Sample records for symbols safety

  1. Radiation Symbols

    MedlinePLUS

    Radiation Protection Basics Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Symbols Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation Protection Radiation Warning Symbols Radiation Warning Sign Gallery ...

  2. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

  3. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  4. Material Symbols 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Andy

    2006-01-01

    What is the relation between the material, conventional symbol structures that we encounter in the spoken and written word, and human thought? A common assumption, that structures a wide variety of otherwise competing views, is that the way in which...

  5. Sixty Symbols

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ever wondered about the symbols used by scientists? You're probably not alone, and this website created by a team at the University of Nottingham demystifies sixty prominent physics symbols via informative video segments. The videos are not necessarily meant to be lessons or lectures on the symbols, "The films are just fun chats with men and women who live their subject and know a lot about it!" The videos are quite fun, and the talk on "gamma" includes a discussion of cricket balls, while the "rho" video features paperclips in coffee cups. All of the videos can be accessed via the homepage, and visitors should plan on making several visits to check out all of the clips. At the bottom of the homepage, visitors can also view earlier videos created as part of the project, learn more about their scientists, and take a look at a list of other related sites.

  6. Patriotic Symbols

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J. Anderson

    2007-02-09

    Children can click on a number of national symbols to get visual familiarity with them. Students who can read will be challenged with a limited amount of text. Children can x-out pictures on a worksheet to show they found each symbol. X-out the pictures on your worksheet as you find them on the computer. 1.Ben s Flag 2.Ben s St. of Lib 3.Ben s White House 4.Ben s Liberty Bell k-2 5.Ben s Independence Hall k-2 6.Bald Eagle k-2 7.Photo of Washington Monument 8. Photo-Back of White House 9. Photo of White House 10.Mt. Rushmore 11.Arlington Nat. Cemetary 12.Jefferson Memorial Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt, Lincoln: Some presidents of our country. 14.Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers 15.Color Ben s Flag ...

  7. Symbolicity Among Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, L. Brooks; Lujan, Philip

    Within the framework of "symbolicity" and "nativistic movement" the paper presents a "reasonably balanced and illustrative" examination of selected negative and positive trends in Native American symbolicity. Symbolicity is defined as the state, condition, and tendency of people to organize their perceptions and experience into symbols and symbol…

  8. Fuzzy symbolic sensors Fuzzy symbolic sensors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fuzzy symbolic sensors 1 Fuzzy symbolic sensors from concept to applications Gilles Mauris, Eric the behaviour of the process, contrary to numerical information, that provides a fine quanti- Mauris G., Benoit

  9. Symbolics architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    What is an architecture. In computer systems, an architecture is a specification of an interface. To be dignified by the name architecture, an interface should be designed for a long lifespan and should connect system components maintained by different organizations. Often an architecture is part of a product definition and defines characteristics on which purchasers of that product rely, but this is not true of everything that is called an architecture. An architecture is more formal than an internal interface between closely-related system components, and has farther-reaching effects on system characteristics and performance. A computer system typically contains many levels and types of architecture. This article discusses three architectures defined in Symbolics computers: (1) System architecture - defines how the system appears to end users and application programmers, including the characteristics of languages, user interface, and operating system. (2) Instruction architecture - defines the instruction set of the machine, the types of data that can be manipulated by those instructions, and the environment in which the instructions operate, for example subroutine calling discipline, virtual memory management, interrupts and exception traps, etc. This is an interface between the compilers and the hardware. (3) Processor architecture - defines the overall structure of the implementation of the instruction architecture. This is an interface between the firmware and the hardware, and is also an interface between the parts of the processor hardware.

  10. Discrete Symbol Calculus

    E-print Network

    Demanet, Laurent

    This paper deals with efficient numerical representation and manipulation of differential and integral operators as symbols in phase-space, i.e., functions of space $x$ and frequency $\\xi$. The symbol smoothness conditions ...

  11. Symbolic Tree Transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margus Veanes; Nikolaj Bjorner

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic transducers are useful in the context of web security as they form the foundation for sanitization of potentially malicious data. We define Symbolic Tree Transducers as a generalization of Regular Transducers as finite state input-output tree automata with logical constraints over a parametric background theory. We examine key closure properties of Symbolic Tree Transducers and we develop a composition

  12. Extending to Symbols

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary Martin

    2000-01-01

    As students begin to use symbolic representations, they use variables as unknowns. To help their concept of symbolic representation to grow, they need to explore questions such as: What is an identity? and When are two symbolic representations equal? This activity engages students in work with an online algebraic balance. Questions as well as ideas for class discussion are included in the lesson plan.

  13. Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

  14. Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

  15. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  16. The Symbolic Identity Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goud, Nelson H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.…

  17. Your Health and Safety Boston University

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Frank

    Biohazard Symbol Indicates use of a laser Radiation Symbol Environmental Health and Safety #12;BostonYour Health and Safety at Boston University 704 Commonwealth Ave. 617-353-4094 New Employee Environmental Health & Safety Webpage Environmental Health and Safety 9/26/2012 www.bu.edu/ehs Campus & Clinical

  18. Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols, and Notation Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols, and Notation

    E-print Network

    on the Effects of Atomic Radiation #12;A.4 A.2.0 List of Symbols for the Elements and Corresponding Names Symbol Element Symbol Element Symbol Element Ac Actinium Ag Silver Al Aluminum Am Americium Ar Argon As Arsenic Copper Dy Dysprosium Er Erbium Es Einsteinium Eu Europium F Fluorine Fe Iron Fm Fermium Fr Francium Ga

  19. Symbolism in the Feature Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakony, Edward

    A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

  20. Sound Symbolism and Synaesthesia 

    E-print Network

    Bankieris, Kaitlyn

    2011-11-20

    Sound symbolism is the phenomenon of cross-modal correspondences non-arbitrarily linking phonological components and semantic meanings in language (e.g., words meaning round contain a high proportion of rounded vowels such as /u/; Mathur, 2010). Our...

  1. Memoized Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

  2. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  3. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  4. Symbolic Dynamic Programming Scott Sanner

    E-print Network

    Sanner, Scott

    Symbolic Dynamic Programming Scott Sanner Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto Street, Cambridge, MA, 02139-4307, USA Synonyms Relational Dynamic Programming, Dynamic Programming for Relational Domains, Relational Value Iteration Definition Symbolic dynamic programming is a generalization

  5. Symbolic Dynamic Programming Scott Sanner

    E-print Network

    Kersting, Kristian

    Symbolic Dynamic Programming Scott Sanner NICTA, Statistical Machine Learning Group, Canberra Relational Dynamic Programming, Dynamic Programming for Relational Domains, Relational Value Iteration Definition Symbolic dynamic programming is a generalization of the dynamic program- ming technique

  6. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  7. Topographic Map Symbols

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Slaymaker

    Topographic map examples illustrate symbols commonly used on maps for cultural and natural features, such as boundaries, buildings, caves and mines, coastal features, contour lines and elevations, dams, railroads, rivers, trails, bogs, pipelines, vegetation types, surficial material, and modifications for navigation. Each item links to a map that is enlarged and clearly marked for easy identification.

  8. ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Boyle, Mike

    on SFT's, the Kim­Roush­Wagoner Factorization Theorem, and the Kim­Roush counterex­ amples to Williams introduction to the symbolic dynamics around SFT's, see the very fine introduction [LM] D. Lind and B. Marcus characterization 3.5 Applications 4. SFT­like subshifts 4.1 Sofic shifts 4.2 Specification 4.3 Synchronized systems

  9. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  10. The Origins of Symbolic Racism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David O. Sears; P. J. Henry

    2003-01-01

    The theory of symbolic racism places its origins in a blend of anti-Black affect and conservative values, particularly individualism. We clarify that hypothesis, test it directly, and report several findings consistent with it. Study 1 shows that racial prejudice and general political conservatism fall into 2 separate factors, with symbolic racism loading about equally on both. Study 2 found that

  11. Fostering Symbolic Interpretation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan; Wells-Jopling, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although by 11 years children demonstrate impressive performance on various tasks that assess symbolic thinking in language development, research suggests that few young adolescents demonstrate evidence of symbolic processing when reading literature. This study investigated whether the difficulty might be due to a lack of adequate exposure to…

  12. Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

  13. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax. PMID:17101209

  14. Shanahan on symbolization.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago. PMID:18293048

  15. [Plastic image and symbolization].

    PubMed

    Loschi, J A

    1979-03-01

    This paper deals with the ontogenesis of the plastic image in its different pxychobiological aspects, in the background of the symbolization process. A reference is made to the maturing of perceptive processes, including the developments of Spitz, Wallon, Melanie Klein and Fontana. The analysis of the neurophysiological correlations of the image formation process is followed by a study of the functional role of the image in psychic dynamics, its genetic relationship with sensation and speech, its role in the communication functions, in the structuring of the relationship between the internal and the external world. The symbolizing faculty of the image is shown in the fact that it connects the body, the emotions and the sensations with the objects visually perceived, and makes up a unit with all that. According with the principle of genetic continuity, the effect of disturbances in the image formation process on speech is studied, and the way this is reflected in the forms of connexion and in the characteristic discourse of the different psychopathological structures. The image as a confluence of corporal and affective sensations constitutes a basic support in the projective identification process and in the problems of fusion-differentiation with the object as something external, the predominance of the image or of that which is perceived. The items in this paper offer a detailed description of the earliest stages of development, and is completed with references to aspects in the history of man and of culture where an evidence can be found of the role of the image insofar it reflects a certain orden in human dimensions in time and space. PMID:94970

  16. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  17. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  18. Symbols: Weapons of Math Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torigoe, Eugene; Gladding, Gary

    2007-11-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing investigation of how students use and understand mathematics in introductory physics. Our previous research [1] revealed that differences in score as large as 50% can be observed between numeric and symbolic versions of the same question. We have expanded our study of numeric and symbolic differences to include 10 pairs of questions on a calculus based introductory physics final exam. We find that not all physics problems exhibit such large differences and that in the cases where a large difference is observed that the largest difference occurs for the poorest students. With these 10 questions we have been able to develop phenomenological categories to characterize the properties of each of the questions. We will discuss what question properties are necessary to observe differences in score on the numeric and symbolic versions. We will also discuss what insights these categories give us about how students think about and use symbols in physics.

  19. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  20. Symbolization and the good object.

    PubMed

    Waska, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Some patients struggle with the acceptance of, connection to, or identification with a good object who provides a containment-symbolization function. This is manifested as a standoff, a resistance, and a denial of the good object and, therefore, of the symbolization process that is part of healthy development. This is usually due to troubled family histories and a destructive projective identification process. The ego defensively blocks acknowledgment of any symbolizing capacity within the self and within the maternal object out of envy, fear of rejection, and dread of persecution. Destruction of symbolization and the experience of goodness within the self or in the object provides an artificial respite from the threat of annihilation, yet quickly brings on even greater levels of internal chaos and anxiety. Case material is used to illustrate these points. PMID:15899757

  1. Evolution with material symbol systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Mateus Rocha

    2001-01-01

    Pattee's semantic closure principle is used to study the characteristics and requirements of evolving material symbols systems. By contrasting agents that reproduce via genetic variation with agents that reproduce via self-inspection, we reach the conclusion that symbols are necessary to attain open-ended evolution, but only if the phenotypes of agents are the result of a material, self-organization process. This way,

  2. Early Numerical Development and the Role of Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    For learning math, non-symbolic quantity skills, symbolic skills and the mapping between number symbols and non-symbolic quantities are all important precursors. Little is known, however, about the interrelated development of these skills. The current study focuses on numerical development by: (a) investigating the structure of non-symbolic

  3. Hand Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing ...

  4. On symbolic analysis of cryptographic protocols

    E-print Network

    Patil, Akshay (Akshay R.)

    2005-01-01

    The universally composable symbolic analysis (UCSA) framework layers Dolev-Yao style symbolic analysis on top of the universally composable (UC) secure framework to construct computationally sound proofs of cryptographic ...

  5. Basic MAPLE Reference Basic syntax and symbols

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    1 Basic MAPLE Reference Basic syntax and symbols := Assigns a name to a string of symbols a:=3*x " ;"? `;' unexpected Syntax error, such as unbalanced parenthesis. MAPLE was expecting more input. Help Click on Help

  6. Basic Symbols Used in Engineering Drawings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sokolowski, Glenn

    Learners examine the drawing symbols used for counterbore, countersink, spotface, radius, diameter, and depth. In the quiz that completes the activity, they associate these symbols with machining applications. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students

  7. Evolution of symbolic communication : an embodied perspective 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Jessica Erin

    2012-11-28

    This thesis investigates the emergence in human evolution of communication through symbols, or conventional, arbitrary signs. Previous work has argued that symbolic speech was preceded by communication through nonarbitrary ...

  8. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  9. Students' Symbolization Processes in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosnick, Peter

    The focus of this document is on students' understanding of symbolization processes in algebra, and specifically their understanding of semantically laden letters. In the first four sections, four inappropriate ways in which many college students use semantically laden letters are described. Evidence from clinical interview protocols demonstrate…

  10. Symbolic Power, Robotting, and Surveilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical…

  11. Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    Draft Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks Rudy Setiono and Huan Liu Department,liuhg@iscs.nus.sg Abstract Although backpropagation neural networks generally predict better than decision trees do is needed by human experts. This work drives a sym­ bolic representation for neural networks to make

  12. Measuring correlations in symbol sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanspeter Herzel; Ivo Große

    1995-01-01

    The paper is devoted to relations between correlation functions and mutual information. It is shown that, in sequences over an alphabet of ? symbols, statistical dependences are measured by (? ? 1)2 independent parameters. However, not all of them can be determined by autocorrelation functions. Appropriate sets of correlation functions (including crosscorrelations) are introduced, which allow the detection of all

  13. Size–sound symbolism revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuven Tsur

    2006-01-01

    Why do we perceive bass voices as “thick”? Owing to a “mediated association” with “thick people and animals [who] are usually loud and resonant”, or owing to some “subtle inter-sensory quality” found in thick things and bass voices? The present paper rejects the former possibility and endorses the latter. As to speech-sound symbolism, I account for it with reference to

  14. Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

  15. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  16. Testing Android Apps Through Symbolic Execution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nariman Mirzaei; Sam Malek; Corina S. P?s?reanu; Naeem Esfahani

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for automated testing techniques aimed at Android apps. A critical challenge is the systematic generation of test cases. One method of systematically generating test cases for Java programs is symbolic execution. But applying symbolic execution tools, such as Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF), to generate test cases for Android apps is challenged by the fact that Android

  17. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 ...Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3012 Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan,...

  1. Symbol Systems Michael L. Anderson1

    E-print Network

    Perlis, Don

    A symbol is a pattern (of physical marks, electromagnetic energy, etc.) which denotes, designates, and that humans are therefore symbol systems, has been extremely in uential in arti cial intelligence. keywords with a presentation and discussion of the idea of a physical symbol system (PSS), as formulated by Newell and Simon

  2. Automating symbolic analysis with CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Keith E.

    1990-01-01

    Symbolic Analysis is a methodology first applied as an aid in selecting and generating test cases for 'white box' type testing of computer software programs. The feasibility of automating this analysis process has recently been demonstrated through the development of a CLIPS-based prototype tool. Symbolic analysis is based on separating the logic flow diagram of a computer program into its basic elements, and then systematically examining those elements and their relationships to provide a detailed static analysis of the process that those diagrams represent. The basic logic flow diagram elements are flow structure (connections), predicates (decisions), and computations (actions). The symbolic analysis approach supplies a disciplined step-by-step process to identify all executable program paths and produce a truth table that defines the input and output domains for each path identified. The resulting truth table is the tool that allows software test cases to be generated in a comprehensive manner to achieve total program path, input domain, and output domain coverage. Since the manual application of symbolic analysis is extremely labor intensive and is itself error prone, automation of the process is highly desirable. Earlier attempts at automation, utilizing conventional software approaches, had only limited success. This paper briefly describes the automation problems, the symbolic analysis expert's problem solving heuristics, and the implementation of those heuristics as a CLIPS based prototype, and the manual augmentation required. A simple application example is also provided for illustration purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of implementation experiences, automation limitations, usage experiences, and future development suggestions.

  3. Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1990-01-01

    A differential detection technique for MPSK (multiple-phase shift keying), which uses a multiple-symbol observation interval, is presented, and its performance is analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. Thus, the performance of this multiple-symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases M and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded MPSK.

  4. Symbolic Execution Enhanced System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Misty D.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Raman, Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    We describe a testing technique that uses information computed by symbolic execution of a program unit to guide the generation of inputs to the system containing the unit, in such a way that the unit's, and hence the system's, coverage is increased. The symbolic execution computes unit constraints at run-time, along program paths obtained by system simulations. We use machine learning techniques treatment learning and function fitting to approximate the system input constraints that will lead to the satisfaction of the unit constraints. Execution of system input predictions either uncovers new code regions in the unit under analysis or provides information that can be used to improve the approximation. We have implemented the technique and we have demonstrated its effectiveness on several examples, including one from the aerospace domain.

  5. Selforganization of Symbols and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Werner; Feistel, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    Following the spirit of the late John Nicolis, the purpose of this paper is to develop an evolutionary approach for the basic problem of generation, storage and dissipation of information in physical and biological systems via dynamical processes. After analysing the relation of entropy and information we develop our view that information is in general a nonphysical, emergent quantity, in spite of the fact that information transfer is always connected with flows of physical energy and entropy. We argue that information can have two basic forms: free information (like that of disks, tapes, books), that is what is transferred between sender and receiver, and bound information, that is a physical non-equilibrium structure which retains potential information reflecting the history of its formation (like fossils, geological strata or galaxies). As a basic concept we consider a kinetic phase transition of the second kind, termed the ritualization transition, which leads to the self-organized emergence of symbols, the key elements of free information. Ritualization occurs only in the context of life. Hence, the simplest physical example for a ritualization process is a system that starts as a physical and ends as a biological one, in other words, the origin of life. Our interest in this transition is focussed on the self-organization of information, on the way how a physical system can be enabled to create symbols and the related symbol-processing machinery out of ordinary pre-biological roots.

  6. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols

    PubMed Central

    Schijvenaars, Bob JA; Mons, Barend; Weeber, Marc; Schuemie, Martijn J; van Mulligen, Erik M; Wain, Hester M; Kors, Jan A

    2005-01-01

    Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols), not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications. PMID:15958172

  7. Symbolic computation in system simulation and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Brian L.; Gu, Steve X.; Kalavade, Asa; Lee, Edward A.

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines some of the roles that symbolic computation plays in assisting system- level simulation and design. By symbolic computation, we mean programs like Mathematica that perform symbolic algebra and apply transformation rules based on algebraic identities. At a behavioral level, symbolic computation can compute parameters, generate new models, and optimize parameter settings. At the synthesis level, symbolic computation can work in tandem with synthesis tools to rewrite cascade and parallel combinations on components in sub- systems to meet design constraints. Symbolic computation represents one type of tool that may be invoked in the complex flow of the system design process. The paper discusses the qualities that a formal infrastructure for managing system design should have. The paper also describes an implementation of this infrastructure called DesignMaker, implemented in the Ptolemy environment, which manages the flow of tool invocations in an efficient manner using a graphical file dependency mechanism.

  8. Drug Saf . Author manuscript Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Drug Saf . Author manuscript Page /1 5 Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical.fainzang@orange.fr > Abstract Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view

  9. Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

  10. Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

  11. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  12. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  13. A human performance evaluation of graphic symbol-design features.

    PubMed

    Samet, M G; Geiselman, R E; Landee, B M

    1982-06-01

    16 subjects learned each of two tactical display symbol sets (conventional symbols and iconic symbols) in turn and were then shown a series of graphic displays containing various symbol configurations. For each display, the subject was asked questions corresponding to different behavioral processes relating to symbol use (identification, search, comparison, pattern recognition). The results indicated that: (a) conventional symbols yielded faster pattern-recognition performance than iconic symbols, and iconic symbols did not yield faster identification than conventional symbols, and (b) the portrayal of additional feature information (through the use of perimeter density or vector projection coding) slowed processing of the core symbol information in four tasks, but certain symbol-design features created less perceptual interference and had greater correspondence with the portrayal of specific tactical concepts than others. The results were discussed in terms of the complexities involved in the selection of symbol design features for use in graphic tactical displays. PMID:6180374

  14. Decoding the Symbols in The Color Purple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenhua Lv

    This paper mainly analyzes and decodes the symbols in The Color Purple from the feminist point of view. Decoding the symbols enables us to have a more profound understanding of the feminine thoughts Alice Walker put into the novel and the theme of the novel.

  15. THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAFFAL, JULIUS

    A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

  16. Grounded Symbolic Communication between Heterogeneous Cooperating Robots

    E-print Network

    Grounded Symbolic Communication between Heterogeneous Cooperating Robots DAVID JUNG Center of a heterogeneous cooperative multi-robot system that was designed with a goal of engineering a grounded symbolic representation in a bottom-up fashion. The system comprises two autonomous mobile robots that perform cooperative

  17. Native American Symbolism in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Barbra L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines how a discipline-based approach to multicultural art augments multicultural education. Focuses on Native American arts. Illustrates how symbols, colors, natural materials, and methods differ among tribes. Suggests teaching activities, including focusing on a particular artist to raise specific questions about specific symbols. Profiles…

  18. Symbolic Domain Decomposition Jacques Carette1

    E-print Network

    Watt, Stephen M.

    by cases, or different boundary conditions may hold on different regions. For any particular problem the domain can be given explicitly, but when dealing with a family of problems given in terms of symbolic parts. Moreover, the demarcation of the parts may be defined symbolically. This paper explores how

  19. Function Symbols in ASP: Overview and Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Faber, Wolfgang

    Function Symbols in ASP: Overview and Perspectives Mario Alviano Francesco Calimeri Wolfgang Faber (ASP) is a highly expressive language that is widely used for knowledge representation and reasoning Intelligence. Tradition- ally, ASP has often been used as a first-order language without function symbols

  20. ON A GRAVE SYMBOL FROM NORTHWEST BELARUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Prokhorov

    The article focuses on an interpretation of a funeral symbol found on the gravestones in Northwest Belarus - an engraved image of a pole with a semicircle at its top. The gravestones are connected to the archaeological cul- ture of stone tombs of Yotvingian origin. Possibly, this symbol has been given a wider perspective in the world of late paganism

  1. Automatically Generating Malicious Disks using Symbolic Execution

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    -cc (based on CIL) Insert checks around every expression: if operands all concrete, run as normal. Otherwise execution: don't run everything symbolically Example: x = y+z; if y, z both concrete, run_symbolic) and derived Result: most code runs concretely, small s

  2. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  3. Symbolic pointer analysis for detecting memory leaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Scholz; Johann Blieberger; Thomas Fahringer

    1999-01-01

    It is well accepted that pointers are a common source of memory anomalies such as loosing references to dynamic records without deallocating them (also known as memory leaks). This paper presents a novel pointer analysis framework that detects memory leaks by statically analyzing the behavior of programs.Our approach is based on symbolic evaluation of programs. Symbolic evaluation is an advanced

  4. Symbolic control of networked embedded systems

    E-print Network

    Pola, Giordano

    Symbolic control of networked embedded systems Giordano Pola University of L'Aquila, Italy Center/ Verification Design of embedded systems today #12;Approach based on a three phases process: 1. Construct techniques to address complex logic specifications Correct-by-design embedded control software Symbolic

  5. Play and the Acquisition of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.

    This paper examines the interrelationship between children's acquisition and use of symbols and the development of imaginative play. The paper focuses on the use of pretend play as an expression of the child's capacity for symbolic functioning and as an index of intellectual development. The first section of the paper reviews developmental changes…

  6. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...

  8. Verifying pipelined hardware using symbolic logic simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumitra Bose; A. L. Fisher

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for automated verification of synchronous pipelined circuits, based on symbolic simulation and the well-known program verification concept of representation functions. The use of representation functions to allow straightforward formulation of readable and intuitive specifications is demonstrated, along with the use of a symbolic switch-level simulator to automatically prove that a circuit meets its specification. As an

  9. Conceptions of Racial Prejudice: Symbolic Racism Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Russell H.; Howes, Paul W.

    1985-01-01

    Reports that the conceptual and empirical distinctions between symbolic racism and "old fashioned" prejudice have been exaggerated. Symbolic racism may be best understood as one symptom of generalized tendencies to derogate outgroups' tendencies associated with personal attributes that reflect commitments to conservative sociopolitical values and…

  10. Deficient symbol processing in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Toepper, Max; Steuwe, Carolin; Beblo, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Boedeker, Sebastian; Thomas, Christine; Markowitsch, Hans J; Driessen, Martin; Sammer, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 matched healthy controls performed a symbol processing task (SPT) with 4 different item categories. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was run to identify impact of different item categories on performance accuracy in both the experimental groups. Moreover, SPT scores were correlated with neuropsychological test scores in a broad range of other cognitive domains. Finally, diagnostic accuracy of the SPT was calculated by a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Results revealed a global symbol processing dysfunction in AD that was associated with semantic memory and executive deficits. Moreover, AD patients showed a disproportional performance decline at SPT items with visual distraction. Finally, the SPT total score showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between AD patients and healthy controls. The present findings suggest that specific symbol features impede symbol processing in AD and argue for a diagnostic benefit of the SPT in neuropsychological assessment. PMID:24614273

  11. Banking (on) Different Forms of Symbolic Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Blaise; Shaw, Debora

    2002-01-01

    Successful symbolic capital formation in academia is commonly signified by the trappings of scholarly distinction or acknowledged status as a public intellectual. Compares three potential indices of symbolic capital: citation counts, Web hits, and media mentions. Findings, which are domain specific, suggest public intellectuals are notable by…

  12. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  13. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]? bound.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]? error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]?-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]?-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ? error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]?-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]? error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]? metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]? error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates. PMID:24144660

  14. Application of traditional culture symbol in modern product design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Zhi-jun; Na Cheng-ai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for modern product design by applying traditional cultural symbol to fit the cultural meanings of new products and complexity of people' life style. Based on the elements of semiotics and Peirce's symbol system theory, the studies analyze the essence of traditional culture symbol and composing of product symbol and

  15. Intrinsic representation : bootstrapping symbols from experience

    E-print Network

    Larson, Stephen David, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    If we are to understand human-level intelligence, we need to understand how meanings can be learned without explicit instruction. I take a step toward that understanding by focusing on the symbol-grounding problem, showing ...

  16. Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

  17. Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers #

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers # RISC­Linz Johannes Kepler Universit Ë? at A­4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uni­linz.ac.at Carsten Schneider # RISC­Linz Johannes Kepler

  18. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols...Restoration Act and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on...

  19. Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Sergio Cabello

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    ;Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps 3 temperature at weather stations. One distin- guishes between for Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, Ljubljana, Slovenia. sergio.cabello@fmf.uni-lj.si 2 Department in the most effective w

  20. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  1. Determining Points on Handwritten Mathematical Symbols

    E-print Network

    Watt, Stephen M.

    , such as improving two-dimensional mathematical recognition and in handwriting neatening, while preserving the original style. Keywords: Handwriting analysis, Handwriting neatening, Mathemati- cal handwriting location can vary in different handwriting samples of the same symbol. For example, the baseline

  2. Physical Concepts and Mathematical Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelland, Hans Herlof

    2007-12-01

    According to traditional empiricist philosophy of science, concepts and meaning grow out of sense experience, and the mathematical structure of a physical theory is nothing but a formalisation of a given meaning-content. This view seems to work well in classical mechanics. But it breaks down in quantum physics, where we have a self-supported mathematical structure which resists any conceptual or pictorial interpretation in the traditional sense. Thus, traditional empiricism is flawed. Quantum physics teaches us that mathematics is a language in itself which extends beyond ordinary language. To understand the meaning of this extended language, we have to explore how new concepts and intuitions grow out of mathematics, not the other way around. The symbolic structure is prior to its meaning. This point of view is called linguistic empiricism, to stress that the connection with experience is still crucial. As cases, I compare the concept of stiffness in classical mechanics and the concept of electron density in quantum mechanics. The last case demonstrates that the wave function has a richer interpretation than the probabilistic one concerning measurement of position.

  3. Grounded Symbolic Communication between Heterogeneous Cooperating Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jung; Alexander Zelinsky

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of a heterogeneous cooperative multi-robot system that was designed with a goal of engineering a grounded symbolic representation in a bottom-up fashion. The system comprises two autonomous mobile robots that perform cooperative cleaning. Experiments demonstrate successful purposive navigation, map building and the symbolic communication of locations in a behavior-based system. We also examine

  4. Symbolic model checking with rich assertional languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonit Kesten; Oded Maler; Monica Marcus; Amir Pnueli; Elad Shahar

    2001-01-01

    . The paper shows that, by an appropriate choice of a rich assertionallanguage, it is possible to extend the utility of symbolic modelchecking beyond the realm of bdd-represented finite-state systems into thedomain of infinite-state systems, leading to a powerful technique for uniformverification of unbounded (parameterized) process networks.The main contributions of the paper are a formulation of a general frameworkfor symbolic

  5. Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Amlan; Hu, Qian; Boykin, Stanley; Clark, Cheryl; Fish, Randy; Jones, Stephen; Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet PC's handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet PC's symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this new symbol recognition module is robust and expandable, we report results on both a medical symbol set and an expanded symbol test set which includes selected mathematical symbols.

  6. IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 12/8/2010 p 1/1 IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 6/10/2010 p 1/1

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 12/8/2010 p 1/1 IGS Petroleum Well Symbols--Explanation 6/10/2010 p 1/1 The following symbols include all of the primary Petroleum Well Symbols used by the Indiana of the Petroleum Symbol Set. Trenton well; only available information is an uncertain location Symbol Modifiers

  7. 2558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 1999 Symbol-by-Symbol APP Decoding of the Golay Code and

    E-print Network

    Ping, Li

    2558 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 7, NOVEMBER 1999 Symbol-by-Symbol APP, and Kwan L. Yeung, Member, IEEE Abstract-- An efficient coset based symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP decoding, turbo codes, turbo decoding. I. INTRODUCTION The symbol-by-symbol soft-in/soft-out APP (a

  8. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  9. Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    1997-12-31

    Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.

  10. Symbolic-numeric interface: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

  11. The Impact of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantity on Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    McCrink, Koleen; Galamba, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An implicit mapping of number to space via a “mental number line” occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers) and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left) on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number—especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high—and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner. PMID:25748826

  12. Symbolic comparisons of objects on color attributes.

    PubMed

    Paivio, A; te Linde, J

    1980-11-01

    Symbolic comparisons of object brightness and color were investigated in two experiments using words and outline drawings as stimuli. Both experiments yielded orderly symbolic distance effects. Contrary to prediction, no reliable picture advantages emerged. For color comparison, individual differences in word fluency and color memory predicted decision time with word stimuli. These results contrast sharply with those of previous comparison studies involving concrete dimensions. The results are discussed in terms of dual-coding theory and the role of verbal mechanisms in memory for object color. PMID:6160194

  13. Online Tester for a Symbol Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, D.; Mcconaugy, K.

    1985-01-01

    About 95 percent of faults detected. Programable instrument periodically checks for failures in system that generates alphanumerical and other symbol voltages for cathode-ray-tube displays. Symbol-generator tester compares gated test-point voltages with predetermined voltage limits while circuit under test performs commanded operation. A go/no-go indication given, depending on whether test voltage is or is not within its specification. Tester in plug-in modular form, temporarily wired to generator test points, or permanently wired to these points.

  14. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    E-print Network

    Gregory M. Smith

    2000-06-28

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  15. Asymptotics and 6j-symbols

    E-print Network

    Justin Roberts

    2002-10-15

    Recent interest in the Kashaev-Murakami-Murakami hyperbolic volume conjecture has made it seem important to be able to understand the asymptotic behaviour of certain special functions arising from representation theory -- for example, of the quantum 6j-symbols for SU(2). In 1998 I worked out the asymptotic behaviour of the classical 6j-symbols, proving a formula involving the geometry of a Euclidean tetrahedron which was conjectured by Ponzano and Regge in 1968. In this note I will try to explain the methods and philosophy behind this calculation, and speculate on how similar techniques might be useful in studying the quantum case.

  16. Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

  17. Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz-Unification for Unranked Terms and Hedges Temur Kutsia Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC) Johannes Kepler

  18. A Framework for Connecting Natural Language and Symbol Sense ...

    E-print Network

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09

    Luciana C. de Oliveira, Teachers College, Columbia University. Abstract ... developing strong symbol sense and connecting meaning of symbols to meanings .... moment before continuing and solve this problem on their own, thinking carefully ...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  2. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  3. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...LOCOMOTIVES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1033.905 Symbols, acronyms, and...

  4. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  5. From Prehistoric to Postmodern Symbolic Model Checking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Henzinger; Orna Kupferman; Shaz Qadeer

    1998-01-01

    Symbolic model checking, which enables the automatic verification of large sys- tems, proceeds by calculating with expressions that represent state sets. Traditionally, sym- bolic model-checking tools are based on backward state traversal; their basic operation is the function , which given a set of states, returns the set of all predecessor states. This is because specifiers usually employ formalisms with

  6. Finding Bad States during Symbolic Supervisor Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto M. Ziller

    This paper is about supervisor synthesis, a central issue in solving control problems within the Ramadge-Wonham framework for Discrete Event Systems. As most automata-based methods, this framework is subject to the state explosion problem. The impact of state explosion has been considerably reduced in the area of formal verification through the introduction of symbolic rep- resentation techniques, which can also

  7. MULTILISP: a language for concurrent symbolic computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    Multilisp is a version of the Lisp dialect Scheme extended with constructs for parallel execution. Like Scheme, Multilisp is oriented toward symbolic computation. Unlike some parallel programming languages, Multilisp incorporates constructs for causing side effects and for explicitly introducing parallelism. The potential complexity of dealing with side effects in a parallel context is mitigated by the nature of the parallelism

  8. Mathematics for Chemistry with Symbolic Computation

    E-print Network

    Mathematics for Chemistry with Symbolic Computation J. F. Ogilvie @ 2013 February 8 The software to explain their purposes and effects, but particularly to introduce mathematical concepts and principles and to implement the mathematical operations. These assignments and commands are generally intended to be executed

  9. Embodied cognition, perceptual symbols, and situation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf A. Zwaan

    1999-01-01

    It is difficult to see how current models of discourse comprehension can be “scaled up” to account for the rich situation models that may be constructed during naturalistic language comprehension, as when readers are immersed in the story world. Recent proposals about embodied cognition and perceptual symbols, such as those put forth by Glenberg and Robertson and by Roth might

  10. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13...side or characteristic of the tobacco. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, the combination symbols are XL...cutters, BO—oxidized leaf or smoking leaf, GL—thin-bodied...

  11. Guidelines Regarding Religious Symbols, Decorations and Displays

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    -- except for educational purposes. In some cases a personal space may be a desk in a public space, but we should realize that space as personal space. Religious displays in a public space outside or inside through speech and symbols. However, the First Amendment also prohibits public institutions like state

  12. Mandala Symbolism in the Theology of Bonaventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Ewert

    1971-01-01

    Bonaventure's symbols of the circle, centre, cross, and journey are analyzed from the perspective of the mandala, as it has been explored in the research of C.G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Guiseppe Tucci." Three photographs are included. (Author/SP)

  13. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  14. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob J. A. Schijvenaars; Barend Mons; Marc Weeber; Martijn J. Schuemie; Erik M. Van Mulligen; Hester M. Wain; Jan A. Kors

    2005-01-01

    Background: Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results: We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the

  15. Rethinking secularism: Mute symbols of Islam

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rethinking secularism: Mute symbols of Islam by Nilüfer Göle Each time I cross the Galata bridge, I which divides citizens who position themselves against signs of Islamization from those who would like to mark the social rise of Islam by making a religious imprint on Turkey's public spaces. The split

  16. Relationship between Alternating -Automata and Symbolically Represented

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Finite State Automata on Finite Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 -Automata and Future Work 34 2 #12;1 Motivation Classically, finite state automata on finite [10] and infinite [6 known relationship between alternating automata on finite words and symbolically represented

  17. Symbol error probabilities for general Cooperative links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Ribeiro; Xiaodong Cai; Georgios B. Giannakis

    2005-01-01

    Cooperative Diversity (CD) networks have been receiving a lot of attention recently as a distributed means of improving error performance and capacity. This paper derives the aver- age Symbol Error Probability (SEP) for Amplify and Forward CD links. The resulting expressions are general as they hold for an arbitrary number of cooperating branches, arbitrary num- ber of cooperating hops per

  18. Automatic Symbolic Verification of Embedded Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Alurt; Thomas A. Henzinger; Pei-hsin Ho

    1993-01-01

    We present a model checking procedure and its implementation for the automatic verification of embedded systems. Systems are represented by hybrid automata - machines with finite control and real-valued variables modeling continuous environment parameters such as time, pressure, and temperature. System properties are specified in a real-time temporal logic and verified by symbolic computation. The verification procedure, implemented in Mathematica,

  19. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  20. Symbolic Play in Preschool and Primary Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nourot, Patricia Moninghan; Van Hoorn, Judith L.

    1991-01-01

    A review of research on children's symbolic play discusses ways for teachers to (1) defend the inclusion of play in the curriculum; (2) understand and respect differences in the ways children play; and (3) facilitate play in the classroom. Discusses the complexity of play and the controversy about play as part of the curriculum. (GLR)

  1. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498

  2. An Active Symbols Theory of Chess Intuition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Linhares

    2005-01-01

    The well-known game of chess has traditionally been modeled in artificial intelligence studies by search engines with advanced pruning techniques. The models were thus centered on an inference engine manipulating passive symbols in the form of tokens. It is beyond doubt, however, that human players do not carry out such processes. Instead, chess masters instead carry out perceptual processes, carefully

  3. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...

  13. Adjoints of composition operators with rational symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Christopher; Moorhouse, Jennifer; Robbins, Marian E.

    2008-05-01

    Building on techniques developed by Cowen and Gallardo-Gutiérrez, we find a concrete formula for the adjoint of a composition operator with rational symbol acting on the Hardy space H2. We consider some specific examples, comparing our formula with several results that were previously known.

  14. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...particular side or characteristic of the tobacco. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, the combination symbols are XL—lug side, PO—oxidized primings, XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized leaf or smoking leaf, GL—thin-bodied nondescript,...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...particular side or characteristic of the tobacco. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, the combination symbols are XL—lug side, PO—oxidized primings, XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized leaf or smoking leaf, GL—thin-bodied nondescript,...

  16. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Symbol Class Section of law Immediate Relatives IR1...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended. AM3 Natural Mother of AM1 (and Spouse...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended....

  17. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Symbol Class Section of law Immediate Relatives IR1...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended. AM3 Natural Mother of AM1 (and Spouse...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended....

  18. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Symbol Class Section of law Immediate Relatives IR1...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended. AM3 Natural Mother of AM1 (and Spouse...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended....

  19. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Symbol Class Section of law Immediate Relatives IR1...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended. AM3 Natural Mother of AM1 (and Spouse...in section 101(e) of Public Law 100-102) as amended....

  20. Placing Townies: The Symbolic Work of Naming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger C. Aden; Paul Pearson; Leah Sell

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how students in one college town use the name “townies” to describe some local residents who are not affiliated with the university. Embedded within this name are unspoken connections that link townies (and the students who use the name) to discourses of socioeconomic class. In addition, the naming of particular bodies as townies symbolically works to stretch

  1. Symbolic Model Checking with Rich ssertional Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonit Kesten; Oded Maler; Monica Marcus; Amir Pnueli; Elad Shahar

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The paper shows that by an appropriate choice of a rich as sertional language it is possible to extend the utility of symbolic model checking beyond the realm of bdd represented nite state systems into the domain of in nite state systems leading to a powerful technique for uniform veri cation of unbounded parameterized process networks The main contributions

  2. ENTROPY FOR SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS WITH OVERLAPPING ALPHABETS

    E-print Network

    Wiseman, Jim

    There is a long history of using symbolic dynamics to model more compli- cated dynamical systems. Suppose for an existing dynamical system. Thus we have the following definition. Definition 2. A compact metric space X with overlaps arises as a model for a discrete dynamical system with a finite set of overlapping neighborhoods

  3. Brief non-symbolic, approximate number practice enhances subsequent exact symbolic arithmetic in children

    PubMed Central

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research reveals a link between individual differences in mathematics achievement and performance on tasks that activate the approximate number system (ANS): a primitive cognitive system shared by diverse animal species and by humans of all ages. Here we used a brief experimental paradigm to test one causal hypothesis suggested by this relationship: activation of the ANS may enhance children's performance of symbolic arithmetic. Over 2 experiments, children who briefly practiced tasks that engaged primitive approximate numerical quantities performed better on subsequent exact, symbolic arithmetic problems than did children given other tasks involving comparison and manipulation of non-numerical magnitudes (brightness and length). The practice effect appeared specific to mathematics, as no differences between groups were observed on a comparable sentence completion task. These results move beyond correlational research and provide evidence that the exercise of non-symbolic numerical processes can enhance children's performance of symbolic mathematics. PMID:24462713

  4. Brief non-symbolic, approximate number practice enhances subsequent exact symbolic arithmetic in children.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Daniel C; Khanum, Saeeda; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2014-04-01

    Recent research reveals a link between individual differences in mathematics achievement and performance on tasks that activate the approximate number system (ANS): a primitive cognitive system shared by diverse animal species and by humans of all ages. Here we used a brief experimental paradigm to test one causal hypothesis suggested by this relationship: activation of the ANS may enhance children's performance of symbolic arithmetic. Over 2 experiments, children who briefly practiced tasks that engaged primitive approximate numerical quantities performed better on subsequent exact, symbolic arithmetic problems than did children given other tasks involving comparison and manipulation of non-numerical magnitudes (brightness and length). The practice effect appeared specific to mathematics, as no differences between groups were observed on a comparable sentence completion task. These results move beyond correlational research and provide evidence that the exercise of non-symbolic numerical processes can enhance children's performance of symbolic mathematics. PMID:24462713

  5. "They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols…

  6. Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz Symposium Proceedings July 5-6, 2013 Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes-Kepler University Computation Johannes-Kepler University Linz, Austria #12;Preface Symbolic Computation is the science

  7. A Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Flavia Stan Research Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Abstract Given a FeynmanA Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus Johannes Bl¨umlein Deutsches Elektronen

  8. A Study on the Symbolic Poems of Robert Frost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Zhou

    Symbolism is one of the techniques of expression in poetry. This article makes a careful analysis on the two poems of Robert Frost. He is one of the best poets well-known for the symbolic poems. The poems are saturated with original symbols and deep thought.

  9. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  10. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  11. On the Use of Symbolic Computation in Undergraduate Microeconomics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how a computer software symbolic-processing program can be easily incorporated into an advanced undergraduate microeconomics course. Symbolic-processing programs are relatively sophisticated software packages that combine numeric, symbolic, and graphic computation in a single unified computing environment. Includes examples of…

  12. Integration and Application Network: Conceptual Diagram Symbol Libraries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The IAN symbol libraries contain over 1500 custom made symbols (in 32 categories) designed specifically for enhancing science communication skills. The aim of the IAN is to make these symbols a standard resource for scientists, resource managers, community groups and environmentalists worldwide. Site provides information on the Network, publications, and a wealth of additional project and informational resources.

  13. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  14. Automatic recognition of point symbols on topographic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Hu, Peng; Wang, Xiufang; Fan, Qingsong

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents a new method of extracting and identifying point-shaped symbols of scanned topographic maps based on Distance Transformation. First, we remove of the interferences of transition color pixels on symbol edge, and filter the lines which do not meet the features of point symbols according to curve density and line density, and extract point symbols from the map based on adding hull transformation and removing skin transformation. Then we judge topology consistency by skeleton of symbol and shape consistency by weighted distance function, and use the both consistency to identify symbols. The algorithm can extract and identify rotated or distortional point symbols in the condition of character and line conglutination or complex background, and the identification accuracy is 98%.

  15. Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1989-01-01

    A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

  16. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  17. Automatic Symbolic Verification of Embedded Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Pei-hsin Ho

    1996-01-01

    . We present a model-checking procedure and its implementation for the automaticverification of embedded systems. The system components are described as Hybrid Automata---communicating machines with finite control and real-valued variablesthat represent continuous environment parameters such as time, pressure, and temperature.The system requirements are specified in a temporal logic with stop watches, andverified by symbolic fixpoint computation. The verification procedure---implementedin ...

  18. Going home: migration as enactment and symbol.

    PubMed

    Wright, Susanna

    2009-09-01

    The concepts of home and migration are briefly explored. Reference is made to the reflections of several writers on migration suggesting that migrants may experience alienation, even permanent melancholia. There is discussion of the need to mourn what has been lost and left behind, and of the challenge in analytic work with a migrant to relate to the pain of the individual's core self amid environmental and cultural losses. The paper outlines the history of an individual before her migration from Latin America to London, and tendency to idealize as a new arrival. The symbolization process is discussed and it is suggested that repetitive enactment in the analytic transference may have been needed for her internal reality of estrangement to be confirmed and differentiated from her culturally and socially isolated external life as a migrant. Only then could she mourn losses and symbolize her inner reality. It is suggested that through mourning and symbolization the significance of migration for the patient was worked with and transformed so that, following a second migration, an ordinary, good enough home could be made in a new place. PMID:19765137

  19. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  20. Symbols and symbolization in clinical practice and in Elisabeth Marton's film My Name was Sabina Spielrein.

    PubMed

    Gibeault, Alain

    2005-06-01

    If symbolization can be defined, in a general way, as the operation of substitution by which something can represent something else for someone, the Freudian discovery of the unconscious introduced the idea of a process of work whereby the subject is differentiated from the object. As a consequence, the vicissitudes of symbolization are related to the vicissitudes of the drive. The clinical case of a psychotic patient treated in individual psychoanalytic psychodrama shows the possibility of overcoming violence and destructivity thanks to the work of representation and symbolization of the denied and split psychic movements. Thanks to the third party function of the leader and of the analytic setting, the individual psychoanalytical psychodrama favours psychic change. Elisabeth Marton's film illustrates this issue in so far as the destructive passion between Sabina Spielrein and Jung was partly transformed into a creative work with Freud's role as a third party. PMID:15926952

  1. Comprehensibility of universal healthcare symbols for wayfinding in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghae; Dazkir, Sibel Seda; Paik, Hae Sun; Coskun, Aykut

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare facilities are often complex and overwhelming for visitors, and wayfinding in healthcare facilities can be challenging. As there is an increasing number of global citizens who travel to seek medical care in another country, it is critical to make wayfinding easy for visitors who are not familiar with the language in a foreign country. Among many wayfinding aids, symbols are helpful for those visitors who have limited ability to understand written language. This study tested universal healthcare symbols in the United States, South Korea, and Turkey to compare the comprehension of symbols cross-country and identify predictors of the correct comprehension. To explore statistically significant relationships between symbol comprehension and countries, Pearson's Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and ANOVA were conducted. The test results showed that ten symbols among 14 tested have significant relationship with countries. Results of this study demonstrate that symbol comprehension can be varied significantly in different countries. PMID:24290906

  2. Multiple-Symbol, Partially Coherent Detection of MPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1994-01-01

    Proposed method of reception of multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) radio signals involves multiple-symbol, partially coherent detection. Instead of attempting to determine phase of transmitted signal during each symbol period as in coherent detection, receiver acquires signal data during multiple-symbol observation interval, then produces maximum-likelihood-sequence estimate of phases transmitted during interval. Combination of coherent-reception and incoherent-reception decision rules are used.

  3. Reduced complexity symbol detectors with parallel structure for ISI channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javan Erfanian; Subbarayan Pasupathy; Glenn Gulak

    1994-01-01

    The problem of practical realization of the optimal fixed-delay symbol-by-symbol detection algorithm, which is optimum in the sense of minimizing the symbol error probability, given a delay constraint D, is investigated. A fully-parallel structure is developed, and through systematic reformulations of the algorithm, the computational requirements are reduced considerably. In addition, the problems associated with a large dynamic range such

  4. Symbolic derivation of material property matrices in finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, H. Q.

    1988-01-01

    The principles and operation of MMAX, a symbolic-computation program which automates the process of generating property matrices for structural materials, are briefly described and illustrated with sample analyses of a rubberlike material and an elastoplastic material. MMAX is written in LISP under the symbolic finite-element generator FINGER and the general symbolic manipulator MACSYMA; it first derives the formulas required by mathematical manipulation, and then translates the formulas into FORTRAN code, adapted to the particular type of machine to be used for the numerical calculations. This approach is shown to combine efficiently the advantages of symbolic and numerical computation for engineering applications.

  5. From Fish Food to Pictures to Symbols: <, >, and =

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illuminations NCTM

    2012-03-14

    Students build upon their understanding of greater than, less than, and equal to by observing quantities and making comparisons using various instructional materials. The fish cut-out, with its mouth open, represents the greater than or less than symbol; the clam cut-out represents the equal to symbol. Using fish lips as a transition point, students will apply their understanding of greater, less, and equal to the standard symbols as you introduce symbolic notation at a developmentally appropriate level. Students will: • Compare a set of quantities and determine greater than, less than, and equal to • Construct visual and written equations using quantities and numerals • Learn and use correct math vocabulary

  6. Delayed symbolic matching in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Maile H Y; Couvillon, P A; Bitterman, M E

    2007-02-01

    In a recent experiment on short-term memory (P. A. Couvillon, T. P. Ferreira, & M. E. Bitterman, 2003), honeybees (Apis mellifera) learned to choose between 2 colors on the basis of immediately preceding experience with 1 of them. Some learned to choose the same color as the sample (perseveration or matching), others to choose the alternative color (alternation or nonmatching). Performance in the 2 problems was very much the same. In the present experiment, honeybees learned no less readily to choose between the 2 colors on the basis of sample stimuli that were different from the colors (symbolic matching). A simple associative interpretation of the results is proposed. PMID:17324080

  7. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  8. Pitch Histograms in Audio and Symbolic Music Information Retrieval Pitch Histograms in Audio and Symbolic

    E-print Network

    Tzanetakis, George

    Pitch Histograms in Audio and Symbolic Music Information Retrieval Pitch Histograms in Audio to represent musical content, pitch and timing information is utilized in the majority of existing work. In this paper, Pitch Histograms are defined and proposed as a way to represent the pitch content of music

  9. Patriotic Symbols: Kindergarten Model Lesson for Standard 2. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Priscilla

    In kindergarten, students learn the symbols of the alphabet and numeric symbols. This unit is designed to help students understand what patriotic symbols are and that the nation and the state have symbols and icons to represent thoughts, feelings, emotions, and physical objects. Exposure to different national and state symbols helps students…

  10. The Symbol of the Serpent in Peter Stoica's Poetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florentina GHITA-NICA

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a presentation of how is described serpent's symbol in Peter Stoica's poetry. Diachronic method, followed by the symbolic approach has been used in this scientific work. Through an analytical approach I have commented on the lyrical vision, a doctrine which expresses his ideation. We have noticed that for the poet the theme

  11. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  12. FunctionalObjects.h: Using Symbolic Syntax in C++ Programs

    E-print Network

    R. Nolty

    2000-12-06

    functionalObjects.h allows the C++ programmer performing common mathematical calculations to use a more symbolic syntax rather than an algorithmic syntax. This is not as ambitious as a symbolic manipulation program such as Mathematica; it is more like having the ability to drop a very simple Mathematica statement into a C++ program.

  13. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232.306...Electronic Submissions § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All...and submissions must be in the English language, except as otherwise provided by...

  14. Multiplicity-free Quantum 6 j-Symbols for

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Pichai, Ramadevi; Zodinmawia

    2013-12-01

    We conjecture a closed form expression for the simplest class of multiplicity-free quantum 6 j-symbols for . The expression is a natural generalization of the quantum 6 j-symbols for obtained by Kirillov and Reshetikhin. Our conjectured form enables computation of colored HOMFLY polynomials for various knots and links carrying arbitrary symmetric representations.

  15. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupski, Vladimir N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-31

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  16. Wyoming Tombstone Symbolism: A Reflection of Western Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John; Rezabek, Landra L.

    Eleven cemeteries in Wyoming are examined for visuals pertaining to life in the West. The purpose is to demonstrate the importance of Western culture tradition evidenced through tombstone symbolism--representations of the activities and environments of the living through the memory provided by the deceased. The visual symbols found on the…

  17. Online detection of fatigue failure via symbolic time series analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalabh Gupta; Asok Ray; Eric Keller

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of symbolic-time series analysis for online detection of fatigue failure in mechanical structures. The detection algorithm is formulated on the principles of symbolic dynamics and automata theory. The performance of this method is evaluated based on the information extracted from available sensor data for early detection of small anomalies in the observed data sequence. This

  18. Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Bobo

    1983-01-01

    The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the

  19. Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorantas, Raymond

    Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

  20. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  1. Seeing What We Think: Symbols of School Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtwengler, Willis J.; Micich, Anita

    A study examined the nature of school culture information found in symbolic pictures of schools. One specific goal was to determine the nature of school culture information embedded in verbal interpretations of symbolic school drawings and the accuracy of reviewers' interpretations of the drawings. Another goal was to compare information from the…

  2. Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra

    E-print Network

    Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra Sriram Sankaranarayanan 1 , Thao for the verification of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed polyhedra. Therefore, operations used in symbolic model checking such as intersection, union and post

  3. Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra

    E-print Network

    Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra Sriram Sankaranarayanan1 , Thao for the verification of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed polyhedra. Therefore, operations used in symbolic model checking such as intersection, union and post

  4. Multiple symbol decoding of differential space-time codes

    E-print Network

    Singhal, Rohit

    2004-09-30

    computational complexity is exponential in N . A fast algorithm for implementing the MD-STDC in block-fading channels with complexity O(N 4) is developed. Its performance in both block-fading and symbol-by-symbol fading channels is demonstrated through...

  5. Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt

    E-print Network

    Watt, Stephen M.

    Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt Abstract This paper is a step to bring closer" and the view of "computer algebra." Symbolic computation may be seen as working with expression trees representing math- ematical formulae and applying various rules to transform them. Computer algebra may be seen

  6. Optical Neural Net And Symbolic Substitution Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botha, Elizabeth; Casasent, David

    1989-03-01

    New optical neural net and symbolic substitution production system architectures are described. Several new learning aspects of these architectures are noted and initial results obtained with a multiple object/part identification problem are noted as demonstrations of optical symbolic filters and production systems.

  7. Red, black or white| The dawn of colour symbolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Petru

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the use of the pigments in the Paleolithic is presented, and some ideas of the symbolic meaning of colours are suggested. The colour red might have been a symbol of transfor- mation, and as such, it was used in burials and for painting the Venus figurines. In the Slovenian Paleolithic, there is scant evidence of importance of

  8. Symbolic interpretation and tracing of PASCAL-programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Persch; Georg Winterstein

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we describe a system for symbolic interpretation and tracing of programs written in PASCAL. We show how the symbolic execution method of King can be extended to handle special PASCAL-features and complex data structures. The system is designed for practical use. It should support the programmer in the modular program development process without bothering him with additional

  9. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  10. Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. G.; And Others

    This report contains recommendations on chemical nomenclature, guidance on symbols, and terminology and units for physiochemical quantities. This report, intended to provide guidance to science teachers, consists of eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) introduction to symbols, terminology, and units for physiochemical quantities; (3)…

  11. Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

  12. Profiling Communication and Symbolic Abilities in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherby, Amy M.; Prizant, Barry M.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for sampling communication and symbolic abilities in young children who are not yet talking or who are at early language stages, placing emphasis on caregiver involvement. The paper points out that profiling a young child's communication and symbolic abilities can contribute to the early identification of language…

  13. SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.

    1970-01-01

    The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.

  14. 1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A

    E-print Network

    Samet, Hanan

    1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEM Aya Soffer@umiacs.umd.edu and hjs@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract: A method is presented for integrating images into the framework of a conventional database management system (DBMS). It is applicable to a class of images termed symbolic images

  15. Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind Shayan G. Srinivasa

    E-print Network

    Music and symbolic dynamics: The science behind an art Shayan G. Srinivasa Department of Electronic@math.iisc.ernet.in Abstract--Music signals comprise of atomic notes drawn from a musical scale. The creation of musical patterns. We develop an approach for music signal representation based on symbolic dynamics by translating

  16. Pitch Histograms in Audio and Symbolic Music Information Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Tzanetakis, George

    Pitch Histograms in Audio and Symbolic Music Information Retrieval George Tzanetakis (corresponding content, pitch and timing information is utilized in the majority of existing work in Symbolic Music information, which can be calculated using automatic computer audition techniques. In this paper, Pitch

  17. Dynamic Bayesian networks for symbolic polyphonic pitch modeling

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Dynamic Bayesian networks for symbolic polyphonic pitch modeling Stanislaw A. Raczy´nski, Emmanuel Vincent and Shigeki Sagayama Abstract--Symbolic pitch modelling is a way of incorporating knowledge about relations between pitches into the process of analysing musical information or signals

  18. The impact of symbolic and substantive actions on environmental legitimacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascual Berrone; Liliana Gelabert; Andrea Fosfuri

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on institutional theory and insights from stakeholder theory and impression management, we empirically analyze the impact of both environmental symbolic polices (participation in voluntary environmental programs, green trademarks, environmental-dedicated board committees, environmental pay policies and community communication) and substantive actions (environmental patents and pollution prevention practices) on environmental legitimacy. We show that 1) symbolic actions have a weaker positive

  19. Symbolic Execution for Software Testing in Practice Preliminary Assessment

    E-print Network

    Cadar, Cristian

    Project Focus Area" on the topic of symbolic execution as used in software testing. Symbolic execution. INTRODUCTION The ACM-SIGSOFT Impact Project is documenting the impact that software engineering research has [29], YOGI7 and PREfix [10]), IBM (Apollo [2]), NASA and Fujitsu (Sym- bolic PathFinder), and also

  20. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  1. Toy Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... organizations to advocate for the removal of rare-earth magnets from the marketplace. We put together a ... Safety Child Pedestrian Safety International Walk to School Day Halloween Safety Environmental Task Forces CPS Certification Training ...

  2. Pedestrian Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety Pedestrian Safety Main Points Emergency physicians treat ... patients each year who are injured by motor vehicles while walking. Sixty-eight thousand pedestrians were injured ...

  3. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a discourse which stigmatizes the home medicine cabinet for reasons of safety, which in fact questions patients’ ability to use drugs properly. This analysis shows that the various behaviours and discourses relating to the risks of drugs are impregnated with symbolic, ethical and cultural logics. As a consequence, above and beyond works carried out on the question of pharmacovigilance, examining the issue of safe drug use involves studying the human (social and cultural) aspects which govern part of the discourses and practices relating to drug safety. PMID:20635820

  4. Symbolic feature detection for image understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

    2014-03-01

    In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

  5. Symbolic representation of recurrent neural network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thuan Q; Reggia, James A

    2012-10-01

    Simple recurrent error backpropagation networks have been widely used to learn temporal sequence data, including regular and context-free languages. However, the production of relatively large and opaque weight matrices during learning has inspired substantial research on how to extract symbolic human-readable interpretations from trained networks. Unlike feedforward networks, where research has focused mainly on rule extraction, most past work with recurrent networks has viewed them as dynamical systems that can be approximated symbolically by finite-state machine (FSMs). With this approach, the network's hidden layer activation space is typically divided into a finite number of regions. Past research has mainly focused on better techniques for dividing up this activation space. In contrast, very little work has tried to influence the network training process to produce a better representation in hidden layer activation space, and that which has been done has had only limited success. Here we propose a powerful general technique to bias the error backpropagation training process so that it learns an activation space representation from which it is easier to extract FSMs. Using four publicly available data sets that are based on regular and context-free languages, we show via computational experiments that the modified learning method helps to extract FSMs with substantially fewer states and less variance than unmodified backpropagation learning, without decreasing the neural networks' accuracy. We conclude that modifying error backpropagation so that it more effectively separates learned pattern encodings in the hidden layer is an effective way to improve contemporary FSM extraction methods. PMID:24808009

  6. Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2010-01-01

    Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care. PMID:20147827

  7. Effect of Number of Graphic Symbols, Levels, and Listening Conditions on Symbol Identification and Latency in Persons with Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Petroi, Diana; Koul, Rajinder K; Corwin, Melinda

    2014-02-27

    This study investigated the ability of persons with aphasia to complete a series of experimental tasks involving single symbol and subject-verb-object sentence identification on a speech-generating device (SGD) in the presence/absence of competing stimuli. In all, 10 persons with Broca's aphasia and 10 persons in the control group were compared on accuracy and response latency of symbol identification across three listening conditions. Persons with aphasia identified fewer symbols accurately and had longer response latencies than persons in the control group. Number of symbols on the screen and location level had a significant effect on accuracy and latency for both groups. Persons with aphasia perceived tasks to be more difficult than persons in the control group. Results indicate that effective use of SGDs by persons with aphasia may depend on several message organization factors including location and number of symbols per screen. PMID:24575783

  8. Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus; Porter, Ronald K.

    2010-01-01

    In education, it is common to put the condition of "safety" around public race dialogue. The authors argue that this procedural rule maintains white comfort zones and becomes a symbolic form of violence experienced by people of color. In other words, they ask, "Safety for whom?" A subtle but fundamental violence is enacted in safe discourses on…

  9. Automatic verification of safety interlock systems for industrial processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Yang; L. S. Tan; C. H. He

    2001-01-01

    The safety interlock system (SIS) is one of the most important protective measurements in industrial processes that provide automatic actions to correct an abnormal plant event. This paper considers the use of formal techniques based on symbolic model checking and computation tree logic (CTL) in the specification to automatically verify the SIS for industrial processes. It addresses the problem of

  10. Symbolic dynamics of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the symbolic dynamics analysis was used to analyze the complexity of normal heartbeat signal (NSR), Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) signals. By calculating the information entropy value of symbolic sequences, the complexities were quantified. Based on different information entropy values, NSR, VT and VF signals were distinguished with satisfactory results. The study showed that a sudden drop of symbolic sequence’s entropy value indicated that the patients most likely entered the episode of ventricular tachycardia and this was a crucial episode for the clinical treatment of patients. It had important clinical significance for the automatic diagnosis.

  11. Color and symbology: symbolic systems of color ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Diana

    2002-06-01

    Color has been used symbolically in various different fields, such as Heraldry, Music, Liturgy, Alchemy, Art and Literature. In this study, we shall investigate and analyse the structures of relationships that have taken shape as symbolic systems within each specific area of analysis. We shall discuss the most significant symbolic fields and their systems of color ording, considering each one of them as a topological model based on a logic that determines the total organization, according to the scale of reciprocities applied, and the cultural context that gives it meaning.

  12. Randomization of Symbol Repetition of Punch Cards with Superimposed Coding in Information-Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirovich, L. Ya

    The article shows the effect of the irregularity of using separate symbols on search noise on punch cards with superimposed symbol coding in information-search system (IPS). A binomial law of random value distribution of repetition of each symbol is established and analyzed. A method of determining the maximum value of symbol repetition is…

  13. On the utilization of embedded symbol for CCSK BER improvement in TDCS dynamic spectrum access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Budiarjo; H. Nikookar; L. P. Ligthart

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose the novel concept of embedding extra symbol to the CCSK modulation based TDCS signal. The embedded symbol is derived from the PSK mapping. The results show that as the constellation size of the PSK mapping increases, the CCSK BER performance improves tremendously. The embedded symbol improves the TDCS symbol SNR and consequently enhances the cross-correlation

  14. The Development of Symbolic Coordination: Representation of Imagined Objects, Executive Function, and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Overton, Willis F.; Kovacs, Stacie L.

    2005-01-01

    Children's developing competence with symbolic representations was assessed in 3 studies. Study 1 examined the hypothesis that the production of imaginary symbolic objects in pantomime requires the simultaneous coordination of the dual representations of a dynamic action and a symbolic object. We explored this coordination of symbolic…

  15. List of Error-Prone Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been misinterpreted as “discontinued” when followed by a list of discharge medications Use “discharge” and “discontinue” IJ ... abbreviations are included on The Joint Commission’s “minimum list” of dangerous abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols that must ...

  16. MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE MODELING IN A SYMBOLIC-CONNECTIONIST PERSPECTIVE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE MODELING IN A SYMBOLIC-CONNECTIONIST PERSPECTIVE V. Rialle1 , M. Ohayon2 , B. Amy recognition processes. A certain number of medical diagnosis aiding systems, combining these two paradigms

  17. Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.

  18. Lectures on Religion and Ritual ('Symbolic and Real')

    E-print Network

    Hugh-Jones, Stephen

    2006-01-18

    Eight lectures in the field of religion, ritual, symbolism, ideology given by Dr. Hugh-Jones to first year students in Archaeology and Anthropology and Social and Political Sciences at Cambridge University....

  19. Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz, University of Porto, Portugal 2 RISC, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria 3 VIAM, Ivane Javakhishvili

  20. The use of art for the study of symbols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Gombrich

    1965-01-01

    All symbols function within a complex network of matrices and potential choices which can perhaps be explained up to a point, but not translated into exact equivalences unless a happy accident provides one.\\

  1. Symbol IC-Evaluation as an Aid to Program Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Yonezawa, Akinori

    Symbolic-evaluation is the process which abstractly evaluates an actor program and checks to see whether the program fulfills its contract (specification). In this paper, a formalism based on the conceptual representation ...

  2. Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lamp in law library; Jennewein modeled symbols of the four seasons on the lamp's aluminum supports - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Approaching the Symbol Grounding Problem with Probabilistic Graphical Models

    E-print Network

    Tellex, Stefanie A.

    2011-01-01

    In order for robots to engage in dialog with human teammates, they must have the ability to map between words in the language and aspects of the external world. A solution to this symbol grounding problem (Harnad, 1990) ...

  4. Historical Personalities, Political Symbols and the Hungarian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, I.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of Hungarian youth political culture were surveyed. The first study investigated the recognition and interpretation of various political symbols. The second study investigated the effect of knowledge on youths' appraisal of political personalities. (AM)

  5. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741

  6. Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523

  7. Groups: knowledge spreadsheets for symbolic biocomputing

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Michael; Paley, Suzanne M.; Shrager, Jeff; Holland, Timothy A.; Karp, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge spreadsheets (KSs) are a visual tool for interactive data analysis and exploration. They differ from traditional spreadsheets in that rather than being oriented toward numeric data, they work with symbolic knowledge representation structures and provide operations that take into account the semantics of the application domain. ‘Groups’ is an implementation of KSs within the Pathway Tools system. Groups allows Pathway Tools users to define a group of objects (e.g. groups of genes or metabolites) from a Pathway/Genome Database. Groups can be transformed (e.g. by transforming a metabolite group to the group of pathways in which those metabolites are substrates); combined through set operations; analysed (e.g. through enrichment analysis); and visualized (e.g. by painting onto a metabolic map diagram). Users of the Pathway Tools-based BioCyc.org website have made extensive use of Groups, and an informal survey of Groups users suggests that Groups has achieved the goal of allowing biologists themselves to perform some data manipulations that previously would have required the assistance of a programmer. Database URL: BioCyc.org. PMID:24037025

  8. Mollusks of Candomblé: symbolic and ritualistic importance.

    PubMed

    Léo Neto, Nivaldo A; Voeks, Robert A; Dias, Thelma L P; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2012-01-01

    Human societies utilize mollusks for myriad material and spiritual ends. An example of their use in a religious context is found in Brazil's African-derived belief systems. Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion introduced during the 18th-19th centuries by enslaved Yoruba, includes various magical and liturgical uses of mollusks. This work inventoried the species utilized by adherents and to analyzed their symbolic and magical context. Data were obtained from Candomblé temples in two cities in the northeast of Brazil-Caruaru, in the state of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba. Questionnaires administered to eleven adepts revealed that at least nineteen mollusk species are being used. Shells from Monetaria moneta, M. annulus and Erosaria caputserpentis were cited by all of the interviewees. Three uses stood out: divination (jogo de búzios); utilization as ritual objects; and employment as sacrificial offerings (Igbin or Boi-de-Oxalá). The jogo de búzios (shell toss), employed in West Africa, Brazil and Cuba, is of fundamental importance to the cult, representing the means by which the faithful enter in contact with the divinities (Orixás) and consult people's futures (Odu). The utilization of mollusks in Candomblé is strongly influenced by ancient Yoruba myths (Itãs) which, having survived enslavement and generations of captive labor, continue to guide the lives of Brazil's African Diaspora. PMID:22420523

  9. Symbolic dynamics and the category of graphs

    E-print Network

    Bisson, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic dynamics is partly the study of walks in a directed graph. By a walk, here we mean a morphism to the graph from the Cayley graph of the monoid of non-negative integers. Sets of these walks are also important in other areas, such as stochastic processes, automata, combinatorial group theory, $C^*$-algebras, etc. We put a Quillen model structure on the category of directed graphs, for which the weak equivalences are those graph morphisms which induce bijections on the set of walks. We determine the resulting homotopy category. We also introduce a "finite-level" homotopy category which respects the natural topology on the set of walks. To each graph we associate a basal graph, well defined up to isomorphism. We show that the basal graph is a homotopy invariant for our model structure, and that it is a finer invariant than the zeta series of a finite graph. We also show that, for finite walkable graphs, if $B$ is basal and separated then the walk spaces for $X$ and $B$ are topologically conjugate if and ...

  10. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    PubMed

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225

  11. Symbolic and Structuring Effects of the Internet on Privacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albin Zuccato; Simone Fischer-Hübner

    Technology has influenced human lives since the beginning of mankind. Sociologists have described the effects that technology\\u000a has on society as structuring or symbolic. We will use the same concepts to investigate the capability of the Internet to\\u000a influence privacy. We analyse the structuring and symbolic effects of technology on privacy and thereby demonstrate some potentials\\u000a of Internet technology and

  12. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.

  13. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inbal Marcu; David Oppenheim; Nina Koren-Karie; Smadar Dolev; Nurit Yirmiya

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum\\u000a disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity\\u000a of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother–child interactions during free play and doll play.\\u000a We hypothesized that children with secure attachments

  14. Automatic Symbolic Traffic Scene Analysis Using Belief Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Huang; Daphne Koller; Jitendra Malik; Gary H. Ogasawara; B. Rao; Stuart J. Russell; Joseph Weber

    1994-01-01

    Automatic symbolic traffic scene analysis is essen- tial to many areas of IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems). Traffic scene information can be used to optimize traffic flow during busy pe- riods, identify stalled vehicles and accidents, and aid the decision-making of an autonomous vehi- cle controller. Improvements in technologies for machine vision-based surveillance and high-level symbolic reasoning have enabled us

  15. Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.

    PubMed

    Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning. PMID:24728912

  16. A dissociation between symbolic number knowledge and analogue magnitude information.

    PubMed

    Polk, T A; Reed, C L; Keenan, J M; Hogarth, P; Anderson, C A

    2001-12-01

    Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what / means). In this article, the authors describe a patient (MC) who exhibits a dissociation between tasks that require symbolic number knowledge (e.g., knowledge of arithmetic symbols including numbers, knowledge of concepts related to numbers such as rounding) and tasks that require an analogue magnitude representation (e.g., comparing size or frequency). MC is impaired on a variety of tasks that require symbolic number knowledge, but her ability to represent and process analogue magnitude information is intact. Her deficit in symbolic number knowledge extends to a variety of concepts related to numbers (e.g., decimal points, Roman numerals, what a quartet is) but not to any other semantic categories that we have tested. These findings suggest that symbolic number knowledge is a functionally independent component of the number processing system, that it is category specific, and that it is anatomically and functionally distinct from magnitude representations. PMID:11748908

  17. Biosystems special issue on "Physics and evolution of symbols and codes", in press (2001) Symbols and dynamics in the brain

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Luis

    and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles St., Boston, MA 02114 USA Keywords Symbols, dynamical systems material organization. In order to persist, organisms must maintain both internal and external balance engage in informational transactions with their external environments to adaptively steer behavior

  18. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This ... more about food safety Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods ...

  19. From bad to worse: Symbolic equivalence and opposition in fear generalisation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Marc; Hermans, Dirk; Dymond, Simon; Vervoort, Ellen; Baeyens, Frank

    2014-10-27

    The present study compared the impact of symbolic equivalence and opposition relations on fear generalisation. In a procedure using nonsense words, some stimuli became symbolically equivalent to an aversively conditioned stimulus while others were symbolically opposite. The generalisation of fear to symbolically related stimuli was then measured using behavioural avoidance, retrospective unconditioned stimulus expectancy and stimulus valence ratings. Equivalence relations facilitated fear generalisation while opposition relations constrained generalisation. The potential clinical implications of symbolic generalisation are discussed. PMID:25347279

  20. Basic numerical skills in children with mathematics learning disabilities: A comparison of symbolic vs non-symbolic number magnitude processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Rousselle; Marie-Pascale Noël

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing collections (i.e., non-symbolic number magnitude). Moreover, they automatically processed number magnitude when comparing the physical size

  1. The benefit of symbols: monkeys show linear, human-like, accuracy when using symbols to represent scalar value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret S. Livingstone; Krishna Srihasam; Istvan A. Morocz

    2010-01-01

    When humans and animals estimate numbers of items, their error rate is proportional to the number. To date, however, only\\u000a humans show the capacity to represent large numbers symbolically, which endows them with increased precision, especially for\\u000a large numbers, and with tools for manipulating numbers. This ability depends critically on our capacity to acquire and represent\\u000a explicit symbols. Here we

  2. Safety teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Muscatello; Brian P. Heshizer

    2002-01-01

    Background: Safety teams have become a popular means to recognize and prevent injuries in the workplace. In fact, organizations, such as OSHA, NIOSH, NIEHS, DOE, and the Ohio BWC, not only encourage safety teams, but have implemented them in their organizations. However, safety teams may not be legal as defined by NLRB Act Sections 2(5) and 8(a)(2). Objective: To determine

  3. Multiple symbol partially coherent detection of MPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that by using the known (or estimated) value of carrier tracking loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the decision metric, it is possible to improve the error probability performance of a partially coherent multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK) system relative to that corresponding to the commonly used ideal coherent decision rule. Using a maximum-likeihood approach, an optimum decision metric is derived and shown to take the form of a weighted sum of the ideal coherent decision metric (i.e., correlation) and the noncoherent decision metric which is optimum for differential detection of MPSK. The performance of a receiver based on this optimum decision rule is derived and shown to provide continued improvement with increasing length of observation interval (data symbol sequence length). Unfortunately, increasing the observation length does not eliminate the error floor associated with the finite loop SNR. Nevertheless, in the limit of infinite observation length, the average error probability performance approaches the algebraic sum of the error floor and the performance of ideal coherent detection, i.e., at any error probability above the error floor, there is no degradation due to the partial coherence. It is shown that this limiting behavior is virtually achievable with practical size observation lengths. Furthermore, the performance is quite insensitive to mismatch between the estimate of loop SNR (e.g., obtained from measurement) fed to the decision metric and its true value. These results may be of use in low-cost Earth-orbiting or deep-space missions employing coded modulations.

  4. Math expression retrieval using an inverted index over symbol pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalnaker, David; Zanibbi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new method for indexing and retrieving mathematical expressions, and a new protocol for evaluating math formula retrieval systems. The Tangent search engine uses an inverted index over pairs of symbols in math expressions. Each key in the index is a pair of symbols along with their relative distance and vertical displacement within an expression. Matched expressions are ranked by the harmonic mean of the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the query, and the percentage of symbol pairs matched in the candidate expression. We have found that our method is fast enough for use in real time and finds partial matches well, such as when subexpressions are re-arranged (e.g. expressions moved from the left to the right of an equals sign) or when individual symbols (e.g. variables) differ from a query expression. In an experiment using expressions from English Wikipedia, student and faculty participants (N=20) found expressions returned by Tangent significantly more similar than those from a text-based retrieval system (Lucene) adapted for mathematical expressions. Participants provided similarity ratings using a 5-point Likert scale, evaluating expressions from both algorithms one-at-a-time in a randomized order to avoid bias from the position of hits in search result lists. For the Lucene-based system, precision for the top 1 and 10 hits averaged 60% and 39% across queries respectively, while for Tangent mean precision at 1 and 10 were 99% and 60%. A demonstration and source code are publicly available.

  5. From symbolizing to non-symbolizing within the scope of a link: from dreams to shouts of terror caused by an absent presence.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ruggero

    2012-08-01

    This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552

  6. A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling

    PubMed Central

    Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

    2009-01-01

    Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520

  7. Symbolic control of attention: tracking its temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Bernhard; Akyürek, Elkan G

    2009-02-01

    Three experiments examined the temporal dynamics of the impact of symbols with task-irrelevant spatial meanings on attentional control. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were color-cued to report the first letter they saw in the left or right of two parallel letter streams. The cue appeared in the shape of an arrow pointing to the target stream (compatible) or to the other stream (incompatible). Incompatible arrows delayed letter selection; that is, participants reported later-appearing letters and made more errors. In Experiment 3, the target stream was cued in advance, and yet, incompatible symbols delayed target selection. These findings suggest that the irrelevant meaning of symbolic stimuli can still penetrate and bias attentional top-down control, an observation that challenges available control theories. PMID:19304627

  8. Efficient Symbolic Signatures for Classifying Craniosynostosis Skull Deformities

    E-print Network

    Abstract. Craniosynostosis is a serious and common pediatric disease caused by the premature fusion of the sutures of the skull. Early fusion results in severe deformities in skull shape due to the restriction of bone growth perpendicular to the fused suture and compensatory growth in unfused skull plates. Calvarial (skull) abnormalities are frequently associated with severe impaired central nervous system functions due to brain abnormalities, increased intra-cranial pressure and abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid. In this work, we develop a novel approach to efficiently classify skull deformities caused by metopic and sagittal synostoses using our newly introduced symbolic shape descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of our methodology in a series of large-scale classification experiments that compare the performance of our symbolic-signature-based approach to those of traditional numeric descriptors that are frequently used in clinical research. We also demonstrate an application of our symbolic descriptors in shape-based retrieval of skull morphologies. 1

  9. Multiple layer identification label using stacked identification symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

  10. Classical 6j-symbols and the tetrahedron

    E-print Network

    Justin Roberts

    1999-03-22

    A classical 6j-symbol is a real number which can be associated to a labelling of the six edges of a tetrahedron by irreducible representations of SU(2). This abstract association is traditionally used simply to express the symmetry of the 6j-symbol, which is a purely algebraic object; however, it has a deeper geometric significance. Ponzano and Regge, expanding on work of Wigner, gave a striking (but unproved) asymptotic formula relating the value of the 6j-symbol, when the dimensions of the representations are large, to the volume of an honest Euclidean tetrahedron whose edge lengths are these dimensions. The goal of this paper is to prove and explain this formula by using geometric quantization. A surprising spin-off is that a generic Euclidean tetrahedron gives rise to a family of twelve scissors-congruent but non-congruent tetrahedra.

  11. Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?100–60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60–40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

  12. Combining Automated Theorem Provers with Symbolic Algebraic Systems: Position Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to pure mathematical applications where automated theorem provers (ATPs) are quite capable, proof tasks arising form real-world applications from the area of Software Engineering show quite different characteristics: they usually do not only contain much arithmetic (albeit often quite simple one), but they also often contain reasoning about specific structures (e.g. graphics, sets). Thus, an ATP must be capable of performing reasoning together with a fair amount of simplification, calculation and solving. Therefore, powerful simplifiers and other (symbolic and semi-symbolic) algorithms seem to be ideally suited to augment ATPs. In the following we shortly describe two major points of interest in combining SASs (symbolic algebraic systems) with top-down automated theorem provers (here: SETHEO [Let92, GLMS94]).

  13. ATV Safety

    E-print Network

    Smith, David

    2004-09-16

    , Extension Safety Program The Texas A&M University System Source: All-Terrain Vehicle 2001 Injury and Exposure Studies. Consumer Product Safety Commission. January 2003. Causes of Injuries and Fatalities ATV accidents are rarely caused by design flaws. Most... of those laws are summarized below. Certification requirements. A person may not oper- ate an ATV on public property unless he or she attends a state-approved ATV safety training course and holds a safety certificate, or unless he or she is under...

  14. Lab Safety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into laboratory safety, and covers interacting with the lab environment and a new lab partner. Topics covered include proper dress, housekeeping, safety equipment, mixing, fire safety, and spills. When the module is completed, visitors will be able to demonstrate proper lab safety techniques.

  15. What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism?

    PubMed

    Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Sound symbolism is a property of certain words which have a direct link between their phonological form and their semantic meaning. In certain instances, sound symbolism can allow non-native speakers to understand the meanings of etymologically unfamiliar foreign words, although the mechanisms driving this are not well understood. We examined whether sound symbolism might be mediated by the same types of cross-modal processes that typify synaesthetic experiences. Synaesthesia is an inherited condition in which sensory or cognitive stimuli (e.g., sounds, words) cause additional, unusual cross-modal percepts (e.g., sounds trigger colours, words trigger tastes). Synaesthesia may be an exaggeration of normal cross-modal processing, and if so, there may be a link between synaesthesia and the type of cross-modality inherent in sound symbolism. To test this we predicted that synaesthetes would have superior understanding of unfamiliar (sound symbolic) foreign words. In our study, 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 57 non-synaesthete controls were presented with 400 adjectives from 10 unfamiliar languages and were asked to guess the meaning of each word in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Both groups showed superior understanding compared to chance levels, but synaesthetes significantly outperformed controls. This heightened ability suggests that sound symbolism may rely on the types of cross-modal integration that drive synaesthetes' unusual experiences. It also suggests that synaesthesia endows or co-occurs with heightened multi-modal skills, and that this can arise in domains unrelated to the specific form of synaesthesia. PMID:25498744

  16. Preference Transitivity and Symbolic Representation in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Mancini, Alessandra; Crescimbene, Lara; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    Background Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity - a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A?B, B?C and A?C (where ? indicates preference). In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic representation. PMID:18545670

  17. Whole Symbol Moments SNR Estimator (WSME) Analysis and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, I.; Satorius, E.

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive data rate (ADR) functionality was added to the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Electra software-defined radio (SDR) via software and firmware uploads to its modem in October 2011. An integral part of ADR is the symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation algorithm. The Whole Symbol Moments SNR Estimator (WSME) algorithm has been developed for ADR control and was included in the October 2011 upload. It is the subject of this article. The WSME architecture is described and performance results are presented via analysis, simulation, and data from an inflight MRO test on March 5, 2012.

  18. Tracking performance of symbol synchronizers for Manchester coded data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The implementation and tracking performance of symbol synchronizers for Manchester coded data is presented with motivation provided by maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation theory. Certain physically relizable closed-loop structures, readily implemented in practice, are suggested by the theory for uncoded data symbols with arbitrary data transition probabilities. The tracking performance of these loops is optimized and comparisons are made among the various configurations over a wide range of system parameters. Although not the major intent of the paper, the acquisition problem is briefly addressed.

  19. Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig

    2005-01-01

    All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

  20. The analysis of control trajectories using symbolic and database computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This final report comprises the formal semi-annual status reports for this grant for the periods June 30-December 31, 1993, January 1-June 30, 1994, and June 1-December 31, 1994. The research supported by this grant is broadly concerned with the symbolic computation, mixed numeric-symbolic computation, and database computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. A review of work during the report period covers: trajectories and approximating series, the Cayley algebra of trees, actions of differential operators, geometrically stable integration algorithms, hybrid systems, trajectory stores, PTool, and other activities. A list of publications written during the report period is attached.

  1. Tree coding of speech using variable length symbol release techniques

    E-print Network

    Goris, Andrew Clark

    1979-01-01

    for speech as calculated hy McDonald. 14 10 Frequency weighting of n(k) used by Wilson and Russ. in. . . 18 11 M-L tree coder operation. 21 12 DPCM code generator used in this research. . 26 13 Typical tree with special features labeled. . Probability... of sending expected symbol vs. distance from source node for M-L algorithm with McDonald predictor. . . . . 36 15 Probability of sending expected. symbol vs. distance from source node for M-L algorithm with a matched predictor. . . . . . . 38 Probability...

  2. Symbolic Dynamics and Unpredictability Defined by Right Adjointness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtowicz, Ralph L.

    2004-08-01

    It is shown that a category-theoretic definition of chaotic system applies not only to the Smale horseshoe, a prototypical example, but also to Conway's "Life." Symbolic dynamics of the "Dining Philosophers" relational system is computed. A category composed of stochastic matrices is defined and its elementary properties are studied. A categorical variant of symbolic dynamics is applied to a finite stochastic process. Using point-wise Kan extension formulas, conditions ensuring existence of certain representations between categories of dynamic systems are proved.

  3. Detecting Recurrence Domains of Dynamical Systems by Symbolic Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graben, Peter beim; Hutt, Axel

    2013-04-01

    We propose an algorithm for the detection of recurrence domains of complex dynamical systems from time series. Our approach exploits the characteristic checkerboard texture of recurrence domains exhibited in recurrence plots. In phase space, recurrence plots yield intersecting balls around sampling points that could be merged into cells of a phase space partition. We construct this partition by a rewriting grammar applied to the symbolic dynamics of time indices. A maximum entropy principle defines the optimal size of intersecting balls. The final application to high-dimensional brain signals yields an optimal symbolic recurrence plot revealing functional components of the signal.

  4. Asymptotics for Toeplitz determinants: Perturbation of symbols with a gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, Christophe; Claeys, Tom

    2015-02-01

    We study the determinants of Toeplitz matrices as the size of the matrices tends to infinity, in the particular case where the symbol has two jump discontinuities and tends to zero on an arc of the unit circle at a sufficiently fast rate. We generalize an asymptotic expansion by Widom [Indiana Univ. Math. J. 21, 277-283 (1971)], which was known for symbols supported on an arc. We highlight applications of our results in the circular unitary ensemble and in the study of Fredholm determinants associated to the sine kernel.

  5. Pathway Databases: A Case Study in Computational Symbolic Theories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Karp (SRI International; Bioinformatics Research Group)

    2001-09-14

    A pathway database (DB) is a DB that describes biochemical pathways, reactions, and enzymes. The EcoCyc pathway DB (see http://ecocyc.org) describes the metabolic, transport, and genetic-regulatory networks of Escherichia coli. EcoCyc is an example of a computational symbolic theory, which is a DB that structures a scientific theory within a formal ontology so that it is available for computational analysis. It is argued that by encoding scientific theories in symbolic form, we open new realms of analysis and understanding for theories that would otherwise be too large and complex for scientists to reason with effectively.

  6. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  7. Basic numerical skills in children with mathematics learning disabilities: a comparison of symbolic vs non-symbolic number magnitude processing.

    PubMed

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2007-03-01

    Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing collections (i.e., non-symbolic number magnitude). Moreover, they automatically processed number magnitude when comparing the physical size of Arabic digits in an Stroop paradigm adapted for processing speed differences. Finally, no evidence was found for differential patterns of performance between MD and MD/RD children in these tasks. These findings suggest that children with mathematics learning disabilities have difficulty in accessing number magnitude from symbols rather than in processing numerosity per se. PMID:16488405

  8. Safety issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohal, R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA safety review process is to make sure that any system hazards that can endanger the manned flight system are precluded. The systems that address manned flight in a payload safety review process are discussed. The types of basic hazards that are normally addressed on any of the payloads are: contamination, electrical shock, explosions, radiation, and temperature extremes.

  9. Surveying Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack A.; Whitsett, John; Lee, Shelley; Parsa Rahul

    2001-01-01

    Describes a safety program for teaching science. In the summer of 1999, specific Wisconsin safety laws, codes, and standards were researched and a training program including content, training sites, and dates was developed. One-day training programs were planned for six regions throughout the state. (SAH)

  10. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  11. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  12. Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Tip #22

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    for out-of-control vehicles. Wear hearing protection and a safety vest. Wear a hard hat and safety goggles to protect yourself from branches and flying debris. Wear leather gloves and boots that have hard toes, facilities, and employment without regard to race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital

  13. From Ambiguity to Dogma: The Rhetorical Symbols of Lyndon B. Johnson on Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M.; Patton, John H.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes President Johnson's casting of political policy into evocative symbols, the invention and operation of those rhetorical forms, the resulting conflict over the symbolization of the Vietnam War, and the theoretical and ethical implications of those rhetorical choices. (PD)

  14. Effects of environmental sounds on the guessability of animated graphic symbols.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Ashley C; Schlosser, Ralf W; Gygi, Brian; Shane, Howard C; Kong, Ying-Yee; Book, Lorraine; Macduff, Kelly; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    Graphic symbols are a necessity for pre-literate children who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (including non-electronic communication boards and speech generating devices), as well as for mobile technologies using AAC applications. Recently, developers of the Autism Language Program (ALP) Animated Graphics Set have added environmental sounds to animated symbols representing verbs in an attempt to enhance their iconicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental sounds (added to animated graphic symbols representing verbs) in terms of naming. Participants included 46 children with typical development between the ages of 3;0 to 3;11 (years;months). The participants were randomly allocated to a condition of symbols with environmental sounds or a condition without environmental sounds. Results indicated that environmental sounds significantly enhanced the naming accuracy of animated symbols for verbs. Implications in terms of symbol selection, symbol refinement, and future symbol development will be discussed. PMID:25384797

  15. Facilitating Children’s Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted. PMID:21813821

  16. A survey of new trends in symbolic execution for software testing and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corina S. Pu asu areanu; Willem Visser

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a well-known program analysis technique which represents program inputs with symbolic values instead\\u000a of concrete, initialized, data and executes the program by manipulating program expressions involving the symbolic values.\\u000a Symbolic execution has been proposed over three decades ago but recently it has found renewed interest in the research community,\\u000a due in part to the progress in decision

  17. A performance evaluation protocol for symbol spotting systems in terms of recognition and location indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marçal Rusiñol; Josep Lladós

    2009-01-01

    Symbol spotting systems are intended to retrieve regions of interest from a document image database where the queried symbol\\u000a is likely to be found. They shall have the ability to recognize and locate graphical symbols in a single step. In this paper,\\u000a we present a set of measures to evaluate the performance of a symbol spotting system in terms of

  18. Coverage-Directed Test Generation Using Symbolic Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Geist; Monica Farkas; Avner Landver; Yossi Lichtenstein; Ur Shmuel; Yaron Wolfsthal

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a verification methodology that integrates formal verification techniques with verification by simulation, thereby providing means for generating simulation test suites that ensure coverage. We derive the test suites by means of BDD-based symbolic techniques for describing and traversing the implementation state space. In our approach, we provide a high-level of control over the generated test

  19. Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, M. Wyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…

  20. Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Pommert; Rainer Schubert; Martin Riemer; Thomas Schiemann; Ulf Tiede; Karl H. Hoehne

    1994-01-01

    Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications

  1. HLS: combining statistical and symbolic simulation to guide microprocessor designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Oskin; Frederic T. Chong; Matthew K. Farrens

    2000-01-01

    As microprocessors continue to evolve, many optimizations reach a point of diminishing returns. We introduce HLS, a hybrid processor simulator which uses statistical models and symbolic execution to evaluate design alternatives. This simulation methodology allows for quick and accurate contour maps to be generated of the performance space spanned by design parameters. We validate the accuracy of HLS through correlation

  2. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  3. Web Applications Design and Maintenance Using Symbolic Model Checking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Di Sciascio; Francesco M. Donini; Marina Mongiello; Giacomo Piscitelli

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to automatic checking of the correctness of Web applications structure during their lifecycle. The approach adopts the well-established symbolic model checking technique and the associated tool SMV. A formalism allows the designer to describe the model of a Web-based system. Computation Tree Logic (CTL) is adopted as language to define the properties to be verified. The

  4. Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigam, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…

  5. Space telescope coordinate systems, symbols, and nomenclature definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The major coordinate systems as well as the transformations and transformation angles between them, for the Space Telescope are defined. The coordinate systems were primarily developed for use in pointing and control system analysis and simulation. Additional useful information (on nomenclature, symbols, quaternion operations, etc.) is also contained.

  6. Symbolic loss in American adolescents: mourning in teenage cinema.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2014-04-01

    I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre. PMID:22843337

  7. The Symbolic Meaning of Libraries in a Digital Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene Manoff

    2001-01-01

    As an increasingly virtual society anticipates the decline of print, it looks to the keepers of the written record to maintain continuity with its past. Libraries cannot formulate intelligent collection and preservation policies without taking into account current perceptions of the fragility of historical memory. Understanding the symbolic role they play in the cultural imaginary will help libraries to map

  8. Students’ Microscopic, Macroscopic, and Symbolic Representations of Chemical Reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Hinton; Mary B. Nakhleh

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the mental representations of chemical reactions used by six students (three male, three female) who achieved above-average grades in a college freshman chemistry class at a large midwestern university. The representations expressed by the students in structured interviews were categorized as microscopic, macroscopic, or symbolic representations of chemical reactions. The study revealed that the participants did make

  9. The Share 709 System: Machine Implementation of Symbolic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Boehm; Thomas B. Steel Jr.

    1959-01-01

    As emphasized in the preceding paper, a fundamental requirement for effective utilization of high speed computing devices such as the 709 is a man-machine communication link that is at once rapid and unambiguous. Use of symbolic languages with conventional conversion techniques has resulted in reasonable initial specification of computational problems, but excess input handling has made such procedures uneconomical for

  10. Symbolic Play Connects to Language through Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Object substitutions in play (e.g. using a box as a car) are strongly linked to language learning and their absence is a diagnostic marker of language delay. Classic accounts posit a symbolic function that underlies both words and object substitutions. Here we show that object substitutions depend on developmental changes in visual object…

  11. 2 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 1. WHAT IS LOGIC?

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    2 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 1. WHAT IS LOGIC? Logic may be defined as the science of reasoning. However, this is not to suggest that logic is an empirical (i.e., experimental or observational) science like physics, biology, or psychology. Rather, logic is a non-empirical science like mathematics. Also

  12. Detection of fatigue crack anomaly: a symbolic dynamics approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Khatkhate; A. Ray; Shin Chin; V. Rajagopalan; E. Keller

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for early detection of fatigue crack anomaly in complex mechanical structures, which is built upon the concepts of symbolic dynamics and finite state machines. The experimental apparatus, on which the crack detection method is tested, is a multi-degree of freedom mass-beam structure excited by oscillatory motion of two vibrators. The evolution of fatigue crack

  13. Toddlers' Emerging Symbolic Play: A First-Born Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Helen; Wyver, Shirley; Masselos, Grace; De Lacey, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The influence of older peers on younger children's emerging symbolic play was examined for 24 young children in eight participating long-day child-care centres. Toddler participants (aged from 17 to 31 months) were observed and video-taped in three conditions in free play in the outdoor environment as follows: condition one, with their same-age…

  14. Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

  15. Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems Using Template Polyhedra

    E-print Network

    Dang, Thao

    Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems Using Template Polyhedra Sriram Sankaranarayanan1 , Thao of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed expressions as inputs, our technique constructs over-approximations of the reachable states using template polyhedra

  16. Symbolic Racism Versus Racial Threats to "The Good Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, Donald R.; Sears, David O.

    The goals of this research were to identify the key political forms of contemporary white racism, to investigate their social psychological antecedents, and to do both in a way that discriminated among several theoretical approaches to understanding prejudice: realistic group conflict theory, displacement theory, and a "symbolic" analysis of…

  17. Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Carsten

    RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz Voronkov for his EasyChair conference management system. Workshop Chairs Temur Kutsia RISC, Johannes Kepler Fernandez King's College London Temur Kutsia RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz Christopher Lynch

  18. Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University

    E-print Network

    RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz.) Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria September 28-29, 2009 RISC-Linz Report Series No. 09-14 Editors #12;3rd Austrian Grid Symposium, September 28th ­ 29th , 2009 Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria

  19. Wishes and Riddles: Symbolic Imagery in Chinese Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the wishes and riddles found in myths and rebuses in Chinese art. The packet contains: (1) an introductory essay describing symbolism used in the art of various dynasties of China; (2) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (3) a…

  20. Online Social Shopping: The Functions and Symbols of Design Artifacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camille Grange; Izak Benbasat

    2010-01-01

    We report the results from a study investigating online shoppers' perceptions and evaluations of online social shopping design artifacts. To do so, we use the framework developed by Markus and Silver (2008) for studying information technology artifacts and their effects. Hence, we examine the functional affordances, i.e., the potential uses, and the symbolic expressions, i.e., the underlying message guiding use,

  1. Effects of Transmitter Symbol Clock Jitter Upon Ground Receiver Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Tkacenko, A.; Lyubarev, M.; Estabrook, P.

    2010-05-01

    In this article we characterize the effect of transmitter clock jitter upon receiver symbol synchronization performance. Using a sinusoidal model for the timing jitter, we evaluate the bit error rate (BER) degradation and cycle slip probabilities of receivers via analysis as well as simulation for uncoded offset quadrature-phase-shift-keying (OQPSK). We evaluate performance for two different symbol synchronization loops: the modified data transition tracking loop (M-DTTL) and the Gardner loop. The results are parameterized in terms of the timing jitter parameters (peak frequency jitter, time interval error, and cycle-to-cycle jitter) as well as symbol tracking loop parameters (loop damping factor, loop bandwidth). We present analytical expressions for BER degradation in the presence of sinusoidal timing jitter and compare results with those obtained via simulation, as well as past hardware tests of receivers. These results show that for both types of symbol synchronizers, peak BER degradation decreases as the loop damping factor increases, and that for underdamped tracking loops, the BER degradation peaks when the normalized jitter rate is approximately the same as the natural frequency of the loop transfer function. Simulated cycle-slip rates are also presented, showing the effects of varying loop bandwidths and damping factors. Finally, we illustrate how BER degradation can be characterized in terms of jitter time interval error and cycle-to-cycle jitter, providing predictive capabilities for receiver performance and guidelines for the specification of transmitter clock requirements.

  2. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...section may be used in lieu of cotton grade names and staple length designations in inches. (a) Symbols... AP L7 7 (e) Code numbers for Length of Staple Designations. Length of staple—inches Code No. Below 13/16 24...

  3. Symbol tales: Paths towards the creation of a saint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Elizabeth Holmes

    2000-01-01

    In “Symbol Tales: Paths Towards the Creation of a Saint”, I discuss Catholic Pueblo women's devotion to Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha, a seventeenth century Mohawk convert turned folk saint. Between 1996 and 1998, I conducted extensive ethnographic fieldwork in the Pueblos of New Mexico, including Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Acoma, and San Juan, as well as in Mescalero, on the Navajo Nation,

  4. A new formula for MDPSK symbol error probability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Pawula

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an extremely compact new formula for the symbol error probability in M-ary differential phase shift keying (MDPSK) that is extraordinarily similar to its counterpart for M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK). This result follows from a new form for a generic error probability associated with the phase angle between two vectors perturbed by Gaussian noise. The new form

  5. The Dynamic Role of Symbols in Human Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews "Symbolic Transformation: The Mind in Movement Through Culture and Society," an important first book in a new series that aimed at understanding the myriad ways "social representation processes operate in one's everyday feeling, thinking and acting." The book consists of a series of chapters brought together to develop a rich…

  6. 50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ...name and 1-800-ASK-FISH telephone number for...apply: The symbol is black, the background is white...shall apply: Letters are black and background is white...slogan, 1-800-ASK-FISH telephone number and...

  7. 50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ...name and 1-800-ASK-FISH telephone number for...apply: The symbol is black, the background is white...shall apply: Letters are black and background is white...slogan, 1-800-ASK-FISH telephone number and...

  8. Verification of Synchronous Sequential Machines Based on Symbolic Execution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Coudert; Christian Berthet; Jean Christophe Madre

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an original method to compare two synchronous sequential machines. The method consists in a breadth first traversal of the product machine during which symbolic expressions of its observable behaviour are computed. The method uses formal manipulations on boolean functions to avoid the state enumeration and diagram construction. For this purpose, new algorithms on boolean functions represented by

  9. Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…

  10. Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

  11. Minimization of Symbolic Automata Loris D'Antoni

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Classical automata theory builds on two basic assumptions: there is a finite state space. Symbolic finite automata (SFAs) are finite state automata in which the alphabet is given by a Boolean of finite ones. Most of the classical automata al- gorithms rely on the alphabet being finite

  12. Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Modelling Antibiotic Production using Standard and Sequential Hybridised Symbolic Annealing Mark A and antibiotic concentrations of an industrial fermentation process. The models are developed using both for predicting the biomass and antibiotic concentrations of a fermentation process, which is based on Simulated

  13. I. ASCRC General Education Form Group Group III Symbolic Systems

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    . In the process, students will develop critical thinking skills and written presentation skills. IV. Criteria and creative thinking in the understanding and manipulation of symbolic codes. This course provides rigorous thinking. This course includes an acoustic phonetics component which utilizes spectrograms

  14. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,…

  15. Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use tokens as symbols?

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, E; Crescimbene, L; Visalberghi, E

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of language, the comprehension of symbols is difficult to demonstrate. Tokens can be considered symbols since they arbitrarily stand for something else without having any iconic relation to their referent. We assessed whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use tokens as symbols to represent and combine quantities. Our paradigm involved choices between various combinations of tokens A and B, worth one and three rewards, respectively. Pay-off maximization required the assessment of the value of each offer by (i) estimating token numerousness, (ii) representing what each token stands for and (iii) making simple computations. When one token B was presented against one to five tokens A (experiment 1), four out of ten capuchins relied on a flexible strategy that allowed to maximize their pay-off, i.e. they preferred one token B against one and two tokens A, and they preferred four or five tokens A against one token B. Moreover, when two tokens B were presented against three to six tokens A (experiment 2), two out of six capuchins performed summation over representation of quantities. These findings suggest that capuchins can use tokens as symbols to flexibly combine quantities. PMID:17698487

  16. Student Activism within Christian College Cultures: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their…

  17. Gibbs: Phase equilibria and symbolic computation of thermodynamic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Cool; Alexander Bartol; Matthew Kasenga; Kunal Modi; R. Edwin García

    2010-01-01

    A general purpose open source, Python-based framework, Gibbs, is presented to perform multiphysical equilibrium calculations of material properties. The developed architecture allows to prototype symbolic and numerical representations of materials by starting from analytic models, tabulated experimental data, or Thermo-Calc data files. These constructions are based on the addition of arbitrary energy contributions that range from the traditional thermochemical to

  18. Arti cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Arti#12;cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression Colin G. Johnson Computing Immune Systems are computational algorithms which take their inspiration from the way in which natural immune systems learn to respond to attacks on an organism. This paper discusses how such a system can

  19. Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate…

  20. Efficient Symbol-Level Transmission in Error-Prone

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    ;10101010 Single Packet (Multiple Destinations) In the case of different transmission error rates, the roundEfficient Symbol-Level Transmission in Error-Prone Wireless Networks Pouya Ostovari, Jie Wu and control messages Error-prone wireless links Provide reliability ARQ Hybrid-ARQ Erasure codes

  1. Cognitive Aspects of Young Children's Symbolic Play. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Virginia; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for assessing aspects of the cognitive functioning of young children from their symbolic play. Subjects were 60 children, aged 3 to 5 years, from middle-class and lower-class families. The study was conducted in two phases, with the following objectives: (1) to identify and analyze aspects of…

  2. Symbolic Representation with Ordered Function Templates Department of Electrical &

    E-print Network

    Bryant, Randal E.

    @ece.cmu.edu Gagan Hasteer Innologic Systems 50a Charcot Avenue San Jose, CA. 95131 gagan@innologic­ systemsSymbolic Representation with Ordered Function Templates Amit Goel Department of Electrical.3 [Logic Design]: Design Aids---verification, simula­ tion General Terms Algorithms, Verification Keywords

  3. Symbolic Representation with Ordered Function Templates Department of Electrical &

    E-print Network

    Bryant, Randal E.

    @ece.cmu.edu Gagan Hasteer Innologic Systems 50a Charcot Avenue San Jose, CA. 95131 gagan@innologic- systemsSymbolic Representation with Ordered Function Templates Amit Goel Department of Electrical Descriptors B.6.3 [Logic Design]: Design Aids--verification, simula- tion General Terms Algorithms

  4. Predators of culture: Jaguar symbolism and Mesoamerican elites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Saunders

    1994-01-01

    Jaguar imagery is one of the most frequently encountered features of Pre?Columbian Mesoamerican symbolism. However, despite its appearance in art and iconography over a period of some three thousand years, most previous interpretations have tended to assert rather than prove its significance. In this paper an attempt is made to locate such imagery meaningfully in several categories of indigenous thought.

  5. Toeplitz operators with unbounded symbols of several complex variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangfu Cao

    2008-01-01

    In this note we construct a function ? in L2(Bn,dA) which is unbounded on any neighborhood of each boundary point of Bn such that T? is a trace class operator on Bergman space La2(Bn) for several complex variables. In addition, we also discuss the compactness of Toeplitz operators with L1 symbols.

  6. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sathasivam, Saratha [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-12-23

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  7. Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry R. Burch; Edmund Melson Clarke; Kenneth L. McMillan; L. J. Hwang

    1990-01-01

    Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining state-graph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolically instead of

  8. Optical properties of barcode symbols for laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Anna M.; Eastman, Jay M.

    1991-02-01

    Not all bar code symbols are alike. This paper will discuss the characteristics of bar code symbols which can make or break a bar code laser scanner''s performance in a specific application. These characteristics can be broken down into three catergories: Substrates " inks" ( inks toners dyes etc. ) and the light source used to read the symbol. The characteristics of the substrate can be further separated into three groups: the medium used the scattering properties of the the medium and overlaminates. Intrinsic properties of the medium can include " paper noise" resulting from the grain of paper metal grain or a retro-reflective background. Scattering characteristics cover angular distribution of the scattered light absolute scatter levels from the substrate internal scatter and specularly reflected light. Overlaminates contribute their own assets and liabilities in successfully choosing a scanner that will perform for all your needs. The inks used and the light source utilized work in conjunction with each other in determining the performance of a laser scanner. The spectral characteristics and composition of the ink determine which light source the scanner must employ to be used to successfully interpret the symbol. The three common light sources available in laser bar code scanners are helium-neon lasers visible laser diodes and infra-red laser diodes. Experimental data will be presented illustrating the optical properties discussedIbove.

  9. Symbolic description of periodic orbits for the quadratic Zeeman effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Eckhardt; Dieter Wintgen

    1990-01-01

    The organization of the periodic orbits of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field is studied. It is shown that the dynamics is qualitatively different from that for weak fields and negative energies. The orbits can be mapped one-to-one onto a ternary symbolic tree, an organization which turns out to be applicable for all values of energy and field

  10. A geometric consistency theorem for a symbolic perturbation scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee-Keng Yap

    1988-01-01

    In a previous paper, we introduced a generic solution to the problem of data degeneracy in geometric algorithms. The scheme is simple to use: algorithms qualifying under our requirements just have to use a prescribed blackbox for polynomial evaluation in order to achieve a symbolic perturbation of data. In this paper, we introduce the concept of an infinitesimal perturbation and

  11. Children's use of brand symbolism : A consumer culture theory approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Nairn; Christine Griffin; Patricia Gaya Wicks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to offer a critique of the Piagetian developmental cognitive psychology model which dominates research into children and brand symbolism, and to propose consumer culture theory as an alternative approach. The paper also aims to present the design and interpretation of an empirical study into the roles brands play in the everyday lives of junior school

  12. An Improved Dynamic Neurocontroller Based on Christoffel Symbols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Ignacio Mulero-Martínez

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic neurocontroller for positioning of robots based on static and parametric neural networks (NNs) has been developed. This controller is based on Christoffel symbols of first kind in order to carry out coriolis\\/centripetal matrix. Structural properties of robots and Kronecker product has been taken into account to develop NNs to approximate nonlinearities. The weight updating laws

  13. AUTOMATIC ACQUISITION OF GL RESOURCES, USING AN EXPLANATORY, SYMBOLIC TECHNIQUE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Claveau; Pascale Sébillot

    This chapter presents a symbolic machine learning method that automatically infers, from descriptions of noun-verb pairs found in a corpus in which the verb plays (or not) one of the qualia roles of the noun, corpus-specific morpho- syntactic and semantic patterns that convey qualia relations. The patterns are explanatory and linguistically motivated, and can be applied to a corpus to

  14. Symbols and the bifurcation between procedural and conceptual thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Tall; Eddie Gray; Maselan Bin Ali; Lillie Crowley; Phil Demarois; Mercedes McGowen; Demetra Pitta; Marcia Pinto; Michael Thomas; Yudariah Yusof

    2001-01-01

    Symbols occupy a pivotal position between processes to be carried out and concepts to be thought about. They allow us both to d o mathematical problems and to think about mathematical relationships. In this presentation we consider the discontinuities that occur in the learning path taken by different students, leading to a divergence between conceptual and procedural thinking. Evidence will

  15. Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

    2008-01-01

    This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

  16. Symbolic Boolean manipulation with ordered binary-decision diagrams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal E. Bryant

    1992-01-01

    Ordered Binary-Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satisfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as graph algorithms on OBDD data structures. Using OBDDs, a wide variety of problems can be solved through symbolic analysis. First, the possible

  17. The profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models

    E-print Network

    Tino, Peter

    The profitability of trading volatility using real­valued and symbolic models Christian of different models can lead to improved performance, i.e., higher profits. In literature related work has been that profits are significant for market makers using historical volatility models but not for those using

  18. Complex Symbolic Dynamics of Bernoulli Shift Cellular Automata Rule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Chen; Fangyue Chen; Fangfang Chen; Weifeng Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the complex dynamical behaviors of one dimensional cellular automata rule 11, which is a Bernoulli sigmatau-shift rule, are investigated from the viewpoint of symbolic dynamics. Based on the dynamical properties of subshift of finite type and the relationship between subshift and quasi-subshift, it is strictly proved that rule 11 is topologically mixing on its two subsystems. At

  19. Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

  20. The symbolic infrastructure of an environmental art project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. J. Pennartz

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide a contribution to a methodology for exploring the symbolic infrastructure of the man-made environment. In order to comprehend the complex nature of the topic, a theoretical framework is suggested, comprising elements from urban aesthetics, semiotics, and cognitive sociology. A description is given of the research method developed on behalf of the

  1. A Dissociation between Symbolic Number Knowledge and Analogue Magnitude Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thad A. Polk; Catherine L. Reed; Janice M. Keenan; Penelope Hogarth; C. Alan Anderson

    2001-01-01

    Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what ÷ means). In this

  2. Probabilistic Symbolic Model Checking with PRISM: A Hybrid Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Z. Kwiatkowska; Gethin Norman; David Parker

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we introduce PRISM, a probabilistic model checker, and describe the ecient symbolic techniques we have devel- oped during its implementation. PRISM is a tool for analysing proba- bilistic systems. It supports three models: discrete-time Markov chains, continuous-time Markov chains and Markov decision processes. Analysis is performed through model checking specifications in the probabilis- tic temporal logics PCTL

  3. STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR UNITS OF MEASURE AIP IEEE CDR APS

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    LS-145 STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR UNITS OF MEASURE ____________________________________________________________________________________ ohm ohm centimeter cm, ·cm cm ohms/square /sq, / /sq ounce oz oz (avoir­ oz dupois) pulse per second pps p/s pulse per minute p/min p/min parts per million ppm ­ ppm ppm picofarad pF pF pF p

  4. COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17, 49-59 (1993) Situativity and Symbols

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17, 49-59 (1993) Situativity and Symbols: Response to Vera and Simon JAMES G that emphasizes the situated character of action, including cognition and learning. A full discussion; Hutchins, 1990,1991; Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 1983; Lave, 1988; Lave & Wenger, 1991

  5. Basic Research as a Political Symbol Roger Pielke Jr.

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    to the on-going evolution of post-Cold War science policy, much less attention has focused on the factors Symbolism Á History Á United Kingdom Introduction Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, observers of science and technology policies have studied in depth the on-going changes that have

  6. Prefrontal Cortex and Flexible Cognitive Control: Rules Without Symbols

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    explanation for the development of cognitive flexibility. This model shows how neurobiological mechanismsPrefrontal Cortex and Flexible Cognitive Control: Rules Without Symbols Nicolas P. Rougier1@princeton.edu, oreilly@psych.colorado.edu Human cognitive control is uniquely flexible, and has been shown to depend

  7. Executable Symbolic Models of Neural Processes Sriram M Iyengar1

    E-print Network

    and artificial neural networks [2]. These models and in particular the H-H models, are affected by highExecutable Symbolic Models of Neural Processes Sriram M Iyengar1 , Carolyn Talcott2 , Riccardo § Corresponding author Email addresses: SMI: msriram@uth.tmc.edu CT: clt@csl.sri.com RM: riccardo

  8. Insight and Outlook: Symbol and Metaphor in Phototherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, David

    Although the roots of phototherapy extend back to the late 1850's, it did not emerge as a distinct entity until the late 1970's. Growing interest has generated a substantial body of literature in the field. While photographs may be looked at concretely, as two-dimensional, their symbolic and metamorphic nature is a potentially powerful tool in…

  9. Symbolism and Psychological Realism in "The Red Badge of Courage."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    1968-01-01

    In "The Red Badge of Courage," Stephen Crane overcomes serious artistic difficulties to depict a complicated psychological change in his protagonist, Henry Fleming, an unsophisticated and inarticulate farm boy. To embody the development of this protagonist, Crane uses a series of thematically-related incidents and a set of thematic symbols which…

  10. Blank Comparison Analysis of Emergent Symbolic Mapping by Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; McIlvane, William J.

    1997-01-01

    Examined a blank comparison method for evaluating emergent symbol mapping and learning of new word: picture matching relations by 3- to 5-year olds. Found that the method had considerable promise for advancing theoretical analyses of emergent mapping in behavior analytic and developmental language research. (KB)

  11. Generalized Symbolic Execution for Model Checking and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurshid, Sarfraz; Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem; Kofmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Modern software systems, which often are concurrent and manipulate complex data structures must be extremely reliable. We present a novel framework based on symbolic execution, for automated checking of such systems. We provide a two-fold generalization of traditional symbolic execution based approaches: one, we define a program instrumentation, which enables standard model checkers to perform symbolic execution; two, we give a novel symbolic execution algorithm that handles dynamically allocated structures (e.g., lists and trees), method preconditions (e.g., acyclicity of lists), data (e.g., integers and strings) and concurrency. The program instrumentation enables a model checker to automatically explore program heap configurations (using a systematic treatment of aliasing) and manipulate logical formulae on program data values (using a decision procedure). We illustrate two applications of our framework: checking correctness of multi-threaded programs that take inputs from unbounded domains with complex structure and generation of non-isomorphic test inputs that satisfy a testing criterion. Our implementation for Java uses the Java PathFinder model checker.

  12. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  13. Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…

  14. Perception of the statistical structure of a random series of binary symbols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold W. Hake; Ray Hyman

    1953-01-01

    40 S's divided into 4 groups were required to predict on each of 240 trials which of 2 possible symbols, H or V, would appear on that trial. The groups differed in the proportion of trials on which a particular symbol appeared and in the degree of sequential dependency between successive symbols. Analysis by method derived from communication theory revealed

  15. How Do Young Children's Spatio-Symbolic Skills Change over Short Time scales?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsubota, Yoko; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to examine how experience affects young children's spatio-symbolic skills over short time scales. Spatio-symbolic reasoning refers to the ability to interpret and use spatial relations, such as those encountered on a map, to solve symbolic tasks. We designed three tasks in which the featural and spatial…

  16. Symbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical Analysis of State-sharing Composed Models

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Symbolic State-space Exploration and Numerical Analysis of State-sharing Composed Models Salem Diagrams, Numerical Analysis, Symbolic State-space Exploration ABSTRACT The complexity of stochastic models. #12;SYMBOLIC STATE-SPACE EXPLORATION AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF ... 1 analysis of generated CTMCs

  17. Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

  18. The Schoolyard as a Stage: Missing Cultural Clues in Symbolic Fighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    Investigates how social conflict was enacted at one racially diverse, urban middle school. Discusses symbolic fighting, the use of body language, the location of symbolic fighting, and symbolic fighting as a source of transformation, proposing to redefine the socializing role of social conflict in the lives of students and adults in schools.…

  19. Symbolic-to-statistical hybridization: extending generation-heavy machine translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nizar Habash; Bonnie J. Dorr; Christof Monz

    2009-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed an increasing interest in hybridizing surface-based statistical approaches and rule-based symbolic approaches to machine translation (MT). Much of that work is focused on extending statistical MT systems with symbolic knowledge and components. In the brand of hybridization discussed here, we go in the opposite direction: adding statistical bilingual components to a symbolic system. Our

  20. Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language: Toward a dynamic psycholinguistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna R?czaszek-Leonardi; J. A. Scott Kelso

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed

  1. Dorsal and ventral attention systems underlie social and symbolic cueing

    PubMed Central

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Eye gaze is a powerful cue for orienting attention in space. Studies examining whether gaze and symbolic cues recruit the same neural mechanisms have found mixed results. We tested whether there is a specialized attentional mechanism for social cues. We separately measured BOLD activity during orienting and reorienting attention following predictive gaze and symbolic cues. Results showed that gaze and symbolic cues exerted their influence through the same neural networks, but also produced some differential modulations. Dorsal fronto-parietal regions in left IPS and bilateral MT+/lateral occipital cortex only showed orienting effects for symbolic cues while right pIPS showed larger validity effects following gaze cues. Both exceptions may reflect the greater automaticity of gaze cues: symbolic orienting may require more effort, while disengaging attention during reorienting may be more difficult following gaze cues. Face-selective regions, identified with a face localizer, showed selective activations for gaze cues reflecting sensory processing but no attentional modulations. Therefore, no evidence was found linking face-selective regions to a hypothetical, specialized mechanism for orienting attention to gaze cues. However, a functional connectivity analysis showed greater connectivity between face-selective regions and right pIPS, pSTS and IFG during gaze cueing, consistent with proposals that face-selective regions may send gaze signals to parts of the DAN and VAN. Finally, although the default-mode network is thought to be involved in social cognition, this role does not extend to gaze orienting as these regions were more deactivated following gaze cues and showed less functional connectivity with face-selective regions during gaze cues. PMID:23937692

  2. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  3. Safety - PPE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This high school activity from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges "your students' ability to identify safety hazards, as they play the role of a safety inspector." On this page, visitors will find a link to two company overview sheets, one with information about TECO, a company that generate and distributes electricity, and another with information about CF Industries, a fertilizer producer. The site also provides a lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation, and a student handout. This is a great resource to introduce students to hands-on practices in safety inspection in different industries.

  4. Basic Numerical Skills in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Symbolic vs Non-Symbolic Number Magnitude Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing…

  5. Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols: European Bans on the Wearing of Religious Symbols in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Written in accessible language, Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols is a comprehensive analysis of a topical subject that is being widely debated across Europe. The book provides an overview of emerging case law from the European Court of Human Rights as well as from national courts and equality bodies in European countries on the wearing of…

  6. Sun Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... other shelter before you need relief from the sun. Your best bet to protect your skin is ...

  7. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in food handling, cooking, and storage can prevent foodborne illness. There are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture

  8. Fire Safety

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... smoke alarms and sprinklers save lives. Dry (Christmas) Tree vs. High Moisture Tree Fire Video by Maury Grundy The U.S. Fire ... when it ignites a maintained (wet) cut Christmas tree and a dry tree. Fire Prevention and Safety ...

  9. Fireworks Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at 350 °F Water boils at 212 °F Fireworks Safety Fireworks are often used to mark special ... fireworks NFPA is opposed to consumer use of fireworks. This includes sparklers and firecrackers. Even sparklers burn ...

  10. Aerospace Safety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace safety. Topics include hazard communications, lockout/tagout, confined space entry, fall protection, PPE, firefighting and bloodborne pathogens.

  11. ATV Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an ATV: Be at least 16 years old. Health and safety experts strongly discourage ATV use by anyone younger than 16. Operating an ATV demands that drivers be skilled at making quick adjustments, such as ...

  12. Water Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... water during bad weather, especially lightning. Back Continue Water Park Safety Water parks can be a lot ...

  13. LASER SAFETY POLICY MANUAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY

    E-print Network

    Houston, Paul L.

    LASER SAFETY POLICY MANUAL ISSUED BY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY OFFICE OF RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY and GEORGIA TECH LASER SAFETY COMMITTEE July 1, 2010 Revised July 31, 2012 #12;Laser Safety Program 1-1 #12;Laser Safety Policy Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. POLICY AND SCOPE

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY MANUAL

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY MANUAL May 10, 2002 #12;i Acknowledgements Environmental Health and Safety gratefully acknowledges the assistance provided by the University Safety Council extremely helpful. #12;ii Environmental Health and Safety General Safety Manual Table of Contents Section

  15. Safety Guidelines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James T. Biehle

    2007-01-01

    In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.

  16. A Scalable Distribution Network Risk Evaluation Framework via Symbolic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jian; Liu, Kaipei; Tan, Tianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of electric power distribution network risks must address the problems of incomplete information and changing dynamics. A risk evaluation framework should be adaptable to a specific situation and an evolving understanding of risk. Methods This study investigates the use of symbolic dynamics to abstract raw data. After introducing symbolic dynamics operators, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy are used to quantitatively evaluate relationships between risk sub-factors and main factors. For layered risk indicators, where the factors are categorized into four main factors – device, structure, load and special operation – a merging algorithm using operators to calculate the risk factors is discussed. Finally, an example from the Sanya Power Company is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusion Distribution networks are exposed and can be affected by many things. The topology and the operating mode of a distribution network are dynamic, so the faults and their consequences are probabilistic. PMID:25789859

  17. Hand preferences in preschool children: Reaching, pointing and symbolic gestures.

    PubMed

    Cochet, Hélène; Centelles, Laurie; Jover, Marianne; Plachta, Suzy; Vauclair, Jacques

    2015-07-01

    Manual asymmetries emerge very early in development and several researchers have reported a significant right-hand bias in toddlers although this bias fluctuates depending on the nature of the activity being performed. However, little is known about the further development of asymmetries in preschoolers. In this study, patterns of hand preference were assessed in 50 children aged 3-5 years for different activities, including reaching movements, pointing gestures and symbolic gestures. Contrary to what has been reported in children before 3 years of age, we did not observe any difference in the mean handedness indices obtained in each task. Moreover, the asymmetry of reaching was found to correlate with that of pointing gestures, but not with that of symbolic gestures. In relation to the results reported in infants and adults, this study may help deciphering the mechanisms controlling the development of handedness by providing measures of manual asymmetries in an age range that has been so far rather neglected. PMID:25651377

  18. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

  19. Quantifying sudden changes in dynamical systems using symbolic networks

    E-print Network

    Masoller, Cristina; Ayad, Sarah; Gustave, Francois; Barland, Stephane; Pons, Antonio J; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We characterise the evolution of a dynamical system by combining two well-known complex systems' tools, namely, symbolic ordinal analysis and networks. From the ordinal representation of a time-series we construct a network in which every node weights represents the probability of an ordinal patterns (OPs) to appear in the symbolic sequence and each edges weight represents the probability of transitions between two consecutive OPs. Several network-based diagnostics are then proposed to characterize the dynamics of different systems: logistic, tent and circle maps. We show that these diagnostics are able to capture changes produced in the dynamics as a control parameter is varied. We also apply our new measures to empirical data from semiconductor lasers and show that they are able to anticipate the polarization switchings, thus providing early warning signals of abrupt transitions.

  20. Quantifying sudden changes in dynamical systems using symbolic networks

    E-print Network

    Cristina Masoller; Yanhua Hong; Sarah Ayad; Francois Gustave; Stephane Barland; Antonio J. Pons; Sergio Gómez; Alex Arenas

    2015-01-27

    We characterise the evolution of a dynamical system by combining two well-known complex systems' tools, namely, symbolic ordinal analysis and networks. From the ordinal representation of a time-series we construct a network in which every node weights represents the probability of an ordinal patterns (OPs) to appear in the symbolic sequence and each edges weight represents the probability of transitions between two consecutive OPs. Several network-based diagnostics are then proposed to characterize the dynamics of different systems: logistic, tent and circle maps. We show that these diagnostics are able to capture changes produced in the dynamics as a control parameter is varied. We also apply our new measures to empirical data from semiconductor lasers and show that they are able to anticipate the polarization switchings, thus providing early warning signals of abrupt transitions.

  1. ISR; A database for symbolic processing in computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Brolio, J.; Draper, B.A.; Beveridge, J.R.; Hanson, A.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Computer vision imposes unique requirements on the representation and manipulation of image data and knowledge. At a vision system's lowest level are sensors that represent an image with purely numeric image arrays, while at the highest level are semantic world models that provide the final interpretation of the scene. In between are thousands of intermediate descriptions, many of which must be repeatedly accessed and processed during interpretation. In this article, the authors describe a representation and management system for use at the intermediate (symbolic) level of vision. Based on database management methodology, the intermediate symbolic representation (ISR) mediates access to intermediate-level vision data and forms an active interface to the higher-level inference processes that construct an image's interpretation. The system supports important types of data and operations and can be adapted to the changing needs of ongoing research. Furthermore, it provides a centralized data representation that supports integration of results from multiple avenues.

  2. Quantifying sudden changes in dynamical systems using symbolic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoller, Cristina; Hong, Yanhua; Ayad, Sarah; Gustave, Francois; Barland, Stephane; Pons, Antonio J.; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-02-01

    We characterize the evolution of a dynamical system by combining two well-known complex systems’ tools, namely, symbolic ordinal analysis and networks. From the ordinal representation of a time series we construct a network in which every node weight represents the probability of an ordinal pattern (OP) to appear in the symbolic sequence and each edge's weight represents the probability of transitions between two consecutive OPs. Several network-based diagnostics are then proposed to characterize the dynamics of different systems: logistic, tent, and circle maps. We show that these diagnostics are able to capture changes produced in the dynamics as a control parameter is varied. We also apply our new measures to empirical data from semiconductor lasers and show that they are able to anticipate the polarization switchings, thus providing early warning signals of abrupt transitions.

  3. A Multi-Encoding Approach for LTL Symbolic Satisfiability Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Formal behavioral specifications written early in the system-design process and communicated across all design phases have been shown to increase the efficiency, consistency, and quality of the system under development. To prevent introducing design or verification errors, it is crucial to test specifications for satisfiability. Our focus here is on specifications expressed in linear temporal logic (LTL). We introduce a novel encoding of symbolic transition-based Buchi automata and a novel, "sloppy," transition encoding, both of which result in improved scalability. We also define novel BDD variable orders based on tree decomposition of formula parse trees. We describe and extensively test a new multi-encoding approach utilizing these novel encoding techniques to create 30 encoding variations. We show that our novel encodings translate to significant, sometimes exponential, improvement over the current standard encoding for symbolic LTL satisfiability checking.

  4. Study of Two Graphic Symbol-Teaching Methods for Individuals with Physical Disabilities and Additional Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emms, Laila; Gardner, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether contrasting teaching methods had an effect on performance accuracy in the recall of graphic symbols. The secondary purpose was to establish whether the iconicity of symbols had an effect on performance accuracy. A direct symbol-teaching method and a contextual symbol-teaching method were…

  5. Analysis and Performance Evaluation of a K-Symbol Pilot Assisted Channel Estimator using Linear Interpolation for OFDM Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Doukas; Grigorios Kalivas

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the performance of a novel linear interpolator scheme that uses K successive orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols is examined. The estimator collects K successive OFDM symbols to create a virtual super symbol (VSS) with K-P pilots using P pilots from each OFDM symbol. The (K - 1) middot P pilots are shifted in frequency in such

  6. Triangles and tribulations: the politics of Nazi symbols.

    PubMed

    Elman, R A

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the politics of "reclamation." Its focus is on pink and black triangles, currently used as symbols for gay and lesbian pride and liberation. Previously, these same identifiers were worn by those destined for annihilation during the Holocaust. I suggest that, in [re]claiming these markers, activists, however well intentioned, run a path dangerously close to the denial of history. PMID:8743114

  7. Symbol and Sustenance: Cattle in South Asian Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deryck O. Lodrick

    2005-01-01

    Domesticated Indian zebu cattle were present on the western margins of the South Asian subcontinent as early as 6000 B.C.\\u000a Cattle were important in the agricultural economy of the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley, but archaeological evidence\\u000a suggests the bull was also assuming a symbolic or religious role in this culture during the third millennium B.C. There is,\\u000a however,

  8. Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.

  9. ALHEP symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics

    E-print Network

    V. Makarenko

    2007-04-13

    ALHEP is the symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics. It deals with amplitudes calculation, matrix element squaring, Wick theorem, dimensional regularization, tensor reduction of loop integrals and simplification of final expressions. The program output includes: Fortran code for differential cross section, Mathematica files to view results and intermediate steps and TeX source for Feynman diagrams. The PYTHIA interface is available. The project website http://www.hep.by/alhep contains up-to-date executables, manual and script examples.

  10. SKOPE: A connectionist\\/symbolic architecture of spoken Korean processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Geunbae Lee; Jong-Hyeok Lee

    1995-01-01

    Spoken language processing requires speech and natural language integration.\\u000aMoreover, spoken Korean calls for unique processing methodology due to its\\u000alinguistic characteristics. This paper presents SKOPE, a connectionist\\/symbolic\\u000aspoken Korean processing engine, which emphasizes that: 1) connectionist and\\u000asymbolic techniques must be selectively applied according to their relative\\u000astrength and weakness, and 2) the linguistic characteristics of Korean must be

  11. Identifying delayed directional couplings with symbolic transfer entropy.

    PubMed

    Dickten, Henning; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    We propose a straightforward extension of symbolic transfer entropy to enable the investigation of delayed directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from time series. Analyzing time series from chaotic model systems, we demonstrate the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings obtained from applying our method to infer delayed directed interactions in the human epileptic brain underline the importance of our approach for improving the construction of functional network structures from data. PMID:25615128

  12. Symbolic dynamic analysis of complex systems for anomaly detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asok Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept of anomaly detection in complex dynamical systems using tools of Symbolic Dynamics, Finite State Automata, and Pattern Recognition, where time-series data of the observed variables on the fast time-scale are analyzed at slow time-scale epochs for early detection of (possible) anomalies. The concept of anomaly detection in dynamical systems is elucidated based on experimental

  13. Symbolic description of periodic orbits for the quadratic Zeeman effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Wintgen, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    The organization of the periodic orbits of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field is studied. It is shown that the dynamics is qualitatively different from that for weak fields and negative energies. The orbits can be mapped one-to-one onto a ternary symbolic tree, an organization which turns out to be applicable for all values of energy and field strength. The results indicate that the field-free hydrogen atom has a purely chaotic limit for positive energies.

  14. An international symbol for the sustained exploration of space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjoy Som

    2010-01-01

    As humanity prepares to extend its reach beyond low-Earth-orbit for the first time since the 1970s, a new symbol of international cooperation is needed to further promote the message of peace and collaboration such exploration entails. The space race that occurred between the USSR and the USA is an ill-suited model for long-term sustained space exploration because it is too

  15. Symbolic Model Checking for Real-time Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Henzingert; Xavier Nicollin; Joseph Sifakis; Sergio Yovine

    1992-01-01

    . We describe finite-state programs over real-numbered time in a guardedcommandlanguage with real-valued clocks or, equivalently, as finite automata withreal-valued clocks. Model checking answers the question which states of a real-timeprogram satisfy a branching-time specification (given in an extension of CTL with clockvariables). We develop an algorithm that computes this set of states symbolically as afixpoint of a functional on

  16. A Symbolic Execution Framework for JavaScript

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prateek Saxena; Devdatta Akhawe; Steve Hanna; Feng Mao; Stephen McCamant; Dawn Song

    2010-01-01

    As AJAX applications gain popularity, client-side JavaScript code is becoming increasingly complex. However, few automated vulnerability analysis tools for JavaScript exist. In this paper, we describe the first system for exploring the execution space of JavaScript code using symbolic execution. To handle JavaScript code’s complex use of string operations, we design a new language of string constraints and implement a

  17. Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored

  18. Probabilistic symbolic model checking with PRISM: a hybrid approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Z. Kwiatkowska; Gethin Norman; David Parker

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper we introduce PRISM, a probabilistic model checker, and describe the ecient symbolic techniques we have devel- oped during its implementation. PRISM is a tool for analysing proba- bilistic systems. It supports three models: discrete-time Markov chains, continuous-time Markov chains and Markov decision processes. Analysis is performed through model,checking specifications in the probabilis- tic temporal logics PCTL

  19. Medical Image Categorization using a Texture Based Symbolic Description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Florea; Eugen Barbu; Alexandrina Rogozan; Abdelaziz Bensrhair; Vasile Buzuloiu

    2006-01-01

    In the field of medical image indexation, automatic catego- rization provides the means for extracting, otherwise unavail- able, information from images. Our work is focused on con- tent-based automatic medical image categorization methods, in the on-line context of the CISMeF health-catalogue. In this study we propose and evaluate a reduced symbolic image rep- resentation. The categorization of medical images according

  20. Facilitating Children's Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by…

  1. Can We Predict Mathematical Learning Disabilities from Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Comparison Tasks in Kindergarten? Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie; Ceulemans, Annelies; De Weerdt, Frauke; Pieters, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ability to compare numbers, as the most basic form of number sense, has been related to arithmetical achievement. Aims: The current study addressed the predictive value of non-symbolic and symbolic (number word (NW) and Arabic number (AN)) comparison for arithmetics by means of a longitudinal design. Sample: Sixteen children with…

  2. Environmental Health and Safety

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    .janicki@mcgill.ca 8888-43866 ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Class 3b or 4 lasers Biological safety-training/whmis-training] Radiation safety [https://www.mcgill.ca/ehs/safety-training/radiation-safety- training] Laser safety [https://www.mcgill.ca/ehs/safety-training/laser-safetyEnvironmental Health and Safety EHS-FORM-022 v.1.1 Page 1 of 1 Laboratory safety self

  3. Health and Safety Services Safety Guide 21

    E-print Network

    Reading, University of

    Health and Safety Services Safety Guide 21 The safe use of lasers #12;Safety Guide 21 The safe use of lasers Health and Safety Services ii October 2008 The safe use of lasers Contents Summary......................................................................................................................................................................1 2.1. Duties on Heads of School 1 2.2. The University Laser Safety Officer (ULSO) 1 2.3. Duties

  4. Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Golf carts are utilized on campus for groundskeepers and personal injury. Only trained and authorized personnel may operate golf carts capable of carrying more than

  5. Perception and multimeaning analysis of graphic symbols for Thai picture-based communication system.

    PubMed

    Chompoobutr, Sarinya; Potibal, Puttachart; Boriboon, Monthika; Phantachat, Wantanee

    2013-03-01

    Graphic symbols are a vital part of most augmentative and alternative communication systems. Communication fluency of graphic symbol user depends on how well the relationship between symbols and its referents are learnt. The first aim of this study is to survey the perception of the selected graphic symbols across seven age groups of participants with different educational background. Sixty-five individuals identified themselves as Thai and ranged in age from 10 to 50 years participated in the investigation used 64 graphic symbols. The last aim of this study is to demonstrate the analysis of multimeaning graphic symbols, which will be used in Thai Picture-based communication system. The twenty graphic symbols with 9-14 meanings are analyzed in both syntactic and semantic aspects. The meanings are divided into five categories: noun, verb/adjective, size, color and shape. Respect to the first aim, the results suggest that the participants under investigation with different sexes, age groups, as well as various educational levels perceive the features or inherent characteristics of such graphic symbols similarly. The results of the analysis of multimeaning of graphic symbols indicate that the foundation of Minspeak, polysemy and redundancy of the words illustrates the inherit meanings of the real-life objects, and it also conveys that the Thai graphic symbols are influenced by numerous factors in Thai circumstance such as ability, motivation, experience, worldview and culture. PMID:23244464

  6. A Survey of New Trends in Symbolic Execution for Software Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a well-known program analysis technique which represents values of program inputs with symbolic values instead of concrete (initialized) data and executes the program by manipulating program expressions involving the symbolic values. Symbolic execution has been proposed over three decades ago but recently it has found renewed interest in the research community, due in part to the progress in decision procedures, availability of powerful computers and new algorithmic developments. We provide a survey of some of the new research trends in symbolic execution, with particular emphasis on applications to test generation and program analysis. We first describe an approach that handles complex programming constructs such as input data structures, arrays, as well as multi-threading. We follow with a discussion of abstraction techniques that can be used to limit the (possibly infinite) number of symbolic configurations that need to be analyzed for the symbolic execution of looping programs. Furthermore, we describe recent hybrid techniques that combine concrete and symbolic execution to overcome some of the inherent limitations of symbolic execution, such as handling native code or availability of decision procedures for the application domain. Finally, we give a short survey of interesting new applications, such as predictive testing, invariant inference, program repair, analysis of parallel numerical programs and differential symbolic execution.

  7. Semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 12j symbol with one small angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Liang [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner 12j symbol, in the limit of one small and 11 large angular momenta. There are two kinds of asymptotic formulas for the 12j symbol with one small angular momentum. We present the first kind of formula in this paper. Our derivation relies on the techniques developed in the semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 9j symbol [L. Yu and R. G. Littlejohn, Phys. Rev. A 83, 052114 (2011)], where we used a gauge-invariant form of the multicomponent WKB wave functions to derive asymptotic formulas for the 9j symbol with small and large angular momenta. When applying the same technique to the 12j symbol in this paper, we find that the spinor is diagonalized in the direction of an intermediate angular momentum. In addition, we find that the geometry of the derived asymptotic formula for the 12j symbol is expressed in terms of the vector diagram for a 9j symbol. This illustrates a general geometric connection between asymptotic limits of the various 3nj symbols. This work contributes an asymptotic formula for the 12j symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum, and serves as a basis for finding asymptotic formulas for the Wigner 15j symbol with two small angular momenta.

  8. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-09-19

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. PMID:25092666

  9. Neural connectivity patterns underlying symbolic number processing indicate mathematical achievement in children.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonkoo; Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-01

    In early childhood, humans learn culturally specific symbols for number that allow them entry into the world of complex numerical thinking. Yet little is known about how the brain supports the development of the uniquely human symbolic number system. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging along with an effective connectivity analysis to investigate the neural substrates for symbolic number processing in young children. We hypothesized that, as children solidify the mapping between symbols and underlying magnitudes, important developmental changes occur in the neural communication between the right parietal region, important for the representation of non-symbolic numerical magnitudes, and other brain regions known to be critical for processing numerical symbols. To test this hypothesis, we scanned children between 4 and 6 years of age while they performed a magnitude comparison task with Arabic numerals (numerical, symbolic), dot arrays (numerical, non-symbolic), and lines (non-numerical). We then identified the right parietal seed region that showed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in the numerical versus the non-numerical conditions. A psychophysiological interaction method was used to find patterns of effective connectivity arising from this parietal seed region specific to symbolic compared to non-symbolic number processing. Two brain regions, the left supramarginal gyrus and the right precentral gyrus, showed significant effective connectivity from the right parietal cortex. Moreover, the degree of this effective connectivity to the left supramarginal gyrus was correlated with age, and the degree of the connectivity to the right precentral gyrus predicted performance on a standardized symbolic math test. These findings suggest that effective connectivity underlying symbolic number processing may be critical as children master the associations between numerical symbols and magnitudes, and that these connectivity patterns may serve as an important indicator of mathematical achievement. PMID:24267664

  10. Medication Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Keohane; David W. Bates

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1999 landmark report by the Institute of Medicine, ''To Err is Human,'' increasing attention has been directed toward patient safety in the United States, and in fact world wide. This report estimated that approxi- mately 44,000 to 98,000 patients die annually as a result of errors in the care received, and that more than a million patients are

  11. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  12. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  13. Sun Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Sun Safety There are many ways to be physically ... l Share your exercise story. National Institute on ... Go4Life is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Safety Shoes

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , caustics, cutting oils, and petroleum products, neoprene or nitrile boots are often required to prevent Institute's (ANSI) label inside each shoe. Prevent foot injuries by using common safety sense and wearing origin, sex, age, marital status, disability, public as- sistance status, veteran status, or sexual

  15. Machine Shop Safety Tips & Safety Guidelines GENERAL SAFETY TIPS

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Machine Shop Safety Tips & Safety Guidelines GENERAL SAFETY TIPS · Safety glasses with side shields distance away from moving machine parts, work pieces, and cutters. · Use hand tools for their designed to oil, clean, adjust, or repair any machine while it is running. Stop the machine and lock the power

  16. Young Word Learners’ Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference

    PubMed Central

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds’ interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation task (Experiment 1) and a symbol-learning task (Experiment 2) were investigated. In Experiment 1 (N=32), children avoided verbal lexical overlap, mapping novel words to unnamed objects; children failed to display this pattern with symbolic gestures. In Experiment 2 (N=32), 18-month-olds mapped both novel words and novel symbolic gestures onto their referents. Implications of these findings for the specialized nature of word learning and the development of lexical overlap avoidance are discussed. PMID:22957802

  17. The effect of sequential exposure of color conditions on time and accuracy of graphic symbol location.

    PubMed

    Alant, Erna; Kolatsis, Anna; Lilienfeld, Margi

    2010-03-01

    An important aspect in AAC concerns the user's ability to locate an aided visual symbol on a communication display in order to facilitate meaningful interaction with partners. Recent studies have suggested that the use of different colored symbols may be influential in the visual search process, and that this, in turn will influence the speed and accuracy of symbol location. This study examined the role of color on rate and accuracy of identifying symbols on an 8-location overlay through the use of 3 color conditions (same, mixed and unique). Sixty typically developing preschool children were exposed to two different sequential exposures (Set 1 and Set 2). Participants searched for a target stimulus (either meaningful symbols or arbitrary forms) in a stimuli array. Findings indicated that the sequential exposures (orderings) impacted both time and accuracy for both types of symbols within specific instances. PMID:20196703

  18. Semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 9j symbol with small and large angular momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Liang; Littlejohn, Robert G. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j symbol, in the limit of one small and eight large angular momenta, using a gauge-invariant factorization for the asymptotic solution of a set of coupled wave equations. Our factorization eliminates the geometric phases completely, using gauge-invariant noncanonical coordinates, parallel transports of spinors, and quantum rotation matrices. Our derivation generalizes to higher 3nj symbols. We display without proof some asymptotic formulas for the 12j symbol and the 15j symbol in the Appendices. This work contributes an asymptotic formula of the Wigner 9j symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum and serves as an example of a general method for deriving asymptotic formulas for 3nj symbols.

  19. Electrical Fire Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and education. Consumer Product Safety Commission safety guide: electronics and electrical . Electrical safety information on ground fault circuit interrupters, arc fault circuit interrupters, household extension cords, and spotting possible safety problems with electrical ...

  20. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

    E-print Network

    OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Department of Occupational Health and Safety Revised December 2009 #12;Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management System 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................. 3 2.2 Management of Health and Safety

  1. CPSC Safety Guides

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Hobbies Playgrounds Pools and Spas Recent OnSafety Blogs March 06, 2015 Daylight Saving Time change smoke ... Product Safety: Jacqueline Jones-Smith Read More OnSafety Blogs Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards ...

  2. On the Problems of Symbol-Spaced Tapped-Delay-Line Models for WSSUS Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Gutierrez-diaz-de-leon; Margarita Cabrera-bean; Matthias Pätzold

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—This paper reviews the pertinence and statistical behavior of symbol-spaced tapped-delay-line (TDL) models which are widely used to model wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) channels. Symbol-spaced TDL models are obtained by sampling the channel impulse response (CIR) at a rate equal to the reciprocal of the symbol duration. They were proposed more than three decades ago within the context of

  3. Object-Oriented Symbolic Derivation and Automatic Programming of Finite Elements in Mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Eyheramendy; Thomas Zimmermann

    1999-01-01

    .  \\u000a Symbolic approaches to assist in the development of finite element formulations have been used since the late 1970s. Today,\\u000a symbolic mathematical software such as Mathematica, Maple, etc., has proved to be helpful when testing formulations. In earlier\\u000a work, the authors introduced a new way of integrating naturally symbolic concepts in numerical finite element codes, taking\\u000a advantage of an objectoriented

  4. Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, K.

    The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal decision-feedback mechanism is introduced to truncate the channel memory "seen" by the MAPSD section. Also, simpler gradient-based updates for the channel estimates, and a metric pruning technique are used to further reduce the MAPSD complexity. Spatial diversity MAP combiners are developed to enhance the error rate performance and combat channel fading. As a first application of the MAPSD algorithm, dual-mode recovery techniques for TDMA (time-division multiple access) mobile radio signals are presented. Combined estimation of the symbol timing and the multipath parameters is proposed, using an auxiliary extended Kalman filter during the training cycle, and then tracking of the fading parameters is performed during the data cycle using the blind MAPSD algorithm. For the second application, a single-input receiver is employed to jointly recover cochannel narrowband signals. Assuming known channels, this two-stage joint MAPSD (JMAPSD) algorithm is compared to the optimal joint maximum likelihood sequence estimator, and to the joint decision-feedback detector. A blind MAPSD algorithm for the joint recovery of cochannel signals is also presented. Computer simulation results are provided to quantify the performance of the various algorithms proposed in this dissertation.

  5. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sand Pit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  6. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  7. Symbolic landforms created by ancient earthworks near Lake Titicaca

    E-print Network

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Interesting landforms created by an ancient network of earthworks are shown, using Google satellite imagery enhanced by an image processing. This network covers a large part of the land near the Titicaca Lake. Satellite images clearly display the slopes of hills criss-crossed with terrace walls and the surfaces of the plains covered with raised fields, indicating that this was once a highly productive agricultural place for the south central Andes. Some of the landforms are rather remarkable, having a clear symbolic function. Among them, there are structures which seem to represent birds, where ponds are their eyes.

  8. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop. PMID:8856822

  9. Verification of Java Programs using Symbolic Execution and Invariant Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Software verification is recognized as an important and difficult problem. We present a norel framework, based on symbolic execution, for the automated verification of software. The framework uses annotations in the form of method specifications an3 loop invariants. We present a novel iterative technique that uses invariant strengthening and approximation for discovering these loop invariants automatically. The technique handles different types of data (e.g. boolean and numeric constraints, dynamically allocated structures and arrays) and it allows for checking universally quantified formulas. Our framework is built on top of the Java PathFinder model checking toolset and it was used for the verification of several non-trivial Java programs.

  10. Symbol calculus and zeta--function regularized determinants

    E-print Network

    Burak Tevfik Kaynak; O. Teoman Turgut

    2007-12-07

    In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for non--positive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate the determinant as a derivative expansion. The technique is applied both to a spin--0 bosonic operator and to the Dirac operator coupled to a scalar field.

  11. Symbol calculus and zeta-function regularized determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O. Teoman [Department of Physics, Bogazici University, Bebek, Istanbul 34342 (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bogazici University, Bebek, Istanbul 34342, Turkey and Feza Gursey Institute, Kandilli, Istanbul 34684 (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for nonpositive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action, one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose, we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate the determinant as a derivative expansion. The technique is applied both to a spin-0 bosonic operator and to the Dirac operator coupled to a scalar field.

  12. Kneadings, Symbolic Dynamics and Painting Lorenz Chaos. A Tutorial

    E-print Network

    Roberto Barrio; Andrey Shilnikov; Leonid Shilnikov

    2012-04-15

    A new computational technique based on the symbolic description utilizing kneading invariants is proposed and verified for explorations of dynamical and parametric chaos in a few exemplary systems with the Lorenz attractor. The technique allows for uncovering the stunning complexity and universality of bi-parametric structures and detect their organizing centers - codimension-two T-points and separating saddles in the kneading-based scans of the iconic Lorenz equation from hydrodynamics, a normal model from mathematics, and a laser model from nonlinear optics.

  13. Weighted symbolic analysis of human behavior for event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosani, A.; Boato, G.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2013-03-01

    Automatic video analysis and understanding has become a high interest research topic, with applications to video browsing, content-based video indexing, and visual surveillance. However, the automation of this process is still a challenging task, due to clutters produced by low-level processing operations. This common problem can be solved by embedding signi cant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between actual sequences and models. In this context we propose a novel framework that employs a symbolic representation of complex activities through sequences of atomic actions based on a weighted Context-Free Grammar.

  14. SYMBOLS.com: Encyclopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Liungman, Carl G., 1938-.

    Provided by HME Media, this site is an online version of Carl G. Liungman's Thought Signs (1995), an encyclopedia of graphic symbols. The site contains more than 2,500 Western signs, arranged into 54 groups according to their graphic characteristics. Ranging from Cro-Magnon carvings in mammoth teeth to hobo signs and subway graffiti, the signs are explained and examined in 1,600 articles. Users may search for the meaning or history of a sign in the Graphic Index or use the Word Index to find an ideogram with a certain meaning.

  15. Parallel versions of the symbolic manipulation system FORM

    E-print Network

    M. Tentyukov; J. A. M. Vermaseren; J. Vollinga

    2010-06-10

    The symbolic manipulation program FORM is specialized to handle very large algebraic expressions. Some specific features of its internal structure make FORM very well suited for parallelization. We have now two parallel versions of FORM, one is based on POSIX threads and is optimal for modern multicore computers while another one uses MPI and can be used to parallelize FORM on clusters and Massive Parallel Processing systems. Most existing FORM programs will be able to take advantage of the parallel execution without the need for modifications.

  16. Natural convection within spherical annuli by symbolic algebra

    SciTech Connect

    TeBeest, K.G. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)); Trogdon, S.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States)); Douglass, R.W. (EG G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1993-08-01

    An asymptotic truncated series solution for steady, axisymmetric convection between concentric spheres is obtained through effective use of symbolic algebra. The approximate solution is given in powers of the square root of the Grashof number based on outer radius. The solution differs from that of Hardee (1966) and Singh and Elliot (1981) in that we give a method for determining the series solution to any order. The results obtained here were used as the basic flows in the hydrodynamic stability analysis of TeBeest. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. HEALTH, SAFETY & INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    reporting · DSE Assessments · Risk Assessments · Electrical Safety #12;HEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING POLICYHEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING NEW STAFF INDUCTION #12;INTRODUCTION · University Health, Safety and Wellbeing Policy · The role of the Health & Safety Office · School/Unit Health & Safety Management

  18. Acquisition Performance Comparison of the Generalized Maximum A Posteriori Symbol Synchronizer Versus the Data-Transition Tracking Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. V.; Yan, T.-Y.; Simon, M. K.; Martin, W. L.

    1997-10-01

    A generalized maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol synchronizer for arbitrary nonoverlapping pulse shape and data-transition density is derived, and a simplifed realization is presented. Acquisition performance at low to very low symbol signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) is investigated and compared against the conventional data transition tracking loop (DTTL). Simulation results show that the MAP symbol synchronizer can operate at very low symbol SNRs where the DTTL fails. Furthermore, the new symbol synchronizer reduces the initial acquisition time by at least one order of magnitude as compared with the DTTL. It also has been shown that the new symbol synchronizer is suitable for minimum-shift-keying (MSK) signaling waveforms.

  19. Environmental Health and Instructional Safety Employee Safety

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Program 22 Medical Monitoring 23 Office Safety 23 Personal Protective Equipment 24 Table of Contents #12Environmental Health and Instructional Safety #12;Employee Safety Page 1 To our University an environment for students, faculty, staff, and visitors that will not adversely affect their health and safety

  20. Metaphor, symbolic play, and logical thought in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Seitz, J A

    1997-11-01

    Development of the ability to understand diverse types of metaphor was examined in terms of play context (symbolic vs. constructive-object play), Piagetian operational level (preoperational vs. concrete-operational), and medium of presentation (pictures vs. words). Forty 4-year-olds and 80 6-year-olds (40 preoperational, 40 concrete-operational) were presented with six different types of metaphorical relationships (color, shape, physiognomic, cross-modal, psychological-physical, and taxonomic matches) in both pictures and words in a match-to-sample design. Results indicated that (a) constructive-object play, rather than symbolic play, facilitated the understanding of perceptual and taxonomic metaphor, suggesting differences in early styles of metaphoric usage; (b) despite previous findings, the study failed to replicate a relationship between operativity and metaphoric understanding; and (c) younger children did significantly better in the pictorial medium, suggesting a picture-superiority effect for more perceptible metaphorical relations (perceptual and physiognomic), whereas older children showed a word-superiority effect for more conceptual metaphors (psychological-physical and taxonomic). PMID:9431664

  1. Neural correlates of symbolic number comparison in developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cécile; Schlögel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2010-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two groups of children were controlled for general cognitive factors, such as working memory, reading abilities, or IQ. Brain activations were measured during a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic numerals and a color comparison task on pairs of nonnumerical symbols. In each task, pairs of stimuli that were close or far on the relevant dimension were constituted. Brain activation in bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was modulated by numerical distance in controls but not in children with DD. Moreover, although the right IPS responded to numerical distance only, the left IPS was influenced by both numerical and color distances in control children. Our findings suggest that dyscalculia is associated with impairment in areas involved in number magnitude processing and, to a lesser extent, in areas dedicated to domain-general magnitude processing. PMID:19366284

  2. Cardiovascular regulation during sleep quantified by symbolic coupling traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhrbier, A.; Riedl, M.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2010-12-01

    Sleep is a complex regulated process with short periods of wakefulness and different sleep stages. These sleep stages modulate autonomous functions such as blood pressure and heart rate. The method of symbolic coupling traces (SCT) is used to analyze and quantify time-delayed coupling of these measurements during different sleep stages. The symbolic coupling traces, defined as the symmetric and diametric traces of the bivariate word distribution matrix, allow the quantification of time-delayed coupling. In this paper, the method is applied to heart rate and systolic blood pressure time series during different sleep stages for healthy controls as well as for normotensive and hypertensive patients with sleep apneas. Using the SCT, significant different cardiovascular mechanisms not only between the deep sleep and the other sleep stages but also between healthy subjects and patients can be revealed. The SCT method is applied to model systems, compared with established methods, such as cross correlation, mutual information, and cross recurrence analysis and demonstrates its advantages especially for nonstationary physiological data. As a result, SCT proves to be more specific in detecting delays of directional interactions than standard coupling analysis methods and yields additional information which cannot be measured by standard parameters of heart rate and blood pressure variability. The proposed method may help to indicate the pathological changes in cardiovascular regulation and also the effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on the cardiovascular system.

  3. Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants.

    PubMed

    Asano, Michiko; Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. Here, using three Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based measures of brain activity, we establish that preverbal 11-month-old infants are sensitive to the non-arbitrary correspondences between language sounds and concepts, that is, to sound symbolism. In each trial, infant participants were presented with a visual stimulus (e.g., a round shape) followed by a novel spoken word that either sound-symbolically matched ("moma") or mismatched ("kipi") the shape. Amplitude increase in the gamma band showed perceptual integration of visual and auditory stimuli in the match condition within 300 msec of word onset. Furthermore, phase synchronization between electrodes at around 400 msec revealed intensified large-scale, left-hemispheric communication between brain regions in the mismatch condition as compared to the match condition, indicating heightened processing effort when integration was more demanding. Finally, event-related brain potentials showed an increased adult-like N400 response - an index of semantic integration difficulty - in the mismatch as compared to the match condition. Together, these findings suggest that 11-month-old infants spontaneously map auditory language onto visual experience by recruiting a cross-modal perceptual processing system and a nascent semantic network within the first year of life. PMID:25282057

  4. Safety Gear

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this lesson, students will consider the design factors that impact safety gear by creating their own “helmet” for an egg. Students will experiment with shape, materials and design in this hands-on project. Students will use their experiences and additional research to debate the topic of having a mandatory helmet law for bicyclists.

  5. Combining metric episodes with semantic event concepts within the Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Troy D.; McGhee, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) combines symbolic and sub-symbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control architecture. The new architecture leverages previous work in cognitive architectures, specifically the development of the Adaptive Character of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) and Soar. This paper details current work on learning from episodes or events. The use of episodic memory as a learning mechanism has, until recently, been largely ignored by computational cognitive architectures. This paper details work on metric level episodic memory streams and methods for translating episodes into abstract schemas. The presentation will include research on learning through novelty and self generated feedback mechanisms for autonomous systems.

  6. From PreHistoric to PostModern Symbolic Model Checking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Henzinger; Orna Kupferman; Shaz Qadeer

    2003-01-01

    Symbolic model checking, which enables the automatic verification of large systems, proceeds by calculating expressions that represent state sets. Traditionally, symbolic model-checking tools are based on backward state traversal; their basic operation is the function pre, which, given a set of states, returns the set of all predecessor states. This is because specifiers usually employ formalisms with future-time modalities, which

  7. Selective Interference With the Use of Visual Images in the Symbolic Distance Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham M. Dean; Stephen A. Dewhurst; Peter E. Morris; Annalise Whittaker

    2005-01-01

    Eight experiments investigated the effects of visual, spatial, auditory, and executive interference on the symbolic comparison of animal size and ferocity, semantic goodness of words, and numbers. Dynamic visual noise (DVN) and the reading of visually presented stimulus items were shown to selectively interfere with response times on the animal size comparison task, though the slope of the symbolic distance

  8. Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

  9. Evaluating Maintenance Performance: A Video Approach to Symbolic Testing of Electronics Maintenance Tasks. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.; And Others

    This volume reports an effort to use the video media as an approach for the preparation of a battery of symbolic tests that would be empirically valid substitutes for criterion referenced Job Task Performance Tests. The graphic symbolic tests require the storage of a large amount of pictorial information which must be searched rapidly for display.…

  10. Evolution of Symbolic Traits 14-243 Chapter 14: STYLE AND ETHNICITY: THE EVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    designers like Bauhaus architects forswear style for pure function, no- style itself becomes a stylistic between human style and the colorfully variable traits of some animals (e.g. pheasant feathersEvolution of Symbolic Traits 14-243 Chapter 14: STYLE AND ETHNICITY: THE EVOLUTION OF SYMBOLIC

  11. Neural Connectivity Patterns Underlying Symbolic Number Processing Indicate Mathematical Achievement in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joonkoo; Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In early childhood, humans learn culturally specific symbols for number that allow them entry into the world of complex numerical thinking. Yet little is known about how the brain supports the development of the uniquely human symbolic number system. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging along with an effective connectivity analysis…

  12. "Oh, Say Can You See?" Visualizing American Symbols in the Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugar, Kristy A.; Dickman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Symbols have always had an important role in shaping our identity as a nation. The American flag, the Statue of Liberty, the White House, and the bald eagle all help to convey American values such as liberty, freedom, democracy, and independence. But how do elementary students understand these symbols and the values behind them? In this article,…

  13. Violent youth or violent schools? A critical incident analysis of symbolic violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Herr; Gary Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing critical incidents primarily from a year?long ethnographic study of a single gender middle school, the authors attempt to capture the mechanisms of symbolic violence as described by Bourdieu and Passeron in Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture and by Bourdieu in latter publications. Our analysis suggests that problems of persistent social inequality, crime, and incarceration are linked to symbolic

  14. The Use of Graphic Symbols in Infancy: How Early Can We Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonte, Maria Alexandra; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate if infants at three developmental ages could respond using graphic symbols during a choice-making task. An alternating treatment design was used to illustrate infants' response when presented with two types of graphic symbols. A total of nine items were presented to each infant and were randomly…

  15. Perception of sound symbolism in mimetic stimuli: The voicing contrast in Japanese and English

    E-print Network

    Nakata, Kotoko

    2013-12-31

    Sound symbolism is a concept in which the sound of a word and the meaning of the word are systematically related. Some aspects of sound symbolism have been found to be language-specific and some to be cross-linguistic. The ...

  16. Integrated Evaluation of Listed Companies by Factor Analysis for Symbolic Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Peng Guo; Feng Gao; Wen-Hua Li; Sa Gao

    2008-01-01

    Symbolic data analysis is a new data mining technology. Interval number is a most important type of symbolic data. An interval number can be seen as an ordered pair composed of its center and radius, where the radius can be considered as its limit error. A factor analysis is firstly performed on the center sample data matrix, from which the

  17. From ambiguity to dogma: The rhetorical symbols of Lyndon B. Johnson on Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cal M. Logue; John H. Patton

    1982-01-01

    The authors analyze and evaluate President Johnson's casting of political policy into evocative symbols, the invention and operation of those rhetorical forms, the resulting conflict over the symbolization of the Vietnam War, and the theoretical and ethical implications of those rhetorical choices.

  18. Edinburgh Research Explorer Public views of minority languages as communication or symbol

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    of minority languages as communication or symbol: the case of Gaelic in Scotland' Journal of Multilingual, and Soillse. #12;1 Public views of minority languages as communication or symbol: the case of Gaelic the communicative view. Keywords Social roles of language; Scottish Gaelic; language as communication; language

  19. A Is for "Apple": Mnemonic Symbols Hinder the Interpretation of Algebraic Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Weinberg, Aaron; Hattikudur, Shanta; Stephens, Ana C.; Asquith, Pamela; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how literal symbols affect students' understanding of algebraic expressions. Middle school students (N = 322) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions in which they were asked to interpret an expression (e.g., 4c + 3b) in a story problem. Each literal symbol represented the price of an item. In the c-and-b condition, the…

  20. The Influence of Religious Symbols on the Digit Span Performance of Roman Catholic Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saigh, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    Tested parochial school students with an examiner who wore a moderately proportioned gold cross, a gold Star of David, or no symbol. Results indicated scores varied as a function of the presence and type of symbol that was displayed. Discusses implications for practioners. (Author/JAC)

  1. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  2. inria-00232878,version1-2Feb2008 Multi-Layer Perceptrons and Symbolic Data

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    inria-00232878,version1-2Feb2008 Multi-Layer Perceptrons and Symbolic Data Fabrice Rossi and Brieuc Perceptrons are one of the most successful non-linear regression tool but they are unfor- tunately restricted method that allows to use symbolic data both as inputs and outputs to Mul- tilayer Perceptrons

  3. Decoupling Synchronization from Logic for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking of Statecharts

    E-print Network

    Beame, Paul

    Chan + Richard J. Anderson + Paul Beame + David H. Jones \\Lambda David Notkin + William E. Warner Company, Seattle, U.S.A. {david.h.jones,william.e.warner}@boeing.com ABSTRACT Symbolic model checkingDecoupling Synchronization from Logic for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking of Statecharts William

  4. Symbolic Function in Piagetian Theory: Implications for the Nonverbal Cognitive Assessment of Language Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kleeck, Anne

    Jean Piaget's ideas regarding symbolic function are expanded in this paper to provide a model to use in distinguishing between general symbolic versus specific linguistic deficits in language disordered children (whose disorders are not due primarily to intellectual, sensory, motor, or social-emotional deficits). In applying this model to the…

  5. CodePlay: Live Multimedia Streaming In VANETs using Symbol-Level Network Coding

    E-print Network

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    CodePlay: Live Multimedia Streaming In VANETs using Symbol-Level Network Coding Zhenyu Yang, Ming hoc networks (VANETs) for their capa bility of providing comprehensive and user-friendly information of VANETs and the lossy nature of vehicular wireless communications. A recent technique, symbol

  6. BioSystems 60 (2001) 5983 Symbols and dynamics in the brain

    E-print Network

    Cariani, Peter

    2001-01-01

    and as an adaptive informational system that interacts with its surrounds in order to steer behavior. © 2001 ElsevierBioSystems 60 (2001) 59­83 Symbols and dynamics in the brain Peter Cariani Eaton Peabody Laboratory and dynamics play in biological systems. Symbols, as discrete functional switching-states, are seen

  7. Learning about the Equal Sign: Does Comparing with Inequality Symbols Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattikudur, Shanta; Alibali, Martha W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether instruction that involves comparing the equal sign with other relational symbols is more effective at imparting a relational interpretation of the equal sign than instruction about the equal sign alone. Third- and fourth-grade students in a comparing symbols group learned about the greater than, less than, and equal…

  8. On-line Symbolic Constraint Embedding for Simulation of Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    E-print Network

    Gillespie, Brent

    On-line Symbolic Constraint Embedding for Simulation of Hybrid Dynamical Systems R. Brent Gillespie a simulator designed to handle multibody systems with changing constraints, wherein the equations of motion before they are passed to an ODE solver. The constraint-embedded equations are formulated symbolically

  9. Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.

  10. Approximate Number Sense, Symbolic Number Processing, or Number-Space Mappings: What Underlies Mathematics Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Gobel, Silke M.; Moll, Kristina; Smets, Karolien; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of typically developing 6- to 8-year-old children on an approximate number discrimination task, a symbolic comparison task, and a symbolic and nonsymbolic number line estimation task was examined. For the first time, children's performances on these basic cognitive number processing tasks were explicitly contrasted…

  11. AAAI Spring Symposium 2002, Sketch Understanding. Recognizing Multi-Stroke Symbols

    E-print Network

    Kara, Levent Burak

    AAAI Spring Symposium 2002, Sketch Understanding. Recognizing Multi-Stroke Symbols Chris Calhoun for multi-stroke symbols. The learned definitions are described in terms of the constituent geometric can be drawn in the same pen stroke. Pen speed and curvature are used to segment a stroke into its con

  12. V-Shaped Viterbi Symbol Detection for Multilevel 2D Optical Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moinian; L. Fagoonee; B. Honary

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a symbol detection scheme based on the Viterbi algorithm was proposed for binary Two Dimensional Optical Storage (TwoDOS) in the presence of Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). In this paper, we extend the symbol detection scheme to allow for multilevel modulation. We demonstrate the proof of concept in a typical non-linear high density storage channel with intersymbol interference and

  13. Resolution method for one passage symbolic testing of ramified program structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branko Markoski; Zdravko Ivankovic; Miodrag Ivkovic; Dragica Radosav; Ivana Berkovic

    2010-01-01

    One of oldest and best-known methods used in constructive testing of smaller programs is the symbolic program execution. It is partly similar to method of simulation of computer function, but differs in aim. One of ways to prove whether given program is written correctly is to execute it symbolically. Aim of this paper is to test ramified program structure using

  14. A Positivistic and Behavioristic Philosophy of Rhetoric Based upon Symbolic Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmis, John H., III

    Symbolic interaction is the foundation for a theory of rhetoric developed in this paper. As manipulators of symbols, humans, unlike all other animals, use abstractions both to indicate (describe things present) and to represent (describe intangible things). Only human beings are capable of the elaborate systems of linguistic reference called…

  15. ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus

    E-print Network

    Hosom, John-Paul

    ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA Abstract A new ASCII encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet a large number of languages with phonemic and phonetic symbols, these were found to be inadequate

  16. ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus

    E-print Network

    Penn, Gerald

    ASCII Phonetic Symbols for the World's Languages: Worldbet James L. Hieronymus AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA Abstract A new ASCII encoding of the International Phonetic Alphabet. When an attempt was made to label a large number of languages with phonemic and phonetic symbols

  17. Multiple-symbol differential detection of APSK based on MAP criterion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanobu MACHIDA; Shiro HANDA; Shinjiro OSHITA

    1998-01-01

    The multiple-symbol differential detection scheme based on the MAP criterion is adopted to APSK. The decision rule to estimate the transmitted signals is constructed theoretically which includes the terms of the channel noise power. The symbol error rate (SER) performance of 16APSK under the decision rule is evaluated. It is confirmed that the performance shows good approach to that of

  18. Multi-solver Support in Symbolic Execution Hristina Palikareva and Cristian Cadar

    E-print Network

    Cadar, Cristian

    execution engine using the result from the best-performing solver. We present empirical data obtained. These solvers can be run competitively in parallel, with the symbolic execution engine using the result fromMulti-solver Support in Symbolic Execution Hristina Palikareva and Cristian Cadar Department

  19. Moral Despair and the Child as Symbol of Hope in Pre-World War II Berlin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Stahl

    1986-01-01

    Fictional portrayals of children in the Berlin of the 1920s and 1930s suggest that, for fascists and antifascists alike, the child was a symbol of redemption and hope for the future. As moral and social symbol of a possible future, the child could embody contradictory visions; he or she could represent both the hopes of innocent individuals and the collective

  20. Different Grade Students' Use and Interpretation of Literal Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Derya; Gunes, Gonul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare 7th, 8th, and 9th grades students' level of use and interpret the literal symbols. In addition, students' responses to questions that require use of different roles of literal symbol were examined to identify the errors. For this purpose, Chelsea Diagnostics Algebra test developed by The…