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1

Hong Kong Chinese and Korean comprehension of American security safety symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated Hong Kong Chinese and Korean comprehension of American security safety symbols, and how successfully they could guess the meaning of the symbols in relation to their ratings of the appropriateness of the design of each of the symbols. Symbol comprehension scores, symbol guessing scores, design appropriateness ratings, and demographic information were obtained for 81 Hong Kong Chinese

Alan H. S. Chan; Sung H. Han; Annie W. Y. Ng; Wonkyu Park

2009-01-01

2

Verifiying Safety Properties of a Power PC Microprocessor Using Symbolic Model Checking without BDDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In (1) Bounded Model Checking with the aid of satisfiability solving (SAT) was introduced as an alternative to symbolic model check- ing with BDDs. In this paper we show how bounded model checking can take advantage of specialized optimizations. We present a bounded ver- sion of the cone of influence reduction. We have successfully applied this idea in checking safety

Armin Biere; Edmund M. Clarke; Richard Raimi; Yunshan Zhu

1999-01-01

3

Engaging Latino farmworkers in the development of symbols to improve pesticide safety and health education and risk communication.  

PubMed

The working and living environments of farmworkers put them and their families at risk for pesticide exposure and, consequently, immediate and long-term health effects. In this study, visual materials for a pesticide toxicology safety and health curriculum were constructed by engaging farmworkers in various stages of symbol development. Twenty-seven farmworkers in two states participated in this descriptive case study through focused small group discussions and interviews. Our findings support the importance of vivid and realistic symbols, the effectiveness of a traffic-light symbol in communicating technical information to farmworkers, and the need to engage low-literacy end-users in the production of educational materials. This work informs the development of curricula for other vulnerable populations pertaining to a variety of health-related topics, as well as discussions surrounding regulatory proposals to revise the United States Worker Protection Standard. PMID:22833257

LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Blanchard, Margaret R; Asuaje, Cesar R; Cope, W Gregory

2013-10-01

4

Symbolic solutions for deadly dilemmas: An analysis of federal coal mine health and safety legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies of coal mine laws have argued that the passage of all significant health and safety legislation can be attributed to a succession of catastrophic disasters which heightened awareness and propelled lawmakers into action. This paper takes issue with this ''disaster-law'' argument because it obscures the intricacies of law creation by focusing on a single factor. More accurately, mining

Daniel J. Curran

1984-01-01

5

Symbolic solutions for deadly dilemmas: An analysis of federal coal mine health and safety legislation  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies of coal mine laws have argued that the passage of all significant health and safety legislation can be attributed to a succession of catastrophic disasters which heightened awareness and propelled lawmakers into action. This paper takes issue with this ''disaster-law'' argument because it obscures the intricacies of law creation by focusing on a single factor. More accurately, mining disasters represent one dimension of a process aimed at resolving conflicts occurring within a specific social context. Historically, legislation has been utilized to avert economic crises by addressing the demands of protesting miners. Unfortunately, while the ''written law'' assured improvements, the ''law in action'' did not meet these guarantees and the deaths in the mines continued. A case study of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 demonstrates how a law with apparently progressive standards can fail to effect change because of its dualistic nature and incomplete implementation.

Curran, D.J.

1984-01-01

6

Radiation Symbols  

MedlinePLUS

... Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Symbols Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation ... Michigan's Radiation and Health Physics Page . United Nations Symbol In February of 2007, the United Nations introduced ...

7

Sound Symbolism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

8

Symbolic Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

Podgor, Ellen S.

1976-01-01

9

Which Symbol?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem is designed to help young learners use the symbols plus, minus, multiplied by, divided by and equals to, meaningfully, in ten number statements. Students must drag two operational symbols to empty boxes to make a true statement. This problem also helps learners understand inverse operations and to look for alternate solutions. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, printable worksheet.

2009-12-01

10

Symbolic Bisimulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-examine bisimulation equivalence for value-passing process languages in which actions have associated with them values from a possibly infinite value set. Using symbolic actions we generalise the standard notion of labelled transition graph to that of symbolic transition graph. The advantage of the latter is that the operational semantics of many value-passing processes may be expressed in terms of

Matthew Hennessy; H. Lin

1995-01-01

11

Sixty Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever wondered about the symbols used by scientists? You're probably not alone, and this website created by a team at the University of Nottingham demystifies sixty prominent physics symbols via informative video segments. The videos are not necessarily meant to be lessons or lectures on the symbols, "The films are just fun chats with men and women who live their subject and know a lot about it!" The videos are quite fun, and the talk on "gamma" includes a discussion of cricket balls, while the "rho" video features paperclips in coffee cups. All of the videos can be accessed via the homepage, and visitors should plan on making several visits to check out all of the clips. At the bottom of the homepage, visitors can also view earlier videos created as part of the project, learn more about their scientists, and take a look at a list of other related sites.

12

Patriotic Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can click on a number of national symbols to get visual familiarity with them. Students who can read will be challenged with a limited amount of text. Children can x-out pictures on a worksheet to show they found each symbol. X-out the pictures on your worksheet as you find them on the computer. 1.Ben s Flag 2.Ben s St. of Lib 3.Ben s White House 4.Ben s Liberty Bell k-2 5.Ben s Independence Hall k-2 6.Bald Eagle k-2 7.Photo of Washington Monument 8. Photo-Back of White House 9. Photo of White House 10.Mt. Rushmore 11.Arlington Nat. Cemetary 12.Jefferson Memorial Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt, Lincoln: Some presidents of our country. 14.Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers 15.Color Ben s Flag ...

Anderson, J.

2007-02-09

13

Symbolism in prehistoric man.  

PubMed

The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity. PMID:11216422

Facchini, F

2000-12-01

14

Symbolic versus associative learning.  

PubMed

Ramscar and colleagues (2010, this volume) describe the "feature-label-order" (FLO) effect on category learning and characterize it as a constraint on symbolic learning. I argue that FLO is neither a constraint on symbolic learning in the sense of "learning elements of a symbol system" (instead, it is an effect on nonsymbolic, association learning) nor is it, more than any other constraint on category learning, a constraint on symbolic learning in the sense of "solving the symbol grounding problem." PMID:21564240

Hummel, John E

2010-08-01

15

Earliest Math Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, maintained by a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Fla., reviews the Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. Listed here are the names and information for the first individuals to use some common mathematical symbols, including symbols of operation, grouping symbols, symbols of relation, and symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus, probability, number theory, and logic. The main source used for the information provided is a book by Florian Cajori entitled A History of Mathematical Notations. Links to other pages on topics in mathematics history are also provided.

16

Sorting Symbol Strings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a variety of activities that ask students to identify, describe, compare, and classify symbol strings (algebraic expressions and equations). The activities use a collection of twelve symbol strings on cards. (Contains 2 figures.)

Novak, Jodie D.; Jacobs, Judith E.

2005-01-01

17

Extending to Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students begin to use symbolic representations, they use variables as unknowns. To help their concept of symbolic representation to grow, they need to explore questions such as: What is an identity? and When are two symbolic representations equal? This activity engages students in work with an online algebraic balance. Questions as well as ideas for class discussion are included in the lesson plan.

Martin, Gary; Keller, Brian

2000-01-01

18

Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

2011-01-01

19

Face Recognition Using Symbolic KPCA Plus Symbolic LDA in the Framework of Symbolic Data Analysis: Symbolic Kernel Fisher Discriminant Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new approach called as symbolic kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (symbolic KFD) for face recognition\\u000a based on symbolic kernel principal component analysis (symbolic KPCA) and symbolic linear discriminant analysis (symbolic\\u000a LDA) in the framework of symbolic data analysis. It is well known that the distribution of face images, under a perceivable\\u000a variation in view point,

P. S. Hiremath; C. J. Prabhakar

2008-01-01

20

Symbolic execution and program testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the symbolic execution of programs. Instead of supplying the normal inputs to a program (e.g. numbers) one supplies symbols representing arbitrary values. The execution proceeds as in a normal execution except that values may be symbolic formulas over the input symbols. The difficult, yet interesting issues arise during the symbolic execution of conditional branch type statements. A

James C. King

1976-01-01

21

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

22

Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

James, Mark

2006-01-01

23

Symbolic Interaction Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic interactionism is a theoretical framework that derives from critical humanism through social psychology and is presented as an alternative to sociological and psychological views of social reality. This paper analyzes the general arguments of symbolic interactionism, its portrayal of people as responsible agents, and its interpretive…

Larsen, Vernon W.; Wright, H. Curtis

24

Noncoherent Symbol Synchronization Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional methods for establishing symbol synchronization (sync) in digital communication receivers assume that carrier sync has already been established, i.e., the problem is addressed at the baseband level assuming that a 'perfect' estimate of carrier phase is available. We refer to this approach as coherent symbol sync. Since, for NRZ signaling, a suppressed carrier sync loop such as an I-Q Costas loop includes integrate-and-dump (I and D) filters in its in-phase (1) and quadrature (Q) arms, the traditional approach is to first track the carrier in the absence of symbol sync information, then feed back the symbol sync estimate to these filters, and then iterate between the two to a desirable operating level In this paper, we revisit the symbol sync problem by examining methods for obtaining such sync in the absence of carrier phase information, i.e., so-called noncoherent symbol sync loops. We compare the performance of these loops with that of a well-known coherent symbol sync loop and examine the conditions under which one is preferable over the other.

Simon, Marvin

2005-01-01

25

Homecoming for Library Symbol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the significance and development of the library symbol and the history of its acceptance by the American Library Association (ALA) and the Canadian Library Association (CLA). Suggestions are made for its use. (CLB)

Egan, Bessie

1987-01-01

26

Analyzing Symbolic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical data analysis considers data vectors with real-valued or categorical components. In contrast, Symbolic Data Analysis (SDA) deals with data vectors whose components are intervals, sets of categories, or even frequency distributions. SDA generalizes\\u000a common methods of multivariate statistics to the case of symbolic data tables. This paper presents a brief survey on basic\\u000a problems and methods of this fast-developing

H.-H. Bock

27

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what a topographic map is, how to read them, and what the symbols shown on maps and their legends mean. Contour lines, intervals, depth curves, and color meanings are discussed. There is also a legend showing examples of each symbol by category: elevation, boundaries, land surface features (mines, vegetation), water features (reefs, channels), buildings and related features (airports, schools), and roads, railroads and others (pipelines, bridges).

28

Memoized Symbolic Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

2012-01-01

29

CUSPIDAL MODULAR SYMBOLS ARE TRANSPORTABLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular symbols of weight 2 for a congruence subgroup0 satisfy the identity f; .\\/ gDf ; .\\/g for all ; in the extended upper half plane and 2 0. The analogue of this identity is false for modular symbols of weight greater than 2. This paper provides a definition of transportable modular symbols, which are symbols for which an analogue

WILLIAM A. STEIN; HELENA A. VERRILL

2001-01-01

30

Cross-spectrum symbol synchronization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A popular method of symbol synchronization exploits one aspect of generalized harmonic analysis, normally referred to as the cross-spectrum. Utilizing nonlinear techniques, the input symbol energy is effectively concentrated onto multiples of the symbol clock frequency, facilitating application of conventional phase lock synchronization techniques. A general treatment of the cross-spectrum technique is developed and shown to be applicable across a broad class of symbol modulation formats. An important specific symbol synchronization application is then treated, focusing the general development to provide both insight and quantitative measure of the performance impact associated with variation in these key synchronization parameters: symbol modulation format, symbol transition probability, symbol energy to noise density ratio, and symbol rate to filter bandwidth ratio.

Mccallister, R. D.; Simon, M. K.

1981-01-01

31

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A consistent provider of high-quality online resources, the US Geological Survey (USGS) does not disappoint with this site. This site, announced this week, is an online version of its popular guide to topographic map symbols. Although a bit brief, the guide will prove helpful to general users of topographic maps and beginning geography students. The guide offers charts explaining map symbols in six different categories. A very short introduction to reading topographic maps and a list of related links are also provided.

32

Fuzzy-Symbolic Analysis for Classification of Symbolic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A recent study on symbolic data analysis literature reveals that symbolic distance measures are playing a major role in solving\\u000a the pattern recognition and analysis problems. After a careful study on the existing symbolic distance measures, we have identified\\u000a that most of the existing symbolic distance measures either suffer from generalization or do not address object variability.\\u000a To alleviate these

M. S. Dinesh; K. Chidananda Gowda; P. Nagabhushan

2005-01-01

33

Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

Toro, Leonor

34

Sign, Symbol and Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Signs are such a commonplace sight in our everyday lives, that we can easily miss the artistic beauty and graphic harmony of the symbols used. Thoughtfully well designed and planned signs communicate with a simplicity and directness that signmakers and designers have adhered to for ages. Even contemporary signs still reflect their timelessness…

Ballinger, Louise Bowen; Ballinger, Raymond A.

35

THE SYMBOLS OF UTAH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Demonstrate respect for the state symbols of Utah. The State Flag of Utah DATES: You can begin this activity on March 5. You should complete it by March 9. OBJECTIVE: We have been studying the history of Utah this year. You can probably already name the state bird and describe the state flag. You have sung the ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-02

36

Symbolic Model Checking: 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifyingfinite state systems by examining state-graph models of systembehavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitlyrepresent the state space using a list or a table that grows inproportion to the number of states. We describe a general method thatrepresents the state space symbolically instead of explicitly. The generalityof our method

D. L. Dill; E. M. Clarke; J. R. Burch; K. L. Mcmillan; L. J. Hwang

1992-01-01

37

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Topographic map examples illustrate symbols commonly used on maps for cultural and natural features, such as boundaries, buildings, caves and mines, coastal features, contour lines and elevations, dams, railroads, rivers, trails, bogs, pipelines, vegetation types, surficial material, and modifications for navigation. Each item links to a map that is enlarged and clearly marked for easy identification.

Slaymaker, Susan

38

Probabilistic Modeling for Symbolic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic data refer to variables whose 'values' might be, e.g., intervals, sets of categories, or even frequency distributions. Symbolic data analysis provides exploratory methods for revealing the structure of such data and proceeds typically by heuristical, even if suggestive methods that generalize criteria and algorithms from classical multivariate statistics. In contrast, this paper proposes to base the analysis of symbolic

Hans-Hermann Bock

39

Historic Symbols of Patriotism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are historical symbols of patriotism? 1. Open: (Teacher will give it to you) Graphic Organzer. Draw a picture in each circle of things you learn. 2. Look at the American Flag American Flag. Draw your own in a circle. 3. Now look at the Alabama Flag Alabama Flag. Let's draw this flag. 4. Watch this video The National Anthem being sung Draw you singing this song! 5. What is this? The Pledge of Allegiance. When do we say this ...

Murry, Ms.

2010-11-04

40

Symbolic local information transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.

Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

2013-06-01

41

Virtual-machine-based GIS symbolize process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed a new GIS symbolize process, called virtual machine based symbolize process. It is a new method to create and share map symbol libraries in different GIS platform by using symbol virtual machine, which screened the difference of the concrete GIS platform, and provide a uniform symbol interface for the GIS symbols designer, thus the symbols made by this method can be used in different GIS platforms, and achieve the same representation results.

Su, Kehua; Zhu, Xinyan

2006-10-01

42

Topographic map symbols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interpreting the colored lines, areas, and other symbols is the first step in using topographic maps. Features are shown as points, lines, or areas, depending on their size and extent. For example, individual houses may be shown as small black squares. For larger buildings, the actual shapes are mapped. In densely built-up areas, most individual buildings are omitted and an area tint is shown. On some maps, post offices, churches, city halls, and other landmark buildings are shown within the tinted area.

U.S. Geological Survey

2005-01-01

43

Optical symbolic computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results of the work on optical symbolic computing that was performed on grant AFOSR-86-0189 during the second year of the three year program. The detail of the research is in the appended papers. This section of the report is to summarize the motivation for the work, the reasons for the approach taken, and the results. First, a rationale is given for the use of optics in A.I., and then the approach taken is described. The results of the research are then given.

Cathey, W. T.; Schmidt, Rodney A.

1988-04-01

44

International Icon Symbols: How Well Are These Symbols Understood?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a great reliance on symbolic messages in our society, but the success of these messages depends on how they are interpreted. The variability of subjects' interpretations of commonly used visual symbols was investigated by comparing the interpretations of a U.S. audience and a Jamaican audience. Responses of 27 executive master's in…

Griffin, Robert E.; Gibbs, William J.

45

Symbolic Communication Between Two Chimpanzees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one and requested specific food of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. (Author/MA)

Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; And Others

1978-01-01

46

Symbolic Mediation in Cognitive Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article used two studies to investigate sign and symbol mediation in children aged 8-11 years. In role play, children exist at one at the same time in objective reality and their representation of reality. We cannot observe their mental representation directly, but the issue of whether signs or symbols mediate early role play is an important…

Veraksa, Alexander N.

2011-01-01

47

Symbolic Model Checking without BDDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic Model Checking (3, 14) has proven to be a powerful tech- nique for the verification of reactive systems. BDDs (2) have traditionally been used as a symbolic representation of the system. In this paper we show how boolean decision procedures, like Stalmarck's Method (16) or the Davis & Put- nam Procedure (7), can replace BDDs. This new technique avoids

Armin Biere; Alessandro Cimatti; Edmund M. Clarke; Yunshan Zhu

1999-01-01

48

Dimensionality reduction of symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hitherto dimensionality\\/feature reduction techniques are studied with reference to conventional data, where the objects are represented by numerical vectors. This proposal is to extend the notion of dimensionality reduction to more generalised objects called Symbolic data. A mathematical model which achieves generation of symbolic features — particularly of span type — in transformed lower-dimensional space from a high n-dimensional feature

P. Nagabhushan; K. Chidananda Gowda; Edwin Diday

1995-01-01

49

Normalization of interval symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new tool in data mining, symbolic data analysis (SDA) can not only decrease the computational complexity of huge data sets, but also master the property of the sample integrally. In many statistical analysis methods the sample data need to be normalized in advance. This paper focuses on the normalization of interval symbolic data. Firstly, on the assumption that

Junpeng Guol; Wenhua Lil; Sue Cheng

2009-01-01

50

Media Ecology and Symbolic Interactionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Mead's role in media ecological studies and will explore his relationship to media ecology from an interpersonal communication perspective. Included in this discussion are Mead's concepts of self, symbolic interactionism, and the relationship between symbolic interactionism and media ecology. Examples from Internet research are used to illustrate how media ecology can be applied to interpersonal mediated communication

Susan B. Barnes

51

Symbols Representing Biometrics in Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS) M1 task group meetings in 2008, it was recognized that there is a need for a symbol to represent that any biometrics (fingerprint, iris, photo, etc.) are in use. The symbol i...

B. Stanton M. Theofanos P. Hofmann Y. Y. Choong

2009-01-01

52

SLIC - Symbolic Layout of Integrated Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a symbolic layout technique for MOS integrated circuits. We will give a description of symbolic layout, talk about its potential and briefly describe the symbolic layout system we have developed at AMI.

Dave Gibson; Scott Nance

1976-01-01

53

Biohazards Symbol: Development of a Biological Hazards Warning Signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a symbol to warn of potential infection hazards became apparent during Public Health Service contract work on the development of containment facilities for virus-leukemia research. A program of direct inquiry and a search of the literature revealed that there was no universally used signal and that scientific and safety organizations concurred in the need for one. Criteria

Charles L. Baldwin; Robert S. Runkle

1967-01-01

54

Symbolic representation of probabilistic worlds.  

PubMed

Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of symbolic representation, and develops formal constraints under which such representation is in fact warranted. The effectiveness of symbolic representation hinges on the probabilistic structure of the environment that is to be represented. For arbitrary probability distributions (i.e., environments), symbolic representation is generally not warranted. But in modal environments, defined here as those that consist of mixtures of component distributions that are narrow ("spiky") relative to their spreads, symbolic representation can be shown to represent the environment with a relatively negligible loss of information. Modal environments support propositional forms, logical relations, and other familiar features of symbolic representation. Hence the assumption that our environment is, in fact, modal is a key tacit assumption underlying the use of symbols in cognitive science. PMID:22270145

Feldman, Jacob

2012-04-01

55

Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

Pasareanu, Corina S.

2012-01-01

56

Histograms in symbolic data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an extension of the notion of the histogram used for variables to describe a knowledge base where the knowledge is represented by a special kind of symbolic objects. Boolana assertion objects.

F. A. T. de Carvalho

1995-01-01

57

Electrical Units, Abbreviations, and Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this animated and interactive object, students read an introduction to electrical quantities, units, and symbols and test their knowledge in a matching exercise.Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students

Hoppe, Patrick

2009-10-07

58

Learning at the Symbolic Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symbolic language of chemistry is extensive, and is used ubiquitously in teaching and learning the subject at\\u000a secondary level and beyond. This chapter considers how this ‘language’, which acts as such a powerful facilitator of communication\\u000a for the expert, may often impede effective communication for novice learners. Symbolic representations become second nature\\u000a to the teacher, being highly integrated with

Keith S. Taber

59

Comparing Clustering on Symbolic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various dissimilarity functions for symbolic data clustering are available in the literature, little attention has\\u000a thus far been paid to making a comparison between such different distance measures. This paper presents a comparative study\\u000a of some well known dissimilarity functions treating symbolic data. A version of the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is\\u000a used to create groups of individuals characterized

Alzennyr Da Silva; Yves Lechevallier; Francisco De A. T. De Carvalho

2009-01-01

60

Symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternate symbol inversion is sometimes applied to the output of convolutional encoders to guarantee sufficient richness of symbol transition for the receiver symbol synchronizer. A bound is given for the length of the transition-free symbol stream in such systems, and those convolutional codes are characterized in which arbitrarily long transition free runs occur.

Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

1979-01-01

61

Color image processing using symbolic data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use symbolic data analysis in the color image processing. First, we define symbolic objects and we describe also a method of clustering, in order to find the optimal number of homogeneous parts in the image. After, we describe the similarity and dissimilarity measures for symbolic objects. We define a new similarity measure between symbolic objects with

Giannoula Florou

1996-01-01

62

Symbolic Execution of the Gist Specification Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic execution can help clarify the behavior implied by a program specification without implementing that specification, and can thereby assist the difficult process of developing a correct specification. However, symbolic execution of specification s poses problems that do not arise in symbolic execution of ordinary programming languages. We describe a symbolic evaluator, named KOKO 2, for the Gist specification language,

Donald Cohen

1983-01-01

63

Early Numerical Development and the Role of Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For learning math, non-symbolic quantity skills, symbolic skills and the mapping between number symbols and non-symbolic quantities are all important precursors. Little is known, however, about the interrelated development of these skills. The current study focuses on numerical development by: (a) investigating the structure of non-symbolic,…

Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

2013-01-01

64

Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A differential detection technique for MPSK (multiple-phase shift keying), which uses a multiple-symbol observation interval, is presented, and its performance is analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in the conventional differential detection. Thus, the performance of this multiple-symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol

Dariush Divsalar; M. K. Simon

1990-01-01

65

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

66

Symbolic discrete event system specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extending discrete event modeling formalisms to facilitate greater symbol manipulation capabilities is important to further their use in intelligent control and design of high autonomy systems. An extension to the DEVS formalism that facilitates symbolic expression of event times by extending the time base from the real numbers to the field of linear polynomials over the reals is defined. A simulation algorithm is developed to generate the branching trajectories resulting from the underlying nondeterminism. To efficiently manage symbolic constraints, a consistency checking algorithm for linear polynomial constraints based on feasibility checking algorithms borrowed from linear programming has been developed. The extended formalism offers a convenient means to conduct multiple, simultaneous explorations of model behaviors. Examples of application are given with concentration on fault model analysis.

Zeigler, Bernard P.; Chi, Sungdo

1992-01-01

67

The Value of Symbolic Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard generative linguistic theory, which uses discrete symbolic models of cogni- tion, has some strengths and weaknesses. It is strong on providing a network of out- posts that make scientific travel in the jungles of natural language feasible. It is weak in that it currently depends on the elaborate and unformalized use of intuition to de- velop critical supporting assumptions

Whitney Tabor

2002-01-01

68

Symbolic Debugging of Optimized Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-standing conflict between code optimization and symbolic debugging is examined. The effects of local and global optimizations on the variables of a program are categorized, and models for representing the effect of optimizations are given. Algorithms use these models to determine the subset of variables whose values do not correspond to those in the original program. Restoring these variables

John L. Hennessy

1982-01-01

69

SYMBOLIZING DATA INTO A 'BUMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze how concepts and symbolizations co-develop in the case of statistical data analysis. The focus is on the development of distribution, which ranges from a very concrete intuitive understanding to formal mathematical definitions. Examples from teaching experiments with 11 to 12 year-old students illustrate how their concept of distribution develops in relation to what the graphs

Arthur Bakker

70

Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

2010-01-01

71

Allegories and Symbols in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manuscript describes how counselors can facilitate self-awareness in clients and counselors-in-training through the use of metaphors. The use of metaphors and others symbols provide a creative, non-intrusive, and non-confrontational approach to counseling. Examples of stories and fables used during counseling sessions and instructional…

Alvarado, Victor I.; Cavazos, Lionel J.

2007-01-01

72

BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

2013-08-01

73

Basic Symbols Used in Engineering Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners examine the drawing symbols used for counterbore, countersink, spotface, radius, diameter, and depth. In the quiz that completes the activity, they associate these symbols with machining applications. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students

Sokolowski, Glenn

2009-09-24

74

Symbol Recognition: Current Advances and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of symbols in graphic documents is an intensive research activity in the community of pattern recognition\\u000a and document analysis. A key issue in the interpretation of maps, engineering drawings, diagrams, etc. is the recognition\\u000a of domain dependent symbols according to a symbol database. In this work we first review the most outstanding symbol recognition\\u000a methods from two different

Josep Lladós; Ernest Valveny; Gemma Sánchez; Enric Mart ´ i

2001-01-01

75

Digit Symbol Rotation: A More g-Loaded Version of the Traditional Digit Symbol Subtest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created an adaptation of the Digit Symbol subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Digit Symbol Rotation test, and evaluated its "g" loading with 54 adults. Results suggest the Digit Symbol Rotation test has more factorial validity than Digit Symbol, but remains equally easy to administer and score. (SLD)

Gignac, Gilles; Vernon, Philip A.

2003-01-01

76

Symbol Synchronization for the TDRSS Decoder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, w...

D. J. Costello

1983-01-01

77

Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

Auty, Geoff

2012-01-01

78

Symbols for communication circuit design and documentation  

SciTech Connect

A set of communication symbols has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for designing and documenting communication circuits. The symbols can depict devices in a circuit, show proper interfacing of devices, and show the propagation of clocks, data, and control signals through the circuit. This paper defines the communication symbols and illustrates their usage. 3 refs., 6 figs.

George, M.; Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.

1988-01-01

79

22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11 Foreign...Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant alien...described below shall bear an appropriate visa symbol to show the classification of the...

2013-04-01

80

Slew Timer For Symbol Display Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slew-length timer generates delay and, at end of delay, signal indicating end of one of slews of electron beam in cathode-ray-tube display driven by symbol generator. End-of-slew signal constitutes "permission" for symbol generator to begin drawing next symbol segment.

Fisher, Paul A.

1993-01-01

81

Flat Acceleration in Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic model checking provides partially effective verication pro- cedures that can handle systems with an innite state space. So-called ìaccelera- tion techniquesî enhance the convergence of xpoint computations by computing the transitive closure of some transitions. In this paper we develop a new frame- work for symbolic model checking with accelerations. We also propose and ana- lyze new symbolic algorithms

Sébastien Bardin; Alain Finkel; Jérôme Leroux; Philippe Schnoebelen

2005-01-01

82

Symbolic Layout for Bipolar and MOS VLSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

VLSI design requires design methodologies which are tailored to the implementation technology. Symbolic layout has been addressed in the past for MOS technology, while bipolar technology has largely been ignored. This paper describes a novel symbolic design technique which addresses both bipolar and MOS technologies. The technique allows the designer to symbolically layout nMOS, CMOS, and bipolar circuit structures. The

Kevin S. B. Szabo; James M. Leask; Mohamed I. Elmasry

1987-01-01

83

Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

Parault, Susan J.

2006-01-01

84

Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

2008-01-01

85

Patera in Aere. Symbols of the goddess of health on coins and medals.  

PubMed

The numismatic record, coins and medals, portrays many of the symbols of health. The oldest symbol which portrays health, as a positive state of physical well-being, is the patera. First associated with Hygeia, it extended to that of the Roman Goddess of Health, Salus, imparting to the concept of health the additional themes of safety and security. Ancient and modern coins and medals, which portray the patera, are included in this account. PMID:11624589

Pearn, J

2000-06-01

86

7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Form of official identification symbols. 91.102 Section 91.102 Agriculture...INFORMATION Designation of Approved Symbols for Identification of Commodities Officially...102 Form of official identification symbols. Two information symbols in the...

2009-01-01

87

7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Form of official identification symbols. 91.102 Section 91.102 Agriculture...INFORMATION Designation of Approved Symbols for Identification of Commodities Officially...102 Form of official identification symbols. Two information symbols in the...

2010-01-01

88

Alternate symbol inversion for improved symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inverting alternate symbols of the encoder output of a convolutionally coded system provides sufficient density of symbol transitions to guarantee adequate symbol synchronizer performance, a guarantee otherwise lacking. Although alternate symbol inversion may increase or decrease the average transition density, depending on the data source model, it produces a maximum number of contiguous symbols without transition for a particular class of convolutional codes, independent of the data source model. Further, this maximum is sufficiently small to guarantee acceptable symbol synchronizer performance for typical applications. Subsequent inversion of alternate detected symbols permits proper decoding.

Simon, M. K.; Smith, J. G.

1980-01-01

89

Symbolic processes in the implementation of technological change: a symbolic interactionist study of work computerization.  

PubMed

This study examined the symbolic processes involved in the computerization of work in a health maintenance organization. Guided by symbolic interaction as a methodological framework, this inductive study used the methods of participant observation and in-depth interviewing for gathering data. It documents the multiple symbols associated with computerization in the organization and discusses local interpretations of those symbolic realities. It also explores the influence of this symbolism on the computerization process. PMID:10145944

Prasad, P

1993-12-01

90

Strata decision tree: a symbolic data analysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic Data Analysis allow for the extension of Data Analysis to symbolic data, that is, more complex data structures than classical or monovalued data. Symbolic data are the symbolic descriptions given to individuals ! 2 › as- sociated to symbolic variables. For example, symbolic descriptions may be given by probability distributions, sets of categories or intervals. Strata Decision Tree is

Carmen Bravo

91

Metrics in Symbolic Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Authors consider the general problem of similarity and dissimilarity measures in Symbolic Data Analysis. First they examine the classical definitions of elementary event, assertion object, hierarchical dependences and logical dependences, then they consider some well-known measures resemblance measures between two objects (Sokal-Michener, Roger-Tanimoto, Sokal-Sneath, Dice-Czekanowski-Sorenson, Russel-Rao). For resemblance measures based on aggregation functions, the authors consider the proposals of

Luciano Nieddu; Alfredo Rizzi

92

Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A differential detection technique for MPSK (multiple-phase shift keying), which uses a multiple-symbol observation interval, is presented, and its performance is analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. Thus, the performance of this multiple-symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases M and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded MPSK.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

1990-01-01

93

Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols  

PubMed Central

Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols), not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications.

Schijvenaars, Bob JA; Mons, Barend; Weeber, Marc; Schuemie, Martijn J; van Mulligen, Erik M; Wain, Hester M; Kors, Jan A

2005-01-01

94

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

2006-01-01

95

[Rod of asclepius. Symbol of medicine].  

PubMed

Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424

Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

2013-09-01

96

Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface (BASIN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an integrated suite of parallelized analysis and visualization tools, designed to run on large Beowulf-class clusters of computers. Using efficient and scalable algorithms, this toolkit will harness the low-cost computing power of these parallel systems to allow real time analysis and visualization of data sets in the multi-terabyte to petabyte range. Software components for data input/output, transformations, statistical analysis, and 3D visualization will communicate and operate seamlessly within a symbolic user interface. Funding for this project has been provided by the National Science Foundation Information Research Technology (ITR) program.

Goldberg, D. M.; McMillan, S.; Char, B.; MacNeice, P.; Vogeley, M. S.

2003-12-01

97

Symbolic and functional positioning of brands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some brand strategists have distinguished between symbolic and functional brands, i.e. brands that basically satisfy consumers’ functional or product-related needs and brands bought to enhance self- or social esteem. It has been suggested that brands should be positioned as either functional or symbolic but not both. However, empirical research on the dimensionality of brand symbolism\\/functionality has been lacking. In this

Subodh Bhat; Srinivas K. Reddy

1998-01-01

98

Citizens’ use of policy symbols and frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that citizens are capable of developing and promoting complex policy symbols, and that these symbols include\\u000a supporting frames that explain and justify them. Based on a long-term study of education policies in Los Angeles, California,\\u000a the paper uses interpretive methods to reconstruct and analyze these frames. Citizens developed two specific policy symbols\\u000a while the district was engulfed

Ryane McAuliffe Straus

2011-01-01

99

Symbols for welding, brazing and nondestructive examination  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a method of conveying instructions to the welder or brazer by means of symbols which may have several parts. Detailed instructions and examples are provided so that the welding or brazing symbol may be constructed and interpreted to cover most welded or brazed designs. Also included is a system of symbols for informing the nondestructive examination technician as to the method, frequency and extent of examination required.

Not Available

1986-01-01

100

Symbolic data analysis: what is it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical data values are single points in p-dimensional space; symbolic data values are hypercubes (broadly defined) in p-dimensional space (and\\/or a cartesian product of p distributions). While some datasets, be they small or large in size, naturally consist of symbolic data, many symbolic datasets\\u000a result from the aggregation of large or extremely large classical datasets into smaller more managably sized

Lynne Billard

101

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective and Identity Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Symbolic interactionist perspectives or frames underlie most sociological interest in identity. We focus first on the presentation\\u000a of these perspectives, beginning with the eighteenth-century Scottish moral philosophers and the later work of the philosopher-psychologist\\u000a George Herbert Mead, tracing their influence on current sociological thinking about social psychology and identity. Two important\\u000a variants in symbolic interactionist thinking, “traditional symbolic interactionism” and

Richard T. Serpe; Sheldon Stryker

102

Sketched Symbol Recognition using Zernike Moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an on-line recognition method for hand-sketched symbols. The method is independent of stroke-order, -number, and -direction, as well as invariant to rotation, scaling, and translation of symbols. Zernike moment descriptors are used to represent symbols and three different classification techniques are comp ared: Support Vector Machines (SVM), Minimum Mean Distance (MMD), and Nearest Neighbor (NN).

Heloise Hwawen Hse; A. Richard Newton

2004-01-01

103

Catalog of Graphic Symbols Used at Maintenance Control Centers: Toward a Symbol Standardization Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document catalogs the symbols presented with the various interfaces used by Federal Aviation Administration Airway Facilities specialists. It includes a high-level overview of each system and the symbols and coding conventions used. These data were c...

V. Ahlstrom R. Muldoon

2002-01-01

104

Symbolic computation at various levels of abstraction  

SciTech Connect

Symbolic computation has already become a versatile tool in many fields. The applications with the highest payoff in terms of results versus effort expended are those for which the operations to be performed are straightforward but lengthy. Three such applications are presented here as examples. In the first, a laser resonator problem, the symbols being manipulated represent physical parameters. In the second, a software design problem, the symbols are more abstract; they represent algorithm structures and transformations and computer architectures. The third application is graphics in which the symbols are anything that might be associated with a tree graph.

Von Laven, S.A.

1986-01-01

105

Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

Morrison, J. L.

1984-01-01

106

A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning.  

PubMed

People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity-the capacity for symbolic reasoning-as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures. PMID:24795662

Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

2014-01-01

107

A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning  

PubMed Central

People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures.

Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

2014-01-01

108

Assessment of the knowledge of graphical symbols labelled on malaria rapid diagnostic tests in four international settings  

PubMed Central

Background Graphical symbols on in vitro diagnostics (IVD symbols) replace the need for text in different languages and are used on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) marketed worldwide. The present study assessed the comprehension of IVD symbols labelled on malaria RDT kits among laboratory staff in four different countries. Methods Participants (n = 293) in Belgium (n = 96), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, n = 87), Cambodia (n = 59) and Cuba (n = 51) were presented with an anonymous questionnaire with IVD symbols extracted from ISO 15223 and EN 980 presented as stand-alone symbols (n = 18) and in context (affixed on RDT packages, n = 16). Responses were open-ended and scored for correctness by local professionals. Results Presented as stand-alone, three and five IVD symbols were correctly scored for comprehension by 67% and 50% of participants; when contextually presented, five and seven symbols reached the 67% and 50% correct score respectively. 'Batch code' scored best (correctly scored by 71.3% of participants when presented as stand-alone), 'Authorized representative in the European Community' scored worst (1.4% correct). Another six IVD symbols were scored correctly by less than 10% of participants: 'Do not reuse', 'In vitro diagnostic medical device', 'Sufficient for', 'Date of manufacture', 'Authorised representative in EC', and 'Do not use if package is damaged'. Participants in Belgium and Cuba both scored six symbols above the 67% criterion, participants from DRC and Cambodia scored only two and one symbols above this criterion. Low correct scores were observed for safety-related IVD symbols, such as for 'Biological Risk' (42.7%) and 'Do not reuse' (10.9%). Conclusion Comprehension of IVD symbols on RDTs among laboratory staff in four international settings was unsatisfactory. Administrative and outreach procedures should be undertaken to assure their acquaintance by end-users.

2011-01-01

109

Symbolic Systems, Explicit Properties: On Hybrid Approaches for LTL Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we study hybrid approaches to LTL symbolic model checking; that is, approaches that use explicit representa tions of the property au- tomaton, whose state space is often quite manageable, and symbolic representa- tions of the system, whose state space is typically exceedingly large. We compare the effects of using, respectively, (i) a purely symbolic re presentation of

Roberto Sebastiani; Stefano Tonetta; Moshe Y. Vardi

2005-01-01

110

The Library, Praxis, and Symbolic Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of Wayne Wiegand's criticism of library and information science focuses on the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu to help form a new set of frameworks. Topics include social institutions and symbolic power; cultural production and librarianship; and classification as symbolic power. (LRW)

Budd, John M.

2003-01-01

111

THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

LAFFAL, JULIUS

112

Meaning in Reading Symbols across the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally, reading is perceived as consisting of identifying words and increasing comprehension skills, but there are a plethora of additional symbols which students need to read and comprehend meaningfully. This paper first discusses reading across the curriculum, emphasizing abstract words, and then considers symbols peculiar to diverse academic…

Ediger, Marlow

113

Comparing Dissimilarity Measures for Symbolic Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic data analysis aims at extending classical data analysis techniques to manage symbolic data, which are a form of aggregated data. This extension passes through the definition of a new set of dissimilarity measures. Many of them have been reported in the literature, but no comparative study has been performed. This paper presents an empirical evaluation of dissimilarity measures proposed

Donato MALERBA; Floriana ESPOSITO; Vincenzo GIOVIALE; Valentina TAMMA

2001-01-01

114

Symbol timing estimation with CPM modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbol timing in continuous phase modulated signals is investigated making use of maximum likelihood estimation methods. Nondata-aided algorithms are proposed with a feedforward structure. They are suitable for digital implementation and can be employed with either full or partial response signaling. Multilevel symbol alphabets are allowed and the modulation index may be arbitrary. The performance is assessed by analysis and

A. N. D'Andrea; U. Mengali; M. Morelli

1996-01-01

115

Symbolic play in autism: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research into the symbolic play of autistic children is reviewed in an attempt to outline the nature of their deficit in this area. While many studies can be criticized on methodological grounds, there is good evidence for an impairment in the spontaneous symbolic play of autistic children, an impairment that appears to extend to cover spontaneous functional play also.

Christopher Jarrold; Jill Boucher; Peter Smith

1993-01-01

116

Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

2010-01-01

117

First Sentences in Language and Symbolic Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combinatorial abilities in language and elicited symbolic play were compared in a longitudinal study of 30 children at 20 and 28 months. In addition, multivariate analyses were used to assess the stability of individual differences. Generally, different symbolic play variables contributed unique explained variance to different language variables.…

Shore, Cecilia; And Others

1984-01-01

118

A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)

Hall, Charles E.

119

Evolutionary approach to quantum symbolic logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evolutionary approach to the quantum symbolic logic synthesis. We use a genetic algorithm to synthesize quantum circuits from examples, allowing to synthesize functions that are both completely and incompletely specified. The symbolic synthesis is implemented in the GA so as to verify our approach. The Occam Razor principle, fundamental to inductive learning as well

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski

2008-01-01

120

Verifying pipelined hardware using symbolic logic simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for automated verification of synchronous pipelined circuits, based on symbolic simulation and the well-known program verification concept of representation functions. The use of representation functions to allow straightforward formulation of readable and intuitive specifications is demonstrated, along with the use of a symbolic switch-level simulator to automatically prove that a circuit meets its specification. As an

Soumitra Bose; A. L. Fisher

1989-01-01

121

Symbol Spotting using Full Visibility Graph Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for matching symbols in line-drawings is presented. Facing both segmentation and recognition of symbols is a dicult challenge. Starting from the results of a vectorization proce- dure, a visibility graph is built to enhance the main geometric constraints which were specified during the construction of the initial document. The cliques detection, which correspond to a

Herve Locteau; Sebastien Adam; Eric Trupin; Jacques Labiche; Pierre Heroux

122

Optical Symbolic Processor for Expert System Execution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this program was to develop key concepts for optical symbolic computing. During the course of the program, both a top-down and bottom-up approach was taken to develop an architecture for symbolic computing. The approach was intended to result ...

J. Bristow

1989-01-01

123

Quantum logic synthesis by symbolic reachability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible quantum logic plays an important role in quantum computing. In this paper, we propose an approach to optimally synthesize quantum circuits by symbolic reachability analysis where the primary inputs are purely binary. we use symbolic reachability analysis, a technique most commonly used in model checking (a way of formal verification), to synthesize the optimum quantum circuits. We present an

William N. N. Hung; Xiaoyu Song; Guowu Yang; Jin Yang; Marek A. Perkowski

2004-01-01

124

Symbolic enhancement of perspective displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two exocentric azimuth judgment experiments with a perspective display were conducted with 16 subjects. Previous work has shown these judgments to exhibit a bias possibly due to misinterpretation of the viewing parameters used to generate the display. Though geometric compensations may be used to correct for the bias, an alternate technique selected in the following 2 experiments was the introduction of symbolic enhancements in the form of compass roses. It is suggested that a compass rose with 30 deg divisions results in overall optimal azimuth estimation accuracy when accuracy and decision time are both considered. The data also suggest that the added radial lines on the compass roses may interact with normalization processes that influence the judgment errors.

Ellis, Stephen R.; Hacisalihzade, Selim S.

1990-01-01

125

Standardized communication symbols to facilitate circuit design  

SciTech Connect

In the course of communication circuit design at Sandia National Laboratories, a set of communication symbols was created to aid, and hopefully standardize, the design process. These symbols, which allow the designer to build a circuit using black boxes, simplify circuit design and documentation. They also provide a standard set to help minimize interpretation problems among circuit designers. The symbols can be used to represent various devices in a circuit, such as modems, computers, terminals, encryption devices, converters, etc. When using these symbols to design communication circuits, the contours of each symbol show which devices interface together. Mismatch device contours indicate the need for another element (such as a null modem) between the two devices. In addition, the propagation of clock, data, and control signals through the circuit can be represented. Clocking modes on synchronous components (modems, multiplexers, etc.) and signal line crossovers can also be determined from the drawings during the design process. 30 figs.

George, M.; Pierson, L.G.

1990-05-01

126

Algorithm for symbol rate estimation of MFSK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbol rate is an important parameter in digital communication. In the area of non-cooperative communication, the precision of symbol rate estimation is essential to the success of subsequent signal processes such as demodulation. This paper proposes an approach for estimation of symbol rate for M-ary FSK signals. In this approach, an M-ary FSK signal is decomposed into M single tones, and the symbol rate is estimated by extracting the spectral line corresponding to the symbol rate in the spectrum of the summation of each single tone envelope signal. The implementation of the methodology does not require any apriori information. Computer simulations and analysis show that the approach provides high estimation accuracy and still keeps a good performance even at low input SNR.

Xu, Jian-Fei; Wang, Fu-Ping; Wang, Zanji

2011-10-01

127

Binary Disassembly Block Coverage by Symbolic Execution vs. Recursive Descent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research determines how appropriate symbolic execution is (given its current implementation) for binary analysis by measuring how much of an executable symbolic execution allows an analyst to reason about. Using the S2E Selective Symbolic Execution E...

J. D. Miller

2012-01-01

128

40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1037...Other Reference Information § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

2013-07-01

129

32 CFR 310.42 - Reports control symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Reports control symbol. 310.42 Section 310.42 National...Reports § 310.42 Reports control symbol. Any report established by this...Program shall be assigned Report Control Symbol...

2013-07-01

130

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For...

2009-01-01

131

7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For...

2010-01-01

132

40 CFR 1036.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1036...Other Reference Information § 1036.805 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

2013-07-01

133

40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1042...Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

2013-07-01

134

Distraction of Symbolic Behavior in Regular Classrooms  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students’ abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student’s capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students’ shifts from the use of “non-symbolic” to “symbolic” behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11–13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?symbolic behavior in relation to contextual factors in regular classroom. The main conclusion to be drawn from the results is that the observational procedure used in this study seems to have a potential to be used to explore the interaction between contextual factors and more complex student behavior such as cognition and the pragmatic use of language in regular classroom.

Billinger, Stefan

2012-01-01

135

Operator method for calculating Q symbols and their relation to weyl-wigner symbols and symplectic tomogram symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for calculating Husimi symbols of operators. In contrast to the standard method, it does not require using the anti-normal-ordering procedure. According to this method, the coordinate and momentum operators and are assigned other operators and satisfying the same commutation relations. We then find the result of acting with the and operators and also polynomials in these operators on the Husimi function. After the obtained expression is integrated over the phase space coordinates, the integrand becomes a Husimi function times the symbol of the operator chosen to act on that function. We explicitly evaluate the Husimi symbols for operators that are powers of or.

Andreev, V. A.; Davidovi?, L. D.; Davidovi?, Milena D.; Davidovi?, Miloš D.; Manko, V. I.; Manko, M. A.

2014-05-01

136

Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.

Costello, D. J., Jr.

1983-01-01

137

Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.

Costello, D. J., Jr.

1983-09-01

138

Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality  

PubMed Central

Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research.

2011-01-01

139

Symbolic capital, consumption, and health inequality.  

PubMed

Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital--the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained--is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

Sweet, Elizabeth

2011-02-01

140

Designing and Evaluating Symbols for Electronic Displays of Navigation Information: Symbol Stereotypes and Symbol-Feature Rules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is currently no common symbology standard for the electronic display of navigation information. The wide range of display technology and the different functions these displays support makes it difficult to design symbols that are easily recognizable...

M. Yeh D. C. Chandra

2005-01-01

141

Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.

Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.

1993-01-01

142

Age Effects on Symbol Sign Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of symbolic road signs is proliferating on the highways, and the Federal Highway Administration is concerned with their effective use, particularly by the elderly driving population. This report describes an experimental study of problems encounte...

R. W. Allen Z. Parseghian P. G. Van Valkenburgh

1980-01-01

143

Optical symbolic processor for expert system execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a great deal of interest in combining the extraordinary communications power of optics with symbolic computing techniques to develop a highly parallel optical computer. Advances in parallel computer architecture and development of digital optical components and systems have laid the groundwork for such a computer. In this report we describe the development of an optical architecture designed for symbolic computing. In previous work we examined logic and functional languages to determine which had characteristics more amenable to optical implementation. We found (cf. 2nd Tech. Report) that functional languages were a better fit than others and that combinator graph reduction (CGR) was the appropriate computational model. We also examined symbolic substitution and other optical computing techniques to determine which could provide the most power and flexibility. We decided that symbolic substitution coupled with some form of data movement scheme was the best scheme to employ.

Derstine, Matthew; Guha, Aloke; Natarajan, Subra

1987-04-01

144

Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

Jensen, William B.

1977-01-01

145

[Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]? bound.  

PubMed

In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]? error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]?-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]?-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ? error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]?-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]? error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]? metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]? error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates. PMID:24144660

Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

2013-12-01

146

Symbolic systems, explicit properties: on hybrid approaches for LTL symbolic model checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we study hybrid approaches to LTL symbolic model checking; that is, approaches that use explicit representations of the property automaton,\\u000a whose state space is often quite manageable, and symbolic representations of the system, whose state space is typically exceedingly\\u000a large. We compare the effects of using, respectively, (i) a purely symbolic representation of the property automaton, (ii)

Roberto Sebastiani; Stefano Tonetta; Moshe Y. Vardi

2011-01-01

147

Optimizing the Layout of Proportional Symbol Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Proportional symbol maps are a cartographic tool to assist in the visualization and analysis of quantitative data associated\\u000a with specific locations (earthquake magnitudes, oil well production, temperature at weather stations, etc.). Symbol sizes\\u000a are proportional to the magnitude of the quantities that they represent. We present a novel integer programming model to draw\\u000a opaque disks on a map with the

Guilherme Kunigami; Pedro J. de Rezende; Cid C. de Souza; Tallys Yunes

148

Abductive reasoning in neural-symbolic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abduction is or subsumes a process of inference. It entertains possible hypotheses and it chooses hypotheses for further scrutiny.\\u000a There is a large literature on various aspects of non-symbolic, subconscious abduction. There is also a very active research\\u000a community working on the symbolic (logical) characterisation of abduction, which typically treats it as a form of hypothetico-deductive\\u000a reasoning. In this paper

Artur S. d’Avila Garcez; Dov M. Gabbay; Oliver Ray; John Woods

2007-01-01

149

Quality Issues in Symbolic Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic Data Analysis is an extension of Classical Data Analysis to more complex data types and tables through the application\\u000a of certain conditions, where underlying concepts are vital for their further processing. Therefore, the assessment of the\\u000a quality of Symbolic Data depends extensively on the quality of the collected classical data. However, even though various\\u000a criteria and indicators have been

Haralambos Papageorgiou; Maria Vardaki

150

Symbolic model checking with rich assertional languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The paper shows that, by an appropriate choice of a rich assertionallanguage, it is possible to extend the utility of symbolic modelchecking beyond the realm of bdd-represented finite-state systems into thedomain of infinite-state systems, leading to a powerful technique for uniformverification of unbounded (parameterized) process networks.The main contributions of the paper are a formulation of a general frameworkfor symbolic

Yonit Kesten; Oded Maler; Monica Marcus; Amir Pnueli; Elad Shahar

2001-01-01

151

Limiting modular symbols and the Lyapunov spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of variations upon the theme of limiting modular symbols.\\u000aTopics covered are: an expression of limiting modular symbols as Birkhoff\\u000aaverages on level sets of the Lyapunov exponent of the shift of the continued\\u000afraction, a vanishing theorem depending on the spectral properties of a\\u000ageneralized Gauss-Kuzmin operator, the construction of certain non-trivial\\u000ahomology classes associated to

Matilde Marcolli

2003-01-01

152

Shuffle Relations for Regularised Integrals of Symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove shuffle relations which relate a product of regularised integrals of classical symbols int^{reg} ?_i d?_i, i=1, ldots, k to regularised nested iterated integrals: prod_{i=1}^k int^{reg} ?_i d?_i=sum_{tau in ?_k} int^{reg} d?_1 int_{\\vert ?2\\vert ? \\vert ?_1\\vert} d?2 \\cdots int_{\\vert ?_L\\vert ? \\vert ?_{k-1}\\vert} d?_k ?_{i=1}^k ?_{tau(i)}, where ? k is the group of permutations over k elements. We show that these shuffle relations hold if all the symbols ? i have vanishing residue; this is true of non-integer order symbols on which the regularised integrals have all the expected properties such as Stokes’ property [MMP]. In general the shuffle relations hold up to finite parts of corrective terms arising from a renormalisation on tensor products of classical symbols, a procedure adapted from renormalisation methods to compute Feynman diagrams familiar to physicists. We relate the shuffle relations for regularised integrals of symbols with shuffle relations for multiple zeta functions adapting the above constructions to the case of a symbol on the unit circle.

Manchon, Dominique; Paycha, Sylvie

2007-02-01

153

Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

Rungta, Neha Shyam

2010-01-01

154

Application of traditional culture symbol in modern product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for modern product design by applying traditional cultural symbol to fit the cultural meanings of new products and complexity of people' life style. Based on the elements of semiotics and Peirce's symbol system theory, the studies analyze the essence of traditional culture symbol and composing of product symbol and

Wu Zhi-jun; Na Cheng-ai

2006-01-01

155

Symbols of Democracy: An Introduction to Icons and Ideals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young students are unfamiliar with key symbols of the United States and the ideals that these symbols represent. These symbols consist of images and words that adults know by heart, but too often take for granted. The lesson activities described in this article focus on four well-known symbols--their history and what they mean to American…

Kofsky, Jackie; Morris, Barb

2006-01-01

156

Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate regressions predicting children's use of video and pictures for information in experimental tasks,

Georgene L. Troseth; Amy M. Casey; Kelly A. Lawver; Joan M. T. Walker; David A. Cole

2007-01-01

157

Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

2007-01-01

158

RGST - Rat Gene Symbol Tracker, a database for defining official rat gene symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The names of genes are central in describing their function and relationship. However, gene symbols are often a subject of controversy. In addition, the discovery of mammalian genes is now so rapid that a proper use of gene symbol nomenclature rules tends to be overlooked. This is currently the situation in the rat and there is a need for

Greta Petersen; Fredrik Ståhl

2008-01-01

159

Marking and Generalization by Symbolic Objects in the Symbolic Ocial Data Analysis Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an automatic method of generating Symbolic Objects in the following framework: description of a partition by symbolic objects that takes into account two aspects, that may be called homogeneity and discrimination criteria. This method belongs to a family of algorithms named MGS (Marking and Generalization by Sym- bolic Objects) in (GETSUM98), which may be applied

Mireille Gettler-Summa

2000-01-01

160

Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate if children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a general deficit in magnitude representations or a specific deficit in the connection of symbolic representations with the corresponding analogous magnitudes. DD was diagnosed using a timed arithmetic task. The experimental magnitude comparison tasks were presented in non-symbolic and symbolic formats. DD and typically developing (TD) children showed similar numerical distance and size congruity effects. However, DD children performed significantly slower in the symbolic task. These results are consistent with the access deficit hypothesis, according to which DD children's deficits are caused by difficulties accessing magnitude information from numerical symbols rather than in processing numerosities per se. PMID:23156905

Castro Cañizares, Danilka; Reigosa Crespo, Vivian; González Alemañy, Eduardo

2012-11-01

161

Perception and view of consumers on food irradiation and the Radura symbol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was aimed at carrying out a survey on the knowledge and acceptance level of food irradiation. The work was carried out in Santiago, Chile. As an above-average level country in South and Central America, the results may give an indication about the situation in other countries. The survey could also provide an indication about the impression of the public regarding the international "Radura" symbol, indicating on a food product that has been irradiated. A total of 497 persons were interviewed. Among the interviewed people, 76.5% did not know that irradiation could be used as a method for food preservation; 46% expressed their belief that irradiated food means the same as radioactive food. Nevertheless, 91% claimed that they would become consumers of irradiated food if they knew that "irradiated" is not "radioactive" and that proper irradiation enhances food safety; 95.8% of the interviewed persons were not familiar with the "Radura" symbol. However, 55.8% expressed their opinion that they would buy irradiated food because of the symbol, affirming that the "Radura" symbol transmits the sensation of confidence and safety.

Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria P.; Galotto, Maria J.; Valenzuela, Ximena; Dinten, Carolina M.; Aguirre, Paulina; Miltz, Joseph

2011-01-01

162

Symbolic conceptions: the idea of the third.  

PubMed

The idea of the third which appears in Jung's concepts of the transcendent function and the coniunctio also occurs in several psychoanalytic theories concerning the emergence of reflective and symbolic thought in childhood development (defined here as the development of 'imaginal capacity'). Noting the way this process is often conceived in terms of the metaphor of sexual intercourse leading to 'conception', this paper suggests that such images need to be understood as symbolic conceptions of the meaning-making functions of the human mind. This leads to a different view of psychoanalytic theories that attempt to account for the development of imaginal capacity in terms of the Oedipus complex. It is suggested that a) these functions must be operative in the mind before the Oedipal situation can become meaningful and b) that psychoanalytic theories are themselves symbolic conceptions which, like mythological narratives, seek to communicate and comprehend psychic reality through imaginal forms. PMID:17970937

Colman, Warren

2007-11-01

163

Anomalous diffusion in a symbolic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigate some statistical properties of symbolic sequences generated by a numerical procedure in which the symbols are repeated following the power-law probability density. In this analysis, we consider that the sum of n symbols represents the position of a particle in erratic movement. This approach reveals a rich diffusive scenario characterized by non-Gaussian distribution and, depending on the power-law exponent or the procedure used to build the walker, we may have superdiffusion, subdiffusion or usual diffusion. Additionally, we use the continuous-time random walk framework to compare the analytic results with the numerical data, thereby finding good agreement. Because of its simplicity and flexibility, this model can be a candidate for describing real systems governed by power-law probability densities.

Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.; Santoro, P. A.

2011-04-01

164

Symbolic-numeric interface: A review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

Ng, E. W.

1980-01-01

165

Online Tester for a Symbol Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 95 percent of faults detected. Programable instrument periodically checks for failures in system that generates alphanumerical and other symbol voltages for cathode-ray-tube displays. Symbol-generator tester compares gated test-point voltages with predetermined voltage limits while circuit under test performs commanded operation. A go/no-go indication given, depending on whether test voltage is or is not within its specification. Tester in plug-in modular form, temporarily wired to generator test points, or permanently wired to these points.

Juday, D.; Mcconaugy, K.

1985-01-01

166

Saccadic Compression of Symbolic Numerical Magnitude  

PubMed Central

Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities.

Binda, Paola; Morrone, M. Concetta; Bremmer, Frank

2012-01-01

167

Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

Lindsey, W. C.

1976-01-01

168

A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

Smith, Gregory M.

2000-06-01

169

Data compression and information retrieval via symbolization  

SciTech Connect

Converting a continuous signal into a multisymbol stream is a simple method of data compression which preserves much of the dynamical information present in the original signal. The retrieval of selected types of information from symbolic data involves binary operations and is therefore optimal for digital computers. For example, correlation time scales can be easily recovered, even at high noise levels, by varying the time delay for symbolization. Also, the presence of periodicity in the signal can be reliably detected even if it is weak and masked by a dominant chaotic/stochastic background. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Tang, X.Z. [Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Tracy, E.R. [Physics Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)] [Physics Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

1998-09-01

170

An Abstract Machine for Symbolic Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an abstract machine with a recursive function programming language which avoids the predicate type of conditional is described. It is shown that trough the adoption of list processing techniques it has been possible to construct a simple simulator for the machine in FORTRAN. A program for the machine which causes it to perform symbolic differentiation with some

D. L. Overheu

1966-01-01

171

Symbolic Functional Decomposition Algorithm for FSM Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm of symbolic functional decomposition for the implementation of finite state machines in field programmable gate array (FPGA) circuits. Unlike previous approaches to this problem, which consist of separate encoding and mapping steps, this algorithm does not pre-encode the machine's states; instead, the states are encoded gradually during every step of the functional decomposition process (used

Piotr Szotkowski; Mariusz Rawski

2007-01-01

172

The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.  

PubMed

Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498

Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

2014-06-01

173

LEGIBILITY OF TRAFFIC SIGN TEXT AND SYMBOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory daytime and nighttime sign recognition and legibility field driving experiment involving 11 new reflectorized right-shoulder-mounted traffic signs and 10 young, healthy subjects (three replications) is described here. It was hypothesized that daytime conditions would provide longer recognition and legibility distances than nighttime conditions and that signs with bold symbols would provide longer recognition and legibility distances than textual

Helmut T. Zwahlen; Thomas Schnell

1999-01-01

174

Seitz symbols for crystallographic symmetry operations.  

PubMed

The aim of this report is to describe the Seitz notation for symmetry operations adopted by the Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature as the standard convention for Seitz symbolism of the International Union of Crystallography. The established notation follows the existing crystallographic conventions in the descriptions of symmetry operations. PMID:24815978

Glazer, A Michael; Aroyo, Mois I; Authier, André

2014-05-01

175

Multiple-Symbol Differential Detection Of MPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple-symbol differential detection proposed for reception of radio-frequency signals modulated by mutliple-phase-shift keying (MPSK). Offers advantage of less complexity in not requiring equipment to acquire and track carrier signal. Performance approaches that of ideal coherent detection. Applicable to coded as well as uncoded MPSK, and to other forms of modulation.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

1991-01-01

176

Symbolic evaluation and the global value graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with difficult global flow problems which require the symbolic evaluation of programs. We use, as is common in global flow analysis, a model in which the expressions computed are specified, but the flow of control is indicated only by a directed graph whose nodes are blocks of assignment statements. We show that if such a program

John H. Reifl; Harry R. Lewis

1977-01-01

177

Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

2010-01-01

178

Symbol error probabilities for general Cooperative links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative Diversity (CD) networks have been receiving a lot of attention recently as a distributed means of improving error performance and capacity. This paper derives the aver- age Symbol Error Probability (SEP) for Amplify and Forward CD links. The resulting expressions are general as they hold for an arbitrary number of cooperating branches, arbitrary num- ber of cooperating hops per

Alejandro Ribeiro; Xiaodong Cai; Georgios B. Giannakis

2005-01-01

179

Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

2010-01-01

180

Urban aerial image understanding using symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image interpretation method using symbolic data is presented. This method is adapted to urban scene analysis of aerial images, where the use of a priori knowledge is very helpful since the landscape is quite complex. A structure based on graphs is introduced to manage the knowledge learned about the observed scene. This structure tends to illustrate the hierarchical levels

Henri Moissinac; Henri Maitre; Isabelle Bloch

1994-01-01

181

Self-organizing maps and symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In data analysis new forms of complex data have to be considered like for exam- ple (symbolic data, functional data, web data, trees, SQL query and multimedia data,...). In this context classical data analysis for knowledge discovery based on calculating the cen- ter of gravity can not be used because input are not Rp vectors. In this paper, we present

Aïcha El Golli; Brieuc Conan-Guez; Fabrice Rossi

2007-01-01

182

VAX DEBUG: An interactive, symbolic, multilingual debugger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX-11 Debugger, usually called VAX DEBUG or simply DEBUG, is an interactive, symbolic, and multilingual debugger which runs on the VAX-11 series of computers under the VMS operating system. The following gives an overview of VAX DEBUG and examines how it solves some of the problems inherent in the design of any such debugger. Particular attention is

Bert Beander

1983-01-01

183

Automatic Symbolic Verification of Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model checking procedure and its implementation for the automatic verification of embedded systems. Systems are represented by hybrid automata - machines with finite control and real-valued variables modeling continuous environment parameters such as time, pressure, and temperature. System properties are specified in a real-time temporal logic and verified by symbolic computation. The verification procedure, implemented in Mathematica,

Rajeev Alurt; Thomas A. Henzinger; Pei-hsin Ho

1993-01-01

184

Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

2007-01-01

185

MULTILISP: a language for concurrent symbolic computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilisp is a version of the Lisp dialect Scheme extended with constructs for parallel execution. Like Scheme, Multilisp is oriented toward symbolic computation. Unlike some parallel programming languages, Multilisp incorporates constructs for causing side effects and for explicitly introducing parallelism. The potential complexity of dealing with side effects in a parallel context is mitigated by the nature of the parallelism

1985-01-01

186

SYMBOLIC SCIENCE LEARNING FOR THE BLIND.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DISCUSSED IS THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF BRAILLE-TYPE SCIENCE SYMBOLS FOR BLIND SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE STUDENTS. A REVIEW OF SECONDARY SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS, STATE SCIENCE SYLLABUSES, COURSES OF STUDY, AND VOCABULARY LISTS WAS USED TO IDENTIFY 50 IMPORTANT RECURRING SCIENCE TERMS. THE TERMS WERE SUBMITTED FOR EVALUATION TO UNIVERSITY SCIENTISTS,…

MALLINSON, GEORGE G.; MALLINSON, JACQUELINE V.

187

The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

2011-01-01

188

APPROXIMATE REASONING USING LOGICO-SYMBOLIC VALUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we present a model of the uncertainty (and\\/or the lack of precision) inqualitative form. A symbolic approach in a context of a many-valued logic is proposed.We also present, all necessarytools to represent and to manage the uncertain and imprecise knowledge in an Expert System.

Herman AKDAG; Faddoul KHOUKHI; Claude SECROUN

189

Towards a Symbolic Modal Logic for LOTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a version of HML (7), adapted to allow description of properties of Full LOTOS (8) specifications using symbolic values and conditions in modal formulae as well as concrete data values. In modifying HML we especially consider the features of LOTOS which distinguish it from other process algebras and discuss how these alter the requirements of the logic, and

Carron Kirkwood; Muffy Thomas

1996-01-01

190

Syntax of symbolic logic and transformational grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the language of symbolic logic a sentence or, as the logicians call it, a well-formed formula is constructed according to recursive rules. The idea that the rules of syntax of a language must be formulated recursively has been taken over by Chomsky and other transformational grammarians of natural languages. There is, accordingly, a kind of similarity between the procedure

Erik Stenius

1973-01-01

191

Instrumentality, Aesthetics, and Symbolism of Office Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the analysis of physical environments in organizations should recognize three separate dimensions: instrumentality, aesthetics, and symbolism. A theoretical framework is presented based on an expansive survey of multiple bodies of literature that study the effects of physical environments of organizations. Two different methodologies are employed to study employee perceptions of the physical environment of their office

Iris Vilnai-Yavetz; Anat Rafaeli; Caryn Schneider Yaacov

2005-01-01

192

High-Level Language Translation in Symbol 2R.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper examines the similarities and differences between the SYMBOL Translator and conventional software translation programs. SYMBOL represents a new approach in developing computing systems and the Translator, as a subdivision of this new system, rep...

J. W. Anderberg C. L. Smith

1973-01-01

193

Contrasting methods for symbolic analysis of biological regulatory networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbolic dynamics offers a powerful technique to relate the structure and dynamics of complex networks. We contrast the predictions of two methods of symbolic dynamics for the analysis of monotonic networks suggested by models of genetic control systems.

Wilds, Roy; Glass, Leon

2009-12-01

194

Brief non-symbolic, approximate number practice enhances subsequent exact symbolic arithmetic in children.  

PubMed

Recent research reveals a link between individual differences in mathematics achievement and performance on tasks that activate the approximate number system (ANS): a primitive cognitive system shared by diverse animal species and by humans of all ages. Here we used a brief experimental paradigm to test one causal hypothesis suggested by this relationship: activation of the ANS may enhance children's performance of symbolic arithmetic. Over 2 experiments, children who briefly practiced tasks that engaged primitive approximate numerical quantities performed better on subsequent exact, symbolic arithmetic problems than did children given other tasks involving comparison and manipulation of non-numerical magnitudes (brightness and length). The practice effect appeared specific to mathematics, as no differences between groups were observed on a comparable sentence completion task. These results move beyond correlational research and provide evidence that the exercise of non-symbolic numerical processes can enhance children's performance of symbolic mathematics. PMID:24462713

Hyde, Daniel C; Khanum, Saeeda; Spelke, Elizabeth S

2014-04-01

195

MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

2013-09-01

196

Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

2012-01-01

197

Performance Of The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents analysis of performance of Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) algorithm. Designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio of radio signal modulated by binary data pulses of period T and received in presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Incoming signal and noise first filtered, then sampled Ns - T/Ts times per symbol period. This study focuses on performance of SSME in case in which frequency width limited by digital filter and inter-symbol interference is thereby generated.

Shah, Biren N.; Hinedi, Sami M.

1993-01-01

198

Symbol-by-symbol MAP detection of differential frequency hopping signals for PLC applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a symbol-by-symbol maximum a posteriori probability (SBS-MAP) detection of differential frequency hopping (DFH) signals is proposed. Because the frequency sequence of DFH signals can be interpreted as a Markov chain, the algorithm is derived based on a trellis diagram describing the state transitions of a Markov source. The signals are assumed to be transmitted over AWGN channels.

Rui Zhang; Kaihua Liu

2005-01-01

199

Suboptimum weighted-output symbol-by-symbol decoding of block codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of concatenated coding systems is improved by the use of weighted-output intermediate decodings. However, this use implies a generally prohibitive complexity, especially for long codes. This paper is intended to study a suboptimum symbol-by-symbol weighted-output decoding process of block codes derived from the optimum one. Some variability of the computation effort being allowed, it is shown that the average

Rémi Sfez; J. C. Belfiore

1988-01-01

200

A Weighted-Output Symbol-by-Symbol Decoding Algorithm of Binary Convolutional Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weighted-output symbol-by-symbol soft-decision decoding algorithm for convolutional codes is described. Its main intended use concerns concatenation schemes. If a convolutional code is used as inner code, it makes soft-decision decoding of the outer code possible, which improves the overall error rate. This algorithm relies on Bayesian estimation. Its comparison with Battail algorithm using cross-entropy minimisation shows that the latter

J. C. Belfiore

1986-01-01

201

Revitalizing Entrepreneurship: How Visual Symbols are Used in Entrepreneurial Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstractTo gain and sustain support for novel ventures, entrepreneurs must use symbolic means to signal to resource providers that their venture is feasible and legitimate. Previous research has generally focused on how entrepreneurs use language to symbolically represent their ventures as compatible with more widely established sets of activities. This paper suggests that entrepreneurs' use of visual symbols also plays

Jean Clarke

2011-01-01

202

An Efficient Symbolic Interface to Constraint Based Animation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic methods have been used to provide a general user interface in optimization based animation systems. However, previous methods suffer from the exponential growth in the length of the symbolic expressions of the objectives, constraints and their derivatives. In this paper,we present a symbolic language which is general enough to represent common kinematic and dynamic quantities. The evaluation of these

Zi-cheng Liu; Michael F. Cohen

1994-01-01

203

An Efficient Symbolic Interface to Constraint Based Animation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic methods have been used to provide a general user interface in optimization based animation systems. However, previous methods suffer from the exponential growth in the length of the symbolic expressions of the objectives, constraints and their derivatives. In this paper, we present a symbolic language which is general enough to represent common kinematic and dynamic quantities. The evaluation of

Michael F. Cohen; Zicheng Liu

1995-01-01

204

Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

2012-01-01

205

Hidden Markov Model Symbol Recognition for Sketch-Based Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central challenge for sketch-based interfaces is robust symbol recognition. Artifacts such as sketching style, pixelized symbol representation and affine transformations are just a few of the problems. Temporal pattern recognition through Hidden Markov Models (HMM) can be used to recognize and distinguish symbols as pixel-driven gestures. The key challenges of such a system are the type and amount of

Derek Anderson; Craig Bailey; Marjorie Skubic

2004-01-01

206

The Slash Obscures the Symbol on Prohibitive Traffic Signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of whether drivers should be told what they can do (permissive message) or what they cannot do (prohibitive message) is discussed as it relates to traffic sign symbols. A widely used version of the prohibitive message (symbol surrounded by a red ring with a slash through the symbol) was found to have limited legibility because the slash obscures

Robert E. Dewar

1976-01-01

207

40 CFR 89.403 - Symbols/abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols/abbreviations. 89.403 Section...Emission Test Procedures § 89.403 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations...convenience of the reader. (c) The symbols in Table 2 in appendix A to subpart...

2013-07-01

208

40 CFR 60.441 - Definitions and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.441 Section 60.441 Protection...Operations § 60.441 Definitions and symbols. (a) Except as otherwise required...volatile organic compound. (b) All symbols used in this subpart not defined...

2013-07-01

209

47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class of station symbols. 87.171 Section 87.171 Telecommunication... Frequencies § 87.171 Class of station symbols. The two or three letter symbols for the classes of station in the aviation...

2013-10-01

210

40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90...Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. ...5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table 1 in Appendix A to Subpart D...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a...5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table 1 in Appendix A of this...

2013-07-01

212

40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.581 Section 60.581 Protection...Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols. (a) All terms used in this subpart...rotogravure printing line. (b) All symbols used in this subpart not defined...

2013-07-01

213

40 CFR 91.403 - Symbols and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols and abbreviations. 91.403 Section...Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.403 Symbols and abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations...5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table 1 in appendix A to subpart D...

2013-07-01

214

"They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols

Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.

2012-01-01

215

36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Use of symbol. 264.11 Section 264.11 Parks, Forests... Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use...

2009-07-01

216

40 CFR 60.311 - Definitions and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.311 Section 60.311 Protection...Furniture § 60.311 Definitions and symbols. (a) All terms used in this subpart...surface coating operation. (b) All symbols used in this subpart not defined...

2013-07-01

217

36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of symbol. 264.11 Section 264.11 Parks, Forests... Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use...

2010-07-01

218

50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Signs and symbols. 85.43 Section 85.43 Wildlife...Acceptance of Funds § 85.43 Signs and symbols. (a) Signs. Facilities...inoperable facility. (b) Pumpout symbol. (1) At appropriate times, to...

2009-10-01

219

40 CFR 89.303 - Symbols/abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols/abbreviations. 89.303 Section...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.303 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations...convenience of the reader. (c) The symbols in table 2 in appendix A of this...

2013-07-01

220

Knot symbols: A tool to describe and simplify knot diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A convenient representation of knot diagrams by abstract symbols is introduced. A set of simple moves, which are convenient combinations of the classic Reidemeister moves, is also introduced. These moves can be applied directly to the symbols to obtain simplified symbols (and therefore simplified diagrams) for the knot.

Bruschi, M. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)

1996-04-01

221

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation...B Appendix B to Part 172âTrefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels...

2013-10-01

222

50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signs and symbols. 85.43 Section 85.43 Wildlife...Acceptance of Funds § 85.43 Signs and symbols. (a) Signs. Facilities...inoperable facility. (b) Pumpout symbol. (1) At appropriate times, to...

2010-10-01

223

46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping...This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol means that impression stamped on...

2013-10-01

224

36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of symbol. 264.11 Section 264.11 Parks, Forests... Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use...

2013-07-01

225

The role of symbols in the mainstream to access literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although theories in the past claimed that in order to be literate someone has to acquire specific prerequisite skills, more recent theories suggest that for some aspects of language, symbols can help people to access literacy. In this paper, we speculate that symbols can help children in schools to cope with their difficulties with print. Widgit Literacy Symbols have been

Eliada Pampoulou; Cate Detheridge

2007-01-01

226

[Significance of symbolism in analytic and analytically oriented psychotherapy].  

PubMed

Since the very beginning of psychoanalysis there has been a long lasting discussion about the definition and the role of symbols and symbolization within the theoretical framework of psychoanalysis. The discussion has been summarized by Orban (1976) and Speidel (1978). In this paper a psychoanalytic understanding of creative processes and the relevance of symbolization for the course of treatment is presented. PMID:7480590

Köpp, W

1995-01-01

227

Likelihood functions and some maximum likelihood estimators for symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Likelihood functions are the foundation of many statistical methodologies in classical data analysis. Likelihood functions for symbolic data must be introduced before these classical methods can be extended to the analysis of symbolic data. In this paper, we propose the likelihood function for symbolic data and illustrate its applications by finding the maximum likelihood estimators for the mean and the

J. Le-Rademacher; L. Billard

2011-01-01

228

Analyzing Distance Measures for Symbolic Data Based on Fuzzy Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various propositions to solve the problem of symbolic data clustering are available in the literature. This paper introduces a comparative study among some well known dissimilarity functions treating symbolic data. An extension of the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used to create groups of individuals characterized by symbolic variables of mixed types. The proposed method furnishes a fuzzy partition and

Alzennyr da Silva; Yves Lechevallier; Francisco de Carvalho

2007-01-01

229

Fourier analysis of symbolic data: A brief review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview and discuss several methods for the Fourier analysis of symbolic data, such as DNA sequences, emphasizing their mutual connections. We consider the indicator sequence approach, the vector and the symbolic autocorrelation methods, and methods such as the spectral envelope, that for each frequency optimize the symbolic-no-numeric mapping to emphasize any periodic data features. We discuss the equivalence or

Vera Afreixo; Paulo Jorge S. G. Ferreira; Dorabella Santos

2004-01-01

230

Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet PC  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet PC's handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet PC's symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this

Amlan Kundu; Qian Hu; Stanley Boykin; Cheryl Clark; Randy Fish; Stephen Jones; Stephen Moore

2011-01-01

231

A Symbolic Approach to What Curriculum Professors Do.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics, responsibilities, and functions of curriculum professors are examined using a symbolic approach. Education is an area of endeavor representing a high level of symbolic activity, and insofar as curriculum centers on what is or should be taught in the schools and how it should be treated, curriculum workers occupy symbolically

Hazlett, J. Stephen

232

The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

Henry, Mary E.

233

Symbolic Mathematics Engines in Teaching Chemistry: A Symposium Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Symbolic Mathematics Engines (SMEs) in chemical education as a part of the Division of Computers in Chemistry was discussed by a panel of educators at the Symbolic Calculation in Chemistry symposium in Philadelphia in 2004. The panelists agreed that many more topics in chemistry are amenable to SME's exploration and that symbolic

Ellison, Mark

2004-01-01

234

Integration and Application Network: Conceptual Diagram Symbol Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IAN symbol libraries contain over 1500 custom made symbols (in 32 categories) designed specifically for enhancing science communication skills. The aim of the IAN is to make these symbols a standard resource for scientists, resource managers, community groups and environmentalists worldwide. Site provides information on the Network, publications, and a wealth of additional project and informational resources.

235

Media and Symbol Systems as Related to Cognition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The failure of research on media to deal with media's symbol systems is discussed. Nature of symbol systems is described and related to cognition and learning. Symbolic elements used by media can facilitate the cultivation of mental skills in interaction with individual differences and depth of processing. (Author/RD)

Salomon, Gavriel

1979-01-01

236

Social Validation of Symbolic Play Training for Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the social significance of changes resulting from teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Qualitatively obtained results from a previous study indicated that, following symbolic play training, children with autism increased their symbolic play behaviors and play…

Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Schreibman, Laura; Powell, Nicole Palardy

2006-01-01

237

Efficient Modeling of Memory Arrays in Symbolic Ternary Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper enables symbolic ternary simulation of systems with large embedded memories. Each memory array is replaced with a behavioral model, where the number of symbolic variables used to characterize the initial state of the memory is proportional to the number of distinct symbolic memory locations accessed. The behavioral model provides a conservative approximation of the replaced memory array, while

Miroslav N. Velev; Randal E. Bryant

1998-01-01

238

Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics  

SciTech Connect

Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

1997-10-09

239

The myth and the symbol of biofeedback.  

PubMed

This paper argues that biofeedback suffers from misrepresentation of its historical background and early development, false claims about its effects (e.g. mind-expansion) and that it now symbolizes political and social positions with which it has no connection. The myth that biofeedback arose as a revolutionary break from established science is shown to be false. The symbolization of biofeedback as antifascist and libertarian is also debunked. Unfair demands on biofeedback for miracle cures and excessive profiteering from the biofeedback technology are also criticized. It is urged that scientists and clinicians who know better about the real history and applicability of biofeedback should speak out whenever possible against these misrepresentations. PMID:2419296

Kimmel, H D

1986-01-01

240

Continued fractions, modular symbols, and noncommutative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using techniques introduced by D. Mayer, we prove an extension of the\\u000aclassical Gauss-Kuzmin theorem about the distribution of continued fractions,\\u000awhich in particular allows one to take into account some congruence properties\\u000aof successive convergents. This result has an application to the Mixmaster\\u000aUniverse model in general relativity. We then study some averages involving\\u000amodular symbols and show that

Yuri I. Manin; Matilde Marcolli

2002-01-01

241

Symbolic Model Checking with Partitioned Transistion Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We significantly reduce the complexity of BDD-based symbolic verificationby using partitioned transition relations to represent state transition graphs.This method can be applied to both synchronous and asynchronous circuits.The times necessary to verify a synchronous pipeline and an asynchronousstack are both bounded by a low polynomial in the size of the circuit. Wewere able to handle stacks with over 1050reachable states

Jerry R. Burch; Edmund M. Clarke; David E. Long

1991-01-01

242

Clustering Methods in Symbolic Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present an overview of the clustering methods developed in Symbolic Data Analysis to partition a set of conceptual data\\u000a into a fixed number of classes. The proposed algorithms are based on a generalization of the classical Dynamical Clustering\\u000a Algorithm (DCA) (Nuées Dynamiques méthode). The criterion optimized in DCA is a measure of the fit between the partition and\\u000a the

Rosanna Verde

243

On the Analysis of Symbolic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic data extend the classical tabular model, where each individual, takes exactly one value for each variable by allowing\\u000a multiple, possibly weighted, values for each variable. New variable types - interval-valued, categorical multi-valued and\\u000a modal variables - have been introduced, which allow representing variability and\\/or uncertainty inherent to the data. But\\u000a are we still in the same framework when we

Paula Brito; Roberto Frias

244

Automatic Symbolic Verification of Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present a model-checking procedure and its implementation for the automaticverification of embedded systems. The system components are described as Hybrid Automata---communicating machines with finite control and real-valued variablesthat represent continuous environment parameters such as time, pressure, and temperature.The system requirements are specified in a temporal logic with stop watches, andverified by symbolic fixpoint computation. The verification procedure---implementedin ...

Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Pei-hsin Ho

1996-01-01

245

Soundness of Symbolic Equivalence for Modular Exponentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the Dynamic Decisional Diffie-Hellman (3DH) problem,a powerfulgeneralizationoftheDecisionalDiffie-Hellman(DDH)prob- lem. Our main result is that DDH implies 3DH. This result leads to significantly simpler proofs for protocols by relying directly on the more general problem. Our second contribution is a computationally sound symbolic technique for reasoning about protocols that use symmetric encryption and modular exponentiation. We show

Yassine Lakhnech; Laurent Mazare; Bogdan Warinschi

246

Multi-valued symbolic model-checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the concept of multi-valued model-checking and describes a multi-valued symbolic model-checker, ?Chek. Multi-valued model-checking is a generalization of classical model-checking, useful for analyzing models that contain uncertainty (lack of essential information) or inconsistency (contradictory information, often occurring when information is gathered from multiple sources). Multi-valued logics support the explicit modeling of uncertainty and disagreement by providing additional

Marsha Chechik; Benet Devereux; Steve M. Easterbrook; Arie Gurfinkel

2003-01-01

247

Numerical and symbolic signal representation and processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final report summarizing the efforts performed under the grant Numerical and Symbolic Signal Representation and Processing. The format of the report is a comprehensive list of theses, conference presentations, journal articles, and patent disclosures that have been supported either in full or in part by the grant. Copies of the full texts have been sent to the program manager as they were written.

Oppenheim, Alan V.

1993-09-01

248

A novel symbolic ordinary differential equation solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a symbolic ordinary differential equation solver written as a package for the muMATH computer algebra system. The novel features of this solver are:1. Whereas previous ODE solvers generally require the equation to be quasi-linear and generally yield only implicit results, this new solver is highly integrated with an algebraic equation solver before, during and after solution. In

Woon Cheung Chan

1981-01-01

249

Theory of adaptation: application of symbolic logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of adaptation takes up, first, completely symbolized expressions in which the basic element is the dyadic term Axy, x is adapted to y. When this is combined with a monadic term such as Ey, y is a moist environment, in (y)(Axy?Ey), validity can be achieved by reversal and denial (transposition): (y)(Axy?Ey)?(y)(?Ey??Axy). This provides a full and complete description

Edward M. Hulburt

1998-01-01

250

Symbolic code approach to GTD ray tracing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-level artificial intelligence language with symbolic/logical manipulation capabilities, together with a simple ansatz based on the properties of the Fresnel ellipsoid, is used to implement an efficient computer algorithm for automatic ray-tracing. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) ray-tracing solution for the radio-line path-loss evaluation over piecewise-linear two-dimensional terrain profiles is presented.

Bisceglia, Bruno; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Savarese, Catello

1988-10-01

251

Using Technology to Analyze and Illustrate Symbolism in Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What images symbolize hatred, peace, freedom, or confinement? What feelings do these images evoke in the viewer? What power do images have? These and many other questions provide the framework for students to use technology to explore symbolism in Elie Wiesel's Night. Students begin with a discussion of everyday symbols, such as street signs and hand gestures, to help them come up with their own definition for symbolism. Students then choose and analyze a passage from Night that uses darkness as a symbol, and then brainstorm how they might reinterpret their selected passage as an image. After learning about symbolism and discussing its use in the book, students create visual representations using an interactive tool. Students then express their response to the symbolism in the book by creating a photo montage using images from multiple websites about the Holocaust, text from survivor stories, articles about hate crimes, and Night.

Thomason, Catherine

2012-07-26

252

Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia  

PubMed Central

The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

2014-01-01

253

Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

James, Mark

2007-01-01

254

Sound symbolism in the languages of australia.  

PubMed

The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah

2014-01-01

255

Comprehensibility of universal healthcare symbols for wayfinding in healthcare facilities.  

PubMed

Healthcare facilities are often complex and overwhelming for visitors, and wayfinding in healthcare facilities can be challenging. As there is an increasing number of global citizens who travel to seek medical care in another country, it is critical to make wayfinding easy for visitors who are not familiar with the language in a foreign country. Among many wayfinding aids, symbols are helpful for those visitors who have limited ability to understand written language. This study tested universal healthcare symbols in the United States, South Korea, and Turkey to compare the comprehension of symbols cross-country and identify predictors of the correct comprehension. To explore statistically significant relationships between symbol comprehension and countries, Pearson's Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and ANOVA were conducted. The test results showed that ten symbols among 14 tested have significant relationship with countries. Results of this study demonstrate that symbol comprehension can be varied significantly in different countries. PMID:24290906

Lee, Seunghae; Dazkir, Sibel Seda; Paik, Hae Sun; Coskun, Aykut

2014-07-01

256

Symbolic dynamics approach to parameter estimation without initial value  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbolic dynamics, which partitions the infinite number of finite length trajectories into a finite number of trajectory sets, allows a simplified and “coarse-grained” description of the dynamics of a system with a limited number of symbols. In this Letter, we will show that control parameters affect dynamical characters of symbolic sequences. To be more specific, we will analyze how control parameters affect statistical property of Skewed Tent map symbolic sequences. Besides, we will also analyze how control parameters affect ergodic property of both Logistic map and Tent map symbolic sequences. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the above mentioned effects of control parameters discourage the use of chaotic symbolic sequences in cryptography. Furthermore, we will propose an improved scheme utilizing asymptotic deterministic randomness to avoid the undesirable effects.

Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Hou, Xubo; Shen, Yi; He, Zhenya

2009-12-01

257

Symbolic reasoning about myocardial scintigrams in PROLOG.  

PubMed

PROLOG (PROgramming in LOGic) is the declarative programming language at the heart of the Japanese fifth-generation computer project. It is proposed that PROLOG is a suitable tool for symbolic image processing, once standard preprocessing has been done. In the present application, the problem of prediction of coronary anatomy from myocardial scintigrams is addressed. Uncertainty is dealt with by a combination of fuzzy-set theoretic and probabilistic reasoning. Heuristic classification rules are based on clinical experience and on a set of 247 myocardial scintigrams with their corresponding coronary angiograms. PMID:3525173

Rosenberg, S; Itti, R; Benjelloun, L

1986-01-01

258

Numerical and symbolic signal representation and processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the period of April 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991, our research activities focussed on continuing work on symbolic signal processing, new algorithms for signal analysis, and new signal representations based on wavelet analysis. Our work on this contract during the past year has been reported in detail in the technical literature through technical reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles. Copies of these reports have been provided to the contract monitor and other offices as specified in the contract. Additional copies are available on request.

Oppenheim, Alan

1991-05-01

259

Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

2011-05-01

260

Networks of Motifs from Sequences of Symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method to convert an ensemble of sequences of symbols into a weighted directed network whose nodes are motifs, while the directed links and their weights are defined from statistically significant co-occurences of two motifs in the same sequence. The analysis of communities of networks of motifs is shown to be able to correlate sequences with functions in the human proteome database, to detect hot topics from online social dialogs, to characterize trajectories of dynamical systems, and it might find other useful applications to process large amounts of data in various fields.

Sinatra, Roberta; Condorelli, Daniele; Latora, Vito

2010-10-01

261

Reduced complexity symbol detectors with parallel structure for ISI channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of practical realization of the optimal fixed-delay symbol-by-symbol detection algorithm, which is optimum in the sense of minimizing the symbol error probability, given a delay constraint D, is investigated. A fully-parallel structure is developed, and through systematic reformulations of the algorithm, the computational requirements are reduced considerably. In addition, the problems associated with a large dynamic range such

Javan Erfanian; Subbarayan Pasupathy; Glenn Gulak

1994-01-01

262

Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

2009-01-01

263

Multiple-Symbol, Partially Coherent Detection of MPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method of reception of multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) radio signals involves multiple-symbol, partially coherent detection. Instead of attempting to determine phase of transmitted signal during each symbol period as in coherent detection, receiver acquires signal data during multiple-symbol observation interval, then produces maximum-likelihood-sequence estimate of phases transmitted during interval. Combination of coherent-reception and incoherent-reception decision rules are used.

Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

1994-01-01

264

An optimum symbol-by-symbol decoding rule for linear codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decoding rule is presented which minimizes the probability of symbol error over a time-discrete memory]ess channel for any linear error-correcting code when the codewords are equiprobable. The complexity of this rule varies inversely with code rate, making the technique particularly attractive for high rate codes. Examples are given for both block and convolutional codes.

CARLOS R. P. HARTMANN; LUTHER D. RUDOLPH

1976-01-01

265

MATLAB LANGUAGE AS TOOL FOR SYMBOLIC, SEMI-SYMBOLIC AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the application of MATLAB mathematical language (2) for simulation of electrical and electronic networks. A library of about 40 m-files (scripts and functions) is described that solves the following problem: automatic formulation of network equations in matrix form (both symbolic and numerical); evaluation of numerator and denominator polynomials for network functions; calculation of polynomial coefficients, zeros

Juraj Valsa

266

Symbolic logic analysis of congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

In identifying the primary, genetic or environmental event in human cardiac malformations, it is desirable to separate out the apparently secondary lesions. We have employed the general principle that multiple cardiac lesions within a single patient may often represent a pathogenetic process in which one primary event gives rise to a sequence of secondary lesions. The mechanical paradigm of cardiogenesis suggests that abnormal primary lesions may give rise to secondary lesions through altered blood flow or pressure relations, if the secondary structure normally appears later and represents a reasonable tissue response to altered mechanics. Symbolic logic is a mathematical method in which descriptive statements are placed in formal relation to one another and their logical consequences are deduced. Using the mechanical paradigm as a technique of hypothesis generation and symbolic logic as a technique of hypothesis testing, we have analyzed the following malformation complexes in large series of autopsied patients: coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, arterious malformation, interrupted aortic arch, and semilunar valve malformations. PMID:7279779

Moore, G W; Hutchins, G M

1981-03-01

267

Performance of the split-symbol moments SNR estimator in the presence of inter-symbol interference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) is an algorithm that is designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The performance of the SSME algorithm in band-limited channels is examined. The effects of the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI) are quantified. All results obtained are in closed form and can be easily evaluated numerically for performance prediction purposes. Furthermore, they are validated through digital simulations.

Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

1989-01-01

268

A Unitary or Multiple Representations of Numerical Magnitude? - the Case of Structure in Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantities  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is a controversial debate on whether there is an abstract representation of number magnitude, multiple different ones, or multiple different ones that project onto a unitary representation. The current study aimed at evaluating this issue by means of a magnitude comparison task involving Arabic numbers and structured as well as unstructured non-symbolic patterns of squares. In particular, we were interested whether a specific numerical effect, the unit-decade compatibility effect reflecting decomposed processing of tens and units complying with the place-value structure of the Arabic number system, is affected by input notation. Indeed, a reliable unit-decade compatibility effect was observed in the symbolic-digital notation condition but was absent for unstructured non-symbolic notation. However, for structured non-symbolic notation a – albeit negative – compatibility effect was observed as well. Theses results are hard to reconcile with the notion of an abstract representation of number magnitude. Instead, our data support the existence of multiple representations of numerical magnitude. In addition, the current data indicate that it may not be a question of symbolic vs. non-symbolic notation only but also an issue of the structuring of the input notation. While unstructured non-symbolic quantities seemed to be processed holistically we found evidence suggesting at least partially decomposed processing not only for symbolic Arabic numbers but also for structured non-symbolic quantities.

Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2012-01-01

269

[The concept of risk and its symbolic effects in accidents with sharp instruments].  

PubMed

The study aims to understand the occupational risks as symbolic processes that shapes the daily activities of health professionals that manipulate sharps objects. Descriptive research was conducted at a university hospital, with information collected through the survey on the accidents at work in Intensive Care and hospital laundry, with the application of 105 questionnaires. The information was analyzed through an interdisciplinary perspective, and enabled the conciliation of quantitative and qualitative analysis. The results revealed that although the number of accidents is low, it is still necessary to improve the instruments such as the risk map, the use of safety equipment and staff training. PMID:23338586

Silva, Everaldo José da; Lima, Maria da Glória; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci

2012-01-01

270

Interview: Charlene Teters on Native American Symbols as Mascots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interview with Charlene Teters, Native American artist and activist, focuses on her role as leader of the national campaign to eliminate Native American symbols as college sports mascots, and especially on her experience as a University of Illinois graduate student, where the Native American symbol and mascot continues to be used despite a faculty…

Johns, Rebecca

2000-01-01

271

Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the

Lawrence Bobo

1983-01-01

272

Multiplicity-free Quantum 6 j-Symbols for  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conjecture a closed form expression for the simplest class of multiplicity-free quantum 6 j-symbols for . The expression is a natural generalization of the quantum 6 j-symbols for obtained by Kirillov and Reshetikhin. Our conjectured form enables computation of colored HOMFLY polynomials for various knots and links carrying arbitrary symmetric representations.

Nawata, Satoshi; Pichai, Ramadevi; Zodinmawia

2013-12-01

273

Symbolic analysis methods for averaged modeling of switching power converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic analysis methods for the averaged modeling of switching power converters are presented in this paper. A general averaging method suitable for computer-aided modeling is discussed first. Then, a symbolic analysis package that uses this averaging method to automatically generate an analytical averaged model for a switching power converter is described. The package is implemented using the computer algebra system

Jian Sun; Horst Grotstollen

1997-01-01

274

Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

2013-01-01

275

The sex worship and symbolism of primitive races  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traces the worship of sex, as recorded by the monuments of antiquity, through its various phases. Discusses plant and flower symbolism, animal symbolism, sun worship and sun myths, and ancient festivals and mysteries. In the simplest form, the generative organs were worshiped without disguise, and sexual acts formed a part of the religious ceremonies. With the advancement of the races,

1916-01-01

276

functionalObjects.h: Using symbolic syntax in C++ programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

functionalObjects.h allows the C++ programmer performing common calculations to use a more symbolic syntax rather than an algorithmic syntax. This is not as ambitious as a symbolic manipulation program such as Mathematica; it is more like having the ability to drop a very simple Mathematica statement into a C++ program. .

Nolty, R.

2001-08-01

277

Geometric completion of differential systems using numeric-symbolic continuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic algorithms using a finite number of exact differentiations and eliminations are able to reduce over and under-determined systems of polynomially nonlinear differential equations to involutive form. The output involutive form enables the identification of consistent initial values, and eases the application of exact or numerical integration methods.Motivated to avoid expression swell of pure symbolic approaches and with the desire

Greg Reid; Chris Smith; Jan Verschelde

2002-01-01

278

Scaffolding Young Children's Understanding of Symbolic Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic objects are cognitive tools children must learn to master very early in life. A crucial factor in cognitive development is the instruction or informational support children receive in social contexts. While numerous studies have investigated the relation between instruction and development in various domains, like language or symbolic

Peralta, Olga; Salsa, Analía; Maita, María del Rosario; Mareovich, Florencia

2013-01-01

279

"La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and…

Back, Michele

2013-01-01

280

Introduction to the Symbol 2R Programming Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SYMBOL programming language (SPL) is not only an important feature of the SYMBOL 2R Computer System, but also was the starting point for the design of the system. SPL was designed as a general-purpose, higher-level programming language. After the lang...

H. Richards C. Wright

1973-01-01

281

Symbolic and Neural Learning Algorithms: An Experimental Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that many symbolic and neural network (connectionist) learning algorithms address the same problem of learning from classified examples, very little is known regarding their comparative strengths and weaknesses. Experiments comparing the ID3 symbolic learning algorithm with the perception and backpropaga- tion neural learning algorithms have been performed using five large, real-world data sets. Overall, backpropaga- tion performs

Jude W. Shavlik; Raymond J. Mooney; Geoffrey G. Towell

1991-01-01

282

Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

283

Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.

1991-01-01

284

Symbol stream combining in a convolutionally coded system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Symbol stream combining has been proposed as a method for arraying signals received at different antennas. If convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding are used, it is shown that a Viterbi decoder based on the proposed weighted sum of symbol streams yields maximum likelihood decisions.

Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Swanson, L.

1985-01-01

285

Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

2008-01-01

286

Graphic Arts Symbol Generating Hardware for a Gerber Plotting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the development of a graphic arts symbol generator which was integrated with a precision CRT display system and a graphics generating system. The purpose was to examine the suitability of such a system for names and symbol placement i...

M. H. Gold J. E. Turek

1974-01-01

287

An Algebraic Method for Compressing Very Large Symbolic Data Tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although symbolic data tables summarize huge sets of data they can still become very large in size. This paper proposes a method for compressing a symbolic data table using the recently emerged Compound Term Composition Algebra. One charisma of CTCA is that the closed world hypotheses of its operations can lead to a remarkably high \\

Yannis Tzitzikas

2004-01-01

288

Descriptive statistics of non-uniform interval symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new kind of data mining method, symbolic data analysis (SDA) can not only decrease the computational complexity of huge data, but also master the property of the sample integrally by data package technology. Interval number is one of the most important types of symbolic data. Previous studies assumed each individual to be uniformly distributed within the interval, but

Jun-peng Guo; Wen-hua Li; Feng Gao

2009-01-01

289

Inductive learning from numerical and symbolic data: An integrated framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical induction from data is one of the statistical data analysis tasks, which uses a tabular model, with almost exclusively numerical features, as data representation formalism. The output representations are different: from functions to probability distributions, from surface equations to tables of indexes. One approach to extend the classical data analysis techniques to symbolic objects is the Symbolic Data Analysis:

Floriana Esposito; Donato Malerba; Vittorio Marengo

290

Inductive learning from numerical and symbolic data: An integrated framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Numerical induction from data is one of the statistical data analysis tasks, which uses a tabular model, with almost exclusively numerical features, as data representation formalism The output representations are different: from functions to probability distributions, from surface equations to tables of indexes One approach to extend the classical data analysis techniques to symbolic objects is the Symbolic Data

Floriana Esposito; Donato Malerba; Vittorio Marengo

2001-01-01

291

The Use of Symbolic Resources in Developmental Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the idea of symbolic resources as the use of cultural elements to mediate the representational work occasioned by ruptures or discontinuities in the smooth experience of ordinary life, moments when the ‘taken-for-granted’ meanings cease to be taken for granted. In particular we are concerned with the use of symbolic resources in moments of developmental transitions, that is,

Tania Zittoun; Gerard Duveen; Alex Gillespie; Gabrielle Ivinson; Charis Psaltis

2003-01-01

292

The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

Helgeland, John

1985-01-01

293

Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

Lorantas, Raymond

294

Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of mathematics courses to chemistry students that is strongly based on symbolic computation and allows an instructor to explore a topic or principle is reviewed. The mathematical software available, nominally for symbolic computation associated with numerical and graphical capabilities are highly developed and provides an invaluable…

Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B.

2007-01-01

295

Symbolic pole and zero estimation for circuit design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for the calculation of symbolic expressions for poles and zeros of linear circuits. The method makes use of different well-known approximation algorithms, which have been applied successfully to obtain simplified transfer functions. A special sensitivity based error criterion controls pole and zero movements and guarantees very compact and also very accurate symbolic expressions for

Guido Droge; Torsten Czysz; Ernst-Helmut Horneber

1996-01-01

296

Generalized Symbolic Execution for Model Checking and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern software systems, which often are concurrent and manipulate complex data structures must be extremely reliable. We present a novel framework based on symbolic execution, for automated checking of such systems. We provide a two-fold generalization of tra- ditional symbolic execution based approaches. First, we define a source to source translation to instrument a program, which enables standard model checkers

Sarfraz Khurshid; Corina S. Pasareanu; Willem Visser

2003-01-01

297

Wyoming Tombstone Symbolism: A Reflection of Western Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven cemeteries in Wyoming are examined for visuals pertaining to life in the West. The purpose is to demonstrate the importance of Western culture tradition evidenced through tombstone symbolism--representations of the activities and environments of the living through the memory provided by the deceased. The visual symbols found on the…

Cochenour, John; Rezabek, Landra L.

298

78 FR 23508 - Use of Certain Symbols in Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under Sec. 801.119, labeling for in vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices has adequate...Symbols on Labels and in Labeling of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices Intended for Professional...Symbols on Labels and in Labeling of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices Intended for...

2013-04-19

299

A SAT-based algorithm for reparameterization in symbolic simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric representations used for symbolic simulation of circuits usually use BDDs. After a few steps of symbolic simulation, state set representation is converted from one parametric representation to another smaller representation, in a process called reparameterization. For large circuits, the reparametrization step often results in a blowup of BDDs and is expensive due to a large number of quantifications of

Pankaj Chauhan; Edmund M. Clarke; Daniel Kroening

2004-01-01

300

Preschool Children's Representation and Understanding of Written Number Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two samples of preschool children's representation and understanding of written number symbols was examined in two time points in one academic year. About 40% of Chinese four year olds (mean=4:7) were able to use conventional number symbols to represent the quantity of ten, on average. The majority of these children (85%) could represent written…

Zhou, Xin; Wang, Bin

2004-01-01

301

Symbolic processing methods for 3D visual processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a theory that defines an open method for solving 3D visual data processing and artificial intelligence problems that is independent of hardware or software implementation. The goal of the theory is to generalize and abstract the process of 3D visual processing so that the method can be applied to a wide variety of 3D visual processing problems. Once the theory is described a heuristic derivation is given. Symbolic processing methods can be generalized into an abstract model composed of eight basic components. The symbolic processing model components are: input data; input data interface; symbolic data library; symbolic data environment space; relationship matrix; symbolic logic driver; output data interface and output data. An obstacle detection and avoidance experiment was constructed to demonstrate the symbolic processing method. The results of the robot obstacle avoidance experiment demonstrated that the mobile robot could successfully navigate the obstacle course using symbolic processing methods for the control software. The significance of the symbolic processing approach is that the method arrived at a solution by using a more formal quantifiable process. Some of the practical applications for this theory are: 3D object recognition, obstacle avoidance, and intelligent robot control.

Tedder, Maurice; Hall, Ernest L.

2001-10-01

302

The Role of Symbolic Logic in a Student's Mathematical Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between logic and mathematics is examined. Four basic concepts inherent in symbolic logic that are typically included in ninth- and tenth-grade mathematics programs are reviewed. Symbolic logic is advocated for all students who will study algebra and/or geometry. (MP)

Sharlow, John F.

1981-01-01

303

Book Report Alternative: Summary, Symbol, and Analysis in Bookmarks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By making simple bookmarks, students in grades 6-8 practice summarizing, recognizing symbols, and writing reviews in these two 50-minute class sessions--all while writing for an authentic audience. Student objectives for this lesson are that they will: write summaries and reviews for books they read; identify appropriate symbols that relate to…

Gardner, Traci

304

Efficient Modeling of Memory Arrays in Symbolic Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper enables symbolic simulation of systems with large embedded memories. Each memory array is replaced with a behavioral model, where the number of symbolic vari- ables used to characterize the initial state of the memory is proportional to the number of mem- ory accesses. The memory state is represented by a list containing entries of the form ?c, a,

Miroslav N. Velev; Randal E. Bryant; Alok Jain

1997-01-01

305

Symbolic feature detection for image understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

2014-03-01

306

Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

1986-01-01

307

Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

1985-11-01

308

Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

1985-01-01

309

Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

1986-09-01

310

Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding.  

PubMed

Weber's law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0-25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

Livingstone, Margaret S; Pettine, Warren W; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A; Lee, Daeyeol

2014-05-01

311

Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding  

PubMed Central

Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling.

Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

2014-01-01

312

Symbolic representations of living with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Visual or aesthetic data can contribute to understanding experiences that may not be able to be fully understood through spoken or written words. This article describes stories of symbols that represent the experiences of individuals living with chronic kidney disease. Symbols included both objects (i.e., a family photograph) and intangible representations (i.e., apiece of music) that were chosen because they innately held meaning to the person. Descriptive themes of the symbols included hopes and inspirations, reflections on "who I am," and confrontations of illness. Participants' expressions through symbols were further described through the use of stories of memories, emotions, and poetic devices. We contend that symbols convey aspects of experience that cannot easily be translated into oral expression. PMID:24579398

Makaroff, Kara Schick; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita

2013-01-01

313

Why Peirce matters: the symbol in Deacon’s Symbolic Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In “Why brains matter: an integrational perspective on The Symbolic Species” Cowley (2002) [Language Sciences 24, 73–95] suggests that Deacon pictures brains as being able to process words qua tokens, which he identifies as the theory’s Achilles’ heel. He goes on to argue that Deacon’s thesis on the co-evolution of language and mind would benefit from an integrational approach. This

Tanya de Villiers

2007-01-01

314

16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. 303.9 ...9 Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The...The nondeceptive use of animal names or symbols in referring to a...

2009-01-01

315

16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. 303.9 ...9 Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The...The nondeceptive use of animal names or symbols in referring to a...

2010-01-01

316

75 FR 63800 - Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...collection, Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol. DATES: Comments must be received in...Education Program, Program Manager National Symbols, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW.,...

2010-10-18

317

40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

318

40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

319

40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

320

40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

321

40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

322

50 CFR 80.99 - Are symbols available to identify projects?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Are symbols available to identify projects? 80...Grant Administration § 80.99 Are symbols available to identify projects? Yes. The following distinctive symbols are available to identify...

2013-10-01

323

40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

325

40 CFR 1065.1005 - Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units...Reference Information § 1065.1005 Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units...This section summarizes the way we use symbols, units of measure, and other...

2010-07-01

326

40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does...Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations...

2013-07-01

327

Comparability, Reliability, and Practice Effects on Alternate Forms of the Digit Symbol Substitution and Symbol Digit Modalities Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the comparability of 4 alternate forms of the Digit Symbol Substitution test and the Symbol Digit Modalities (written) test, including the original versions. Male contact-sport athletes (N=112) were assessed on 1 of the 4 forms of each test. Reasonable alternate form comparability was demonstrated through establishing…

Hinton-Bayre, Anton; Geffen, Gina

2005-01-01

328

Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

329

Letter and computer symbols for economics, well logging and formation evaluation, natural gas engineering, and petroleum reservoir engineering  

SciTech Connect

The book is an official guide to standardized symbols used in all SPE publications. This is the first major update of this document since 1965. It includes basic symbols, symbols, quantities, subscript definitions, and subscript symbols in alphabetical order.

Not Available

1986-01-01

330

Fixing the broken system of genetic locus symbols  

PubMed Central

Originally, locus symbols (e.g., DYT1) were introduced to specify chromosomal regions that had been linked to a familial disorder with a yet unknown gene. Symbols were systematically assigned in a numerical series to designate mapped loci for a specific phenotype or group of phenotypes. Since the system of designating and using locus symbols was originally established, both our knowledge and our techniques of gene discovery have evolved substantially. The current system has problems that are sources of confusion, perpetuate misinformation, and misrepresent the system as a useful reference tool for a list of inherited disorders of a particular phenotypic class. These include erroneously assigned loci, duplicated loci, missing symbols, missing loci, unconfirmed loci in a consecutively numbered system, combining causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we describe these problems and their impact, and propose solutions. The system could be significantly improved by creating distinct lists for clinical and research purposes, creating more informative locus symbols, distinguishing disease-causing mutations from risk factors, raising the threshold of evidence prior to assigning a locus symbol, paying strict attention to the predominant phenotype when assigning symbols lists, and having a formal system for reviewing and continually revising the list that includes input from both clinical and genetics experts.

Lohmann, Katja; Lang, Anthony; Klein, Christine

2012-01-01

331

Sandplay in Jungian analysis: matter and symbolic integration.  

PubMed

Jung described a way of thinking, tied to sensations and feelings, that is a thought connected to the body. Again in The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Jung (1954) speaks of the symbol as a 'live body', corpus et anima. If the mind cannot credit itself with the discomfort that manifests through the body, this is a sign of a separation between mind and body. A consequence of all this is the literalization of the discomfort which makes it impossible to have a symbolic dimension. Therapy activates a process in which the patient can move from a stage of separation to a possible connection between mind and body, resulting in changes in the level of communication and of awareness. The mind opens itself to symbolization and the body becomes a field for a common language. From our reflections we have come to ascertain that we can speak of analysis only when an imaginary space is achieved, an intermediate space between the patient and the analyst, a space that is created from the intertwining of the symbolic capability of the patient with that of the analyst. Focusing our attention on the use of sandplay in analytic therapy, we know that one puts in the sand box objects that are marks of our psyche, visible traits that contain actions, corporeal movements and feelings. When one focuses on the overall representation built, one can go beyond the literal image and the analyst, keeping alive the image through his symbolic capability, opens the possibility of a dialogue with the symbolic dimension. The imagination as a symbolic thought is the humus that allows the analyst to maintain the intermediate symbolic level open by activating a symbolic process within the dialectic of the analysis. PMID:15926956

Castellana, Franco; Donfrancesco, Antonietta

2005-06-01

332

Automated symbolic calculations in nonequilibrium thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We cast the Jacobi identity for continuous fields into a local form which eliminates the need to perform any partial integration to the expense of performing variational derivatives. This allows us to test the Jacobi identity definitely and efficiently and to provide equations between different components defining a potential Poisson bracket. We provide a simple Mathematica TM notebook which allows to perform this task conveniently, and which offers some additional functionalities of use within the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics: reversible equations of change for fields, and the conservation of entropy during the reversible dynamics. Program summaryProgram title: Poissonbracket.nb Catalogue identifier: AEGW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 227 952 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 268 918 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica TM 7.0 Computer: Any computer running Mathematica TM 6.0 and later versions Operating system: Linux, MacOS, Windows RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 4.2, 5, 23 Nature of problem: Testing the Jacobi identity can be a very complex task depending on the structure of the Poisson bracket. The Mathematica TM notebook provided here solves this problem using a novel symbolic approach based on inherent properties of the variational derivative, highly suitable for the present tasks. As a by product, calculations performed with the Poisson bracket assume a compact form. Solution method: The problem is first cast into a form which eliminates the need to perform partial integration for arbitrary functionals at the expense of performing variational derivatives. The corresponding equations are conveniently obtained using the symbolic programming environment Mathematica TM. Running time: For the test cases and most typical cases in the literature, the running time is of the order of seconds or minutes, respectively.

Kröger, Martin; Hütter, Markus

2010-12-01

333

An axiomatic approach to deciding query safety in deductive databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database query is safe if its result consists of a finite set of tuples. If a query is expressed using a set of pure Horn Clauses, the problem of determining query safety is, in general, undecidable. In this paper we consider a slightly stronger notion of safety, called supersafety, for Horn databases in which function symbols are replaced by

Michael Kifer; Raghu Ramakrishnan; Abraham Silberschatz

1988-01-01

334

Symbol-stream combiner: Description and demonstration plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is described and demonstration plans presented for antenna arraying by symbol stream combining. This system is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of a spacecraft signals by combining the detected symbol streams from two or more receiving stations. Symbol stream combining has both cost and performance advantages over other arraying methods. Demonstrations are planned on Voyager 2 both prior to and during Uranus encounter. Operational use is possible for interagency arraying of non-Deep Space Network stations at Neptune encounter.

Hurd, W. J.; Reder, L. J.; Russell, M. D.

1984-01-01

335

Uniform approximation from symbol calculus on a spherical phase space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use symbol correspondence and quantum normal form theory to develop a more general method for finding uniform asymptotic approximations. We then apply this method to derive a result we announced in an earlier paper, namely the uniform approximation of the 6j-symbol in terms of the rotation matrices. The derivation is based on the Stratonovich-Weyl symbol correspondence between matrix operators and functions on a spherical phase space. The resulting approximation depends on a canonical, or area-preserving, map between two pairs of intersecting level sets on the spherical phase space.

Yu, Liang

2011-12-01

336

Uniform Approximation from Symbol Calculus on a Spherical Phase Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use symbol correspondence and quantum normal form theory to develop a more general method for finding uniform asymptotic approximations. We then apply this method to derive a uniform approximation of the 6j-symbol in terms of the rotation matrices. The derivation is based on the Stratonovich-Weyl symbol correspondence between matrix operators and functions on a spherical phase space. The resulting approximation depends on a canonical, or area preserving, map between two pairs of intersecting level sets on the spherical phase space.

Yu, Liang

2012-02-01

337

Color and symbology: symbolic systems of color ordering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color has been used symbolically in various different fields, such as Heraldry, Music, Liturgy, Alchemy, Art and Literature. In this study, we shall investigate and analyse the structures of relationships that have taken shape as symbolic systems within each specific area of analysis. We shall discuss the most significant symbolic fields and their systems of color ording, considering each one of them as a topological model based on a logic that determines the total organization, according to the scale of reciprocities applied, and the cultural context that gives it meaning.

Varela, Diana

2002-06-01

338

[Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].  

PubMed

The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225

Suaud, Charles

2014-03-01

339

Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing.  

PubMed

Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. 'Groups' is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org. PMID:24037025

Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A; Karp, Peter D

2013-01-01

340

Mollusks of Candombl?: symbolic and ritualistic importance  

PubMed Central

Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora.

2012-01-01

341

Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance.  

PubMed

Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523

Léo Neto, Nivaldo A; Voeks, Robert A; Dias, Thelma L P; Alves, Rômulo R N

2012-01-01

342

Modeling Manic-Depression with Symbolic Logic  

PubMed Central

We characterize manic-depression in terms of symbolic logic and dynamical systems, and describe a computer simulation used to develop our theory. A formal theory of cognitive deficit has four parts. (1) For a normal representation we use the concept of sound and complete “self-axioms.” (2) Normal processing occurs when changes in our personal environment trigger a search for a new set of sound and complete self-axioms. (3) Deficits can lead to unsound judgement in mania and incomplete judgement in depression. (4) Adaptation may consist of attempts to suppress or use the changes in reasoning style. Since manic-depression involves changes in the temporal organization of mood and judgement, it can be classified as a dynamical disease. Nonlinear dynamical systems exhibit transitions between steady state, periodic, and chaotic behavior. We illustrate our approach with a computer simulation that searches through a small set of “self-axioms” while exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior. In conclusion we conjecture that manic-depression may represent a bifurcation from the chaotic dynamics of normal emotional lability to the pathological periodicity of affective illness.

Webster, Charles; Banks, Gordon

1989-01-01

343

Randomizing nonlinear maps via symbolic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudo Random Number Generators (PRNG) have attracted intense attention due to their obvious importance for many branches of science and technology. A randomizing technique is a procedure designed to improve the PRNG randomness degree according the specific requirements. It is obviously important to quantify its effectiveness. In order to classify randomizing techniques based on a symbolic dynamics’ approach, we advance a novel, physically motivated representation based on the statistical properties of chaotic systems. Recourse is made to a plane that has as coordinates (i) the Shannon entropy and (ii) a form of the statistical complexity measure. Each statistical quantifier incorporates a different probability distribution function, generating thus a representation that (i) sheds insight into just how each randomizing technique operates and also (ii) quantifies its effectiveness. Using the Logistic Map and the Three Way Bernoulli Map as typical examples of chaotic dynamics it is shown that our methodology allows for choosing the more convenient randomizing technique in each instance. Comparison with measures of complexity based on diagonal lines on the recurrence plots [N. Marwan, M.C. Romano, M. Thiel, J. Kurths, Phys. Rep. 438 (2007) 237] support the main conclusions of this paper.

De Micco, L.; González, C. M.; Larrondo, H. A.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O. A.

2008-06-01

344

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

345

Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.

Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

2013-01-01

346

Program Execution in the SYMBOL 2R Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The direct hardware implementation of the SYMBOL Programming Language (SPL) is highly dependent on an unusually powerful Central Processor (CP). This paper describes the principal features of the CP's operations in executing SPL programs.

P. Hutchison K. Ethington

1973-01-01

347

From Fish Food to Pictures to Symbols: , and =  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students build upon their understanding of greater than, less than, and equal to by observing quantities and making comparisons using various instructional materials. The fish cut-out, with its mouth open, represents the greater than or less than symbol; the clam cut-out represents the equal to symbol. Using fish lips as a transition point, students will apply their understanding of greater, less, and equal to the standard symbols as you introduce symbolic notation at a developmentally appropriate level. Students will: • Compare a set of quantities and determine greater than, less than, and equal to • Construct visual and written equations using quantities and numerals • Learn and use correct math vocabulary

Nctm, Illuminations

2012-03-14

348

Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols of the four seasons on the lamp's aluminum supports - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

349

OSIRRUS: Oceanic Symbolic Image Representation, Recognition and Understanding Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Symbolic contours representing isotherms are used for shape and feature analysis of infrared oceanic satellite imagery. Techniques for detecting and analyzing oceanic thermal structures are presented. An effective image-processing technique called Image M...

L. A. Atkinson

1990-01-01

350

Symbolic Synthesis of Mealy Machines from Arithmetic Bitstream Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we describe a symbolic synthesis method which given an algebraic expression that specifies a bitstream function 'f', constructs a (minimal) Mealy machine that realises 'f'. The synthesis algorithm can be seen as an analogue of Brzozowski's ...

H. H. Hansen J. J. M. M. Rutten

2010-01-01

351

Scaling Properties of Coarse-Coded Symbol Memories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coarse coded memories have appeared in several neural network symbol processing models, such as Touretzky and Hinton's distributed connectionist production system (DCPS), Touretzky's distributed implementation of Lisp S-expressions on a Boltzmann machine,...

D. S. Touretzky R. Rosenfeld

1987-01-01

352

Asymptotics of the Wigner 9j-symbol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j-symbol, valid when all quantum numbers are large, in the classically allowed region. As in the Ponzano-Regge formula for the 6j-symbol, the action is expressed in terms of lengths of edges and dihedral angles of a geometrical figure, but the angles require care in definition. Rules are presented for converting spin networks into the associated geometrical figures. The amplitude is expressed as the determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix of Poisson brackets. The 9j-symbol possesses caustics associated with the fold and elliptic and hyperbolic umbilic catastrophes. The asymptotic formula obeys the exact symmetries of the 9j-symbol.

Haggard, Hal M.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

2010-07-01

353

The Utility of Symbolic Logic for Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the advantages of using symbolic logic in political analyses. It can be used (1) as a tool in conceptual refinement, (2) to determine if arguments are consistent and valid, and (3) as a tool for theory development. (SR)

Simowitz, Roslyn L.

1982-01-01

354

A Dynamic Stroke Segmentation Technique for Sketched Symbol Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we address the problem of ink parsing, which tries to identify distinct symbols from a stream of pen strokes.\\u000a An important task of this process is the segmentation of the users’ pen strokes into salient fragments based on geometric\\u000a features. This process allows users to create a sketch symbol varying the number of pen strokes, obtaining a

Vincenzo Deufemia; Michele Risi

2005-01-01

355

Preference Transitivity and Symbolic Representation in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCan non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage

Elsa Addessi; Alessandra Mancini; Lara Crescimbene; Camillo Padoa-Schioppa; Elisabetta Visalberghi; Laurie Santos

2008-01-01

356

Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human

Elsa Addessi; Alessandra Mancini; Lara Crescimbene; Camillo Padoa-Schioppa; Elisabetta Visalberghi

2008-01-01

357

Formal Verification by Symbolic Evaluation of Partially-Ordered Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic trajectory evaluation provides a means to formally verify properties of a sequential system by a modified form of symbolic simulation. The desired system properties are expressed in a notation combining Boolean expressions and the temporal logic “next-time” operator. In its simplest form, each property is expressed as an assertion [A?C], where the antecedentA expresses some assumed conditions on the

Carl-johan H. Seger; Randal E. Bryant

1995-01-01

358

Automatic Symbolic Traffic Scene Analysis Using Belief Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic symbolic traffic scene analysis is essen- tial to many areas of IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems). Traffic scene information can be used to optimize traffic flow during busy pe- riods, identify stalled vehicles and accidents, and aid the decision-making of an autonomous vehi- cle controller. Improvements in technologies for machine vision-based surveillance and high-level symbolic reasoning have enabled us

Timothy Huang; Daphne Koller; Jitendra Malik; Gary H. Ogasawara; B. Rao; Stuart J. Russell; Joseph Weber

1994-01-01

359

Clustering of symbolic data through a dissimilarity volume based measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recording of symbolic data has become a common practice with the advances in database technologies. This paper shows hard and fuzzy relational clustering in order to partition symbolic data. These methods optimize objective functions based on a dissimilarity function. The distance used is a volume based measure and may be applied to data described by set-valued, list-valued or interval-valued

Kelly P. Silva; Francisco De A. T. De Carvalho; M. Csernel

2008-01-01

360

Clustering of symbolic data using the assignment-prototype algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a fuzzy relational clustering method in order to perform the clustering of symbolic data. The presented method yields a fuzzy partition and prototype for each cluster by optimizing an adequacy criterion based on suitable dissimilarity measures. This work considers two volume-based measures that may be applied to data described by set-valued, list-valued or interval-valued symbolic variables. Experiments

Kelly P. Silva; Francisco de A. T. de Carvalho; Marc Csernel

2009-01-01

361

Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.

O'Dell, Linda Kay

362

Single-Symbol Maximum Likelihood Decodable Linear STBCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-Time block codes (STBC) from Orthogonal Designs (OD) and Co-ordinate Interleaved Orthogonal Designs (CIOD) have been attracting wider attention due to their amenability for fast (single-symbol) ML decoding, and full-rate with full-rank over quasi-static fading channels. However, these codes are instances of single-symbol decodable codes and it is natural to ask, if there exist codes other than STBCs form ODs

B. Sundar Rajan

2006-01-01

363

Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.  

PubMed

A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning. PMID:24728912

Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

2014-06-01

364

Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols  

SciTech Connect

Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.

Kwon, Namhee [Department of Mathematics, The University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Sage, Daniel S. [Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

2008-06-15

365

Antenna arraying of Voyager telemetry signals by symbol stream combining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telemetry signals received from the Voyager 2 spacecraft at Deep Space Stations at Parkes and Canberra, Australia, on February 6, 1986, were combined by the method of symbol stream combining. This second demonstration of symbol stream combining followed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) demonstration at Giacobini-Zinner encounter in September 1985. The Voyager demonstration was at a symbol rate of 43.2 ksymb/s, compared to 2 ksymb/s for ICE. Recording, playback, and combining at this higher rate were demonstrated. The average symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the combined data was 2.84 dB, or 0.23 dB less than the sum of the SNRs of the two imput symbol streams. This 0.23 loss from ideal combining was due to use of 4-bit quantization of the input symbol stream and imperfect scaling. A practical implementation with 8-bit quantization could achieve combining losses of under 0.05 dB over a wide dynamic range of input signal levels.

Hurd, W. J.; Rabkin, J.; Russell, M. D.; Siev, B.; Cooper, H. W.; Anderson, T. O.; Winter, P. U.

1986-01-01

366

A Clustering Method for Mixed Feature-Type Symbolic Data using Adaptive Squared Euclidean Distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a clustering method for mixed feature-type symbolic data. The presented method needs a previous pre-processing step to transform mixed symbolic data into modal symbolic data. The dynamic clustering al- gorithm with adaptive distances has then as input a set of vectors of modal symbolic data (weight distributions) and furnishes a partition and a prototype to each class

Luiz Freire

367

A Clustering Method for Mixed Feature-Type Symbolic Data using Adaptive Squared Euclidean Distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a clustering method for mixed feature-type symbolic data. The presented method needs a previous pre-processing step to transform mixed symbolic data into modal symbolic data. The dynamic clustering algorithm with adaptive distances has then as input a set of vectors of modal symbolic data (weight distributions) and furnishes a partition and a prototype to each class by

R. M. C. de Souza; F. A. T. de Carvalho

2007-01-01

368

APPLICATION OF SYMBOLIC PIECEWISE AGGREGATE APPROXIMATION (PAA) ANALYSIS TO ECG SIGNALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STA) is an emerging methodology that involves coarse graining of the signals. Repeating segments of the time series are associated with symbols, thereby reducing the complexity of the series. It facilitates data mining tasks to be performed easily such as indexing, clustering, classification, summarization, and anomaly detection. This study involves symbolization through Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX)

Burcu Kulahcioglu; Serhan Ozdemir; Bora Kumova

369

On the utilization of embedded symbol for CCSK BER improvement in TDCS dynamic spectrum access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose the novel concept of embedding extra symbol to the CCSK modulation based TDCS signal. The embedded symbol is derived from the PSK mapping. The results show that as the constellation size of the PSK mapping increases, the CCSK BER performance improves tremendously. The embedded symbol improves the TDCS symbol SNR and consequently enhances the cross-correlation

I. Budiarjo; H. Nikookar; L. P. Ligthart

2008-01-01

370

Multiple symbol partially coherent detection of MPSK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that by using the known (or estimated) value of carrier tracking loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the decision metric, it is possible to improve the error probability performance of a partially coherent multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK) system relative to that corresponding to the commonly used ideal coherent decision rule. Using a maximum-likeihood approach, an optimum decision metric is derived and shown to take the form of a weighted sum of the ideal coherent decision metric (i.e., correlation) and the noncoherent decision metric which is optimum for differential detection of MPSK. The performance of a receiver based on this optimum decision rule is derived and shown to provide continued improvement with increasing length of observation interval (data symbol sequence length). Unfortunately, increasing the observation length does not eliminate the error floor associated with the finite loop SNR. Nevertheless, in the limit of infinite observation length, the average error probability performance approaches the algebraic sum of the error floor and the performance of ideal coherent detection, i.e., at any error probability above the error floor, there is no degradation due to the partial coherence. It is shown that this limiting behavior is virtually achievable with practical size observation lengths. Furthermore, the performance is quite insensitive to mismatch between the estimate of loop SNR (e.g., obtained from measurement) fed to the decision metric and its true value. These results may be of use in low-cost Earth-orbiting or deep-space missions employing coded modulations.

Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.

1992-01-01

371

The benefit of symbols: monkeys show linear, human-like, accuracy when using symbols to represent scalar value  

Microsoft Academic Search

When humans and animals estimate numbers of items, their error rate is proportional to the number. To date, however, only\\u000a humans show the capacity to represent large numbers symbolically, which endows them with increased precision, especially for\\u000a large numbers, and with tools for manipulating numbers. This ability depends critically on our capacity to acquire and represent\\u000a explicit symbols. Here we

Margaret S. Livingstone; Krishna Srihasam; Istvan A. Morocz

2010-01-01

372

Symbol-by-symbol MAP demodulation of CPM and PSK signals on Rayleigh flat-fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodulation using the symbol-by-symbol maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) algorithm is presented. The algorithm is derived for the case of continuous phase modulation (CPM) signals transmitted over Rayleigh flat-fading channels, and a corresponding receiver structure is specified. It is shown that the MAP algorithm requires computing, for each trellis branch, the sum of the products of the weights of all

Michael J. Gertsman; John H. Lodge

1997-01-01

373

The effects of sign design features on bicycle pictorial symbols for bicycling facility signs.  

PubMed

The inanimate bicycle symbol has long been used to indicate the animate activity of bicycling facility signs. In contrast, either the inanimate bicycle symbol or the animate bicycle symbol has been used interchangeably for the standard pavement symbols in bike lanes. This has led to confusion among pedestrians and cyclists alike. The purpose of this study was to examine two different designs (inanimate symbol vs. animate symbol) involved in the evaluation of perceived preference and glance legibility, and investigate sign design features on bicycle pictorial symbols. Thirty-five participants compared current bicycle signs (inanimate symbols) to alternative designs (animate symbols) in a controlled laboratory setting. The results indicated that the alternative designs (animate symbols) showed better performance in both preference and glance legibility tests. Conceptual compatibility, familiarity, and perceptual affordances were found to be important factors as well. PMID:23623234

Oh, Kyunghui; Rogoff, Aaron; Smith-Jackson, Tonya

2013-11-01

374

Using ontologies and symbolic information in automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to show an approach to target recognition (ATR) that allows for efficient updating of the recognition algorithm of a fusion agent when new symbolic information becomes available. This information may, for instance, provide additional characterization of a known type of target, or supply a description of a new type of target. The new symbolic information can be either posted on a web page or provided by another agent. The sensory information can be obtained from two imaging sensors. In our scenario the fusion agent, after noticing such an event, processes the new symbolic information and incorporates it into its recognition rules. To achieve this goal the fusion agent needs to understand the symbolic information. This capability is achieved through the use of an ontology. Both the fusion agent and the knowledge provider (it may be another software agent or a human annotator) know the ontology, and the web based information is annotated using that ontology. In this paper we describe the approach, provide examples of symbolic target descriptions, describe an ATR scenario, and show some initial results of simulations for the selected scenario. The discussion in this paper shows the advantages of the proposed approach over that in which the recognition algorithm is fixed.

Kokar, Mieczyslaw M.; Wang, Jiao

2002-03-01

375

The role of computerized symbolic manipulation in rotorcraft dynamics analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential role of symbolic manipulation programs in development and solution of the governing equations for rotorcraft dynamics problems is discussed and illustrated. Nonlinear equations of motion for a helicopter rotor blade represented by a rotating beam are developed making use of the computerized symbolic manipulation program MACSYMA. The use of computerized symbolic manipulation allows the analyst to concentrate on more meaningful tasks, such as establishment of physical assumptions, without being sidetracked by the tedious and trivial details of the algebraic manipulations. Furthermore, the resulting equations can be produced, if necessary, in a format suitable for numerical solution. A perturbation-type solution for the resulting dynamical equations is shown to be possible with a combination of symbolic manipulation and standard numerical techniques. This should ultimately lead to a greater physical understanding of the behavior of the solution than is possible with purely numerical techniques. The perturbation analysis of the flapping motion of a rigid rotor blade in forward flight is presented, for illustrative purposes, via computerized symbolic manipulation with a method that bypasses Floquet theory.

Crespo Da Silva, Marcelo R. M.; Hodges, Dewey H.

1986-01-01

376

Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

Martin, James P.

1991-12-01

377

Cross-linguistic sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondence: Evidence from fMRI and DTI.  

PubMed

Non-arbitrary correspondences between spoken words and categories of meanings exist in natural language, with mounting evidence that listeners are sensitive to this sound symbolic information. Native English speakers were asked to choose the meaning of spoken foreign words from one of four corresponding antonym pairs selected from a previously developed multi-language stimulus set containing both sound symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli. In behavioral (n=9) and fMRI (n=15) experiments, participants showed reliable sensitivity to the sound symbolic properties of the stimulus set, selecting the consistent meaning for the sound symbolic words at above chances rates. There was increased activation for sound symbolic relative to non-symbolic words in left superior parietal cortex, and a cluster in left superior longitudinal fasciculus showed a positive correlation between fractional anisotropy (FA) and an individual's sensitivity to sound symbolism. These findings support the idea that crossmodal correspondences underlie sound symbolism in spoken language. PMID:24316238

Revill, Kate Pirog; Namy, Laura L; DeFife, Lauren Clepper; Nygaard, Lynne C

2014-01-01

378

Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals.  

PubMed

In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ? 100-60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (? 90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60-40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique

2012-01-01

379

Determination of eigenvalues of dynamical systems by symbolic computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symbolic computation technique for determining the eigenvalues of dynamical systems is described wherein algebraic operations, symbolic differentiation, matrix formulation and inversion, etc., can be performed on a digital computer equipped with a formula-manipulation compiler. An example is included that demonstrates the facility with which the system dynamics matrix and the control distribution matrix from the state space formulation of the equations of motion can be processed to obtain eigenvalue loci as a function of a system parameter. The example chosen to demonstrate the technique is a fourth-order system representing the longitudinal response of a DC 8 aircraft to elevator inputs. This simplified system has two dominant modes, one of which is lightly damped and the other well damped. The loci may be used to determine the value of the controlling parameter that satisfied design requirements. The results were obtained using the MACSYMA symbolic manipulation system.

Howard, J. C.

1982-01-01

380

Multiple Layer Identification Label Using Stacked Identification Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

381

A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling  

PubMed Central

Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior.

Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

2009-01-01

382

Semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiclassical mechanics of the Wigner 6j-symbol is examined from the standpoint of WKB theory for multidimensional, integrable systems to explore the geometrical issues surrounding the Ponzano-Regge formula. The relations among the methods of Roberts and others for deriving the Ponzano-Regge formula are discussed, and a new approach, based on the recoupling of four angular momenta, is presented. A generalization of the Yutsis type of spin network is developed for this purpose. Special attention is devoted to symplectic reduction, the reduced phase space of the 6j-symbol (the 2-sphere of Kapovich and Millson) and the reduction of Poisson bracket expressions for semiclassical amplitudes. General principles for the semiclassical study of arbitrary spin networks are laid down; some of these were used in our recent derivation of the asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j-symbol.

Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Haggard, Hal M.; Hedeman, Austin; Jeevanjee, Nadir; Littlejohn, Robert G.; Yu, Liang

2012-02-01

383

Symbolic flux analysis for genome-scale metabolic networks  

PubMed Central

Background With the advent of genomic technology, the size of metabolic networks that are subject to analysis is growing. A common task when analyzing metabolic networks is to find all possible steady state regimes. There are several technical issues that have to be addressed when analyzing large metabolic networks including accumulation of numerical errors and presentation of the solution to the researcher. One way to resolve those technical issues is to analyze the network using symbolic methods. The aim of this paper is to develop a routine that symbolically finds the steady state solutions of large metabolic networks. Results A symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination routine was developed for analyzing large metabolic networks. This routine was tested by finding the steady state solutions for a number of curated stoichiometric matrices with the largest having about 4000 reactions. The routine was able to find the solution with a computational time similar to the time used by a numerical singular value decomposition routine. As an advantage of symbolic solution, a set of independent fluxes can be suggested by the researcher leading to the formation of a desired flux basis describing the steady state solution of the network. These independent fluxes can be constrained using experimental data. We demonstrate the application of constraints by calculating a flux distribution for the central metabolic and amino acid biosynthesis pathways of yeast. Conclusions We were able to find symbolic solutions for the steady state flux distribution of large metabolic networks. The ability to choose a flux basis was found to be useful in the constraint process and provides a strong argument for using symbolic Gauss-Jordan elimination in place of singular value decomposition.

2011-01-01

384

From symbolizing to non-symbolizing within the scope of a link: from dreams to shouts of terror caused by an absent presence.  

PubMed

This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552

Levy, Ruggero

2012-08-01

385

The Chinese representation of cosmic elements as graphic symbols.  

PubMed

In Chinese cosmology, cosmic elements have been deified and assigned life-forms. Air, representing ultrasonic energy as a celestial entity, became bird-god, Red-bird. Water acquired Dragon as its representative and Fire had Tiger as its graphic symbol. Earth, as body, was fertile and long-lasting. It was symbolized as Tortoise, known to be long-lived. Its soul became Serpent, long enough to be powerful as Cosmic soul. Serpent-Tortoise, as Body-Soul, became the god Black-Warrior in charge of Earth. PMID:3218627

Mahdihassan, S

1988-01-01

386

Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for reading symbols on highly reflective surfaces. By use of beam splitters, the visible and infrared collimated lights are introduced along the optical path of the telecentric lens, so that the target is illuminated and viewed from the same direction.

Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.

2006-01-01

387

An all-digital Manchester symbol synchronizer for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle S-Band relay communications links via TDRS are coded and may operate at symbol signal-to-noise ratios (Es/No) as low as -5dB. A brass-board all-digital bit synchronizer with very low (0.05dB) degradation relative to an idealized analog model has been designed to process the 216 KBPS Manchester data symbols. This all-digital bit synchronizer, which provides soft decision detected outputs to a convolutional decoder, may be operated at any rate below 216 KBPS by merely changing the master clock frequency.

Batson, B. H.; Vang, H.; Cellier, A.; Lindsey, W. L.

1974-01-01

388

Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig

2005-01-01

389

Tracking performance of symbol synchronizers for Manchester coded data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation and tracking performance of symbol synchronizers for Manchester coded data is presented with motivation provided by maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation theory. Certain physically relizable closed-loop structures, readily implemented in practice, are suggested by the theory for uncoded data symbols with arbitrary data transition probabilities. The tracking performance of these loops is optimized and comparisons are made among the various configurations over a wide range of system parameters. Although not the major intent of the paper, the acquisition problem is briefly addressed.

Simon, M. K.; Lindsey, W. C.

1977-01-01

390

Symbolic Dynamics and Unpredictability Defined by Right Adjointness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a category-theoretic definition of chaotic system applies not only to the Smale horseshoe, a prototypical example, but also to Conway's ``Life.'' Symbolic dynamics of the ``Dining Philosophers'' relational system is computed. A category composed of stochastic matrices is defined and its elementary properties are studied. A categorical variant of symbolic dynamics is applied to a finite stochastic process. Using point-wise Kan extension formulas, conditions ensuring existence of certain representations between categories of dynamic systems are proved.

Wojtowicz, Ralph L.

2004-08-01

391

Analysis of symbolic sequences using the Jensen-Shannon divergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study statistical properties of the Jensen-Shannon divergence D, which quantifies the difference between probability distributions, and which has been widely applied to analyses of symbolic sequences. We present three interpretations of D in the framework of statistical physics, information theory, and mathematical statistics, and obtain approximations of the mean, the variance, and the probability distribution of D in random, uncorrelated sequences. We present a segmentation method based on D that is able to segment a nonstationary symbolic sequence into stationary subsequences, and apply this method to DNA sequences, which are known to be nonstationary on a wide range of different length scales.

Grosse, Ivo; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Carpena, Pedro; Román-Roldán, Ramón; Oliver, Jose; Stanley, H. Eugene

2002-04-01

392

Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

Wang, Jun; Yu, Zheng-Feng

2012-01-01

393

Pathway Databases: A Case Study in Computational Symbolic Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A pathway database (DB) is a DB that describes biochemical pathways, reactions, and enzymes. The EcoCyc pathway DB (see http://ecocyc.org) describes the metabolic, transport, and genetic-regulatory networks of Escherichia coli. EcoCyc is an example of a computational symbolic theory, which is a DB that structures a scientific theory within a formal ontology so that it is available for computational analysis. It is argued that by encoding scientific theories in symbolic form, we open new realms of analysis and understanding for theories that would otherwise be too large and complex for scientists to reason with effectively.

Peter Karp (SRI International;Bioinformatics Research Group)

2001-09-14

394

Whole Symbol Moments SNR Estimator (WSME) Analysis and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive data rate (ADR) functionality was added to the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Electra software-defined radio (SDR) via software and firmware uploads to its modem in October 2011. An integral part of ADR is the symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation algorithm. The Whole Symbol Moments SNR Estimator (WSME) algorithm has been developed for ADR control and was included in the October 2011 upload. It is the subject of this article. The WSME architecture is described and performance results are presented via analysis, simulation, and data from an inflight MRO test on March 5, 2012.

Kuperman, I.; Satorius, E.

2012-08-01

395

Detecting Recurrence Domains of Dynamical Systems by Symbolic Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an algorithm for the detection of recurrence domains of complex dynamical systems from time series. Our approach exploits the characteristic checkerboard texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots. In phase space, recurrence plots yield intersecting balls around sampling points that could be merged into cells of a phase space partition. We construct this partition by a rewriting grammar applied to the symbolic dynamics of time indices. A maximum entropy principle defines the optimal size of intersecting balls. The final application to high-dimensional brain signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal.

Graben, Peter beim; Hutt, Axel

2013-04-01

396

Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

2013-06-01

397

A hybrid symbolic-numerical method for determining model structure.  

PubMed

In this article, we present a method for determining whether a model is at least locally identifiable and in the case of non-identifiable models whether any of the parameters are individually at least locally identifiable. This method combines symbolic and numeric methods to create an algorithm that is extremely accurate compared to other numeric methods and computationally inexpensive. A series of generic computational steps are developed to create a method that is ideal for practitioners to use. The algorithm is compared to symbolic methods for two capture-recapture models and a compartment model. PMID:22366354

Choquet, R; Cole, D J

2012-04-01

398

Toddlers' Emerging Symbolic Play: A First-Born Advantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of older peers on younger children's emerging symbolic play was examined for 24 young children in eight participating long-day child-care centres. Toddler participants (aged from 17 to 31 months) were observed and video-taped in three conditions in free play in the outdoor environment as follows: condition one, with their same-age…

Kowalski, Helen; Wyver, Shirley; Masselos, Grace; De Lacey, Philip

2004-01-01

399

Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

2008-01-01

400

Behavior Learning of Human-Friendly Robots by Symbolic Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with behavior learning of human-friendly robots by human symbolic teaching. The mobile robot has an internal model for its behavior criteria and acquires human teaching model based on the behav- ior criteria. Outputs of human teaching model are used for learning reactive motions such as collision avoidance behavior. The feature of this method is to obtain suitable

Naoyuki Kubota; Shuzo Yamaji; Fumio Kojima; Toshio Fukuda

401

Critical Thinking in Chemistry Using Symbolic Math Documents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching environments are provided by symbolic mathematics templates to promote development of HOCS (Higher Orders Cognitive Skills). The way of looking LOCS and HOCS is to distinguish them by recognizing that the LOCS corresponds to complex correct thinking and the HOCS form the essence of full critical thinking.

Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

2004-01-01

402

Symbolism and Psychological Realism in "The Red Badge of Courage."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "The Red Badge of Courage," Stephen Crane overcomes serious artistic difficulties to depict a complicated psychological change in his protagonist, Henry Fleming, an unsophisticated and inarticulate farm boy. To embody the development of this protagonist, Crane uses a series of thematically-related incidents and a set of thematic symbols which…

McDermott, John J.

1968-01-01

403

Frame synchronization methods based on channel symbol measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current DSN frame synchronization procedure is based on monitoring the decoded bit stream for the appearance of a sync marker sequence that is transmitted once every data frame. The possibility of obtaining frame synchronization by processing the raw received channel symbols rather than the decoded bits is explored. Performance results are derived for three channel symbol sync methods, and these are compared with results for decoded bit sync methods reported elsewhere. It is shown that each class of methods has advantages or disadvantages under different assumptions on the frame length, the global acquisition strategy, and the desired measure of acquisition timeliness. It is shown that the sync statistics based on decoded bits are superior to the statistics based on channel symbols, if the desired operating region utilizes a probability of miss many orders of magnitude higher than the probability of false alarm. This operating point is applicable for very large frame lengths and minimal frame-to-frame verification strategy. On the other hand, the statistics based on channel symbols are superior if the desired operating point has a miss probability only a few orders of magnitude greater than the false alarm probability. This happens for small frames or when frame-to-frame verifications are required.

Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.

1989-08-01

404

Geometric Enclosures: A New Notation for Chemical Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of introductory chemistry is, to a large extent, a process of learning a new language along with its alphabet. A detailed examination of a standard introductory chemistry textbook revealed that a first-year chemistry student has to memorize the names and symbols of approximately 200 entities which comprise the alphabet of chemistry (14 SI prefixes, 35 SI units, 50

Reuben Rudman

1998-01-01

405

Symbolic simulation for functional verification with ADLIB and SDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic verification problem addressed in this paper is to determine the consistency of two digital design descriptions. This is done by symbolically simulating each description and comparing the results. This approach is complicated by the presence of different levels of abstraction and asynchronous timing. This paper motivates interest in this problem and provides background information on verification, ADLIB, and

W. E. Cory

1981-01-01

406

Feedback encoding for efficient symbolic control of dynamical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of efficiently steering dynamical systems by generating input plans is considered. Plans are considered which consist of finite-length words constructed on an alphabet of input symbols, which could be, e.g., transmitted through a limited capacity channel to a remote system, where they can be decoded in suitable control actions. Efficiency is considered in terms of the computational complexity

Antonio Bicchi; Alessia Marigo; Benedetto Piccoli

2006-01-01

407

Symbol error probability for guided scrambling over a recording channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive expressions for the symbol error probabilities for a recording code concatenated with a Reed-Solomon (RS) code. The recording code is structured by a guided scrambling (GS) code for the direct current (DC) suppression in conjunction with a runlength-limited (RLL) code. As for the GS codes, convolutional GS and Galois field (GF) addition GS schemes are examined. As for

Akiomi Kunisa

2004-01-01

408

SYMBOLIC-NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE MULTIBODY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the vibration analysis and the evaluation of dynamic stresses in flexible multibody systems, and their parameter optimization using symbolic-numeric methods. Based on the fundamentals of multibody system modeling the force method and the deformation method are described and the latter one is extended to include the static and dynamic responses of the structure. Performance criteria are defined

H. Claus; W. Schiehlen

2002-01-01

409

Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two…

Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale

2010-01-01

410

Symbolic Itô calculus in AXIOM: An ongoing story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic Itô calculus refers both to the implementation of Itô calculus in a computer algebra package and to its application. This article reports on progress in the implementation of Itô calculus in the powerful and innovative computer algebra package AXIOM, in the context of a decade of previous implementations and applications. It is shown how the elegant algebraic structure underlying

Wilfrid S. Kendall

2001-01-01

411

Verifying LTL Properties of Bytecode with Symbolic Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bytecode languages are at a very desirable degree of abstraction for performing formal analysis of programs, but at the same time pose new challenges when compared with traditional languages. This paper proposes a methodology for bytecode analysis which harmonizes two well-known formal verification techniques, model checking and symbolic execution. Model checking is a property-guided exploration of the system state space

Pietro Braione; Giovanni Denaro; Bohuslav Krena; Mauro Pezze

2008-01-01

412

Beyond Mead: Symbolic Interaction between Humans and Felines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on the cognitive abilities and emotional capacities of animals has fueled the animal rights movement and renewed debate over the differences between human and non-human animals. This debate has not been central to sociology, although George Herbert Mead drew a very hard line between humans and animals by asserting that the latter were not capable of symbolic interaction.

Janet M. Alger; Steven F. Alger

1997-01-01

413

Outdoor Recreation Behavior as Viewed from a Symbolic Interactionism Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes past studies of outdoor recreational behavior from the point of view of symbolic interactionism. This perspective focuses directly on the manner in which individuals interpret the words and behavior of others, as well as their own physical environment. The first part of the analysis examines some recent definitions of…

Colton, Craig W.; Morrione, Thomas J.

414

Symbolic loss in American adolescents: mourning in teenage cinema.  

PubMed

I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre. PMID:22843337

Kramp, Joseph M

2014-04-01

415

Role of drivers’ personal characteristics in understanding traffic sign symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of age, marital status, gender, nationality, educational background and monthly income in drivers’ comprehension of traffic signs. The populations sampled here were from five Arabian Gulf Countries. A total of 28 symbolic warning and regulatory signs were investigated. A questionnaire specially prepared to collect the necessary data was distributed to over 9000 drivers in the

Hashim Al-Madani; Abdul Rahman Al-Janahi

2002-01-01

416

Traffic sign symbol comprehension: a cross-cultural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the comprehension levels of highway traffic sign symbols used in different countries, to identify underlying rules that affect comprehension levels, and recommend approaches to deal with the problem. The need for such an evaluation was based on today's travel culture where people are often licensed in one country and then drive—without any

David Shinar; Robert E Dewar; Heikki Summala; Lidia Zakowska

2003-01-01

417

Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…

Nigam, Ravi

2001-01-01

418

Rona's Story and the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a method for teaching the theory of symbolic interactionism in a high-school course--Introduction to Sociology. The role-playing game used as a method for teaching the theory is grounded on a philosophy of education whose principles call for meaningful and relevant learning, based on experiential activity and investigation of…

Naveh, Nissan

2010-01-01

419

SYMBOLISM IN THE GENESIS MOSAICS OF SAN MARCO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout early Christian art, the work of the mosaic is prominently used to adorn the ceilings of basilicas, especially in the apse of the churches. Being an especially rich medium of expression, this is symbolic because the apse was associated with the vault of heaven (Hetherington 14). Within San Marco's basilica of Venice, this tradition is no different. The vaulted

Joni Harrison

420

A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from exampleshave worked best in domains in which all features had numericvalues. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points anddistance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains,a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. Weintroduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning in domains withsymbolic features. Our

Steven Salzberg

1993-01-01

421

Representing circuits more efficiently in symbolic model checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We significantly reduce the complexity of BDD-based symbolic verification by using partitioned transition relations to represent state transition graphs. On an example pipeline circuit, this technique reduced the verification time by an order of magnitude and the storage requirements for the transition relation by two orders of magnitude. We were also able to handle example pipelines with over 10120 reachable

Jerry R. Burch; Edmund M. Clarke; David E. Long

1991-01-01

422

Space telescope coordinate systems, symbols, and nomenclature definitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major coordinate systems as well as the transformations and transformation angles between them, for the Space Telescope are defined. The coordinate systems were primarily developed for use in pointing and control system analysis and simulation. Additional useful information (on nomenclature, symbols, quaternion operations, etc.) is also contained.

Kennel, H. F.

1976-01-01

423

The Development of a Universal Tangible Symbol System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tangible symbols are objects or partial objects with qualities, such as shape, texture, and consistency, that can be used to represent a person, place, object, activity, or concept. They can be handled and share a perceptual relationship with what they represent, known as the referent. This article presents a study on the development of a…

Trief, Ellen; Bruce, Susan M.; Cascella, Paul W.; Ivy, Sarah

2009-01-01

424

Symbolic Boolean manipulation with ordered binary-decision diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordered Binary-Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satisfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as graph algorithms on OBDD data structures. Using OBDDs, a wide variety of problems can be solved through symbolic analysis. First, the possible

Randal E. Bryant

1992-01-01

425

Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining state-graph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolically instead of

Jerry R. Burch; Edmund Melson Clarke; Kenneth L. McMillan; L. J. Hwang

1990-01-01

426

A Practical Decision Procedure for Arithmetic with Function Symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical procedure is presented for an extension of quantifier-free Presburger arithmetic that permits arbitrary unmterpreted predicate and function symbols This theory includes many of the formulas one tends to encounter in program venficatlon and is powerful enough to encode the semantics of array operators as well as MAX, MIN, and ABSVALUE An implementation of the procedure has proved to

Robert E. Shostak

1979-01-01

427

Frame synchronization methods based on channel symbol measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current DSN frame synchronization procedure is based on monitoring the decoded bit stream for the appearance of a sync marker sequence that is transmitted once every data frame. The possibility of obtaining frame synchronization by processing the raw received channel symbols rather than the decoded bits is explored. Performance results are derived for three channel symbol sync methods, and these are compared with results for decoded bit sync methods reported elsewhere. It is shown that each class of methods has advantages or disadvantages under different assumptions on the frame length, the global acquisition strategy, and the desired measure of acquisition timeliness. It is shown that the sync statistics based on decoded bits are superior to the statistics based on channel symbols, if the desired operating region utilizes a probability of miss many orders of magnitude higher than the probability of false alarm. This operating point is applicable for very large frame lengths and minimal frame-to-frame verification strategy. On the other hand, the statistics based on channel symbols are superior if the desired operating point has a miss probability only a few orders of magnitude greater than the false alarm probability. This happens for small frames or when frame-to-frame verifications are required.

Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.

1989-01-01

428

Toward a Symbolic Representation of Intensity Changes in Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symbolic representation of gray-value variations is studied, with emphasis on the gradient of the image function. The goal is to relate the results of this analysis to the structure of the picture, which is determined by the physics of the image generation process. Candidates for contour points are the maximal magnitudes of the gray-value gradient for different scales in

AXEL F. KORN

1988-01-01

429

A System to Generate Test Data and Symbolically Execute Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system that attempts to generate test data for programs written in ANSI Fortran. Given a path, the system symbolically executes the path and creates a set of constraints on the program's input variables. If the set of constraints is linear, linear programming techniques are employed to obtain a solution. A solution to the set of constraints

Lori A. Clarke

1976-01-01

430

Verification of Synchronous Sequential Machines Based on Symbolic Execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an original method to compare two synchronous sequential machines. The method consists in a breadth first traversal of the product machine during which symbolic expressions of its observable behaviour are computed. The method uses formal manipulations on boolean functions to avoid the state enumeration and diagram construction. For this purpose, new algorithms on boolean functions represented by

Olivier Coudert; Christian Berthet; Jean Christophe Madre

1989-01-01

431

A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from examples have worked best in domains in which all features had numeric values. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points and distance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains, a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. We introduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning

Steven Salzberg

1993-01-01

432

Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use tokens as symbols?  

PubMed Central

In the absence of language, the comprehension of symbols is difficult to demonstrate. Tokens can be considered symbols since they arbitrarily stand for something else without having any iconic relation to their referent. We assessed whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use tokens as symbols to represent and combine quantities. Our paradigm involved choices between various combinations of tokens A and B, worth one and three rewards, respectively. Pay-off maximization required the assessment of the value of each offer by (i) estimating token numerousness, (ii) representing what each token stands for and (iii) making simple computations. When one token B was presented against one to five tokens A (experiment 1), four out of ten capuchins relied on a flexible strategy that allowed to maximize their pay-off, i.e. they preferred one token B against one and two tokens A, and they preferred four or five tokens A against one token B. Moreover, when two tokens B were presented against three to six tokens A (experiment 2), two out of six capuchins performed summation over representation of quantities. These findings suggest that capuchins can use tokens as symbols to flexibly combine quantities.

Addessi, E; Crescimbene, L; Visalberghi, E

2007-01-01

433

Mixing Statistical and Symbolic Approaches for Chemical Names Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper investigates the problem of automatic chemical Term Recognition (TR) and proposes to tackle the problem by fusing Symbolic and statistical techniques. Unlike other solutions described in the literature, which only use complex and costly human made ruled- based matching algorithms, we show that the combination of a seven rules matching algorithm and a na ve Bayes classier,achieves

Florian Boudin; Juan Manuel Torres Moreno; Marc El-bèze

2008-01-01

434

Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications

Andreas Pommert; Rainer Schubert; Martin Riemer; Thomas Schiemann; Ulf Tiede; Karl H. Hoehne

1994-01-01

435

Dependency-based feature selection for clustering symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature selection is a central problem in data analysis that have received a signicantamount of attention from several disciplines, such as machine learning or patternrecognition. However, most of the research has been addressed towards supervisedtasks, paying little attention to unsupervised learning. In this paper, we introducean unsupervised feature selection method for symbolic clustering tasks. Our methodis based upon the assumption

Luis Talavera

2000-01-01

436

Clustering for Visual Analogue Scale Data in Symbolic Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a hierarchical clustering for the visual analogue scale (VAS) in the framework of Symbolic Data Analysis(SDA). The VAS is a method that can be readily understood by most people to measure a characteristic or attitude that cannot be directly measured. VAS is of most value when looking at change within people, and is of less value for comparing

Kotoe Katayama; Rui Yamaguchi; Seiya Imoto; Keiko Matsuura; Kenji Watanabe; Satoru Miyano

2011-01-01

437

Symbolic Functioning and Language Development in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding the relationship between preverbal skills and language development has important implications for identifying communication delay/disorders and for early childhood intervention. In the case of children with Down syndrome, it is well established that symbolic play is associated with the emergence of language. However, the…

O'toole, Ciara; Chiat, Shula

2006-01-01

438

Detection of chain structures embedded in multidimensional symbolic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of meaningful geometrical structures in multidimensional data is of major interest in data analysis and data mining. In this paper, we will first present the notion of a locally monotonic chain structure based on the Cartesian system model (CSM) which is the mathematical model to manipulate symbolic data. The locally monotonic chain structures include not only monotonic chain

Atsushi Nagoya; Yujiro Ono; Manabu Ichino

2009-01-01

439

Symbolic representation and retrieval of moving object trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching moving object trajectories of video databases has been applied to many fields, such as video data analysis, content-based video retrieval, video scene classification. In this paper, we propose a novel representation of trajectories, called movement pattern strings, which convert the trajectories into symbolic representations. Movement pattern strings encode both the movement direction and the movement distance information of the

Lei Chen; M. Tamer Özsu; Vincent Oria

2004-01-01

440

Experiencing SAX: a novel symbolic representation of time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many high level representations of time series have been proposed for data mining, including Fourier transforms, wavelets, eigenwaves, piecewise polynomial models, etc. Many researchers have also considered symbolic rep- resentations of time series, noting that such representations would potentiality allow researchers to avail of the wealth of data structures and algorithms from the text processing and bioinformatics communities. While many

Jessica Lin; Eamonn J. Keogh; Li Wei; Stefano Lonardi

2007-01-01

441

Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an…

McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pica, Pierre

2013-01-01

442

Learning Fuzzy Information in a Hybrid Connectionist, Symbolic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instance-based learning system is presented. SC-net is a fuzzy hybrid connectionist, symbolic learning system. It remembers some examples and makes groups of examples into exemplars. All real-valued attributes are represented as fuzzy sets. The network...

S. G. Romaniuk L. O. Hall

1993-01-01

443

Symbolic analysis of linear networks using parameter extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the physical meaning of a closed system which is the basis for Lin's symbolic network functions for analyzing linear networks. Interpreting the closed system as a virtual oscillator, the paper extends Lin's method to the analysis of networks using a 2-port augmented closed system. With this extended method it is possible to obtain input-output impedances, forward transfer

M. Sagawa; H. Kitazawa

1977-01-01

444

Non-Symbolic Arithmetic in Adults and Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated whether adults and preschool children can perform simple arithmetic calculations on non-symbolic numerosities. Previous research has demonstrated that human adults, human infants, and non-human animals can process numerical quantities through approximate representations of their magnitudes. Here we consider whether…

Barth, Hilary; La Mont, Kristen; Lipton, Jennifer; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Spelke, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

445

The Social Fabric and Innovation Diffusion: Symbolic Adoption of Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a longitudinal, panel design to examine the effects of negative information acquisition, compliance with opinion leader endorsements, and social demographic characteristics on consumers' symbolic adoption of food irradiation. Data collection coincided with the first market test of irradiated food conducted by a commercial firm,…

Sapp, Stephen G.; Korsching, Peter F.

2004-01-01

446

The Magic of Harry Potter: Symbols and Heroes of Fantasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the worldwide, multiage appeal of Harry Potter may lie in the way these stories of magic meet the needs of readers to find meaning in today's unmagical contexts. The imaginative appeal and symbolic efficacy of the books for children are examined in terms of Bruno Bettelheim's The Uses of Enchantment. The development of Harry Potter as

Sharon Black

2003-01-01

447

Symbolic security analysis of ruby-on-rails web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of today's web applications are built on frameworks that include sophisticated defenses against malicious adversaries. However, mistakes in the way developers deploy those defenses could leave applications open to attack. To address this issue, we introduce Rubyx, a symbolic executor that we use to analyze Ruby-on-Rails web applications for security vulnerabilities. Rubyx specifications can easily be adapted to variety

Avik Chaudhuri; Jeffrey S. Foster

2010-01-01

448

Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

James, Mark

2009-01-01

449

Web Applications Design and Maintenance Using Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach to automatic checking of the correctness of Web applications structure during their lifecycle. The approach adopts the well-established symbolic model checking technique and the associated tool SMV. A formalism allows the designer to describe the model of a Web-based system. Computation Tree Logic (CTL) is adopted as language to define the properties to be verified. The

Eugenio Di Sciascio; Francesco M. Donini; Marina Mongiello; Giacomo Piscitelli

2003-01-01

450

Generation of factorized symbolic network function by circuit topology reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a symbolic analysis method for network function generation in nested form. The method utilises an original circuit topology graph. The network function construction implies visiting vertices of the graph in bottom-up order. There is no need to build circuit matrix and solve circuit equations. This makes the method very efficient. It is implemented on Miller-compensated CMOS operational

S. Djordjevic; P. M. Petkovic

2004-01-01

451

Symbols and the Bifurcation between Procedural and Conceptual Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbols occupy a pivotal position between processes to be carried out and concepts to be thought about. They allow us both to do mathematical problems and to think about mathematical relationships. In this presentation, the discontinuities that occur in the learning path taken by different students, leading to a divergence between conceptual and…

Tall, David; Gray, Eddie; Bin Ali, Maselan; Crowley, Lillie; DeMarois, Phil; McGowen, Mercedes; Pitta, Demetra; Pinto, Marcia; Thomas, Michael; Yusof, Yudariah

452

Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol

W. J. Hurd; C. A. Pomalaza-Raez

1985-01-01

453

Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol

Carlos A. Pomalaza-Raez; William J. Hurd

1986-01-01

454

Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…

Moriarty, M. Wyn

2009-01-01

455

Bayesian Inference and the Symbolic Dynamics of Deterministic Chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic dynamics has proven to be an invaluable tool in analyzing the mechanisms that lead to unpredictability and random behavior in nonlinear dynamical systems. Surprisingly, a discrete partition of continuous state space can produce a coarse-grained description of the behavior that accurately describes the invariant properties of an underlying chaotic attractor. In particular, measures of the rate of information production--the

Christopher C. Strelioff; James Crutchfield; Alfred Hubler

2007-01-01

456

Symbolic Communication between Two Pigeons (Columba livia domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the use of learned symbols, a pigeon accurately communicated information about hidden colors to another pigeon. Each verbal exchange was initiated with a spontaneous request for information. The two pigeons engaged in a sustained and natural conversation without human intervention.

Robert Epstein; Robert P. Lanza; B. F. Skinner

1980-01-01

457

Symbolic Computer Algebra: The Classroom Computer Takes a Quantum Jump.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a software program with two components. One is muMATH, a package of functions that can perform a wide variety of symbolic manipulations. It is surrounded by, and written in, the accompanying language, muSIMP. A problem is described with a muMATH solution; another example uses the muSIMP language. (MNS)

Kunkle, Dan; Burch, Charles I., Jr.

1984-01-01

458

Signs, Symbols and Signals. Book Five. Project Drive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Project Drive booklet titled Signs, Symbols, and Signals is one of eight booklets designed for intermediate-level English-as-a-second-language students and low-level adult basic education/basic reading students. The goal of the booklet is to aid the student in developing the oral and sight vocabulary necessary for a basic driver training…

Zook, Doris; And Others

459

Sport, Gender and Ethnicity: Practises of Symbolic Inclusion/exclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper symbolic inclusion/exclusion processes in sport with respect to gender and ethnicity among adolescents (n = 1025) are analyzed from a social-critical perspective. It was found that sport participation preferences of young people are still influenced by dominant normative gendered and racial/ethnic images. Sport can serve not only as…

Elling, Agnes; Knoppers, Annelies

2005-01-01

460

Gibbs: Phase equilibria and symbolic computation of thermodynamic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general purpose open source, Python-based framework, Gibbs, is presented to perform multiphysical equilibrium calculations of material properties. The developed architecture allows to prototype symbolic and numerical representations of materials by starting from analytic models, tabulated experimental data, or Thermo-Calc data files. These constructions are based on the addition of arbitrary energy contributions that range from the traditional thermochemical to

Thomas Cool; Alexander Bartol; Matthew Kasenga; Kunal Modi; R. Edwin García

2010-01-01

461

The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich…

Tracy, Rita

2012-01-01

462

Computational Templates, Neural Network Dynamics, and Symbolic Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the relationship between subsymbolic neural networks and symbolic logical systems from a philosophy of science perspective. More specifically, the point of view is that of Paul Humphreys' philosophical account of the organization of scientific knowledge (Humphreys, Paul. Extending Ourselves - Computational Science, Empiricism and the Scientific Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.) Humphreys considers the units

Otto Lappi

2007-01-01

463

Mathematics and Symbolic Logics: Some Notes on an Uneasy Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic logics tend to be too mathematical for the philosophers and too philosophical for the mathematicians; and their history is too historical for most mathematicians, philosophers and logicians. This paper reflects upon these professional demarcations as they have developed during the century.

I. Grattan-Guinness

1999-01-01

464

Symbolic Analysis of Chaotic Signals and Turbulent Fluctuations  

SciTech Connect

The symbolic analysis introduced in this paper allows quantitative description of dynamical coupling between different time signals. In order to demonstrate how this method works we applied it to the explicit examples of chaotic signals.Our results appear to be quite robust when external noise is added. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

Lehrman, M.; Rechester, A. [Institute of Nonlinear Science Applications, Sharon, Massachusetts 02067 (United States)] [Institute of Nonlinear Science Applications, Sharon, Massachusetts 02067 (United States); White, R. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

1997-01-01

465

Animal Symbols in the Art of the Hodensaunee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of the main animal symbols incorporated into the social, cultural, artistic, and spiritual fabric of the Hodenosaunee (the People of the Longhouse) also known as the Six Nations Iroquois: the eagle, turtle, bear, wolf, hawk, heron, snipe, eel, deer, beaver, moose, snake, and serpent. (NEC)

Hill, Richard

1987-01-01

466

Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

2008-01-01

467

Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate…

Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.

2011-01-01

468

A Conjunctively Decomposed Boolean Representation for Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A canonical boolean representation is proposed, which decomposes a function into the conjunction of a sequence of components, based on a fixed variable order. The components can be represented in OBDD form. Algorithms for boolean operations and quantification are presented allowing the representation to be used for symbolic model checking. The decomposed form has a number of useful properties that

Kenneth L. Mcmillan; Cadence Berkeley Labs

1996-01-01

469

Applying SAT Methods in Unbounded Symbolic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of symbolic model checking is introduced that uses conjunctive normal form (CNF) rather than binary decision dia- grams (BDD's) and uses a SAT-based approach to quantier elimination. This method is compared to a traditional BDD-based model checking ap- proach using a set of benchmark problems derived from the compositional verication of a commercial microprocessor design.

Kenneth L. Mcmillan; Cadence Berkeley Labs

2002-01-01

470

Challenges of Symbolic Computation: My Favorite Open Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the symbolic mathematical computation discipline is striking. The theoretical advances have been continuous and significant: Gröbner bases, the Risch integration algorithm, integer lattice basis reduction, hypergeometric summation algorithms, etc. From the beginning in the early 1960s, it has been the tradition of our discipline to create software that makes our ideas readily available to scientists, engineers, and

Erich Kaltofen

2000-01-01

471

Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,…

Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

2013-01-01

472

Evolutionary symbolic discovery for bioinformatics, systems and synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic regression and modeling are tightly linked in many Bioinformatics, Systems and Synthetic Biology problems. In this paper we briefly overview two problems, and the approaches we have use to tackle them, that can be deemed to represent this entwining of regression and modeling, namely, the evolutionary discovery of (1) effective energy functions for protein structure prediction and (2) models

Pawel Widera; Jaume Bacardit; Natalio Krasnogor; Carlos García-Martínez; Manuel Lozano

2010-01-01

473

Improvement of Tactual Symbols for Blind Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the project was to gain information with which to improve the quality of tactual maps for the blind. Empirical studies of the pair-comparison type were conducted, using blind students as subjects, to determine discriminable sets of areal, linear, and point symbols made in plastic and to identify discriminable sets of linear and…

Nolan, Carson Y.; Morris, June E.

474

Foundations of Representation: Where Might Graphical Symbol Systems Come from?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that iconic graphical signs evolve into symbolic graphical signs through repeated usage. This article reports a series of interactive graphical communication experiments using a "pictionary" task to establish the conditions under which the evolution might occur. Experiment 1 rules out a simple repetition based account in…

Garrod, Simon; Fay, Nicolas; Lee, John; Oberlander, Jon; MacLeod, Tracy

2007-01-01

475

Symbol-and-Arrow Diagrams in Teaching Pharmacokinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbol-and-arrow diagrams are helpful adjuncts to equations derived from pharmacokinetic models. Both show relationships among dependent and independent variables. Diagrams show only qualitative relationships, but clearly show which variables are dependent and which are independent, helping students understand complex but important functional…

Hayton, William L.

1990-01-01

476

Parallel Algorithm for Elimination Tree Computation and Symbolic Factorization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The notion of an elimination tree plays a very important role in the parallel algorithms for sparse Cholesky decomposition, symbolic factorization and in determining the mapping of columns of the matrix to processors. In the paper, the authors present a p...

P. S. Kumar M. K. Kumar A. Basu

1992-01-01

477

Facilitating Children's Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search  

PubMed Central

Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted.

Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

2012-01-01

478

Committee for Commonality in Blood Banking Automation. Final Report 1977. Volume III. ABC Symbol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The American Blood Commission Committee for Commonality in Blood Banking Automation recommended the ABC Symbol, a modification of CODABAR be used as the uniform symbol for the automated systems throughout the blood service community. Criteria are presente...

1977-01-01

479

40 CFR 60.741 - Definitions, symbols, and cross-reference tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions, symbols, and cross-reference tables. 60.741 Section 60...Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.741 Definitions, symbols, and cross-reference tables. (a) All terms used...

2013-07-01

480

From Ambiguity to Dogma: The Rhetorical Symbols of Lyndon B. Johnson on Vietnam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes President Johnson's casting of political policy into evocative symbols, the invention and operation of those rhetorical forms, the resulting conflict over the symbolization of the Vietnam War, and the theoretical and ethical implications of those rhetorical choices. (PD)

Logue, Cal M.; Patton, John H.

1982-01-01

481

A Partitioning Method for Mixed Feature-Type Symbolic Data Using a Squared Euclidean Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partitioning cluster method for mixed feature-type symbolic data is presented. This method needs a previous pre-processing\\u000a step to transform Boolean symbolic data into modal symbolic data. The presented dynamic clustering algorithm has then as input\\u000a a set of vectors of modal symbolic data (weight distributions) and furnishes a partition and a prototype to each class by\\u000a optimizing an adequacy

Renata Cardoso Rodrigues de Souza; Francisco de Assis Tenorio de Carvalho; Daniel F. Pizzato

2006-01-01

482

A Class of MAry Asymmetric Symbol Error Correcting Codes for Data Entry Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonbinary M-ary symbols such as alphanumeric characters are commonly used in data entry devices, e.g., keyboards and character recognition devices. The M-ary symbols processed by these devices are sometimes mistaken for other symbols due to errors such as mistyping in keyboards or misreading in character recognition systems. These errors are generally asymmetric, not symmetric. For example, the symbols corresponding to

Haruhiko Kaneko; Eiji Fujiwara

2004-01-01

483

A Symbol Grounding Model for Semantic Interpretation of 2-D Line Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representing symbol grounding is a recurrent subject of discussion in knowledge-based vision systems. The emph{symbol grounding problem} refers to the issue of connecting symbols of a symbol system to their low-level projections within perceptual input. In this paper, we present our ongoing efforts in formalizing an ontologically-founded, domain-independent visual knowledge model that allows one to represent the grounding relation between

Sandro Rama Fiorini; Mara Abel; Claiton M. S. Scherer

2010-01-01

484

Knowledge Refinement of an Expert System Using a Symbolic-Connectionist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we have shown how to solve a real connectionist learning problem with a symbolic interpretation for the refinement of scoring systems and risk evaluation systems. This is a significant issue not easily manageable by classical symbolic methods [1] that are specially oriented to static domains. This has lead us to implement a symbolic-connectionist approach which combines the

José Santos Reyes; David Lorenzo; Silvia Gómez Pose; J. Heras; Ramón P. Otero

1997-01-01

485

An Algorithm to Generate an Optimally Human-Separable Symbol Set.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm which could produce from a given symbol set a new symbol set that would be optimally separable by human subjects. A symbol change algorithm was developed based on the Fourier transform model of the hum...

J. A. Johnson

1976-01-01

486

40 CFR 1066.705 - Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units...Other Reference Material § 1066.705 Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units...This section summarizes the way we use symbols, units of measure, and other...

2013-07-01

487

Computer generation of symbolic network functions-A new theory and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for obtaining network functions in which some, none, or all of the network elements are represented by symbolic parameters (i.e., symbolic network functions). Unlike the topological tree enumeration or signal flow graph methods generally used to derive symbolic network functions, this new process uses fast, efficient, numerical-type algorithms to determine the contribution of those network

GARY E. ALDERSON; P. M. LIN

1973-01-01

488

A new clustering method for large symbolic data sets based on Kohonen maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic data analysis (Bock and Diday (2000)) is concerned with the extension of classical data analysis and statistical methods to more complex data called symbolic data. In this paper we're interested in a new strategy (Baune (2006)) for clustering large symbolic quantitative data sets, based on two steps. The goal of the first step of the procedure is to reduce

Joffray Baune; Andre Hardy

489

Open logic computation on self-referential symbols with application to environmental complexity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computation scheme is presented for simulating interactive perception process. The scheme projects a fixed set of formal proposition onto object codes. Through iterations of projection, the scheme generates a network of self-referential symbols as a representation of context. In the symbol network, indicatable symbols are detected to estimate process complexity. A parallel distributed version of the scheme is implemented

Kohji Kamejima

1995-01-01

490

Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

2013-01-01

491

Asymptotic analysis of blind cyclic correlation-based symbol-rate estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of blind symbol rate estimation of signals linearly modulated by a sequence of unknown symbols. Oversampling the received signal generates cyclostationary statistics that are exploited to devise symbol-rate estimators by maximizing in the cyclic domain a (possibly weighted) sum of modulus squares of cyclic correlation estimates. Although quite natural, the asymptotic (large sample) performance of

Philippe Ciblat; Philippe Loubaton; Erchin Serpedin; Georgios B. Giannakis

2002-01-01

492

SAPEC-a personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of electric circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of lumped, linear, time-invariant networks is presented. The program, written in Microsoft Lisp, utilizes methods of symbolic manipulation of algebraic expressions. The proposed approach is based on modified nodal analysis and an algorithm developed by the authors for the completely symbolic solution of the related linear systems. A useful property of the

A. Liberatore; S. Manetti

1988-01-01

493

Emergence of symbolic behavior from brain like memory with dynamic attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no

Takashi Omori; Akiko Mochizuki; Kentaro Mizutani; M. Nishizaki

1999-01-01

494

Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…

Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

2006-01-01

495

Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language: Toward a dynamic psycholinguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed

Joanna R?czaszek-Leonardi; J. A. Scott Kelso

2008-01-01

496

Applying symbolic formula manipulation to the problem of non-linear least squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbolic formulation manipulation is a computer technique for ; manipulation of equations while still in symbolic form. For example, a symbolic ; formula manipulator is capable of differentiating X² to obtain 2X. This ; technique has been applied to the nonlinear least-squares problem, and the ; resulting computer program is discussed. The fitting function is entered as ; data and

J. R. Wolberg; J. Isenberg

1973-01-01

497

Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, it is common to put the condition of "safety" around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, "Safety for whom?" A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on…

Leonardo, Zeus; Porter, Ronald K.

2010-01-01

498

Same to Us, Different to Them: Numeric Computation versus Symbolic Representation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data from nearly 900 students was used to measure differences in performance on numeric and symbolic questions. Symbolic versions of two numeric kinematics questions were created by replacing numeric values with symbolic variables. The mean score on one of the numeric questions was 50% higher than the analogous symbolic question. An analysis of the written work revealed that the primary identifiable error when working on the symbolic problems was a confusion of the meaning of the variables. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible theoretical explanations and plans for future follow-up studies.

Torigoe, Eugene; Gladding, Gary

2007-11-25

499

Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.  

PubMed

We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

2012-05-01

500

Joint Pulse and Symbol Level Acquisition of UWB Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronization is a key issue for ultra-wideband (UWB) radios. Most UWB receivers require a sub-nanosecond level synchronization accuracy for pulse detection, usually leading to a very long acquisition time. In this paper, we propose a novel acquisition algorithm for UWB receivers, which jointly achieves pulse acquisition (PA) and symbol timing in a short time. Novel and practical error-resistant approaches are

Ning He; Cihan Tepedelenlioglu

2008-01-01