  7. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols,...

  8. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols,...

  9. 40 CFR 1066.705 - Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...1066.705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Definitions and Other Reference Material § 1066.705 Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms,...

  10. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...mmeter. mmmillimeter mphmiles per hour. N2 Onitrous oxide. NARANational Archives and Records Administration. NHTSANational Highway Transportation Safety Administration. NOX oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2 ). PMparticulate...

  11. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...mmeter. mmmillimeter mphmiles per hour. N2 Onitrous oxide. NARANational Archives and Records Administration. NHTSANational Highway Transportation Safety Administration. NOX oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2 ). PMparticulate...

  12. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...mmeter. mmmillimeter mphmiles per hour. N2 Onitrous oxide. NARANational Archives and Records Administration. NHTSANational Highway Transportation Safety Administration. NOX oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2 ). PMparticulate...

  13. Health & Safety Program Interim

    E-print Network

    Rosebrugh, Robert

    The foundation of MtA's Health & Safety program is the Occupational Health & Safety Policy #2103. http of a joint health and safety committee (NB Occupational Health & Safety Act, Chapter 0-02) #12;Health&Safety of the employees in matters necessary to their health and safety (NB Occupational Health & Safety Act, Chapter 0

  14. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  15. Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  16. Safety Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  17. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  18. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  19. Modeling Human Spatial Memory Within a Symbolic Architecture of Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelholz, Carsten; Schlick, Christopher M.

    This paper presents a study on the integration of spatial cognition into a symbolic theory. The concepts of encoding object-locations in local allocentric reference systems and noisy representations of locations have been integrated into the ACT-R architecture of cognition. The intrinsic reference axis of the local reference systems automatically result from the sequence of attended locations. The first part of the paper describes experiments we performed to test hypotheses on the usage of local allocentric reference systems in the context of object-location memory in graphical layout structures. The second part describes in more detail the theory and its integration into ACT-R. Based on the theory a model has been developed for the task in the experiments. The parameters for the noise in the representation of locations and the parameters for the recall of symbolic memory chunks were set to values in the magnitude quoted in literature. The model satisfyingly reproduces the data from user studies with 30 subjects.

  20. On the origins of naming and other symbolic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Pauline J.; Lowe, C. Fergus

    1996-01-01

    We identify naming as the basic unit of verbal behavior, describe the conditions under which it is learned, and outline its crucial role in the development of stimulus classes and, hence, of symbolic behavior. Drawing upon B. F. Skinner's functional analysis and the theoretical work of G. H. Mead and L. S. Vygotsky, we chart how a child, through learning listener behavior and then echoic responding, learns bidirectional relations between classes of objects or events and his or her own speaker-listener behavior, thus acquiring naming—a higher order behavioral relation. Once established, the bidirectionality incorporated in naming extends across behavior classes such as those identified by Skinner as the mand, tact, and intraverbal so that each becomes a variant of the name relation. We indicate how our account informs the specification of rule-governed behavior and provides the basis for an experimental analysis of symbolic behavior. Furthermore, because naming is both evoked by, and itself evokes, classes of events it brings about new or emergent behavior such as that reported in studies of stimulus equivalence. This account is supported by data from a wide range of match-to-sample studies that also provide evidence that stimulus equivalence in humans is not a unitary phenomenon but the outcome of a number of different types of naming behavior. PMID:16812780

  1. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

  2. Lower bounds for symbolic complexity of iceberg dynamical systems

    E-print Network

    Prikhod'ko, A A

    2012-01-01

    The symbolic complexity of an infinite word $W$ is the function $p_W(l)$ counting the number of different subwords in $W$ of length $l$. In this paper our main purpose is to study the complexity for a class of topological dynamical systems, called iceberg systems, given by the following symbolic procedure. Starting from a given finite word $w_1$ we construct a sequence of words $w_{n+1} = w_n \\rho_{a_n(1)}(w_n)...\\rho_{a_n(q_n-1)}(w_n)$, where $\\rho_a(u)$ is the cyclic rotations of the word $u$ by $a$ positions, and consider an infinite word $W$ extending each $w_n$ to the right. It is shown that for iceberg systems given by the randomized parameters $a_n(j)$ the complexity function almost surely satisfies the estimate $p_W(l) > l^{3-\\epsilon}$ for any $\\epsilon > 0$ and $l \\ge l_0(\\epsilon)$, and at the same time it is observed that this estimate represents up to a small correction the optimal lower bound for the complexity function, namely, $p_{w_{n+1}}(l_n) \\le l_n^3$ along the subsequence $l_n = |w_n|+1$.

  3. Non-symbolic halving in an Amazonian indigene group

    PubMed Central

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an intuition of a more complex calculation, division, exists in an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, whose language includes no words for large numbers. Mundurucu children were presented with a video event depicting a division transformation of halving, in which pairs of objects turned into single objects, reducing the array's numerical magnitude. Then they were tested on their ability to calculate the outcome of this division transformation with other large-number arrays. The Mundurucu children effected this transformation even when non-numerical variables were controlled, performed above chance levels on the very first set of test trials, and exhibited performance similar to urban children who had access to precise number words and a surrounding symbolic culture. We conclude that a halving calculation is part of the suite of intuitive operations supported by the ANS. PMID:23587042

  4. Cardiovascular regulation during sleep quantified by symbolic coupling traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhrbier, A.; Riedl, M.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2010-12-01

    Sleep is a complex regulated process with short periods of wakefulness and different sleep stages. These sleep stages modulate autonomous functions such as blood pressure and heart rate. The method of symbolic coupling traces (SCT) is used to analyze and quantify time-delayed coupling of these measurements during different sleep stages. The symbolic coupling traces, defined as the symmetric and diametric traces of the bivariate word distribution matrix, allow the quantification of time-delayed coupling. In this paper, the method is applied to heart rate and systolic blood pressure time series during different sleep stages for healthy controls as well as for normotensive and hypertensive patients with sleep apneas. Using the SCT, significant different cardiovascular mechanisms not only between the deep sleep and the other sleep stages but also between healthy subjects and patients can be revealed. The SCT method is applied to model systems, compared with established methods, such as cross correlation, mutual information, and cross recurrence analysis and demonstrates its advantages especially for nonstationary physiological data. As a result, SCT proves to be more specific in detecting delays of directional interactions than standard coupling analysis methods and yields additional information which cannot be measured by standard parameters of heart rate and blood pressure variability. The proposed method may help to indicate the pathological changes in cardiovascular regulation and also the effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on the cardiovascular system.

  5. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative ‘vocal’ charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic ‘meaning template’ we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems. PMID:26361547

  6. Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozgur

    2015-12-01

    This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air? PMID:26496041

  7. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems. PMID:26361547

  8. Combining metric episodes with semantic event concepts within the Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Troy D.; McGhee, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) combines symbolic and sub-symbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control architecture. The new architecture leverages previous work in cognitive architectures, specifically the development of the Adaptive Character of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) and Soar. This paper details current work on learning from episodes or events. The use of episodic memory as a learning mechanism has, until recently, been largely ignored by computational cognitive architectures. This paper details work on metric level episodic memory streams and methods for translating episodes into abstract schemas. The presentation will include research on learning through novelty and self generated feedback mechanisms for autonomous systems.

  9. Laboratory Safety General Safety Rules

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    . Personal Protective Equipment · All persons working with hazardous chemicals should wear gloves. · All persons working with chemicals that could be splashed in the eyes are required to wear safety goggles containers. · Discarded animals parts must be placed in a red cardboard "Biohazardous Waste" box. · Discarded

  10. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NIOSH Website Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & Injuries Safety & Prevention Chemicals Emergency Preparedness & Response Publications and Products NIOSH Programs ...

  11. HEALTH, SAFETY & INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    HEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING NEW STAFF INDUCTION #12;INTRODUCTION · University Health, Safety and Wellbeing Policy · The role of the Health & Safety Office · School/Unit Health & Safety Management · Occupational Health Services · Emergency Procedures · Fire Evacuation Procedure · Accident and incident

  12. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  13. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

    E-print Network

    OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Department of Occupational Health and Safety Revised December 2009 #12;Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management System 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 3 2.2 Management of Health and Safety

  14. Constructing Public Opinion and Manipulating Symbols: China's Press Coverage of the Student Movement in 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Kraus, Sidney

    1995-01-01

    Presents a content analysis of Chinese newspapers before and after the Tiananmen Square protest. Shows that top leaders manipulated symbols given to the media and that these symbols rigorously highlighted the dominant ideology of the Chinese Communist Party and isolated participants of the 1989 Student Movement to legitimize the military…

  15. Symbols Can Improve the Reading Comprehension of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that adding symbols to written text can improve its comprehensibility for adults with learning disabilities. Methods: Nineteen adults with mild or borderline learning disabilities attempted to read four short passages of text, two of which had Widgit Rebus symbols added to them. Following each…

  16. The Role of Symbol Systems in Problem Solving: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

    This review brings diverse research to bear on the contention that current achievement tests may underestimate students' subject-matter knowledge and problem-solving ability because of the mismatch between the symbolic form that typical achievement tests use and the specificity of students' symbolic encoding that arises from instruction and…

  17. Comparison of Symbolic and Overt Aversion in the Self-Control of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    Compared rapid smoking (overt aversion), covert sensitization (symbolic aversion), and a combination of the two in a self-punishment procedure for eliminating cigarette smoking. Training sessions were spaced over a one-month period. The overt group achieved significantly greater reduction than the symbolic group. The combined group did not differ…

  18. Neural Connectivity Patterns Underlying Symbolic Number Processing Indicate Mathematical Achievement in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joonkoo; Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In early childhood, humans learn culturally specific symbols for number that allow them entry into the world of complex numerical thinking. Yet little is known about how the brain supports the development of the uniquely human symbolic number system. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging along with an effective connectivity analysis…

  19. The Relative Effectiveness of Some Common Graduated Point Symbols in the Presentation of Quantitive Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, James John

    Some general philosophy about maps is presented in the introduction. It is noted that the main purpose of a map is to generate an intellectual response through visual symbols. Quantitative distribution maps present a number of design problems that have led to continuing investigations of graduated circles as point symbols. A summary of the…

  20. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...