Inferred threat and safety: symbolic generalization of human avoidance learning.
Dymond, Simon; Schlund, Michael W; Roche, Bryan; Whelan, Robert; Richards, Jennifer; Davies, Cara
2011-10-01
Symbolic generalization of avoidance may underlie the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate inferred threat-avoidance and safety (non-avoidance) behaviours that occur in the presence of stimuli indirectly related to learned threat and safety cues. A laboratory experiment was conducted involving two symbolic stimulus equivalence relations consisting of three physically dissimilar stimuli (avoidance cues: AV1-AV2-AV3 and neutral cues: N1-N2-N3). During avoidance learning involving aversive images and sounds, a key-press avoidance response was trained for one member of one of the relations (AV2) and non-avoidance for another (N2). Inferred threat and safety behaviour and ratings of the likelihood of aversive events were tested with presentations of all remaining stimuli. Findings showed a significantly high percentage of avoidance to both the learned and inferred threat cues and less avoidance to both the learned and inferred safety cues. Ratings in the absence of avoidance were high during training and testing to threat cues and low to safety cues and were generally lower in the presence of avoidance. Implications for associative and behavioural accounts of avoidance, and modern therapies for anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:21767825
Radiation Protection Basics Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Symbols Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation Protection Radiation Warning Symbols Radiation Warning Sign Gallery ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others
Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This British website provides a listing of symbols used in mathematics as well as other useful information. The website is published by the Institute of Physics, which maintains a range of websites to support physics and physicists. The listing of symbols is divided into two categories: Greek Alphabet and Mathematical Symbols. The symbols are listed on a single page, making it possible to search for a particular term using a web browser. Other sections of the website review common formulas used in Algebra, Trigonomotry, Calculus, limits, and complex numbers. The section on Matrices was under construction at the time of this report. A secion on SI Units provides some standard conversion information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Podgor, Ellen S.
1976-01-01
The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)
Clark, Andy
2006-01-01
What is the relation between the material, conventional symbol structures that we encounter in the spoken and written word, and human thought? A common assumption, that structures a wide variety of otherwise competing views, is that the way in which...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This problem is designed to help young learners use the symbols plus, minus, multiplied by, divided by and equals to, meaningfully, in ten number statements. Students must drag two operational symbols to empty boxes to make a true statement. This problem also helps learners understand inverse operations and to look for alternate solutions. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, printable worksheet.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ever wondered about the symbols used by scientists? You're probably not alone, and this website created by a team at the University of Nottingham demystifies sixty prominent physics symbols via informative video segments. The videos are not necessarily meant to be lessons or lectures on the symbols, "The films are just fun chats with men and women who live their subject and know a lot about it!" The videos are quite fun, and the talk on "gamma" includes a discussion of cricket balls, while the "rho" video features paperclips in coffee cups. All of the videos can be accessed via the homepage, and visitors should plan on making several visits to check out all of the clips. At the bottom of the homepage, visitors can also view earlier videos created as part of the project, learn more about their scientists, and take a look at a list of other related sites.
Symbolicity Among Native Americans.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, L. Brooks; Lujan, Philip
Within the framework of "symbolicity" and "nativistic movement" the paper presents a "reasonably balanced and illustrative" examination of selected negative and positive trends in Native American symbolicity. Symbolicity is defined as the state, condition, and tendency of people to organize their perceptions and experience into symbols and symbol…
Fuzzy symbolic sensors Fuzzy symbolic sensors
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
symbolic sensors, are particularly adapted when working with control systems which use artificial measurement, range finding sensor, colour matching sensor. 1. Introduction Nowadays, system control by usualFuzzy symbolic sensors 1 Fuzzy symbolic sensors from concept to applications Gilles Mauris, Eric
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This website, maintained by a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Fla., reviews the Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. Listed here are the names and information for the first individuals to use some common mathematical symbols, including symbols of operation, grouping symbols, symbols of relation, and symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus, probability, number theory, and logic. The main source used for the information provided is a book by Florian Cajori entitled A History of Mathematical Notations. Links to other pages on topics in mathematics history are also provided.
Demanet, Laurent
This paper deals with efficient numerical representation and manipulation of differential and integral operators as symbols in phase-space, i.e., functions of space $x$ and frequency $\\xi$. The symbol smoothness conditions ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, Jodie D.; Jacobs, Judith E.
2005-01-01
This article describes a variety of activities that ask students to identify, describe, compare, and classify symbol strings (algebraic expressions and equations). The activities use a collection of twelve symbol strings on cards. (Contains 2 figures.)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Gary Martin
2000-01-01
As students begin to use symbolic representations, they use variables as unknowns. To help their concept of symbolic representation to grow, they need to explore questions such as: What is an identity? and When are two symbolic representations equal? This activity engages students in work with an online algebraic balance. Questions as well as ideas for class discussion are included in the lesson plan.
Symbolic Testing of Diagnosability
Alban Grastien
Diagnosability ensures that the occurrence of a failure on t he system can always be diagnosed by a diagnosis engine. In this paper, we explore symbolic techniques to test diagnosability of DES. We present several algorithms that can be implemented with symbolic tools, and show how to combine decentralised approach with symbolic approach. Finally, we discuss how to extract the
Pedagogical Symbols and Reality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zolin, P. M.
1992-01-01
Discusses symbolism in society, literature, and education. Describes the use of symbolism in the changes accompanying the Bolshevik revolution and the establishment of Marxist-Leninist society in the Soviet Union. Suggests that no effort has been made to develop a set of symbols to accompany the changes of perestroika. (DK)
Fingesten, P
1971-03-01
This paper presents an alternate view of the history and significance of symbols to Freud and Jung. It is a restructuring of the subject which diagnoses and systematizes the process of the death of symbolism. The first section separates the datum from its symbolic interpretations and shows that such interpretations do not describe the datum nor reveal its origin, history, form, or function. When the datum is seen in symbolic terms, one cannot see it in its formal properties and vice versa. The second section explains that descriptive and analytical studies of phenomena automatically destroy symbolic values and that symbolic vestiges of interpretation will lead to error. The third and final section demonstrates that most creative spurts of mankind seem to be the result of the partial or total rejection of previously existing symbolic systems. PMID:24197541
Jean-Philippe Drouhard; Anne R. Teppo
Algebraic symbols are investigated from both a linguistic and a semiotic perspective. In the first part of the chapter, a\\u000a theoretical framework is presented based on Frege’s notions of sense and denotation and language aspects of the algebraic symbol system that affect how individuals read collections of symbols are discussed. The chapter then focuses on the interpretative nature of assigning
The Symbolic Identity Technique.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goud, Nelson H.
2001-01-01
Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.…
Harriet G. M. Murray-Aynsley
1887-01-01
THERE is a phase of sun and fire symbolism in our very midst which seems hitherto to have received but little attention, viz. the presence of such symbols as crests or in the coats-of-arms of many of the oldest nable families and landed gentry of the British Isles. We find them in the greatest numbers in the armorial bearings of
Computers for symbolic processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wah, Benjamin W.; Lowrie, Matthew B.; Li, Guo-Jie
1989-01-01
A detailed survey on the motivations, design, applications, current status, and limitations of computers designed for symbolic processing is provided. Symbolic processing computations are performed at the word, relation, or meaning levels, and the knowledge used in symbolic applications may be fuzzy, uncertain, indeterminate, and ill represented. Various techniques for knowledge representation and processing are discussed from both the designers' and users' points of view. The design and choice of a suitable language for symbolic processing and the mapping of applications into a software architecture are then considered. The process of refining the application requirements into hardware and software architectures is treated, and state-of-the-art sequential and parallel computers designed for symbolic processing are discussed.
Index of Symbols 387 Index of Symbols
de Graaf, Willem A.
of Symbols o 2l (F ), 7 sl n (F ), 4 sp 2l (F ), 6 Rad(A), 364 #26;(L) #3; (enveloping algebra), 219 c k ij , 7 m #22; (multiplicity of #22;), 333 n(g), 327 (L 1 ), 2 (L 2 ), 2 #12; Index of Terminology 389
Unsupervised clustering of symbol strings
John A. Flanagan
2003-01-01
The Symbol String Clustering Map (SCM) is introduced as a very simple but effective algorithm for clustering strings of symbols in an unsupervised manner. The clustering is based on an iterative learning of the input data symbol strings. The learning uses the principle of winner take all (WTA) and hence requires a similarity measure between symbol strings. A novel and
Graphic Symbol Recognition: An Overview
Atul K. Chhabra
1997-01-01
Symbol recognition is one of the primary stages of any graphics recognition system. This paper reviews the current state of the art in graphic symbol recognition and raises some open issues that need further investigation. Work on symbol recognition tends to be highly application specific. Therefore, this review presents the symbol recognition methods in the context of specific applications.
Homecoming for Library Symbol.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Egan, Bessie
1987-01-01
Discusses the significance and development of the library symbol and the history of its acceptance by the American Library Association (ALA) and the Canadian Library Association (CLA). Suggestions are made for its use. (CLB)
Symbol interdependency in symbolic and embodied cognition.
Louwerse, Max M
2011-04-01
Whether computational algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA) can both extract meaning from language and advance theories of human cognition has become a topic of debate in cognitive science, whereby accounts of symbolic cognition and embodied cognition are often contrasted. Albeit for different reasons, in both accounts the importance of statistical regularities in linguistic surface structure tends to be underestimated. The current article gives an overview of the symbolic and embodied cognition accounts and shows how meaning induction attributed to a specific statistical process or to activation of embodied representations should be attributed to language itself. Specifically, the performance of LSA can be attributed to the linguistic surface structure, more than special characteristics of the algorithm, and embodiment findings attributed to perceptual simulations can be explained by distributional linguistic information. PMID:25164297
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus
2008-04-01
We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This resource describes what a topographic map is, how to read them, and what the symbols shown on maps and their legends mean. Contour lines, intervals, depth curves, and color meanings are discussed. There is also a legend showing examples of each symbol by category: elevation, boundaries, land surface features (mines, vegetation), water features (reefs, channels), buildings and related features (airports, schools), and roads, railroads and others (pipelines, bridges).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education in Science, 1996
1996-01-01
Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)
Multiple symbol differential detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush (inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (inventor)
1991-01-01
A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.
Symbolic Shortest Path Planning
Morik, Katharina
efficiency, the paper analyzes the locality for weighted problem graphs and show that it matches the duplicate detection scope in best-first search graphs. Cost-optimal plans for compiled competition benchmark breadth- first to best-first search graphs. We show how to combine a set of disjoint weighted symbolic
Textures as Communication Symbols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray-Branch, Jamie; Bailey, Brent R.; Poff, Lisa E., Ed.
Designed for teaching the related services staff, residential care providers, and families of individuals with severe hearing and vision impairments, this booklet explains the issues related to developing a communication system using textures. The texture symbols described are intended for use by individuals with dual sensory and multiple…
ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS
Boyle, Mike
on SFT's, the KimRoushWagoner Factorization Theorem, and the KimRoush counterex amples to Williams introduction to the symbolic dynamics around SFT's, see the very fine introduction [LM] D. Lind and B. Marcus characterization 3.5 Applications 4. SFTlike subshifts 4.1 Sofic shifts 4.2 Specification 4.3 Synchronized systems
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Susan Slaymaker
Topographic map examples illustrate symbols commonly used on maps for cultural and natural features, such as boundaries, buildings, caves and mines, coastal features, contour lines and elevations, dams, railroads, rivers, trails, bogs, pipelines, vegetation types, surficial material, and modifications for navigation. Each item links to a map that is enlarged and clearly marked for easy identification.
Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toro, Leonor
Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…
Neil Weste
1981-01-01
Free form or “stick” type symbolic layout provides a means of simplifying the design of IC subcircuits. To successfully utilize this style of layout, a complete design approach and the necessary tools to support this methodology are required. In particular, one of the requirements of such a design method is the ability to “compact” the loosely specified topology to create
Neil Weste
1982-01-01
Free form or “stick” type symbolic layout provides a means of simplifying the design of IC subcircuits. To successfully utilize this style of layout, a complete design approach and the necessary tools to support this methodology are required. In particular, one of the requirements of such a design method is the ability to “compact” the loosely specified topology to create
Mental Manipulation of Arithmetic Symbols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gonzalez, Esther G.; Kolers, Paul A.
1982-01-01
A choice reaction time experiment tested the idea that the operations performed on symbols from different notational systems depend, not only on the interpretation of the symbols, but also on the symbol's notational characteristics or the ways in which they map the world. (Author)
Symbolic play and language development.
Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny
2015-02-01
Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis. PMID:25658200
Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols
Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.
2014-09-16
The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.
Optimal Symbol-by-Symbol Detection for Duobinary Signaling
Eggers, M.; Painter, John H.
1983-01-01
licensed use limited to: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 12:58:04 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 1078 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. COM-31, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1983 TABLE I JOINT OUTPUT PROBABILITIES -1 k...: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 12:58:04 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. EGGERS AND PAINTER: SYMBOL-BY-SYMBOL DETECTION 1079 The derivation of the optimal symbol-by-symbol detector Case 11: ;k- = &2 = 0 follows...
Symbolic behavior in regular classrooms: a specification of symbolic and non-symbolic behavior.
Billinger, Stefan; Norlander, Torsten
2011-01-01
Students' capabilities to use symbolic information in classroom setting could be expected to influence their possibilities to be active and participating. The development of strategies for teachers to compensate for reduced capability need specific operational definition of symbolic behavior. Fifty-three students, aged 11-13 years old, 29 boys and 24 girls, from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school participated in the current study. After a short training sequence 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) were not (non-symbolic), based on their follow-up test performances. Symbolic and non-symbolic differed significantly on post-test performances (p?symbolic behavior deteriorated their performance, while symbolic enhanced their performance (p?symbolic behavior and students' activity and participation in classroom settings. PMID:21716638
William G. Kennedy; J. Gregory Trafton
2007-01-01
What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks. Long sequences of problems were run collecting data to answer fundamental questions about long-term, symbolic learning. We examined whether symbolic learning continues indefinitely, how the learned knowledge is used, and whether
Symbolic local information transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.
2013-06-01
Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation Methods used The differentiation commands Practice solving symbolic differentiation problems #12;hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Symbolic Differentiation Methods used To perform symbolic differentiation we just use
How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.
2014-01-01
The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…
International Icon Symbols: How Well Are These Symbols Understood?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, Robert E.; Gibbs, William J.
There is a great reliance on symbolic messages in our society, but the success of these messages depends on how they are interpreted. The variability of subjects' interpretations of commonly used visual symbols was investigated by comparing the interpretations of a U.S. audience and a Jamaican audience. Responses of 27 executive master's in…
Prototyping Symbolic Execution Engines for Interpreted Languages
Candea, George
Prototyping Symbolic Execution Engines for Interpreted Languages Stefan Bucur Ã?cole Polytechnique are written in dynamic interpreted languages like Python. Building a new symbolic execution engine language specifications lead to their implementation in a symbolic execution engine potentially differing
School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John
2006-01-01
The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…
SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable
Duchowski, Andrew T.
SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) Cost spent to build variation point i at time i = index over variation points #12;SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable t = time now, T = target date T* = modeling limit (t=forever) ...adjusted by a factor
Media Ecology and Symbolic Interactionism
Susan B. Barnes
This paper examines Mead's role in media ecological studies and will explore his relationship to media ecology from an interpersonal communication perspective. Included in this discussion are Mead's concepts of self, symbolic interactionism, and the relationship between symbolic interactionism and media ecology. Examples from Internet research are used to illustrate how media ecology can be applied to interpersonal mediated communication
Symbolic Feedback Control for Navigation
Sean B. Andersson; Dimitrios Hristu
2006-01-01
We discuss the generation of symbolic feedback control sequences for navigating a sparsely-described and uncertain environment, together with the problem of sensing landmarks sufficiently well to make feedback meaningful. We explore the use of a symbolic control approach for mitigating the lack of a detailed map of the environment and for reducing the complexity associated with finding control laws which
GRAFOS - A symbolic routing language
G. Persky; H. K. Gummel
1973-01-01
Interactive computer aids for integrated circuit layout usually offer a choice between slow, high-precision plotters or fast, low-resolution interactive media. A system, called GRAFOS, has been designed, which attempts to overcome resolution limitations by the use of symbolic referencing. It employs a symbolic routing language through which both the electrical connectivity and the geometry of the circuit interconnections are specified.
Symbolic Gesturing in Language Development
Linda P. Acredolo; Susan W. Goodwyn
1985-01-01
The spontaneous development of symbolic gestures in a normal infant of hearing parents is described. From 12.5 to 17.5 months of age, 13 gestures depicting objects, events, and qualities were developed, the majority in the context of structured routines involving adults. 16 additional symbolic gestures were purposefully taught to the infant by adults. All 29 gestures occurred frequently and were
The Origins of Symbolic Racism
David O. Sears; P. J. Henry
2003-01-01
The theory of symbolic racism places its origins in a blend of anti-Black affect and conservative values, particularly individualism. We clarify that hypothesis, test it directly, and report several findings consistent with it. Study 1 shows that racial prejudice and general political conservatism fall into 2 separate factors, with symbolic racism loading about equally on both. Study 2 found that
Symbolism, Science, and Developing Minds.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strauss, Michael J.; Levine, Shellie H.
1986-01-01
Approximately 500 nonscience major university chemistry students were surveyed to record their interpretations of specific chemical symbolism before presenting modern concepts of atomic and molecular structure, in an attempt to understand the thought processes entering students use as they interpret symbolism. Results are reported and discussed.…
Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha
2010-01-01
Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.
Solving Symbolic Equations with PRESS
Sterling, L.; Bundy, Alan; Byrd, L.; O'Keefe, R.; Silver, B.
1982-01-01
We outline a program, PRESS (PRolog Equation Solving System) for solving symbolic, transcendental, non-differential equations. The methods used for solving equations are described, together with the service facilities. The ...
Evolution of symbolic communication : an embodied perspective
Brown, Jessica Erin
2012-11-28
This thesis investigates the emergence in human evolution of communication through symbols, or conventional, arbitrary signs. Previous work has argued that symbolic speech was preceded by communication through nonarbitrary ...
Basic Symbols Used in Engineering Drawings
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Sokolowski, Glenn
Learners examine the drawing symbols used for counterbore, countersink, spotface, radius, diameter, and depth. In the quiz that completes the activity, they associate these symbols with machining applications. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students
Size–sound symbolism revisited
Reuven Tsur
2006-01-01
Why do we perceive bass voices as “thick”? Owing to a “mediated association” with “thick people and animals [who] are usually loud and resonant”, or owing to some “subtle inter-sensory quality” found in thick things and bass voices? The present paper rejects the former possibility and endorses the latter. As to speech-sound symbolism, I account for it with reference to
Automata-Based Symbolic Scheduling
Brewer, Forrest D.
: Professor Forrest D. Brewer, Chairman Professor Tevfik Bultan Professor Malgorzata Marek-Sadowska Professor would like to thank my advisor, Professor Forrest Brewer, for his guidance and support during my Professor Forrest Brewer PUBLICATIONS S. Haynal and F. Brewer, "Automata-Based Symbolic Scheduling
Dream Symbol or Dream Process?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Himelstein, Philip
1984-01-01
Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)
A symbolic functional description language
Gotaro Odawara; Jun Sato; Masahiro Tomita
1984-01-01
This paper describes a new diagrammatic hardware description language SFDL (Symbolic Functional Description Language) and a hierarchical logic design supporting system LDSS (Logic Design Supporting System). SFDL has three features that help designers design logic circuits easily and speedily; easy to describe with its simple rule, comprehensible to grasp the behavior of the circuit and suitable for computer processing. Besides,
Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks
Liu, Huan
Draft Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks Rudy Setiono and Huan Liu Department,liuhg@iscs.nus.sg Abstract Although backpropagation neural networks generally predict better than decision trees do is needed by human experts. This work drives a sym bolic representation for neural networks to make
Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco
2010-01-01
This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…
Hybrid Symbolic-Numeric Computation Erich Kaltofen
Kaltofen, Erich
Hybrid Symbolic-Numeric Computation Erich Kaltofen North Carolina State University google - ~f 2 = f()f() n k=0()k fj - ~fj = ()j f() n k=0()k , 0 j n #12;Hybrid Symbolic-Numeric Algorithms Hybridization of Sylvester structure and structure preserving total least squares algorithms #12;Hybrid Symbolic
Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Auty, Geoff
2012-01-01
Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…
Symbolic Analysis of Bounded Petri Nets
Enric Pastor; Jordi Cortadella; Oriol Roig
2001-01-01
This work presents a symbolic approach for the analysis of bounded Petri nets. The structure and behavior of the Petri net is symbolically modeled by using Boolean functions, thus reducing reasoning about Petri nets to Boolean calculation. The set of reachable markings is calculated by symbolically firing the transitions in the Petri net. Highly concurrent systems suffer from the state
On regular drawn symbolic picture languages
Gennaro Costagliola; Vincenzo Deufemia; Filomena Ferrucci; Carmine Gravino
2003-01-01
Drawn symbolic pictures are an extension of drawn pictures obtained by associating a symbol from an alphabet to each point of the picture. In the paper we will address some new interesting issues derived from the introduction of the symbols and we will identify the conditions, which ensure the preservation of properties holding for drawn pictures in the setting of
Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?
Paul Marais; Faan Jordaan
2000-01-01
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. First-year technikon students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. Each word or symbol was used in a short sentence. For each word or symbol five possible meanings were given,
Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki
2008-01-01
Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…
Symbolic computations of nonlinear observability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S.; Letellier, Christophe
2015-06-01
Observability is a very useful concept for determining whether the dynamics of complicated systems can be correctly reconstructed from a single (univariate or multivariate) time series. When the governing equations of dynamical systems are high-dimensional and/or rational, analytical computations of observability coefficients produce large polynomial functions with a number of terms that become exponentially large with the dimension and the nature of the system. In order to overcome this difficulty, we introduce here a symbolic observability coefficient based on a symbolic computation of the determinant of the observability matrix. The computation of such coefficients is straightforward and can be easily analytically carried out, as demonstrated in this paper for a five-dimensional rational system.
Human Experience and Tarot Symbolism
Melissa M. Terras
\\u000a In front of me there are twenty-two pictures, the twenty-two Major Arcana of Tarot. The word Arcana derives from Latin arca\\u000a as a chest; arcere as a verb means to shut or to close; symbolically, Arcanum (singular) is a tightly shut treasure chest\\u000a holding a secret: its implicit meaning. In reference to Greek etymology, Arcana relate to arce that means
Symbolic diagnosis for intelligent control
Painter, John H.; Jowers, S.
1988-08-24
processor, the diagnostician?s symbolic modules then accept these numerically-derived data and process them symboli- cally. Functioning as an ?Expert System,? the Sym- bolic Diagnostician compares the numerical data to stored data and draws inferences... by the Sym- bolic Controller and other modules to implement the intelligent control paradigm [5]. Authorized licensed use limited to: Texas A M University. Downloaded on February 18,2010 at 16:28:03 EST from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. EXPERT SYSTEM...
Parallel symbolic computation in ACE
Enrico Pontelli; Gopal Gupta
1997-01-01
We present an overview of the ACE system, a sound and complete parallel implementation of Prolog that exploits parallelism\\u000a transparently (i.e., without any user intervention) from AI programs and symbolic applications coded in Prolog. ACE simultaneously\\u000a exploits all the major forms of parallelism – Or-parallelism, Independent And-parallelism, and Dependent And-parallelism –\\u000a found in Prolog programs. These three varieties of parallelism
RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY
RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING
Drug Saf . Author manuscript Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Drug Saf . Author manuscript Page /1 5 Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical.fainzang@orange.fr > Abstract Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view
[Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].
Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán
2013-09-01
Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424
Self-Organizing Maps in Symbol Processing
Timo Honkela
1998-01-01
\\u000a A symbol as such is disassociated from the world. In addition, as a discrete entity a symbol does not mirror all the details\\u000a of the portion of the world that it is meant to refer to. Humans establish the association between the symbols and the referenced\\u000a domain – the words and the world – through a long learning process in
Use of symbolic computation in robotics education
Naren Vira; Edward Tunstel
1992-01-01
An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation
Sheng Kemin; Xue Zhenting; Tang Jinsheng; Huang Xuemei
2000-01-01
The comprehension of Prof. Tai's symbolic vector method in vector analysis presented, some problems are found and some suggestions\\u000a are provided to solve them. Some defenses for Gibbs' symbol have been made as well.
Deconstructing spatiotemporal chaos using local symbolic dynamics.
Pethel, Shawn D; Corron, Ned J; Bollt, Erik
2007-11-23
We find that the global symbolic dynamics of a diffusively coupled map lattice is well approximated by a very small local model for weak to moderate coupling strengths. A local symbolic model is a truncation of the full symbolic model to one that considers only a single element and a few neighbors. Using interval analysis, we give rigorous results for a range of coupling strengths and different local model widths. Examples are presented of extracting a local symbolic model from data and of controlling spatiotemporal chaos. PMID:18233220
Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.
Morrison, J.L.
1984-01-01
A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author
Symbolic trephinations and population structure.
Szathmáry, László; Marcsik, Antónia
2006-12-01
The sample examined consists of 19 skulls with symbolic trephinations and 86 skulls without trepanations dated from the X century. Skulls were all excavated in the Great Hungarian Plain in the Carpathian Basin, which was occupied by the Hungarian conquerors at the end of the IX century. The variations of 12 cranial dimensions of the trephined skulls were investigated and compared to the skulls without trepanations after performing a discriminant analysis. The classification results evince that the variability of non-trephined skulls shows a more homogeneous and a more characteristic picture of their own group than the trephined samples, which corresponds to the notion, formed by archaeological evidence and written historical sources, of a both ethnically and socially differing population of the Hungarian conquerors. According to historical research, a part of the population was of Finno-Ugric origin, while the military leading layer of society can be brought into connection with Turkic ethnic groups. All the same, individuals dug up with rich grave furniture and supposed to belong to this upper stratum of society are primarily characterized by the custom of symbolic trephination, and, as our results demonstrate, craniologically they seem to be more heterogeneous. PMID:17308819
7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... false Form of official identification symbols. 91.102 Section...Designation of Approved Symbols for Identification of Commodities Officially...91.102 Form of official identification symbols. Two...
Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelto, E. V.
1967-01-01
Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.
Verifying pipelined hardware using symbolic logic simulation
Soumitra Bose; A. L. Fisher
1989-01-01
A method is presented for automated verification of synchronous pipelined circuits, based on symbolic simulation and the well-known program verification concept of representation functions. The use of representation functions to allow straightforward formulation of readable and intuitive specifications is demonstrated, along with the use of a symbolic switch-level simulator to automatically prove that a circuit meets its specification. As an
THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LAFFAL, JULIUS
A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35...3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L...medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and...
Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.
2010-01-01
This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.
Myths and Symbols of Information Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Talbert, Roy, Jr.
1984-01-01
Concepts and symbols of the language of information techology are examined, including the concept of a technological revolution, a literacy crisis, the presumption of a moral and ethical dilemma, orientation toward the future, the promise of productivity, the image of an elite using an unintelligible language, and the symbol of the infallible…
Symbolic Test Selection Based on Approximate Analysis
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Symbolic Test Selection Based on Approximate Analysis Bertrand Jeannet, Thierry J´eron, Vlad Rusu}@irisa.fr Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of generating symbolic test cases for testing the conformance. The challenge we consider is the selection of test cases according to a test purpose, which is here a set
Banking (on) Different Forms of Symbolic Capital.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cronin, Blaise; Shaw, Debora
2002-01-01
Successful symbolic capital formation in academia is commonly signified by the trappings of scholarly distinction or acknowledged status as a public intellectual. Compares three potential indices of symbolic capital: citation counts, Web hits, and media mentions. Findings, which are domain specific, suggest public intellectuals are notable by…
A Tag Coprocessor Architecture for Symbolic Languages
Vicente Fuentes-sánchez; Peter Y. K. Cheung
1991-01-01
A novel architecture is presented for the efficient execution of symbolic languages on conventional von Neumann, register-based machines. Unlike other symbolic processing architectures, this is based on a tag coprocessor (TC) which is designed to work in parallel with a conventional RISC CPU such as the MIPS R3000. The TC performs almost all the tag manipulation operations independently of the
Symbolic dynamics I. Finite dispersive billiards
Kai T. Hansen
1993-01-19
Orbits in different dispersive billiard systems, e.g. the 3 disk system, are mapped into a topological well ordered symbol plane and it is showed that forbidden and allowed orbits are separated by a monotone pruning front. The pruning front can be approximated by a sequence of finite symbolic dynamics grammars.
Symbolic dynamics II. The stadium billiard
Kai T. Hansen
1993-01-19
We construct a well ordered symbolic dynamics plane for the stadium billiard. In this symbolic plane the forbidden and the allowed orbits are separated by a monotone pruning front, and allowed orbits can be systematically generated by sequences of approximate finite grammars.
Computerized Symbol Processing for Handicapped Persons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others
The paper describes the development of a computerized symbol processing system which allows nonspeaking severely handicapped persons to create communication electronically. Two pilot studies investigated the use of Rebus and Bliss Symbols with either an Apple Graphics Tablet or the Power Pad, a peripheral which allowed users to activate the…
Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feasley, Florence G.
Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…
ISR: A Database for Symbolic Processing in
Draper, Bruce A.
ISR: A Database for Symbolic Processing in Computer Vision JohnBrolio, Bruce A. Draper, J. Ross of vision. Based on databasemanagement methodol- ogy, the Intermediate Symbolic Represen- tation (ISR into the overall vision system. A vision system generates thousands of intermediate-level descriptions. ISR
Connecting symbolic difficulties with failure in physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torigoe, Eugene T.; Gladding, Gary E.
2011-01-01
We find that symbolic physics questions are significantly more difficult than their analogous numerical versions. Very few of the errors are due to manipulation errors of the symbolic equations. Instead, most errors are due to confusions of symbolic meaning. We also find that performance on symbolic questions is more highly correlated with the overall performance than performance on numeric questions. We devised a coding scheme that distinguishes questions based only on the mathematical structure of the solutions. The coding scheme can be used to identify both difficult and discriminating physics questions. The questions identified by this coding scheme require an algebraic representation and discourage problem solving strategies that do not require an understanding of symbolic equations. Our results suggest that an inability to interpret physics equations may be a major contributor to student failure in introductory physics.
Distraction of Symbolic Behavior in Regular Classrooms
Billinger, Stefan
2012-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students’ abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student’s capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students’ shifts from the use of “non-symbolic” to “symbolic” behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11–13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?symbolic behavior in relation to contextual factors in regular classroom. The main conclusion to be drawn from the results is that the observational procedure used in this study seems to have a potential to be used to explore the interaction between contextual factors and more complex student behavior such as cognition and the pragmatic use of language in regular classroom. PMID:23189068
Distraction of symbolic behavior in regular classrooms.
Billinger, Stefan
2012-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to develop more precise methods to explore the interaction between contextual factors in teacher instructions in regular classroom settings and students' abilities to use symbolic information in the instruction. The ability to easily show symbolic behavior could be expected to influence student's capacity to be active and participate. The present study examines distraction in students' shifts from the use of "non-symbolic" to "symbolic" behavior in regular classroom settings. The 53 students (29 boys and 24 girls), ages 11-13?years old, who participated in the study were from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school. Based on their test performances in a previous study, 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) as not showing it (non-symbolic). In the present study, new test trials with distractors were added. Students from both the symbolic and non-symbolic groups scored significantly fewer correct answers on the post-training test trials with distraction stimuli (p?symbolic behavior in relation to contextual factors in regular classroom. The main conclusion to be drawn from the results is that the observational procedure used in this study seems to have a potential to be used to explore the interaction between contextual factors and more complex student behavior such as cognition and the pragmatic use of language in regular classroom. PMID:23189068
... Safety Car and Road Child Passenger Safety Child Pedestrian Safety Frontovers and Backovers Getting Ready to Drive Safety ... We Work Research Programs Button Battery Safety Child Pedestrian Safety International Walk to School Day Halloween Safety Environmental ...
Symbolic dynamics of coupled map lattices.
Pethel, Shawn D; Corron, Ned J; Bollt, Erik
2006-01-27
We present a method to reduce the [FORMULA: SEE TEXT] dynamics of coupled map lattices (CMLs) of N invertibly coupled unimodal maps to a sequence of N-bit symbols. We claim that the symbolic description is complete and provides for the identification of all fixed points, periodic orbits, and dense orbits as well as an efficient representation for studying pattern formation in CMLs. We give our results for CMLs in terms of symbolic dynamical concepts well known for one-dimensional chaotic maps, including generating partitions, Gray orderings, and kneading sequences. An example utilizing coupled quadratic maps is given. PMID:16486708
A comparison of two training methods for improving warning symbol comprehension.
Lesch, Mary F
2008-03-01
This study compared the effectiveness of two different types of training in improving comprehension of warning symbols by younger (aged 20-35 years) and older adults (aged 50-70 years). The verbal label training paired the symbol with a label describing its meaning while the accident scenario training further expanded on the nature of the hazard, the required/prohibited actions, as well as the possible consequences of failing to comply. Contrary to prior research (e.g., [Lesch, M.F., 2003. Comprehension and memory for warning symbols: age-related differences and impact of training. J. Safety Res. 34, 495-505]), there was no difference in comprehension for younger and older adults prior to training, with both groups only obtaining about 40% correct responses. Both types of training improved performance on a subsequent comprehension test. However, the accident scenario training produced a higher percentage of correct responses, greater confidence in those responses, as well as a longer-lasting reduction of reaction times. In order to further improve symbol design, as well as training to address comprehension difficulties, future research should more closely examine symbol characteristics that influence comprehension. PMID:17900517
Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.
2007-01-01
Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…
Symbols of Democracy: An Introduction to Icons and Ideals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kofsky, Jackie; Morris, Barb
2006-01-01
Many young students are unfamiliar with key symbols of the United States and the ideals that these symbols represent. These symbols consist of images and words that adults know by heart, but too often take for granted. The lesson activities described in this article focus on four well-known symbols--their history and what they mean to American…
SYMBOL AND MEANING IN MATHEMATICS ALICE M. DEAN
Dean, Alice M.
the symbols of mathematics, like the symbols of any language, help us express our thoughts as well as shape the way we think. Figure 1. A mathematical sentence Mathematical symbols and language undergo a Darwinian sort of evolution. As new ideas are discovered, mathematicians introduce new symbols and language
The Informational Concept of Searching for Periodicity in Symbol Sequences
E. V. Korotkov; M. A. Korotkova; F. E. Frenkel; N. A. Kudryashov
2003-01-01
A method of informational decomposition has been developed, allowing one to reveal hidden periodicity in any symbol sequence. The informational decomposition is calculated without conversion of a symbol sequence into a numerical one, which facilitates finding periodicities in a symbol sequence. The method permits introducing an analog of the autocorrelation function of a symbol sequence. The method developed by us
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials Methods used The integration commands The substitution commands Practice integrating polynomials symbolically #12;hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Symbolic integration of polynomials Methods used The HP
Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.
1993-01-01
Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means changeover point. (b) L means compass locator; (c) LF/MF means low frequency, medium frequency; (d) LFR means low frequency radio range;...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means changeover point. (b) L means compass locator; (c) LF/MF means low frequency, medium frequency; (d) LFR means low frequency radio range;...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means changeover point. (b) L means compass locator; (c) LF/MF means low frequency, medium frequency; (d) LFR means low frequency radio range;...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means changeover point. (b) L means compass locator; (c) LF/MF means low frequency, medium frequency; (d) LFR means low frequency radio range;...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means changeover point. (b) L means compass locator; (c) LF/MF means low frequency, medium frequency; (d) LFR means low frequency radio range;...
Crowding affects letters and symbols differently.
Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Isselé, Joanna
2010-06-01
Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets. Interference from flankers (crowding) was significantly stronger for symbols than letters. Single flankers generated performance similar to the isolated targets when the stimuli were letters but closer to the 2-flanker condition when the stimuli were symbols. Experiment 4 confirmed this pattern using a partial-report bar probe procedure. Experiment 5 showed that another measure of crowding, critical spacing, was greater for symbols than for letters. The results support the hypothesis that letter-string processing involves a specialized system developed to limit the spatial extent of crowding for letters in words. PMID:20515197
Symbolic Testing of Diagnosability Alban Grastien ,
Grastien, Alban
the minimal set of sensors that ensures diagnosability. Keywords: Discrete-Event Systems, DiagnosabilitySymbolic Testing of Diagnosability Alban Grastien , NICTA, Canberra Research Lab, Canberra University, Canberra, Australia Abstract: Diagnosability ensures that the occurrence of a failure
Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers #
Schneider, Carsten
Symbolic Summation with Radical Expressions Manuel Kauers # RISCÂLinz Johannes Kepler Universit Ë? at AÂ4040 Linz, Austria mkauers@risc.uniÂlinz.ac.at Carsten Schneider # RISCÂLinz Johannes Kepler
Intrinsic representation : bootstrapping symbols from experience
Larson, Stephen David, 1980-
2003-01-01
If we are to understand human-level intelligence, we need to understand how meanings can be learned without explicit instruction. I take a step toward that understanding by focusing on the symbol-grounding problem, showing ...
Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, William B.
1977-01-01
Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)
7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...symbols are XL—lug side, PO—oxidized primings, XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized...medium-bodied nondescript, LP—lemon (primings side), and FP—orange (primings side), KK-excessively scorched....
Matter and symbols of the artificial
Rocha, L.M.
1998-08-01
The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.
Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.
Barsalou, Lawrence W
2003-01-01
After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648
Learning Symbolic Rules Using Artificial Neural Networks
Mark Craven; Jude W. Shavlik
1993-01-01
A distinct advantage of symbolic learningalgorithms over artificial neural networks isthat typically the concept representationsthey form are more easily understood by humans.One approach to understanding therepresentations formed by neural networks isto extract symbolic rules from trained networks.In this paper we describe and investigatean approach for extracting rules fromnetworks that uses (1) the NofM extractionalgorithm, and (2) the network trainingmethod of
Parallelising Symbolic State-Space Generators
Jonathan Ezekiel; Gerald Lüttgen; Gianfranco Ciardo
2007-01-01
Symbolic state-space generators are notoriously hard to par- allelise, largely due to the irregular nature of the task. Parallel languages such as Cilk, tailored to irregular problems, have been shown to offer ef- ficient scheduling and load balancing. This paper explores whether Cilk can be used to efficiently parallelise a symbolic state-space generatoron a shared-memory architecture. We parallelise the Saturation
Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rungta, Neha Shyam
2010-01-01
The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.
Symbolic Simulation Of Engineering Systems On A Supercomputer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragheb, Magdi; Gvillo, Dennis; Makowitz, Henry
1986-03-01
Model-Based Production-Rule systems for analysis are developed for the symbolic simulation of Complex Engineering systems on a CRAY X-MP Supercomputer. The Fault-Tree and Event-Tree Analysis methodologies from Systems-Analysis are used for problem representation and are coupled to the Rule-Based System Paradigm from Knowledge Engineering to provide modelling of engineering devices. Modelling is based on knowledge of the structure and function of the device rather than on human expertise alone. To implement the methodology, we developed a Production-Rule Analysis System that uses both backward-chaining and forward-chaining: HAL-1986. The inference engine uses an Induction-Deduction-Oriented antecedent-consequent logic and is programmed in Portable Standard Lisp (PSL). The inference engine is general and can accommodate general modifications and additions to the knowledge base. The methodologies used will be demonstrated using a model for the identification of faults, and subsequent recovery from abnormal situations in Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis. The use of the exposed methodologies for the prognostication of future device responses under operational and accident conditions using coupled symbolic and procedural programming is discussed.
Symbol transmission in VLC Links are challenged by Inter-symbol interference,
Aazhang, Behnaam
periodically insert Styrofoam Blocks blank frames to ensure pure captures occur regularly, limiting the latency of resolvability. Our timing assures a sequence between Styrofoam blocks will have a symbol by the Styrofoam block. Thus, Styrofoam blocks only need be half as long as symbol transmissions. We schedule
Hitzler Neural-Symbolic Integration St. Andrews Scotland Decem ber 2008 Neural-Symbolic Integration
Hitzler, Pascal
Hitzler Neural-Symbolic Integration St. Andrews Scotland Decem ber 2008 AIFBAIFB 1/49 Neural;Hitzler Neural-Symbolic Integration St. Andrews Scotland Decem ber 2008 AIFBAIFB 2/49 PD Dr. Pascal Professor, AIFB, Univ. of Karlsruhe Â Knowledge Representation and Reasoning for the Semantic Web Â Neural
Zeilberger, Doron
NSF Proposal: Symbolic Computation and Combinatorics NSF PROPOSAL: SYMBOLIC Zeilberger Summary of Results from Previous NSF Support:DMS-9500646 and DMS-9732602 1. The current NSF numbered references apply to the list of papers written with the NSF suppo* *rt of the above grants
On the symbolism of the white coat.
Nash, David A
2014-12-01
The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry. PMID:25480273
Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration
Carlson, B.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
1997-12-31
Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.
Use of symbolic computation in robotics education
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward
1992-01-01
An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.
A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Gregory M.
2000-06-01
A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.
Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindsey, W. C.
1976-01-01
Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.
Symbolic superalgebra manipulations using common lisp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.
1990-09-01
We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie superalgebra. Using the results of our previous paper, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula in the general framework of the Z 2 graded algebras. The parameters are defined as Grassmann or even and treated symbolically. It is possible to perform calculations on finite super Poisson algebras. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.
36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...
36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...
36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...
36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...
36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use... Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol,...
Bliss Symbols--A New Language System for Handicapped People.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finke, Jack Anson
1979-01-01
Bliss Symbols form a language system of 100 basic symbols based not on the sound of words but on their meaning. Physically handicapped persons of a wide age and intellectual range are benefiting from the system. (Author/MLF)
Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University
Schneider, Carsten
RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz-Unification for Unranked Terms and Hedges Temur Kutsia Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC) Johannes Kepler
Automated non-alphanumeric symbol resolution in clinical texts.
Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B
2011-01-01
Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols ('+', '-', '/', and '#') were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for '+', '-', '/', and '#' were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems. PMID:22195157
SYMBEXNET: Testing Network Protocol Implementations with Symbolic Execution
Cadar, Cristian
SYMBEXNET: Testing Network Protocol Implementations with Symbolic Execution and Rule generate high-coverage test input packets for a network protocol implementation using single- and multi Terms--Symbolic execution, network security, testing, interoperability testing Ç 1 INTRODUCTION
Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.
2012-01-01
We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.
Computer symbolic math & education: a radical proposal
David R. Stoutemyer
1979-01-01
None of the commonly-taught programming languages is very relevant to the typical elementary-school through college math curriculum, but computer symbolic math is relevant to most of that curriculum. Consequently, a vast opportunity for beneficial mutual reinforcement and cross-motivation between math and computer education is being squandered. This paper substantiates these claims, explains their major causes, then proposes remedies.
7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...
7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...
7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the third factor of a grademark, denotes slick, unripe tobacco in lemon or orange color, and (b) when used preceding a grademark, denotes tobacco in strip form. (See Rules 17 and 28.)...
7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...
7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange, FR—orange red, R—red, V...GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated...variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon. [48 FR 29670, June 28,...
Connectionism, Symbol Grounding, and Autonomous Agents
Georg Dorffner; Erich Prem
1993-01-01
In this position paper we would like to lay out our view on the importance of grounding andsituatedness for cognitive science. Furthermore we would like to suggest that both aspectsbecome relevant almost automatically if one consequently pursues the original ideas fromconnectionism. Finally we discuss the relevance of grounding for theories of meaning andthe possible contribution of symbol grounding for autonomous
Symbolic AI versus Connectionism in Music Research
Petri Toiviainen
2000-01-01
In cognitive science and research on artificial intelli- gence, there are two central paradigms: the symbolic and the analogical. Within the analogical paradigm, interest in artificial neural networks, or connectionism, has ex- perienced a resurgence during the last decade; this change has also been reflected in the field of musical modeling. This article provides a general survey of the relationship
Continuous Symbol Systems The Logic of Connectionism
MacLennan, Bruce
Continuous Symbol Systems The Logic of Connectionism Bruce MacLennan Computer Science Department of connectionism is that it provides an alternative model of knowledge and cognition that avoids many of the limitations of the traditional approach. But what idea serves for connectionism the same unifying role
Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna
2010-01-01
Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…
Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.
Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…
Symbolic execution of oating-point computations?
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Symbolic execution of oating-point computations? Bernard Botellaa , Arnaud Gotliebb; , Claude of the extracted path conditions as well as to derive test data. Whenever path conditions contain oating can compromise correctness: a path can be labelled as in- feasible although there exists oating
Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul
2010-01-01
The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…
Antonymic phonetic symbolism in three natural languages
Dan I. Slobin
1968-01-01
American Ss matched English antonym pairs with antonym pairs from Thai, Kanarese, and Yoruba. The pairs represented the 3 major dimensions of the semantic differential, and referred to both sensible and nonsensible continua. Correct translations were made from all languages and in all semantic domains sampled, indicating that phonetic symbolism is not restricted to terms denoting magnitude and its common
Social symbol grounding and language evolution
Paul Vogt; Federico Divina
2007-01-01
This paper illustrates how external (or social) symbol grounding can be studied in simulations with large populations. We discuss how we can simulate language evolution in a relatively complex environment which has been developed in the context of the New Ties project. This project has the objective of evolving a cultural society and, in doing so, the agents have to
Morphism: a symbolic list processing language
Harold R. Vandenburgh
1965-01-01
With the formal study of natural languages, we have obtained some residual results which greatly increase our power of logical manipulation. Coupled with a computer, our language extends enormously the external logic of our computing device. This paper is concerned with a well-defined symbolic list processing language and a set of operators for this language. These operators, which we call
Symbolic ARMA Model Analysis Keith H. WEBB
Leemis, Larry
Symbolic ARMA Model Analysis Keith H. WEBB Lawrence M. LEEMIS Department of Mathematics The College of William & Mary Williamsburg, VA 231878795, USA khwebb@math.wm.edu leemis@math.wm.edu ARMA models provide associated with ARMA models. KEY WORDS: Autocorrelation functions; Computer algebra systems; Spectral density
The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hardy, Donna Dee
The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…
The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.
2011-01-01
The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…
Rethinking secularism: Mute symbols of Islam
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Rethinking secularism: Mute symbols of Islam by Nilüfer Göle Each time I cross the Galata bridge, I which divides citizens who position themselves against signs of Islamization from those who would like to mark the social rise of Islam by making a religious imprint on Turkey's public spaces. The split
SIDS - A Symbolic Interactive Design System
D. Clary; R. Kirk; S. Sapiro
1980-01-01
A new production approach to IC mask layout\\/checking is described which makes use of a combination of symbolic layout, computer checking and color graphics to resolve some of the problems in currently available layout systems. Techniques such as on-line design rule and connectivity checking, not found in other production systems, give the user \\
SIDS (A Symbolic Interactive Design System)
D. Clary; R. Kirk; S. Sapiro
1980-01-01
A new production approach to IC mask layout\\/checking is described which makes use of a combination of symbolic layout,computer checking and color graphics to resolve some of the problems in currently available layout systems. Techniques such as on-line design rule and connectivity checking, not found in other production systems, give the user “instant” feedback as he is designing.
Near, Joseph P.
2014-04-22
Symbolic execution of a language is traditionally achieved by replacing the language s interpreter with an entirely new interpreter. This may be an unnecessary burden, and it is tempting instead to try to use as much of ...
Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2014-01-01
Recent research reveals a link between individual differences in mathematics achievement and performance on tasks that activate the approximate number system (ANS): a primitive cognitive system shared by diverse animal species and by humans of all ages. Here we used a brief experimental paradigm to test one causal hypothesis suggested by this relationship: activation of the ANS may enhance children's performance of symbolic arithmetic. Over 2 experiments, children who briefly practiced tasks that engaged primitive approximate numerical quantities performed better on subsequent exact, symbolic arithmetic problems than did children given other tasks involving comparison and manipulation of non-numerical magnitudes (brightness and length). The practice effect appeared specific to mathematics, as no differences between groups were observed on a comparable sentence completion task. These results move beyond correlational research and provide evidence that the exercise of non-symbolic numerical processes can enhance children's performance of symbolic mathematics. PMID:24462713
A Sub-Symbolic Artificial Chemistry Adam Faulconbridge1
Stepney, Susan
RBN-World A Sub-Symbolic Artificial Chemistry Adam Faulconbridge1 , Susan Stepney2 , Julian F that uses the emergent properties of coupled random Boolean networks (RBNs) as a basis for a sub previous artificial chemistries have used symbolic approaches. We propose a sub-symbolic [2] approach based
Face Recognition Technique Using Symbolic Linear Discriminant Analysis Method
P. S. Hiremath; C. J. Prabhakar
2006-01-01
Techniques that can introduce low dimensional feature representation with enhanced discriminatory power are important in face recognition systems. This paper presents one of the symbolic factor analysis method i.e., symbolic Linear Discriminant Analysis (symbolic LDA) method for face representation and recognition. Classical factor analysis methods extract features, which are single valued in nature to represent face images. These single valued
An Introduction to Symbolic Data Analysis and the Sodas Software
Malerba, Donato
An Introduction to Symbolic Data Analysis and the Sodas Software Edwin Diday University Paris 9. They model concepts and constitute an explanatory output for data analysis. Moreover they can be used "Symbolic Data Analysis" (SDA) as the extension of standard Data Analysis to symbolic data tables as input
Symbolic Scheduling Techniques 1 Ivan Radivojevi c, Forrest Brewer
Brewer, Forrest D.
Symbolic Scheduling Techniques 1 Ivan Radivojevi ´c, Forrest Brewer Department of Electrical Mentor Graphics Corp. and UC-MICRO under project No.92-019. #12;I. Radivojevic , F. Brewer, "Symbolic , F. Brewer, "Symbolic Scheduling Techniques" 2 In this paper, we describe a technique for exact
HMM-Based Online Recognition of Handwritten Chemical Symbols
Yang Zhang; Guangshun Shi; Jufeng Yang
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present an online handwritten recognition method for Chemical Symbols, a widely used symbol in education and academic interactions. This method is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which are increasingly being used to model characters. We built an HMM for each symbol and used 11-dimensional local features which are suitable for online handwritten recognition, and obtained
Symbolic Simulation--Techniques and Applications Randal E. Bryant
Bryant, Randal E.
Symbolic Simulation--Techniques and Applications Randal E. Bryant School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract Symbolic simulation involves evaluating circuit behavior using special symbolic values to encode a range of circuit operating conditions. In one simulation
Symbolic Mathematics Engines in Teaching Chemistry: A Symposium Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellison, Mark
2004-01-01
The use of Symbolic Mathematics Engines (SMEs) in chemical education as a part of the Division of Computers in Chemistry was discussed by a panel of educators at the Symbolic Calculation in Chemistry symposium in Philadelphia in 2004. The panelists agreed that many more topics in chemistry are amenable to SME's exploration and that symbolic…
Formal hardware verification by symbolic ternary trajectory evaluation
Randal E. Bryant; Derek L. Beatty; Carl-Johan H. Seger
1991-01-01
Symbolic trajectory evaluation is a new approach to formal hard- ware verification combining the circuit modeling capabilities of symbolic logic simulation with some of the analytic methods found in temporal logic model checkers. We have created such an evaluator by extending the symbolic switch-level simulator COSMOS. This program gains added efficiency by exploiting the ability of COSMOS to evaluate circuit
A Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus
Schneider, Carsten
Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Flavia Stan Research Institute for Symbolic Computation, RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Abstract Given a FeynmanA Symbolic Summation Approach to Feynman Integral Calculus Johannes BlÂ¨umlein Deutsches Elektronen
Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University
Schneider, Carsten
RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz Symposium Proceedings July 5-6, 2013 Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes-Kepler University Computation Johannes-Kepler University Linz, Austria #12;Preface Symbolic Computation is the science
SYMBOL STATISTICS: A NEW TOOL FOR UNDERSTANDING MULTIPHASE FLOW PHENOMENA
Tennessee, University of
. In the language of nonlinear dynamics, we use symbol statistics to identify characteristic un- stableSYMBOL STATISTICS: A NEW TOOL FOR UNDERSTANDING MULTIPHASE FLOW PHENOMENA C.S. Daw Oak Ridge symbolization as a tool for identifying tempo- ral patterns in complex measurement signals. We describe
What Happened to Languages for Symbolic Mathematical Computation?
Watt, Stephen M.
What Happened to Languages for Symbolic Mathematical Computation? Stephen M. Watt Ontario Research for computer algebra, there has been less development in programming language support for symbolic computation and propose a set of directions and challenges for programming languages for symbolic computation. 1
I. ASCRC General Education Form Group GROUP III SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS
Vonessen, Nikolaus
developer, and expressed in the symbols and symbol manipulations of a programming language. Criteria 2I. ASCRC General Education Form Group GROUP III SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS Dept/Program COMPUTER SCIENCE of Computer Science, focusing on the object-oriented programming language Java, Software Engineering
Symbol grounding in communicative mobile robots IKAT / Infonomics -Universiteit Maastricht
Vogt, Paul
a workable definition of a symbol. The implemented model is explained in the section called `language gamesSymbol grounding in communicative mobile robots Paul Vogt IKAT / Infonomics - Universiteit on an experiment in which two mobile robots solve the symbol grounding problem in a particular experimental setup
The Nature of Symbols in the Language of Thought
SUSAN SCHNEIDER
2009-01-01
The core of language of thought program is the claim that thinking is the manipulation of symbols according to rules. Yet LOT has said little about symbol natures, and existing accounts are highly controversial. This is a major flaw at the heart of the LOT program: LOT requires an account of symbol natures to naturalize intentionality, to determine whether the
3. Symbols as a language of organizational relationships
Michael G. Pratt; Anat Rafaeli
2001-01-01
We view physical symbols as a rich, potent, non-verbal language that is uniquely suited for enacting relationship issues within organizations. Like verbal language, physical symbols have accepted elements and structure (e.g. grammar), and both influence and are influenced by social construction processes. We apply this ‘physical symbols as language’ perspective to modern organizations, and argue that recent trends, such as
Symbolic Algorithms for Language Equivalence and Kleene Algebra with Tests
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Symbolic Algorithms for Language Equivalence and Kleene Algebra with Tests Damien Pous CNRS, ENS language equivalence of finite automata over a large alphabet. We use symbolic automata, where diagrams (BDD), symbolic automata, Disjoint set forests, union-find, language equivalence, Kleene al- gebra
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions Methods used The integration functions #12;hp calculators HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Symbolic integration of trigonometric functions Methods used The HP50g provides large selection
Near-optimal symbol-by-symbol detection schemes for flat Rayleigh fading
James P. Seymour; Michael P. Fitz
1995-01-01
The optimal MAP detection algorithm for demodulation of M-QAM signaling in the frequency flat Rayleigh fading channel is proposed. A recursive structure is derived which allows for symbol-by-symbol metrics to be computed and data decisions to be made in an efficient manner. The complexity problem inherent to optimal detection schemes is addressed and approximations to optimal detection are considered which
... Research & Activities Data & Statistics Policy Impact Distracted Driving Pedestrian Safety Get the Facts National Strategies for Advancing Child Pedestrian Safety Native American Road Safety Get the Facts Research & ...
Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad
1989-01-01
A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.
Using Technology to Analyze and Illustrate Symbolism in Night
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Catherine Thomason
2012-07-26
What images symbolize hatred, peace, freedom, or confinement? What feelings do these images evoke in the viewer? What power do images have? These and many other questions provide the framework for students to use technology to explore symbolism in Elie Wiesel's Night. Students begin with a discussion of everyday symbols, such as street signs and hand gestures, to help them come up with their own definition for symbolism. Students then choose and analyze a passage from Night that uses darkness as a symbol, and then brainstorm how they might reinterpret their selected passage as an image. After learning about symbolism and discussing its use in the book, students create visual representations using an interactive tool. Students then express their response to the symbolism in the book by creating a photo montage using images from multiple websites about the Holocaust, text from survivor stories, articles about hate crimes, and Night.
Symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees.
Matsuzawa, Tetsuro
2009-02-01
This paper aims to summarize the existing evidence for the symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Chimpanzees can represent, to some extent, both the cardinal and the ordinal aspect of number. Through the medium of Arabic numerals we compared working memory in humans and chimpanzees using the same apparatus and following the same procedure. Three young chimpanzees outperformed human adults in memorizing briefly presented numerals. However, we found that chimpanzees were less proficient at a variety of other cognitive tasks including imitation, cross-modal matching, symmetry of symbols and referents, and one-to-one correspondence. In sum, chimpanzees do not possess human-like capabilities for representation at an abstract level. The present paper will discuss the constraints of the number concept in chimpanzees, and illuminate some unique features of human cognition. PMID:19447029
Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics
Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.
1997-10-09
Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.
Braille Learning: Effects of Symbol Size.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newman, Slater E.; And Others
Eighty sighted male Ss participated in a study to determine the effect of the size of the braille cell on the rate of learning the names for braille symbols of letters of the alphabet (A-J and K-T). Study size (standard or large braille), test size (standard or large braille) and item set (A-J or K-T) were manipulated in a study-test procedure…
Connectionism, explicit rules, and symbolic manipulation
Robert F. Hadley
1993-01-01
At present, the prevailing Connectionist methodology forrepresenting rules is toimplicitly embody rules in “neurally-wired” networks. That is, the methodology adopts the stance that rules must either be hard-wired or “trained into” neural structures, rather than represented via explicit symbolic structures. Even recent attempts to implementproduction systems within connectionist networks have assumed that condition-action rules (or rule schema) are to be
Mathematical symbol recognition with support vector machines
Christopher Malon; Seiichi Uchida; Masakazu Suzuki
2008-01-01
Single-character recognition of mathematical symbols poses challenges from its two-dimensional pattern, the variety of similar sym- bols that must be recognized distinctly, the imbalance and paucity of training data available, and the impossibility of final verification through spell check. We investigate the use of support vector machines to improve the classification of InftyReader, a free system for the OCR of
Symbolic code approach to GTD ray tracing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisceglia, Bruno; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Savarese, Catello
1988-10-01
A high-level artificial intelligence language with symbolic/logical manipulation capabilities, together with a simple ansatz based on the properties of the Fresnel ellipsoid, is used to implement an efficient computer algorithm for automatic ray-tracing. The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) ray-tracing solution for the radio-line path-loss evaluation over piecewise-linear two-dimensional terrain profiles is presented.
Symbolic Lie algebras manipulations using COMMON LISP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.
1989-01-01
We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie algebra. Using the general definitions of vector space Lie algebra and enveloping algebra, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. All the computations are exact, including numerical coefficients. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.
Green Symbolism in the Genetic Modification Debate
Ian M. Scott
2000-01-01
The character of the current controversy over geneticallymodified (GM) agriculture, typified by protesters' use of emotivesymbolism, has been largely inspired by the Green movement'snon-governmental organizations and political parties. This articleexplores the deeper philosophical and spiritual motivations of the Greenmovement, to inquire why it is implacably opposed to GM agriculture. TheGreen movement's anti-capitalism, exemplified by the hate-symbol statusof Monsanto as the
Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia
Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah
2014-01-01
The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356
Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.
Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco
2011-10-01
The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior. PMID:21901453
Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.
Retief, F P; Cilliers, L
2002-07-01
Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field. PMID:12197200
UNBC SAFETY CHECKLIST SAFETY CHECKLIST
Northern British Columbia, University of
-45 and Criminal Code section 217.1, WorkSafeBC Occupational Health & Safety Regulations (OHSR): 3 package http://www.unbc.ca/assets/safety/health__safety_assets/ employee_safety_orientation_dec_2011.pdf1 UNBC SAFETY CHECKLIST SAFETY CHECKLIST INSTRUCTIONS PAGE Please use the following table below
Symbol manipulation and rule learning in spiking neuronal networks.
Fernando, Chrisantha
2011-04-21
It has been claimed that the productivity, systematicity and compositionality of human language and thought necessitate the existence of a physical symbol system (PSS) in the brain. Recent discoveries about temporal coding suggest a novel type of neuronal implementation of a physical symbol system. Furthermore, learning classifier systems provide a plausible algorithmic basis by which symbol re-write rules could be trained to undertake behaviors exhibiting systematicity and compositionality, using a kind of natural selection of re-write rules in the brain, We show how the core operation of a learning classifier system, namely, the replication with variation of symbol re-write rules, can be implemented using spike-time dependent plasticity based supervised learning. As a whole, the aim of this paper is to integrate an algorithmic and an implementation level description of a neuronal symbol system capable of sustaining systematic and compositional behaviors. Previously proposed neuronal implementations of symbolic representations are compared with this new proposal. PMID:21237176
Comprehensibility of universal healthcare symbols for wayfinding in healthcare facilities.
Lee, Seunghae; Dazkir, Sibel Seda; Paik, Hae Sun; Coskun, Aykut
2014-07-01
Healthcare facilities are often complex and overwhelming for visitors, and wayfinding in healthcare facilities can be challenging. As there is an increasing number of global citizens who travel to seek medical care in another country, it is critical to make wayfinding easy for visitors who are not familiar with the language in a foreign country. Among many wayfinding aids, symbols are helpful for those visitors who have limited ability to understand written language. This study tested universal healthcare symbols in the United States, South Korea, and Turkey to compare the comprehension of symbols cross-country and identify predictors of the correct comprehension. To explore statistically significant relationships between symbol comprehension and countries, Pearson's Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and ANOVA were conducted. The test results showed that ten symbols among 14 tested have significant relationship with countries. Results of this study demonstrate that symbol comprehension can be varied significantly in different countries. PMID:24290906
Symbolic Analysis of Sonar Data for Underwater Target Detection
Kushal Mukherjee; Shalabh Gupta; Asok Ray; Shashi Phoha
2011-01-01
This paper presents a symbolic pattern analysis method for robust feature extraction from sidescan sonar images that are generated from autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The proposed data-driven algorithm, built upon the concepts of symbolic dynamics and automata theory ,i s used for detection of mines and mine-like objects in the undersea environment. This real-time algorithm is based on symbolization of
Symbolic control of a multi-tasking signal processor
Lin, Shih-Kang
1988-01-01
symbolic controlled signal processing system 3. Functional block diagram of a multi-tasking signal processor 4. A symbolic control system architecture 5. Command/Status word data structure Page 19 22 29 6. Proposed symbolic controller architecture... distribution and acquisition for Artificial Intelligence; Multi-processor System; and Uncertainty Management. In the following sections we review some papers addressing these issues. B. Artificial Intelligence Crosscope and Bonnell [5] pointed out...
Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Requirements for employers
Minnesota, University of
Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Requirements for employers · Fallprotectionsandproperuseofrelated-safety equipmentsuchaslifelines,harness · Properuseofdangeroustools,thenecessaryprecautionstotake,andtheuseof theprotectiveandemergencyequipmentrequired. Safety Training and Education Safety Tip #18 Get smart. Use safety from the start. All
Park, Sang Woo
2009-05-15
the EM algorithm. In the EM algorithm, it is difficult to obtain the closed form of the log-likelihood function and the density function. Therefore, both functions are approximated by using the Particle Filter (PF) technique. In addition, the symbol rate...
... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...
Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects
Fainzang, Sylvie
2010-01-01
Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a discourse which stigmatizes the home medicine cabinet for reasons of safety, which in fact questions patients’ ability to use drugs properly. This analysis shows that the various behaviours and discourses relating to the risks of drugs are impregnated with symbolic, ethical and cultural logics. As a consequence, above and beyond works carried out on the question of pharmacovigilance, examining the issue of safe drug use involves studying the human (social and cultural) aspects which govern part of the discourses and practices relating to drug safety. PMID:20635820
LOCAL SAMPLING AND APPROXIMATION OF OPERATORS WITH BANDLIMITED KOHN-NIRENBERG SYMBOLS
Pfander, GÃ¶tz
LOCAL SAMPLING AND APPROXIMATION OF OPERATORS WITH BANDLIMITED KOHN-NIRENBERG SYMBOLS FELIX KRAHMER with bandlimited Kohn-Nirenberg symbols from their response to a single discretely supported identifier signal Kohn-Nirenberg symbol. Keywords. Operator identification, pseudodifferential operators, Kohn
Steering Symbolic Execution to Less Traveled Paths Zhendong Su+
Su, Zhendong
Steering Symbolic Execution to Less Traveled Paths You Li Zhendong Su+ Linzhang Wang Xuandong Li methodology. It systematically explores a program's execu- tion space and can generate test cases with high coverage. One significant practical challenge for symbolic execution is how to effectively explore
Practising English Phonetic Symbols in a Communicative Way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chu, Wai Ling
Classroom exercises designed to help students learn phonetic symbols more effectively are described. The exercises were developed for use in a Hong Kong school. The idea behind their creation was that use of the symbols in communicative situations would emphasize their utility for learning English pronunciation. Each exercise uses contextualized…
Wyoming Tombstone Symbolism: A Reflection of Western Culture.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochenour, John; Rezabek, Landra L.
Eleven cemeteries in Wyoming are examined for visuals pertaining to life in the West. The purpose is to demonstrate the importance of Western culture tradition evidenced through tombstone symbolism--representations of the activities and environments of the living through the memory provided by the deceased. The visual symbols found on the…
Symbolic Computation on Complex Polynomial Solution of Differential Equations
Jun Zhang
1996-01-01
A symbolic computation scheme, based on the Lanczos ?-method, is proposed for obtaining exact polynomial solutions to some perturbed differential equations with suitable boundary conditions. The automated ?-method uses symbolic Faber polynomials as the perturbation terms for arbitrary circular sections of the complex plane and has advantages of avoiding rounding error and easy manipulation over the numerical counterpart. The method
Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.
2013-01-01
Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…
On the prime ideal structure of symbolic Rees algebras
S. Bouchiba; S. Kabbaj
2009-01-01
This paper contributes to the study of the prime spectrum and dimension theory of symbolic Rees algebra over Noetherian domains. We first establish some general results on the prime ideal structure of subalgebras of affine domains, which actually arise, in the Noetherian context, as domains between a domain $A$ and $A[a^{-1}]$. We then examine closely the special context of symbolic
Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.
2008-01-01
"Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…
Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks Rudy Setiono and Huan Liu
Setiono, Rudy
Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks Rudy Setiono and Huan Liu Department of Information,liuhg@iscs.nus.sg phone: (65) 7726297/7726563 Abstract Although backpropagation neural networks generally predict better to extract symbolic rules from neural networks. Explicitness of the extracted rules is supported by comparing
Structural Methods Applied to the Symbolic Analysis of Petri Nets
Enric Pastor; Jordi Cortadella
1998-01-01
Symbolic techniques based on Binary Decision Diagrams have emerged as one of the possible strategies to overcome the state exposition problem in the analysis of systems modeled as Petri nets. The results on structural theory of Petri nets obtained in the last few decad es can be used to improve the symbolic analysis and to alleviate the state exposition problem.
Structural Methods to Improve the Symbolic Analysis of Petri Nets
Enric Pastor; Jordi Cortadella; Marco A. Peña
1999-01-01
. Symbolic techniques based on BDDs (Binary Decision Diagrams)have emerged as an efficient strategy for the analysis of Petrinets. The existing techniques for the symbolic encoding of each markinguse a fixed set of variables per place, leading to encoding schemes withvery low density. This drawback has been previously mitigated by usingZero-Suppressed BDDs, that provide a typical reduction of BDD sizesby
Symbolic State Traversal for WCET Analysis Stephan Wilhelm
Oxford, University of
-deterministic choices. To be safe, the analysis has to exhaustively explore all possibilities. This can lead to stateSymbolic State Traversal for WCET Analysis Stephan Wilhelm AbsInt GmbH and Saarland University a novel symbolic method for WCET analysis based on ab- stract pipeline models which produces sound results
Parallel EM Learning for Symbolic-Statistical Models
Sato, Taisuke
Parallel EM Learning for Symbolic- Statistical Models Yusuke Izumi Department of Computer Science as previous author) sato@mi.cs.titech.ac.jp keywords: parallel EM algorithm, symbolic-statistical models, PRISM, distributed parallel computing Summary EM learning, i.e. parameter learning for probabilistic
Easy Composition of Symbolic Computation Software using SCSCP
Trinder, Phil
Australia Abstract We present the results of the first four years of the European research project SCIEnce Symbolic Computation Infrastructure in Europe (http://www.symbolic-computation.org), which aims to provide computations. To ease use and to maximise inter-operability, these skeletons themselves are provided as SCSCP
Applying Statistical English Language Modeling to Symbolic Machine Translation
Brown, Ralf
Applying Statistical English Language Modeling to Symbolic Machine Translation Ralf Brown and Robert Frederking ralf+@cs.cmu.edu, ref+@cs.cmu.edu Center for Machine Translation Carnegie Mellon et al. 94] was from the outset de signed to be a symbolic, humanaided machine translation (MT
Book Report Alternative: Summary, Symbol, and Analysis in Bookmarks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardner, Traci
By making simple bookmarks, students in grades 6-8 practice summarizing, recognizing symbols, and writing reviews in these two 50-minute class sessions--all while writing for an authentic audience. Student objectives for this lesson are that they will: write summaries and reviews for books they read; identify appropriate symbols that relate to…
Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.
1991-01-01
In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.
ASAP - A symbolic algebra package for accelerator design
Bozoki, E.; Friedman, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.
1991-01-01
We report the conceptual design and primary implementation steps of a symbolic algebra program based on MACSYMA for the design of accelerators, storage rings and transport lines. The motivation for using symbolic algebra is discussed and a design case is presented that shows the advantage of this approach. 5 refs., 2 figs.
Symbolic Calculators in Mathematics Lessons--The Case of Calculus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weigand, Hans-Georg; Bichler, Ewald
2010-01-01
Many empirical investigations concerning the use of computer algebra systems (CAS) and symbolic calculators (SC) are restricted to a period of only a few weeks. They do not show long-term effects on students understanding. Therefore, a long term project (2003-2012) was started to test the use of symbolic calculators in Bavarian "Gymnasien"…
Neural Computing for Numeric-to-SymbolicConversion
Antsaklis, Panos
Neural Computing for Numeric-to-SymbolicConversion in Kevin M. Passino, ABSTRACT: Neural computing, a cer- tain type of neural network, called the mul- tilayer perceptron, is used to classify nu- meric recognition. After introducing the idea of using the neural network as a numeric-to-symbolic converter, its
On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs
Krupski, Vladimir N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-05-31
In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.
Applications of symbolic computation to power system analysis and teaching
C. A. Canizares
2005-01-01
This paper describes the history and use of symbolic computation in power systems, from the tools used for power system analysis such as power flows, to its application in the classroom to facilitate the explanation and understanding of complex models and concepts such as device modeling and simulation. An example of the use of symbolic computation to develop a basic
Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra
Sankaranarayanan, Sriram
Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra Sriram Sankaranarayanan 1 , Thao for the verification of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed polyhedra. Therefore, operations used in symbolic model checking such as intersection, union and post
Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra
Sankaranarayanan, Sriram
Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems using Template Polyhedra Sriram Sankaranarayanan1 , Thao for the verification of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed polyhedra. Therefore, operations used in symbolic model checking such as intersection, union and post
1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A
Samet, Hanan
1 TWO DATA ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORING SYMBOLIC IMAGES IN A RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEM Aya Soffer@umiacs.umd.edu and hjs@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract: A method is presented for integrating images into the framework of a conventional database management system (DBMS). It is applicable to a class of images termed symbolic images
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
155 CHAPTER 3 Symbolic Natural Language Processing 3.0 Introduction Combinatorics on Words, Lothaire (Ed.) (2005) 164-209" #12;156 Symbolic Natural Language Processing some . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 3.0. Introduction Fundamental notions of combinatorics on words underlie natural language pro
Symbolic Computation versus Computer Algebra by Stephen M. Watt
Watt, Stephen M.
Symbolic Computation versus Computer Algebra by Stephen M. Watt Ontario Research Centre for Computer Algebra University of Western Ontario London, Canada We observe that "symbolic computation" and "computer algebra" are really two different things and that neither one sufficiently addresses the prob
Myths, Symbols, Stereotypes: The Artist and the Mass Media.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Busby, Linda J.
Every form of communication involves the use of myths, symbols, or stereotypes. Symbols have been used as instruments to measure artistic works, from film to painting, from high literature to television programs. Stereotypes are communication short-cuts which allow communication to engender images without the use of full description by the artist.…
Pilot symbol assisted diversity reception for a fading channel
Selaka B. Bulumulla; Saleem A. Kassam; Santosh S. Venkatesh
1998-01-01
Pilot symbol assisted modulation is a promising scheme to mitigate the effect of fading in a wireless channel. Analytical results for the performance of this scheme are available. Although the use of diversity is known to improve the performance of receivers used in fading channels, pilot symbol assisted diversity reception has not been studied. In this paper, we derive an
Whites' opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict?
Lawrence Bobo
1983-01-01
The theory of symbolic racism contends that White individuals' opposition to busing springs from a basic underlying prejudiced or intolerant attitudinal predisposition toward Blacks, not self-interest or realistic group conflict motives. The present research argues that realistic group conflict motives do help explain Whites' opposition to busing. Two major criticisms of the symbolic racism approach are made: (a) that the
Object Size Discrimination and Non-visual Cartographic Symbolization
Matt Rice; R. Daniel Jacobson; Reginald G. Golledge; David Jones
Guidelines for cartographic symbolization, developed over several hundred years, have focused almost exclusively on visual design elements for maps. Recent attention on the personal computer and the Internet as a means for map display and map dissemination has resulted in more discussion about symbolization guidelines, particularly in settings where the scale of map display is dynamic and where extra information
Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt
Watt, Stephen M.
Making Computer Algebra More Symbolic Stephen M. Watt Abstract This paper is a step to bring closer" and the view of "computer algebra." Symbolic computation may be seen as working with expression trees representing math- ematical formulae and applying various rules to transform them. Computer algebra may be seen
ISR: A Database for Symbolic Processing in Computer Vision
John Brolio; Bruce A. Draper; J. Ross Beveridge; Allen R. Hanson
1989-01-01
ISR (international symbolic representation), a representation and management system for use at the intermediate (symbolic) level of vision, is described. ISR mediates access to intermediate-level vision data and forms an active interface to the higher-level inference processes that construct an image's interpretation. The system supports important types of data and operations and can be adapted to the changing needs of
Completion and Invariant Theory in Symbolic Computation and Artificial Intelligence
Eugen E. Ardeleanu
1992-01-01
An outline for the study of invariant theoretic (as structural) and completion (as syntactical) concepts in symbolic computation and artificial intelligence is presented on a level of abstraction which permits a unifying viewpoint on problems in symbolic computation and artificial intelligence. We refer to applications in computational polynomial ideal theory and in general problem-solving in the sense of AI research.
Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice
Kennedy, Holly Powell
2010-01-01
Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care. PMID:20147827
Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shihabi, Mazen M. (inventor.); Hinedi, Sami M. (inventor.); Shah, Biren N. (inventor.)
1995-01-01
A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.
Applied Symbolic Vector Dynamics of Coupled Map Lattice
Kai Wang; Wenjiang Pei
2008-07-10
Symbolic dynamics, which partitions an infinite number of finite-length trajectories into a finite number of trajectory sets, describes the dynamics of a system in a simplified and coarse-grained way with a limited number of symbols. The study of symbolic dynamics in 1D chaotic map has been further developed and is named as the applied symbolic dynamics. In this paper, we will study the applied symbolic vector dynamics of CML. Based on the original contribution proposed in Refs.[6], we will study the ergodic property of CML. We will analyze the relation between admissibility condition and control parameters, and then give a coupling coefficient estimation method based on the ergodic property. Both theoretical and experimental results show that we provide a natural analytical technique for understanding turbulences in CML. Many of our findings could be expanded to a wider range of application.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinton-Bayre, Anton; Geffen, Gina
2005-01-01
The present study examined the comparability of 4 alternate forms of the Digit Symbol Substitution test and the Symbol Digit Modalities (written) test, including the original versions. Male contact-sport athletes (N=112) were assessed on 1 of the 4 forms of each test. Reasonable alternate form comparability was demonstrated through establishing…
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 9, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1998 739 Symbolic Connectionism in
Franklin, James
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 9, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1998 739 Symbolic Connectionism OF SYMBOLIC CONNECTIONISM IN LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING COGNITIVE linguists view language as a conventional system
Symbolic connectionism in natural language disambiguation.
Chan, S K; Franklin, J
1998-01-01
Natural language understanding involves the simultaneous consideration of a large number of different sources of information. Traditional methods employed in language analysis have focused on developing powerful formalisms to represent syntactic or semantic structures along with rules for transforming language into these formalisms. However, they make use of only small subsets of knowledge. This article will describe how to use the whole range of information through a neurosymbolic architecture which is a hybridization of a symbolic network and subsymbol vectors generated from a connectionist network. Besides initializing the symbolic network with prior knowledge, the subsymbol vectors are used to enhance the system's capability in disambiguation and provide flexibility in sentence understanding. The model captures a diversity of information including word associations, syntactic restrictions, case-role expectations, semantic rules and context. It attains highly interactive processing by representing knowledge in an associative network on which actual semantic inferences are performed. An integrated use of previously analyzed sentences in understanding is another important feature of our model. The model dynamically selects one hypothesis among multiple hypotheses. This notion is supported by three simulations which show the degree of disambiguation relies both on the amount of linguistic rules and the semantic-associative information available to support the inference processes in natural language understanding. Unlike many similar systems, our hybrid system is more sophisticated in tackling language disambiguation problems by using linguistic clues from disparate sources as well as modeling context effects into the sentence analysis. It is potentially more powerful than any systems relying on one processing paradigm. PMID:18255763
Safety & Environment Unit Safety Contest
Maoz, Shahar
for a disordered lab Orderly laboratory 40 positive points for each safety initiative Initiatives implementationAwards Safety & Environment Unit Safety Contest & We hope that this contest will improve the awareness and the safety of all WIS personnel. First prize Second prize Third prize $5000 $3000 $2000 Dear
Fixing the broken system of genetic locus symbols
Lohmann, Katja; Lang, Anthony; Klein, Christine
2012-01-01
Originally, locus symbols (e.g., DYT1) were introduced to specify chromosomal regions that had been linked to a familial disorder with a yet unknown gene. Symbols were systematically assigned in a numerical series to designate mapped loci for a specific phenotype or group of phenotypes. Since the system of designating and using locus symbols was originally established, both our knowledge and our techniques of gene discovery have evolved substantially. The current system has problems that are sources of confusion, perpetuate misinformation, and misrepresent the system as a useful reference tool for a list of inherited disorders of a particular phenotypic class. These include erroneously assigned loci, duplicated loci, missing symbols, missing loci, unconfirmed loci in a consecutively numbered system, combining causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we describe these problems and their impact, and propose solutions. The system could be significantly improved by creating distinct lists for clinical and research purposes, creating more informative locus symbols, distinguishing disease-causing mutations from risk factors, raising the threshold of evidence prior to assigning a locus symbol, paying strict attention to the predominant phenotype when assigning symbols lists, and having a formal system for reviewing and continually revising the list that includes input from both clinical and genetics experts. PMID:22454269
Quantifying heart rate dynamics using different approaches of symbolic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cysarz, D.; Porta, A.; Montano, N.; Leeuwen, P. V.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.
2013-06-01
The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series is able to retrieve information about dynamical properties of the underlying system that cannot be gained with standard methods like e.g. spectral analysis. Different approaches for the transformation of the original time series to the symbolic time series have been proposed. Yet the differences between the approaches are unknown. In this study three different transformation methods are investigated: (1) symbolization according to the deviation from the average time series, (2) symbolization according to several equidistant levels between the minimum and maximum of the time series, (3) binary symbolization of the first derivative of the time series. Furthermore, permutation entropy was used to quantify the symbolic series. Each method was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RR i and its difference ? RR I of 17 healthy subjects obtained during head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics of each method is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences ("words") of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), words with one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis showed that for method 1 0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle. For method 2 0V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle and method 3 showed changes for 0V% and 1V%. Furthermore, also the permutation entropy decreased with increasing tilt angle. In conclusion, all methods are capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during head-up tilt. All methods show that even the analysis of very short symbolic sequences is capable of tracking changes of the cardiac autonomic regulation during head-up tilt testing.
Iterative Decoding of Non-binary Turbo Codes Using Symbol Based SOVA Algorithm
Jianjun Liu; Guofang Tu
2006-01-01
Bandwidth efficient turbo coding schemes attract increasing research interest these years, most of these schemes are constructed by non-binary convolutional codes and need to be decoded symbol by symbol instead of bit by bit. In this paper, a modified symbol based SOVA decoding algorithm for non-binary turbo codes is proposed. Using our symbol based SOVA algorithm, soft output information from
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dick, Anthony Steven; Overton, Willis F.; Kovacs, Stacie L.
2005-01-01
Children's developing competence with symbolic representations was assessed in 3 studies. Study 1 examined the hypothesis that the production of imaginary symbolic objects in pantomime requires the simultaneous coordination of the dual representations of a dynamic action and a symbolic object. We explored this coordination of symbolic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathews, Robert C.; Mister, Rena D.
1988-01-01
Operationalized Lifton's constructs of symbolic immortality and developed instrument to measure individual's needs for symbolic immortality in Lifton's five modes (biological, religious, nature, creative, experiential) in study which also examined age effects on needs for symbolic immortality and relation between sensation seeking and symbolic…
On the utilization of embedded symbol for CCSK BER improvement in TDCS dynamic spectrum access
I. Budiarjo; H. Nikookar; L. P. Ligthart
2008-01-01
In this paper we propose the novel concept of embedding extra symbol to the CCSK modulation based TDCS signal. The embedded symbol is derived from the PSK mapping. The results show that as the constellation size of the PSK mapping increases, the CCSK BER performance improves tremendously. The embedded symbol improves the TDCS symbol SNR and consequently enhances the cross-correlation
The electronic chart symbol design and implementation based on ArcGIS platform
Xin Wang; Wang Rui-fu; Jin Xi-fang; Yang Cai-hong
2010-01-01
The electronic chart symbol library is the important component of electronic chart display and expression. The point symbols, line symbols and fill patterns of the electronic chart symbol library are a kind of map language which is used to mark the ocean geographic elements and navigation signals, and they are the major expression of the chart. Currently GIS is not
A Lightweight Symbolic Virtual Machine for Solver-Aided Host Languages
Jackson, Daniel
A Lightweight Symbolic Virtual Machine for Solver-Aided Host Languages Emina Torlak Rastislav Bodik a symbolic virtual machine (SVM) for such a host language. Our symbolic virtual machine is lightweight to constraints. Our symbolic virtual machine architecture is at the heart of ROSETTE, a solver-aided language
Decentralized symbolic control of interconnected systems with application to
Johansson, Karl Henrik
and physical world (the so-called Cyber-Physical Systems [Lee (2006)]). Moreover, symbolic methods provide. 257462 HYCON2 Network of excellence. notion of bisimulation to metric systems, introduced by [Girard
Effects of Different Symbolic Coding Stimuli In Behavior Modeling Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Decker, Phillip J.
1984-01-01
Examined the effect of different symbolic coding stimuli on reproduction and generalization of modeled events in business students (N=80). Results indicated that presentation of learning points plays an important role in observational learning. (LLL)
Symbol IC-Evaluation as an Aid to Program Synthesis
Yonezawa, Akinori
Symbolic-evaluation is the process which abstractly evaluates an actor program and checks to see whether the program fulfills its contract (specification). In this paper, a formalism based on the conceptual representation ...
40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...
40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...
40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...
40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...
40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Emission control system...flexible vinyl and urethane rotogravure printing lines. Flexible vinyl and...
Exploring the Symbolic Subsymbolic Continuum: A Case Study of RAAM
Blank, Douglas
connectionism is frequently associated with the subsymbolic paradigm. Debates con- trasting the two paradigms-dimensional continuum as shown in To appear in Closing the Gap: Symbolism vs. Connectionism, J. Dinsmore, editor. 1992
A Comparative Study : Microprogrammed Vs Risc Architectures For Symbolic Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heudin, J. C.; Metivier, C.; Demigny, D.; Maurin, T.; Zavidovique, B.; Devos, F.
1987-05-01
It is oftenclaimed that conventional computers are not well suited for human-like tasks : Vision (Image Processing), Intelligence (Symbolic Processing) ... In the particular case of Artificial Intelligence, dynamic type-checking is one example of basic task that must be improved. The solution implemented in most Lisp work-stations consists in a microprogrammed architecture with a tagged memory. Another way to gain efficiency is to design a well suited instruction set for symbolic processing, which reduces the semantic gap between the high level language and the machine code. In this framework, the RISC concept provides a convenient approach to study new architectures for symbolic processing. This paper compares both approaches and describes our projectof designing a compact symbolic processor for Artificial Intelligence applications.
47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom) FAC—Airport control tower...
47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...station in the aviation services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom)...
47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...station in the aviation services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical operational fixed DGP—Differential GPS FA—Aeronautical land (unspecified) FAU—Aeronautical advisory (unicom)...
Covariant Weyl quantization, symbolic calculus, and the product formula
Gunturk, Kamil Serkan
2006-08-16
A covariant Wigner-Weyl quantization formalism on the manifold that uses pseudo-differential operators is proposed. The asymptotic product formula that leads to the symbol calculus in the presence of gauge and gravitational ...
Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University
Schneider, Carsten
RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz, University of Porto, Portugal 2 RISC, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria 3 VIAM, Ivane Javakhishvili
Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds
Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro
2015-01-01
Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741
Symbolic Development in Maltreated Youngsters: An Organizational Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cicchetti, Dante; Beeghly, Marjorie
1987-01-01
This study, which uses the organizational perspective, synthesizes major contributions to the examination of symbolic development in abused children. Focuses on the interrelationship between and the impact of maltreatment on children's cognitive, socioemotional, and linguistic development. (RWB)
Symbolic dynamics III. Bifurcations in billiards and smooth potentials
Kai T. Hansen
1993-01-19
The singular bifurcations in a dispersive billiard are discussed in terms of symbolic dynamics and is compared to an example of a bifurcation tree in a smooth potential. Possible generalizations to other smooth potentials are discussed.
Efficient Symbolic State-space Construction for Asynchronous Systems
Ciardo, Gianfranco
Efficient Symbolic State-space Construction for Asynchronous Systems Gianfranco Ciardo1 , Gerald L, Williamsburg, VA 23187, USA, {ciardo, radu}@cs.wm.edu 2 ICASE, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681
40 CFR 91.403 - Symbols and abbreviations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.403 Symbols and abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations...
Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food safety practices can cause infection from a foodborne illness. Symptoms of foodborne illnesses vary, but they usually include ...
[Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].
Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer
2007-01-01
Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor. PMID:17585707
[Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].
Suaud, Charles
2014-03-01
The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)
2004-01-01
Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
A Better Conversion of LTL Formulas to Symbolic Automata
Kristin Y. Rozier
Symbolic model checking has demonstrated more scalability and re- liability than explicit model checking,and is used frequently for industrial verifi- cation. Yet, the issue of efficient construction of symbolic automata for LTL for- mulas has been largely neglected, while explicit translati on of LTL to automata has been studied extensively. We show that algorithmic ideas from explicit-state LTL-to-automata translators, as
Comparative Study of Pilot Symbol Assisted Modem Schemes
J. M. Torrance; L. Hanzo
1995-01-01
The performance of a range of 1, 2 and 4 bit\\/symbol pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM)1, 3 arrange- ments employing first-order linear, low pass, polynomial and optimum higher-order linear interpolation schemes is analysed in contrast to that of the equivalent non- coherent modems. Both the non-coherent modems as well as the coherent PSAM schemes exhibited a residual bit error rate
Symbol Recognition Using Bipartite Transformation Distance and Angular Distribution Alignment
Feng Min; Wan Zhang; Liu Wenyin
2005-01-01
\\u000a In this paper, we present an integrated system for symbol recognition. The whole recognition procedure consists of image compression,\\u000a denoising and recognition. We present a pixel-based method to calculate similarity between two symbols using the bipartite transformation distance after they are aligned by their angular distributions. The proposed method can overcome some shortcomings of other pixel-level\\u000a methods. We also propose
Symbolic and Structuring Effects of the Internet on Privacy
Albin Zuccato; Simone Fischer-Hübner
Technology has influenced human lives since the beginning of mankind. Sociologists have described the effects that technology\\u000a has on society as structuring or symbolic. We will use the same concepts to investigate the capability of the Internet to\\u000a influence privacy. We analyse the structuring and symbolic effects of technology on privacy and thereby demonstrate some potentials\\u000a of Internet technology and
Formal Verification by Symbolic Evaluation of Partially-Ordered Trajectories
Carl-johan H. Seger; Randal E. Bryant
1995-01-01
Symbolic trajectory evaluation provides a means to formally verify properties of a sequential system by a modified form of symbolic simulation. The desired system properties are expressed in a notation combining Boolean expressions and the temporal logic “next-time” operator. In its simplest form, each property is expressed as an assertion [A?C], where the antecedentA expresses some assumed conditions on the
Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Dell, Linda Kay
The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that can serve as a portal, one that has the propensity to deepen the understanding of the therapeutic relationship and the space held by both participants.
Multithreaded processor architecture for parallel symbolic computation. Technical report
Fujita, T.
1987-09-01
This paper describes the Multilisp Architecture for Symbolic Applications (MASA), which is a multithreaded processor architecture for parallel symbolic computation with various features intended for effective Multilisp program execution. The principal mechanisms exploited for this processor are multiple contexts, interleaved pipeline execution from separate instruction streams, and synchronization based on a bit in each memory cell. The tagged architecture approach is taken for Lisp program execution, and trap conditions are provided for future object manipulation and garbage collection.
Automatic Symbolic Traffic Scene Analysis Using Belief Networks
Timothy Huang; Daphne Koller; Jitendra Malik; Gary H. Ogasawara; B. Rao; Stuart J. Russell; Joseph Weber
1994-01-01
Automatic symbolic traffic scene analysis is essen- tial to many areas of IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems). Traffic scene information can be used to optimize traffic flow during busy pe- riods, identify stalled vehicles and accidents, and aid the decision-making of an autonomous vehi- cle controller. Improvements in technologies for machine vision-based surveillance and high-level symbolic reasoning have enabled us
Symbolic Dynamics and Markov Partitions for the Stadium Billiard
Kai T. Hansen; Predrag Cvitanovic
1995-02-06
We investigate the Bunimovich stadium dynamics and find that in the limit of infinitely long stadium the symbolic dynamics is a subshift of finite type. For a stadium of finite length the Markov partitions are infinite, but the inadmissible symbol sequences can be determined exactly by means of the appropriate pruning front. We outline a construction of a sequence of finite Markov graph approximations by means of approximate pruning fronts with finite numbers of steps.
Multiple-symbol differential detection of GMSK for mobile communications
Andrea Abrardo; Giuliano Benelli; Gianfranco R. Cau
1995-01-01
A new multiple differential detection (MDD) sequence estimator is described which uses a decision feedback for the demodulation of a GMSK signal. This technique is based upon a maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than on a symbol-by-symbol detection. An upper and a lower bound on the bit error probability of the described detector in the case of
Formula Approximation for Flat and Hierarchical Symbolic Analysis
F. V. Fernández; A. Rodríguez-Vázquez; J. D. Martín; J. L. Huertas
\\u000a This paper addresses the topic of reducing the complexity of formulae resulting from the symbolic analysis of analog integrated\\u000a circuits, covering both flat and hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches. Previously reported criteria for flat analysis\\u000a are first briefly reviewed and their limitations illustrated via examples of practical analog circuits. In all of these criteria\\u000a simplifications are performed by estimating the numerical
Symbolic Reachability Analysis based on SAT-Solvers
Niklas Eén
1999-01-01
In this report we present an implementation of a symbolic reachability analyzer,FIXIT, based on SAT-methods. The problem of reachability is to determine fora given transition system, whether a set of bad states is reachable from a set ofinitial states. We call our approach symbolic, as we use formulas to representset of states. The representation includes the standard connectives AND, EQUIV,and
... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Navigator Journey to Safety Excellence Join ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research NSC Navigator Journey to Safety Excellence ...
... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Navigator Journey to Safety Excellence Join ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research NSC Navigator Journey to Safety Excellence ...
L. B. McClung
2003-01-01
All of general industry in the United States, represented by the participants in the IEEE\\/IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee Technical Conference (PCIC), is regulated by the federal government to have an electrical safety program. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) documents that drive the electrical safety of employees in the workplace is written in performance
Joseph R. Muscatello; Brian P. Heshizer
2002-01-01
Background: Safety teams have become a popular means to recognize and prevent injuries in the workplace. In fact, organizations, such as OSHA, NIOSH, NIEHS, DOE, and the Ohio BWC, not only encourage safety teams, but have implemented them in their organizations. However, safety teams may not be legal as defined by NLRB Act Sections 2(5) and 8(a)(2). Objective: To determine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.
Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…
Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols
Kwon, Namhee [Department of Mathematics, The University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Sage, Daniel S. [Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2008-06-15
Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.
A dissociation between symbolic number knowledge and analogue magnitude information.
Polk, T A; Reed, C L; Keenan, J M; Hogarth, P; Anderson, C A
2001-12-01
Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what / means). In this article, the authors describe a patient (MC) who exhibits a dissociation between tasks that require symbolic number knowledge (e.g., knowledge of arithmetic symbols including numbers, knowledge of concepts related to numbers such as rounding) and tasks that require an analogue magnitude representation (e.g., comparing size or frequency). MC is impaired on a variety of tasks that require symbolic number knowledge, but her ability to represent and process analogue magnitude information is intact. Her deficit in symbolic number knowledge extends to a variety of concepts related to numbers (e.g., decimal points, Roman numerals, what a quartet is) but not to any other semantic categories that we have tested. These findings suggest that symbolic number knowledge is a functionally independent component of the number processing system, that it is category specific, and that it is anatomically and functionally distinct from magnitude representations. PMID:11748908
From bad to worse: Symbolic equivalence and opposition in fear generalisation.
Bennett, Marc; Hermans, Dirk; Dymond, Simon; Vervoort, Ellen; Baeyens, Frank
2015-09-01
The present study compared the impact of symbolic equivalence and opposition relations on fear generalisation. In a procedure using nonsense words, some stimuli became symbolically equivalent to an aversively conditioned stimulus while others were symbolically opposite. The generalisation of fear to symbolically related stimuli was then measured using behavioural avoidance, retrospective unconditioned stimulus expectancy and stimulus valence ratings. Equivalence relations facilitated fear generalisation while opposition relations constrained generalisation. The potential clinical implications of symbolic generalisation are discussed. PMID:25347279
Laurence Rousselle; Marie-Pascale Noël
2007-01-01
Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing collections (i.e., non-symbolic number magnitude). Moreover, they automatically processed number magnitude when comparing the physical size
Multiple symbol partially coherent detection of MPSK
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.
1992-01-01
It is shown that by using the known (or estimated) value of carrier tracking loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the decision metric, it is possible to improve the error probability performance of a partially coherent multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK) system relative to that corresponding to the commonly used ideal coherent decision rule. Using a maximum-likeihood approach, an optimum decision metric is derived and shown to take the form of a weighted sum of the ideal coherent decision metric (i.e., correlation) and the noncoherent decision metric which is optimum for differential detection of MPSK. The performance of a receiver based on this optimum decision rule is derived and shown to provide continued improvement with increasing length of observation interval (data symbol sequence length). Unfortunately, increasing the observation length does not eliminate the error floor associated with the finite loop SNR. Nevertheless, in the limit of infinite observation length, the average error probability performance approaches the algebraic sum of the error floor and the performance of ideal coherent detection, i.e., at any error probability above the error floor, there is no degradation due to the partial coherence. It is shown that this limiting behavior is virtually achievable with practical size observation lengths. Furthermore, the performance is quite insensitive to mismatch between the estimate of loop SNR (e.g., obtained from measurement) fed to the decision metric and its true value. These results may be of use in low-cost Earth-orbiting or deep-space missions employing coded modulations.
Safety Verification of a Fault Tolerant Reconfigurable Autonomous Goal-Based Robotic Control System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braman, Julia M. B.; Murray, Richard M; Wagner, David A.
2007-01-01
Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System (MDS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbolic model checkers. An example task is simulated in MDS and successfully verified using HyTech, a symbolic model checking software for linear hybrid systems.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into laboratory safety, and covers interacting with the lab environment and a new lab partner. Topics covered include proper dress, housekeeping, safety equipment, mixing, fire safety, and spills. When the module is completed, visitors will be able to demonstrate proper lab safety techniques.
Sussex, University of
reporting · DSE Assessments · Risk Assessments · Electrical Safety #12;HEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING POLICYHEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING NEW STAFF INDUCTION #12;INTRODUCTION · University Health, Safety and Wellbeing Policy · The role of the Health & Safety Office · School/Unit Health & Safety Management
Levy, Ruggero
2012-08-01
This article examines pathologies in the creation of symbols and those pathologies' ensuing consequences. It relies mainly on the vertices provided by Bion and Meltzer. It studies the different forms in which these lapses occur in symbolic processes, where they may create vacuums in symbolic networks or give rise to 'lies', and even destroy or de-symbolize established symbols. Based on Bion's concept of the minus-contained (-contained), I propose that when a symbol is attacked, a particular mental structure with its own peculiar characteristics comes about. This structure not only creates a vacuum in that mental zone, it ends up damaging the entire symbolization process. This contribution aims to describe that structure from the metapsychological point of view - contained. I end by synthesizing the possible widening of what could be a Bionian negative grid. PMID:22900552
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhen; Jia, Mingxing; Wang, Fuli; Wang, Shu
2009-07-01
To ensure the safety, continuity of production, make a reasonable maintenance plan, save the cost of maintenance for hydraulic tube tester, it is needed to quickly identify an assignable cause of a fault. This paper is concerned with early fault diagnosis of hydraulic pump which are the heart of hydraulic tube tester. Considering that the signal of the hydraulic pump early fault is a periodic weak signal, an intermittent chaos, sliding window symbol sequence statistics-based method is proposed to detect the early fault of one single piston loose shoes of hydraulic pump on a hydraulic tube tester. The approach presented is based on the insight that the phase transition of chaos oscillator, for example, the Duffing oscillator, is very sensitive to a periodic weak signal having little angular frequency difference with the referential signal of the oscillator. While observing the intermittent chaos phenomenon through figure is not easy for computer, a sliding window symbol sequence statistics is developed to realize real-time computer observation of this phenomenon. Rather more, this paper takes a trick to decreasing the computational complexity of the sliding window symbol sequence statistics method, also analyzes the influences of different window size, depths of the symbol tree on the information entropy. At last, a control limit is introduced to realize automatic early fault alarm. The resultant approach is experimented with data simulated from an AMESim model of hydraulic tube tester. The results indicate that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the signal of hydraulic pump early fault on hydraulic tube tester.
Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals
Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique
2012-01-01
In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?100–60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60–40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rohal, R.
1991-01-01
The purpose of the NASA safety review process is to make sure that any system hazards that can endanger the manned flight system are precluded. The systems that address manned flight in a payload safety review process are discussed. The types of basic hazards that are normally addressed on any of the payloads are: contamination, electrical shock, explosions, radiation, and temperature extremes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Sandra S.
1991-01-01
In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)
... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... to Body Image ATV Safety KidsHealth > Teens > Staying Safe > Safety ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halligan, Tom
2009-01-01
Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…
Asymptotics for Toeplitz determinants: Perturbation of symbols with a gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charlier, Christophe; Claeys, Tom
2015-02-01
We study the determinants of Toeplitz matrices as the size of the matrices tends to infinity, in the particular case where the symbol has two jump discontinuities and tends to zero on an arc of the unit circle at a sufficiently fast rate. We generalize an asymptotic expansion by Widom [Indiana Univ. Math. J. 21, 277-283 (1971)], which was known for symbols supported on an arc. We highlight applications of our results in the circular unitary ensemble and in the study of Fredholm determinants associated to the sine kernel.
Pathway Databases: A Case Study in Computational Symbolic Theories
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Peter Karp (SRI International; Bioinformatics Research Group)
2001-09-14
A pathway database (DB) is a DB that describes biochemical pathways, reactions, and enzymes. The EcoCyc pathway DB (see http://ecocyc.org) describes the metabolic, transport, and genetic-regulatory networks of Escherichia coli. EcoCyc is an example of a computational symbolic theory, which is a DB that structures a scientific theory within a formal ontology so that it is available for computational analysis. It is argued that by encoding scientific theories in symbolic form, we open new realms of analysis and understanding for theories that would otherwise be too large and complex for scientists to reason with effectively.
Frey, L R; Upchurch, C M
2000-07-20
In his essay, 'From handicap to disability: language use and cultural meaning in the United States', Patrick J. Devlieger raises some important and intriguing claims about the symbolic nature of the terms 'handicap' and 'disability'. As communication scholars, we applaud the attention Devlieger devotes to issues that fit comfortably under the general heading of the symbolic construction of health. In this response, we wish to highlight some contributions Devlieger makes and, hopefully, advance this conversation by offering some important extensions of the issues raised in his essay. PMID:10972356
Product symbolic status: development of a scale to assess different product types
Wright, James Arthur
2006-10-30
The literature on status, product symbolism, product involvement, and reference group influence is reviewed to conceptually define the Product Symbolic Status construct. The research consisted of two studies (N = 524) that examined 17 different...
Goldstone, Robert
manipulating and interacting with concrete and virtual symbolic systems that enforce rules through constraints to group symbols into perceptual chunks and use these groups, rather than just calculation rules, to perfor
Symbol Statistics for Concept Formation in AI Agents Jason R. Chen
Chen, Jason
of Logic and Machine Learning, and the bottom up approach of Connectionism (Neural Networks). A key aim-symbolic approach of Connectionism, given the non-symbolic nature of neurons. Essentially, the idea is to grow
A real-time DSP GMSK modem with all-digital symbol synchronization
Lambert, Richard Paul
1998-01-01
In communication systems, a requirement of the receiver is to estimate symbol timing so that symbol decisions may be made at the instant of smallest intersymbol interference. Though there exist various analog techniques ...
A simple one class classifier with rejection strategy : application to symbol classification
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
A simple one class classifier with rejection strategy : application to symbol classification Eugen on the use of an original One Class Classifier. Some preliminary results are proposed. Keywords: pattern recognition, symbol classification, one class classifiers, outlier rejection strategy 1. Introduction
Decidability of the consistency problem for regular symbolic picture description languages
Gennaro Costagliola; Vincenzo Deufemia; Filomena Ferrucci; Carmine Gravino
2001-01-01
In the paper we address the consistency problem for drawn symbolic picture grammars. In particular we prove that it is always possible to decide whether or not a regular grammar generates only consistent descriptions of drawn symbolic pictures.
Product symbolic status: development of a scale to assess different product types
Wright, James Arthur
2006-10-30
The literature on status, product symbolism, product involvement, and reference group influence is reviewed to conceptually define the Product Symbolic Status construct. The research consisted of two studies (N = 524) that ...
Effects of environmental sounds on the guessability of animated graphic symbols.
Harmon, Ashley C; Schlosser, Ralf W; Gygi, Brian; Shane, Howard C; Kong, Ying-Yee; Book, Lorraine; Macduff, Kelly; Hearn, Emilia
2014-12-01
Graphic symbols are a necessity for pre-literate children who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (including non-electronic communication boards and speech generating devices), as well as for mobile technologies using AAC applications. Recently, developers of the Autism Language Program (ALP) Animated Graphics Set have added environmental sounds to animated symbols representing verbs in an attempt to enhance their iconicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental sounds (added to animated graphic symbols representing verbs) in terms of naming. Participants included 46 children with typical development between the ages of 3;0 to 3;11 (years;months). The participants were randomly allocated to a condition of symbols with environmental sounds or a condition without environmental sounds. Results indicated that environmental sounds significantly enhanced the naming accuracy of animated symbols for verbs. Implications in terms of symbol selection, symbol refinement, and future symbol development will be discussed. PMID:25384797
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leveson, Nancy
1987-01-01
Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.
Wideband Weyl symbols for dispersive time-varying processing of systems and random signals
Byeong-Gwan Iem; Antonia Papandreou-Suppappola; G. Faye Boudreaux-Bartels
2002-01-01
We extend the narrowband Weyl symbol (WS) and the wideband PO -Weyl symbol (PoWS) for dispersive time-frequency (TF) analysis of nonstationary random processes and time-varying systems. We obtain the new TF symbols using unitary transformations on the WS and the PO WS. For example, whereas the WS is matched to systems with constant or linear TF characteristics, the new symbols
Symbolic analysis of network security policies using rewrite systems
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Symbolic analysis of network security policies using rewrite systems Tony Bourdier INRIA Grand Est to the increasing complexity of organizations, network security policies are rarely defined as a single firewall-lès-Nancy (France) horatiu.cirstea@loria.fr ABSTRACT First designed to enable private networks to be opened up
Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration
Sathasivam, Saratha [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)
2010-12-23
New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.
Transforming Ourselves/Transforming Curriculum: Spiritual Education and Tarot Symbolism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Semetsky, Inna
2009-01-01
This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual "lessons" derived from collective human experiences across…
2D Projection Interval Relationships: A Symbolic Representation
Ngu, Anne H.H. - Department of Computer Science, Texas State University
2D Projection Interval Relationships: A Symbolic Representation of Spatial Relationships Mohammad we propose a uni ed representation of spatial relationships, 2D Projection Interval Relationships (2D that is based on 2D-PIR. This graph representation can be constructed e ciently and leads to an e cient
Dynamic Assessment of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Autism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nigam, Ravi
2001-01-01
This article offers teaching strategies in the dynamic assessment of the potential of students with autism to acquire and use multiple graphic symbol combinations for communicative purposes. Examples are given of the matrix strategy and milieu language teaching strategies. It also describes the Individualized Communication-Care Protocol, which…
The Magic of Harry Potter: Symbols and Heroes of Fantasy
Sharon Black
2003-01-01
This article suggests that the worldwide, multiage appeal of Harry Potter may lie in the way these stories of magic meet the needs of readers to find meaning in today's unmagical contexts. The imaginative appeal and symbolic efficacy of the books for children are examined in terms of Bruno Bettelheim's The Uses of Enchantment. The development of Harry Potter as
Wishes and Riddles: Symbolic Imagery in Chinese Art.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.
This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the wishes and riddles found in myths and rebuses in Chinese art. The packet contains: (1) an introductory essay describing symbolism used in the art of various dynasties of China; (2) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (3) a…
Symbolic dynamics for the modular surface and beyond
Svetlana Katok; Ilie Ugarcovici
2006-01-01
In this expository article we describe the two main methods of representing geodesics on surfaces of constant negative curvature by symbolic sequences and their development. A geometric method stems from a 1898 work of J. Hadamard and was developed by M. Morse in the 1920s. It consists of recording the successive sides of a given fundamental region cut by the
Ikonic and Symbolic Representation. A Study of Mathematical Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Irv
This series of four studies investigated the abilities of children in grades five through eight to perform on a reasoning test written in both Ikonic and Symbolic form. An abstract reasoning test which had been shown to be highly correlated with success in mathematics was rewritten into Ikonic form. Children whose ages bridge the gap between the…
TOWARDS A TIGHTER, MORE INTUITIVE SYMBOLIC AGGREGATE APPROXIMATION METHOD
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
is a fundamental problem in computer science. This problem has many applications in multimedia databases, bioinformatics, pattern recognition, text mining, computer vision, medicine, data mining, machine learning and so symbolic representation methods try to benefit from the wealth of search algorithms used in bioinformatics
Dimensions of Neural-symbolic Integration --A Structured Survey
Hitzler, Pascal
the context of artificial neural networks. Already in the pioneering days of computational models of neural propositional logic can be processed us- ing simple artificial neural networks. Within the following decades on purely symbolic approaches. The power of machine learning using artificial neural networking
Arti cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression
Kent, University of
Arti#12;cial Immune System Programming for Symbolic Regression Colin G. Johnson Computing Immune Systems are computational algorithms which take their inspiration from the way in which natural immune systems learn to respond to attacks on an organism. This paper discusses how such a system can
A Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Learning with Symbolic Features
Steven Salzberg
1993-01-01
In the past, nearest neighbor algorithms for learning from examples have worked best in domains in which all features had numeric values. In such domains, the examples can be treated as points and distance metrics can use standard definitions. In symbolic domains, a more sophisticated treatment of the feature space is required. We introduce a nearest neighbor algorithm for learning
Symbolic Boolean manipulation with ordered binary-decision diagrams
Randal E. Bryant
1992-01-01
Ordered Binary-Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satisfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as graph algorithms on OBDD data structures. Using OBDDs, a wide variety of problems can be solved through symbolic analysis. First, the possible
Context-tree modeling of observed symbolic dynamics.
Kennel, Matthew B; Mees, Alistair I
2002-11-01
Modern techniques invented for data compression provide efficient automated algorithms for the modeling of the observed symbolic dynamics. We demonstrate the relationship between coding and modeling, motivating the well-known minimum description length (MDL) principle, and give concrete demonstrations of the "context-tree weighting" and "context-tree maximizing" algorithms. The predictive modeling technique obviates many of the technical difficulties traditionally associated with the correct MDL analyses. These symbolic models, representing the symbol generating process as a finite-state automaton with probabilistic emission probabilities, provide excellent and reliable entropy estimations. The resimulations of estimated tree models satisfying the MDL model-selection criterion are faithful to the original in a number of measures. The modeling suggests that the automated context-tree model construction could replace fixed-order word lengths in many traditional forms of empirical symbolic analysis of the data. We provide an explicit pseudocode for implementation of the context-tree weighting and maximizing algorithms, as well as for the conversion to an equivalent Markov chain. PMID:12513588
Context-tree modeling of observed symbolic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennel, Matthew B.; Mees, Alistair I.
2002-11-01
Modern techniques invented for data compression provide efficient automated algorithms for the modeling of the observed symbolic dynamics. We demonstrate the relationship between coding and modeling, motivating the well-known minimum description length (MDL) principle, and give concrete demonstrations of the ``context-tree weighting'' and ``context-tree maximizing'' algorithms. The predictive modeling technique obviates many of the technical difficulties traditionally associated with the correct MDL analyses. These symbolic models, representing the symbol generating process as a finite-state automaton with probabilistic emission probabilities, provide excellent and reliable entropy estimations. The resimulations of estimated tree models satisfying the MDL model-selection criterion are faithful to the original in a number of measures. The modeling suggests that the automated context-tree model construction could replace fixed-order word lengths in many traditional forms of empirical symbolic analysis of the data. We provide an explicit pseudocode for implementation of the context-tree weighting and maximizing algorithms, as well as for the conversion to an equivalent Markov chain.
Comparison of Symbolic and Connectionist Approaches to Local Experts Integration
Obradovic, Zoran
competitiveintegration of heterogeneouslocal experts are proposed. The lo- cal experts are either symbolic rule-based monostrategy classi cation modules. In our experi- ments those modules are pre-existing rule-based expert sys and a dynamic neural network local expert into the integrated system. I. Introduction Despite their good
Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software: Symbolic Computation, Combinatorial Species,
Stein, William
Sage: Open Source Mathematical Software: Symbolic Computation, Combinatorial Species, Backtracking March 21, 2008 1 Introduction Sage brings together Python and the best existing open source mathemat to fund work by four students on Sage. Each of the four students (two graduate and two undergraduate) have
Symbolic Immortality in Ordinary Contexts: Impediments to the Nuclear Era.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmitt, Raymond L.
1982-01-01
Lifton's writings indicate that fear of nuclear holocaust has severely impaired and threatens to negate traditional modes of symbolic immortality in America. Lifton's research, however, has been limited to extreme contexts. Data were triangulated in four distinctive American contexts. Found substantial negative evidence of Lifton's suspicions in…
Symbolic matrix inversion with application to electronic circuits
KAI S. YEUNG; FIKRU KUMBI
1988-01-01
The problem of inverting matrices that contain as entries polynomials in several variables is considered. A method of inversion based on the multidimensional discrete Fourier transform of matrix sequences is developed. The method is particularly effective for a moderate number of symbolic variables. An example is given to illustrate its application to an electron amplifier
Sound-Symbol Learning in Children with Dyslexia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gang, Marjorie; Siegel, Linda S.
2002-01-01
This study evaluated the effect of sound-symbol association training on visual and phonological memory in children (n=24) with a history of dyslexia. Comparison with controls matched for either age or reading level found children with dyslexia or whose dyslexia had been compensated demonstrated a variety of visual and phonological memory deficits,…
Transforming ourselves\\/transforming curriculum: spiritual education and Tarot symbolism
Inna Semetsky
2009-01-01
This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual ‘lessons’ derived from collective human experiences across times, places, and cultures. For Dewey, to call somebody spiritual
The Social Fabric and Innovation Diffusion: Symbolic Adoption of Food
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sapp, Stephen G.; Korsching, Peter F.
2004-01-01
This study used a longitudinal, panel design to examine the effects of negative information acquisition, compliance with opinion leader endorsements, and social demographic characteristics on consumers' symbolic adoption of food irradiation. Data collection coincided with the first market test of irradiated food conducted by a commercial firm,…
The Share 709 System: Machine Implementation of Symbolic Programming
E. M. Boehm; Thomas B. Steel Jr.
1959-01-01
As emphasized in the preceding paper, a fundamental requirement for effective utilization of high speed computing devices such as the 709 is a man-machine communication link that is at once rapid and unambiguous. Use of symbolic languages with conventional conversion techniques has resulted in reasonable initial specification of computational problems, but excess input handling has made such procedures uneconomical for
Washington: Symbol and City. An Educator's Guide to the Exhibit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toby Levine Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.
Designed to make a visit to Washington, D.C. a successful learning experience for students by helping them understand the evolution of the city into what it is today, this teacher's guide presents themes and activities to accommodate many teaching and learning styles. Three sections of activities explore how the built environment symbolizes…
Evaluating Children's Use of Symbol in Some Recent Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moriarty, M. Wyn
2009-01-01
This paper explores a number of examples of what appeared to be recurring symbolic expressions of spirituality found in my recent research into the spiritual experiences of children in Victorian State primary schools. These expressions appeared in drawings and in conversation. In this paper I use hermeneutic phenomenology and a multidisciplinary…
2 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 1. WHAT IS LOGIC?
Fitelson, Branden
like physics, biology, or psychology. Rather, logic is a non-empirical science like mathematics. Also2 Hardegree, Symbolic Logic 1. WHAT IS LOGIC? Logic may be defined as the science of reasoning. However, this is not to suggest that logic is an empirical (i.e., experimental or observational) science
FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF MIMO SYMBOL-WAVELENGTH-SPACED
Petersen, Brent
FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF MIMO SYSTEM FOR SYMBOL-WAVELENGTH-SPACED ANTENNAS by Harshal Desai B on that separation. The system was implemented on a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The adaptive to Troy Lavigne for providing valuable support and knowledge of FPGA technology and software. I would also
The profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models
Tino, Peter
to the next trading day and to gain profits by buying or selling straddles accordingly. The trading 22, 1991 until June 9, 1998 which covers a period of 1700 trading days. In particular, the pricesThe profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models Christian
Low complexity channel estimation with pilot symbol assisted modulation
Mustapha Benjillali; L. Szczecinski
2005-01-01
Pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) allows the chan- nel estimation in fast-fading channels. The approaches proposed up to now were mainly concerned with the ro- bustness and simplicity of adaptation of the channel es- timators. In this paper we analyze the techniques pre- sented in the literature from the complexity and perfor- mance points of view. As a result, we
Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.
2013-01-01
This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,…
SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS FOR THE TEICHM ULLER FLOW URSULA HAMENSTADT
HamenstÃ¤dt, Ursula
SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS FOR THE TEICHM Â¨ULLER FLOW URSULA HAMENSTÂ¨ADT Abstract. Let S be an oriented classification: 37A20,30F60 Research partially supported by the Hausdorff Center Bonn. 1 #12;2 URSULA HAMENST
COITUS IN THE SYMBOLIC LANGUAGE OF SLAVIC CULTURE
Aleksandr V. Gura
Folk culture considers sexual intercourse unclean and dangerous and there- fore applies many restrictions to it. Usually coitus is referred to with euphe- misms and other substitutes that can be both neutral and expressive, or even humorous. Symbols of coitus in popular culture are numerous and di- verse. Coitus is one of the most important objects of allegory among different
A Symbolic Model of the Nonconscious Acquisition of Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ling, Charles X.; Marinov, Marin
1994-01-01
Challenges Smolensky's theory that human intuitive/nonconscious cognitive processes can only be accurately explained in terms of subsymbolic computations in artificial neural networks. Symbolic learning models of two cognitive tasks involving nonconscious acquisition of information are presented: learning production rules and artificial finite…
Efficient Construction of Machine-Checked Symbolic Protocol Security Proofs
Basin, David
Efficient Construction of Machine-Checked Symbolic Protocol Security Proofs Simon Meier, Cas Cremers, David Basin Institute of Information Security, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Email: {simon.meier, cas is well-suited for interactively constructing human-readable, protocol security proofs. We additionally
COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17, 49-59 (1993) Situativity and Symbols
Coulson, Seana
1993-01-01
COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17, 49-59 (1993) Situativity and Symbols: Response to Vera and Simon JAMES G that emphasizes the situated character of action, including cognition and learning. A full discussion; Hutchins, 1990,1991; Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 1983; Lave, 1988; Lave & Wenger, 1991
Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masiki, Trent
2011-01-01
Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…
Symbol calculus and zeta-function regularized determinants
Burak Tevfik Kaynak; O. Teoman Turgut
2007-01-01
In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for nonpositive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action, one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose, we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate
Rona's Story and the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Naveh, Nissan
2010-01-01
This article presents a method for teaching the theory of symbolic interactionism in a high-school course--Introduction to Sociology. The role-playing game used as a method for teaching the theory is grounded on a philosophy of education whose principles call for meaningful and relevant learning, based on experiential activity and investigation of…
Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University
Schneider, Carsten
RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz Voronkov for his EasyChair conference management system. Workshop Chairs Temur Kutsia RISC, Johannes Kepler Fernandez King's College London Temur Kutsia RISC, Johannes Kepler University Linz Christopher Lynch
Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University
RISC-Linz Research Institute for Symbolic Computation Johannes Kepler University A-4040 Linz.) Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria September 28-29, 2009 RISC-Linz Report Series No. 09-14 Editors #12;3rd Austrian Grid Symposium, September 28th Â 29th , 2009 Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria
Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna
2014-01-01
This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…
Animal Symbols in the Art of the Hodensaunee.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Richard
1987-01-01
Explains the significance of the main animal symbols incorporated into the social, cultural, artistic, and spiritual fabric of the Hodenosaunee (the People of the Longhouse) also known as the Six Nations Iroquois: the eagle, turtle, bear, wolf, hawk, heron, snipe, eel, deer, beaver, moose, snake, and serpent. (NEC)
Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason
2008-01-01
This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…
Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems Using Template Polyhedra
Dang, Thao
Symbolic Model Checking of Hybrid Systems Using Template Polyhedra Sriram Sankaranarayanan1 , Thao of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed expressions as inputs, our technique constructs over-approximations of the reachable states using template polyhedra
Automobile License Plate Symbols: An Approach to Foreign Language Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Froehlich, Jurgen
A guide to the use of foreign license plates and car markings in foreign language instruction gives suggestions for introducing license plates as a source of cultural, historical, and geographic information and lists the automobile license plate symbols (alphabetic and numerical) of Austria, France, East and West Germany, Spain, and Switzerland…
Hashed symbol tables for languages with explicit scope control
S. L. Graham; W. N. Joy; O. Roubine
1979-01-01
Newer programming languages such as Modula and Euclid provide more control than traditional Algol-like languages such as ALGOL-60 and Pascal over the inheritance, in inner scopes, of named entities available in outer scopes. They also provide mechanisms whereby chosen entities from inner scopes may be made available to outer scopes. In this paper we show how a hashed symbol table
The Development of Symbol-Infused Joint Engagement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.
2004-01-01
Fifty-six children were observed longitudinally from 18 to 30 months of age interacting with their mothers during a Communication Play that contained 8 scenes designed to encourage interacting, requesting, commenting, and narrating. Of primary concern was how often symbols infused the child's states of engagement with people and objects and how…
Some remarks on the syntax of symbolic programming languages
Alfonso Caracciolo Di Forino
1963-01-01
This paper concerns some preliminary results of an investigation of certain syntactical features of symbolic programming languages (SPL), which is a part of a wider research in the field of problem-oriented languages for automatic processor construction [1]. Our main aim is to point out certain peculiar features of SPL's which yield a deeper insight into their linguistic nature from a
SYMBOLS, STIMULUS EQUIVALENCE AND THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE
Thomas E. Dickins; David W. Dickins
2001-01-01
Recent interest in the origins of language, within the strongly cognitive field of Evolutionary Psychology, has predominantly focused upon the origins of syntax (cf. Hurford, Knight, & Studdert-Kennedy, 1998). However, Ullin Place's (2000a) theory of the gestural origins of language also addresses the more fundamental issue of the antecedents of symbols, and does so from a behaviorist perspective, stressing the
Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use tokens as symbols?
Addessi, E; Crescimbene, L; Visalberghi, E
2007-01-01
In the absence of language, the comprehension of symbols is difficult to demonstrate. Tokens can be considered symbols since they arbitrarily stand for something else without having any iconic relation to their referent. We assessed whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use tokens as symbols to represent and combine quantities. Our paradigm involved choices between various combinations of tokens A and B, worth one and three rewards, respectively. Pay-off maximization required the assessment of the value of each offer by (i) estimating token numerousness, (ii) representing what each token stands for and (iii) making simple computations. When one token B was presented against one to five tokens A (experiment 1), four out of ten capuchins relied on a flexible strategy that allowed to maximize their pay-off, i.e. they preferred one token B against one and two tokens A, and they preferred four or five tokens A against one token B. Moreover, when two tokens B were presented against three to six tokens A (experiment 2), two out of six capuchins performed summation over representation of quantities. These findings suggest that capuchins can use tokens as symbols to flexibly combine quantities. PMID:17698487
Parallelising Symbolic State-Space Generators Jonathan Ezekiel1
Lüttgen, Gerald
Ciardo2 1 University of York, York, YO10 5DD, U.K. {jezekiel,luettgen}@cs.york.ac.uk 2 University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, U.S.A. ciardo@cs.ucr.edu Abstract. Symbolic state-space generators
Efficient Symbolic State-Space Construction for Asynchronous Systems
Gianfranco Ciardo; Gerald Lüttgen; Radu Siminiceanu
2000-01-01
Many techniques for the verication of reactive systems rely on the analysis of their reachable state spaces. In this paper, a new al- gorithm for the symbolic generation of the state spaces of asynchronous system models, such as Petri nets, is developed. The algorithm is based on previous work that employs Multi-valued Decision Diagrams for e- ciently storing sets of
Exploiting interleaving semantics in symbolic state-space generation
Gianfranco Ciardo; Gerald Lüttgen; Andrew S. Miner
2007-01-01
Symbolic techniques based on Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) are widely employed for reasoning about temporal properties of hardware circuits and synchronous controllers. However, they often perform poorly when dealing with the huge state spaces underlying systems based on interleaving semantics, such as communica- tions protocols and distributed software, which are composed of independently acting subsystems that communicate via shared events.
Crossed Clustering method on Symbolic Data Rosanna Verde1
Lechevallier, Yves
the description of the objects by modal variables (distributions) and the prototypes of the classes, represented Clustering, Symbolic Data Analysis, Web Mining. 1 Introduction A generalization of the clustering dynamic algorithms (Diday, 1971, Celeux et al. 1989) has been proposed (Chavent, 1997; Chavent et al., 2003; De Car
7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...information symbols in the form of AMS shields indicate commodity testing at an AMS laboratory...listed in § 91.5 of this part. The AMS shield set forth in figure 1 of this section, containing...words “USDA AMS TESTED”, and the shield set forth in figure 2, containing...
7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...information symbols in the form of AMS shields indicate commodity testing at an AMS laboratory...listed in § 91.5 of this part. The AMS shield set forth in figure 1 of this section, containing...words “USDA AMS TESTED”, and the shield set forth in figure 2, containing...
7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...information symbols in the form of AMS shields indicate commodity testing at an AMS laboratory...listed in § 91.5 of this part. The AMS shield set forth in figure 1 of this section, containing...words “USDA AMS TESTED”, and the shield set forth in figure 2, containing...
Symbol timing recovery for GMSK modulation based on squaring algorithm
Yik-Chung Wu; Tung-Sang Ng
2001-01-01
A new all-digital symbol timing estimator for GMSK signals is proposed. It is based on the squaring algorithm and has a feedforward structure. Performance in AWGN channel is assessed by computer simulation, and is compared with the modified Cramer-Rao bound and other existing algorithms. The performance of the proposed estimator is shown to be close to that of the ML
Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond
Jerry R. Burch; Edmund Melson Clarke; Kenneth L. McMillan; L. J. Hwang
1990-01-01
Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining state-graph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolically instead of
Symbolic Message Sequence Charts ABHIK ROYCHOUDHURY, ANKIT GOEL
Roychoudhury, Abhik
into existing standards such as UML 2.0. We illustrate our SMSC-based framework for modeling, simulation: Message Sequence Charts, Unified Modeling Language (UML), Symbolic Execution, Test Generation. An initial and Bikram Sengupta. In ESEC/FSE-07. http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/abhik/pdf/fse07.pdf. Authors' Addresses: A
Symbolic-Numeric Sparse Polynomial Interpolation in Chebyshev Basis and
Giesbrecht, Mark
Symbolic-Numeric Sparse Polynomial Interpolation in Chebyshev Basis and Trigonometric Interpolation consider the related problem of interpolating a sparse linear combination of (approximate) trigonometric representations are sparse in other bases, such as the Chebyshev polynomials. Let Tk(x) denote the k-th Chebyshev
Symbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials
Labahn, George
Symbolic-numeric Sparse Interpolation of Multivariate Polynomials Mark Giesbrecht David R. Cheriton, Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium Abstract We consider the problem of sparse interpolation of an approximate/Tiwari sparse interpolation algorithm and the classical Prony's method for interpolating a sum of exponential
The Influence of Symbols and Equations on Understanding Mathematical Equivalence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.
2015-01-01
Students with mathematics difficulty demonstrate lower mathematics performance than typical-performing peers. One contributing factor to lower mathematics performance may be misunderstanding of mathematics symbols. In several studies related to the equal sign (=), students who received explicit instruction on the relational definition (i.e.,…
Validation of Symbolic Expressions in Circuit Analysis E-Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; Catteau, B.; De Bock, M.
2011-01-01
Symbolic circuit analysis is a cornerstone of electrical engineering education. Solving a suitable set of selected problems is essential to developing professional skills in the field. A new method is presented for automatic validation of circuit equations representing a student's intermediate steps in the solving process. Providing this immediate…
A Dissociation between Symbolic Number Knowledge and Analogue Magnitude Information
Thad A. Polk; Catherine L. Reed; Janice M. Keenan; Penelope Hogarth; C. Alan Anderson
2001-01-01
Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what ÷ means). In this
Parking Lot Symbols S AN PAS QUAL S T.
Goddard III, William A.
C Parking Lot Symbols LIGO S AN PAS QUAL S T. HOLLISTONAVE. HILLAVE. CALIFORNIA BLVD. DEL MAR BLVD. Caltech Campus Parking Map A B C D E 1 2 3 4 5 MOORE PAS ADENA FIRE S TATION # 34 IMS S BECKMAN AUD PARKING ATHENAEUM PARKING PARKINGPARKING YOUNG HEALTH CENTER RECYCLING CENTER Olive Walk Throop Memorial
The Development of a Universal Tangible Symbol System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trief, Ellen; Bruce, Susan M.; Cascella, Paul W.; Ivy, Sarah
2009-01-01
Tangible symbols are objects or partial objects with qualities, such as shape, texture, and consistency, that can be used to represent a person, place, object, activity, or concept. They can be handled and share a perceptual relationship with what they represent, known as the referent. This article presents a study on the development of a…
Dynamic Symbolic Database Application Testing Chengkai Li, Christoph Csallner
Csallner, Christoph
it on a database, and use the values in the result set as normal pro- gram values in subsequent program logicDynamic Symbolic Database Application Testing Chengkai Li, Christoph Csallner Department,csallner}@uta.edu ABSTRACT A database application differs form regular applications in that some of its inputs may
Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.
Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…
Rewrite Systems for Symbolic Evaluation of C-like Preprocessing
Mario Latendresse; Grace Hopper
2004-01-01
Automatic analysis of programs with preprocessing di- rectives and conditional compilation is challenging. The difficulties range from parsing to program understanding. Symbolic evaluation offers a fundamental and general ap- proach to solve these difficulties. It finds, for every line of code, the Boolean expression under which it is compiled or reached. It can also find all the possible values of
Many-body symbolic dynamics of a classical oscillator chain
Marko Znidaric; Tomaz Prosen
2002-01-01
We study a certain type of the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam particle chain, namely the inverted FPU model, where the interparticle potential has the form of a quartic double well. Numerical evidence is given in support of a simple symbolic description of dynamics (in the regime of sufficiently high potential barrier between the wells) in terms of an (approximate) Markov process. The
Symbolic semi-discretization of partial differential equation systems
B.-M Pfeiffer; W Marquardt
1996-01-01
A symbolical computation approach to the preprocessing of distributed parameter systems for preparing a numerical solution by a method of lines technique is investigated. A first prototype of a toolbox for the semi-discretization of partial differential equation systems on simple spatial domains has been implemented in MACSYMA. The equations are classified first in order to support the selection of a
System safety education focused on flight safety
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holt, E.
1971-01-01
The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY MANUAL
Maroncelli, Mark
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY MANUAL May 10, 2002 #12;i Acknowledgements Environmental Health and Safety gratefully acknowledges the assistance provided by the University Safety Council extremely helpful. #12;ii Environmental Health and Safety General Safety Manual Table of Contents Section
Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety
Pawlowski, Wojtek
equipment, pedestrian aisles, doorways, intersections, or the normal traffic flow. #12;Toolbox Safety TalkToolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Golf carts are utilized on campus for groundskeepers
LASER SAFETY POLICY MANUAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY
Houston, Paul L.
LASER SAFETY POLICY MANUAL ISSUED BY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY OFFICE OF RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY and GEORGIA TECH LASER SAFETY COMMITTEE July 1, 2010 Revised July 31, 2012 #12;Laser Safety Program 1-1 #12;Laser Safety Policy Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. POLICY AND SCOPE
How Do Young Children's Spatio-Symbolic Skills Change over Short Time scales?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsubota, Yoko; Chen, Zhe
2012-01-01
Three experiments were designed to examine how experience affects young children's spatio-symbolic skills over short time scales. Spatio-symbolic reasoning refers to the ability to interpret and use spatial relations, such as those encountered on a map, to solve symbolic tasks. We designed three tasks in which the featural and spatial…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.
2013-01-01
Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…
SAPEC-a personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of electric circuits
A. Liberatore; S. Manetti
1988-01-01
A personal computer program for the symbolic analysis of lumped, linear, time-invariant networks is presented. The program, written in Microsoft Lisp, utilizes methods of symbolic manipulation of algebraic expressions. The proposed approach is based on modified nodal analysis and an algorithm developed by the authors for the completely symbolic solution of the related linear systems. A useful property of the
Symbolic Rees rings of space monomial curves in characteristic p and existence of negative curves in
Hashimoto, Mitsuyasu
Symbolic Rees rings of space monomial curves in characteristic p and existence of negative curves of symbolic Rees rings of the defining ideal of the space monomial curves (ta , tb , tc ) for pairwise coprime curve exists if all of a, b, c are at most 300. As a corollary, the symbolic Rees rings of space
ON THE PRIME IDEAL STRUCTURE OF SYMBOLIC REES ALGEBRAS S. BOUCHIBA AND S. KABBAJ
Kabbaj, Salah-Eddine
ON THE PRIME IDEAL STRUCTURE OF SYMBOLIC REES ALGEBRAS S. BOUCHIBA AND S. KABBAJ ABSTRACT. This paper contributes to the study of the prime spectrum and dimension theory of symbolic Rees algebra over]. We then examine closely the special context of symbolic Rees algebras (which yielded the first
Symbolic Systems Biology and Pathway Logic Patrick Lincoln and Carolyn Talcott
Symbolic Systems Biology and Pathway Logic Patrick Lincoln and Carolyn Talcott SRI International of Symbolic Systems Biology, followed by some background on rewriting logic and executable specifications detail. Key words: Symbolic systems biology, rewriting logic, signal transduction, Path- way Logic 1
June 11, 1996 Two Approaches for Integrating Symbolic Images into a Database System: A
Soffer, Aya
June 11, 1996 Two Approaches for Integrating Symbolic Images into a Database System: A Comparative and Information Sciences NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 Email: soffer@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract Symbolic images are composed of a finite set of symbols that have a semantic meaning. Examples
Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesic, I. M. Y. Mareels,
Nesic, Dragan
Software for control system analysis and design, symbol manipulation D. Nesi´c, I. M. Y. Mareels of this article is to highlight the effectiveness of symbolic computation software, or the so called computer algebra, in the analysis and design of control systems. Symbolic computation software should
1d-SAX : a Novel Symbolic Representation for Time Series
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1d-SAX : a Novel Symbolic Representation for Time Series Simon Malinowski1 , Thomas Guyet1 , Ren for time series. A well-known limitation of SAX is that trends are not taken into account in the symbolization. This paper proposes 1d-SAX a method to represent a time series as a sequence of symbols
ASAP: a portable program for the symbolic analysis of analog integrated circuits
F. V. Fernandez; A. Rodriguez-Vazquez; J. L. Huertas
1990-01-01
A new and efficient symbolic analyzer for analog integrated circuits, ASAP (Analog Symbolic Analysis Program), is presented. ASAP provides symbolic expressions for all types of AC transfer and driving-point characteristics of analog integrated circuits. The resulting expressions can be automatically simplified, which makes them useful for circuit synthesis. The main features of the program are described as well as some
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia
2014-01-01
Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…
Barry Brummett
1980-01-01
This essay describes Kenneth Burke's theory of scapegoating as a major symbolic form of rhetorical action. Scapegoating is illustrated in Mayor Joseph Alioto's response to the 1974 Zebra murders in San Francisco. Drawing on the theoretical implications of symbolic form, the Mayor's rhetoric is used as proof of the social, symbolic character of rhetorical exigency.
Symbolic Language in the Algebraization of Mathematics: The Algebra of Pierre Hrigone (1580-1643)1
Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat
1 Symbolic Language in the Algebraization of Mathematics: The Algebra of Pierre Hérigone (1580 mathematicians to consider that a symbolic language could be used as a universal language for dealing with pure, algebraization, symbolic language. Introduction The process of algebraization of mathematics took place from
From Icons to Symbols: Some Speculations on the Origins of Language*
From Icons to Symbols: Some Speculations on the Origins of Language* ROBERT N. BRANDON and NORBERT, symbolic language. In recent years many workers in cognitive psychology and linguistics have seen language. I. THE ICON-SYMBOL CONTINUUM From the beginning of the theory of signs, researchers have made
Symbol Grounding Transfer with Hybrid Self-Organizing/Supervised Neural Networks
Cangelosi, Angelo
with language learning and evolution. The grounding of symbols can be tackled using a connectionist approach for the development of a symbolic language. The names of categories have to be combined to form propositions usingSymbol Grounding Transfer with Hybrid Self-Organizing/Supervised Neural Networks Thomas Riga Angelo
Edinburgh Research Explorer Public views of minority languages as communication or symbol
Millar, Andrew J.
Edinburgh Research Explorer Public views of minority languages as communication or symbol: the case of minority languages as communication or symbol: the case of Gaelic in Scotland' Journal of Multilingual, and Soillse. #12;1 Public views of minority languages as communication or symbol: the case of Gaelic
The Schoolyard as a Stage: Missing Cultural Clues in Symbolic Fighting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arriaza, Gilberto
2003-01-01
Investigates how social conflict was enacted at one racially diverse, urban middle school. Discusses symbolic fighting, the use of body language, the location of symbolic fighting, and symbolic fighting as a source of transformation, proposing to redefine the socializing role of social conflict in the lives of students and adults in schools.…
Emergence of symbolic behavior from brain like memory with dynamic attention
Takashi Omori; Akiko Mochizuki; Kentaro Mizutani; M. Nishizaki
1999-01-01
An important feature of human intelligence is the use of symbols. This is seen in our daily use of language and logical thinking. However, the use of symbols is not limited to humans. We observe planned action sequences in primate behavior and prediction-based action in higher mammals. For the representation and operation of symbols by the brain neural circuit, no
... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... the pool is not in use. Back Continue Water Safety Outdoors First, teach kids never to swim ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.
1984-01-01
Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace safety. Topics include hazard communications, lockout/tagout, confined space entry, fall protection, PPE, firefighting and bloodborne pathogens.
... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...
Safety, Security & Fire Report
Straight, Aaron
2013 Safety, Security & Fire Report Stanford University #12;Table of Contents Public Safety About the Stanford University Department of Public Safety Community Outreach & Education Programs Emergency Access Transportation Safety Bicycle Safety The Jeanne Clery and Higher Education Act Timely Warning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale
2007-01-01
Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing…
A correlation among safety leadership, safety climate and safety performance
Tsung-Chih Wu; Chi-Hsiang Chen; Chin-Chung Li
2008-01-01
There has not been much consensus on the causality of safety climates in the past 25 years. Moreover, there is an overall lack of models specifying the relationship among safety leadership, safety climate and safety performance. On the grounds of social system theory, this study has investigated the potential correlation among them. Self-administered questionnaires that included a safety leadership scale,
UNBC SAFETY CHECKLIST SAFETY CHECKLIST
Northern British Columbia, University of
Health & Safety Regulations (OHSR): 3.12 & 3.13 Workers Right to Refuse Unsafe Work, 3.23 Young or New Worker Orientation, 4.20.1 Working Alone or in Isolation; 4.46 Ergonomic Requirements. Please contact
Toolbox Safety Talk Ladder Safety
Pawlowski, Wojtek
and construction worker injuries. Falls cause 15% of all accidental deaths, and are second only to motor vehicle Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Slips, trips, and falls constitute the majority of general industry
The Self, the symbolic and synchronicity: virtual realities and the emergence of the psyche.
Hogenson, George B
2005-06-01
Jung's theory of synchronicity is seen as a step in the development of a complete theory of the symbol. In so doing, a number of proposals are made for modelling the symbolic process along lines already in use for modelling a variety of other phenomena, ranging from language to the behaviour of earthquakes. These modelling techniques involve processes of self-organization, and raise issues of scaling in systems including symbolic systems. The proposal is made that symbolic systems obey the same rules of scaling that these other systems obey, and that symbolic systems can therefore be understood as exhibiting the characteristics of a power law distribution-a concept that is explained and developed in the paper. It is finally proposed that synchronicity is an aspect of the symbolic that can be characterized as exhibiting a high degree of 'symbolic density'. PMID:15926949
Parameter Unit Name Unit Symbol Capacitance (C) Farad F
& Electronics Engineers IR Infrared ISA Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society ISM Integrated Safety Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply UV Ultraviolet VSS Vital Safety Systems Interference ESD Electrostatic Discharge ESO Electrical Safety Officer FPN Fine Print Note FR Flame Resistant
Quantifying sudden changes in dynamical systems using symbolic networks
Cristina Masoller; Yanhua Hong; Sarah Ayad; Francois Gustave; Stephane Barland; Antonio J. Pons; Sergio Gómez; Alex Arenas
2015-01-27
We characterise the evolution of a dynamical system by combining two well-known complex systems' tools, namely, symbolic ordinal analysis and networks. From the ordinal representation of a time-series we construct a network in which every node weights represents the probability of an ordinal patterns (OPs) to appear in the symbolic sequence and each edges weight represents the probability of transitions between two consecutive OPs. Several network-based diagnostics are then proposed to characterize the dynamics of different systems: logistic, tent and circle maps. We show that these diagnostics are able to capture changes produced in the dynamics as a control parameter is varied. We also apply our new measures to empirical data from semiconductor lasers and show that they are able to anticipate the polarization switchings, thus providing early warning signals of abrupt transitions.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Vu, Michael
Created by specialists at the Baylor College of Medicine's BioEd Online team, the Science Safety site brings together videos, pamphlets, and other instructional resources designed to help students and educators learn about lab safety. The site contains three key videos: "Tools and Equipment of Science," "Using a Bright Field Light Microscope," and "Using a Micropipettor." Demonstrators include scientists and teachers from around Texas and the tone of the films is erudite, age-appropriate, and accessible. Additionally, the site includes links to Lesson Demonstrations, which address subjects such as ecology, forces and motion, and microorganisms.
Unknown
2011-08-17
A RECONEENDED SAFETY PROGRAN FOR THE MABRY FOUNDRY AND NACHINE CONPANY AND IRON CASTINSS INCORPORATED OF BEAUNONT, TEXAS Edward Naz'shall Begnaud Appz'oved as to style and content by: n o osa ee n v sos') LfBRARY, A 4 M COLLEGE OF Texgt A... RECOMMENDED SAFETY PROGRAM FOR THE MABRY FOUNDRY AND MACHINE COMPANY AND IRON CASTINGS INCORPORATED OF BEAUMONT, TNXAS Edward Marshall Bsgnaud ll I Submitted to ths Graduate School of the Agricultuxal and. Mechanical College of Texas in Partial...
Smith, David
2004-09-16
, Extension Safety Program The Texas A&M University System Source: All-Terrain Vehicle 2001 Injury and Exposure Studies. Consumer Product Safety Commission. January 2003. Causes of Injuries and Fatalities ATV accidents are rarely caused by design flaws. Most... at a sharp angle to cross a gully, plac- ing the vehicle in a severe side lean. Blood analysis showed significant levels of both amphetamine and cannabinoid, and a bag of a suspected controlled sub- stance was found on the body. Source: Wyoming FACE...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emms, Laila; Gardner, Hilary
2010-01-01
The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether contrasting teaching methods had an effect on performance accuracy in the recall of graphic symbols. The secondary purpose was to establish whether the iconicity of symbols had an effect on performance accuracy. A direct symbol-teaching method and a contextual symbol-teaching method were…
Toolbox Safety Talk Machine Shop Safety
Pawlowski, Wojtek
Toolbox Safety Talk Machine Shop Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Machine shops are an integral part of the Cornell University paths remain unobstructed at all times. Users are required to clean up all chips, dirt, oil, etc
Toolbox Safety Talk Welding & Metal Work Safety
Pawlowski, Wojtek
Toolbox Safety Talk Welding & Metal Work Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety or harmful emission giving metals. Welding Safety When welding outside of a designated welding booth, ensure injury. Avoid welding on materials such as galvanized or stainless steel in order to minimize toxic fume
Toolbox Safety Talk Hot Work Safety Procedures
Pawlowski, Wojtek
Toolbox Safety Talk Hot Work Safety Procedures Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health Section 395 Pine Tree Rd. Suite 210 Ithaca, NY 14850 607.255.8200 5.24.10 Please return sign-in sheet to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. "Hot Work" is defined as any temporary
Analysis and design of symbol mappers for iteratively decoded BICM
Jun Tan; Gordon L. Stüber
2005-01-01
Iterative decoding and demodulation of bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) is investigated. The union bound on the error probability of BICM with maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding is derived with the assumption of a uniform interleaver. Based on the union bound, it is shown that an interleaving gain is achievable for BICM at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The design rules on the symbol
Estimation of recognition distances for static symbolic highway warning signs
Bowen, Charles Kent
1993-01-01
Filter Parameters vs. Age . 2 Association of FOM with Other Studies . 3 Rank Comparisons of FOM and Recognition Distances (RD) from Zwahlen (1991) and Paniati (1988) Studies 4 Age Effects on Recognition Distance and Dispersion 5 Recognition Distance.... Kline (1991) has used spatially filtered images of road signs to study age related variations in their visibility and to develop improved versions of existing symbol signs. Jorna and Snyder (1991) used the MTF approach to compare the contrast spatial...
Automated Cyber-attack Scenario Generation Using the Symbolic Simulation
Jong-keun Lee; Min-woo Lee; Jang-se Lee; Sung-do Chi; Syng-yup Ohn
2004-01-01
\\u000a The major objective of this paper is to propose the automated cyber-attack scenario generation methodology based on the symbolic\\u000a simulation environment. Information Assurance is to assure the reliability and availability of information by preventing from\\u000a attack. Cyber-attack simulation is one of noticeable methods for analyzing vulnerabilities in the information assurance field,\\u000a which requires variety of attack scenarios. To do this,
Tea for Two: Joint Mother-Child Symbolic Play.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeLoache, Judy S.; Plaetzer, Beth
This paper poses three questions about early symbolic or pretend play. (1) How does the child's play differ when the child is alone or with his mother? (2) How does the mother influence her child's play? (3) What are the long-term consequences of joint mother-child play? A study conducted with 32 mother-child pairs equally divided by sex of child…
Partial-Order Reduction in Symbolic State-Space Exploration
Rajeev Alur; Robert K. Brayton; Thomas A. Henzinger; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani
2001-01-01
Abstract. State space explosion is a fundamental,obstacle in formal verification of de- signs and protocols. Several techniques for combating,this problem have emerged,in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-ord er reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleaving s of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleav ing needs to be explored
Efficient encoding schemes for symbolic analysis of petri nets
Enric Pastor; Jordi Cortadella
1998-01-01
Petri nets are a graph-based formalism appropriate to model concurrent systems such as asynchronous circuits or network protocols. Symbolic techniques based on Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) have emerged as one of the strategies to overcome the state explosion problem in the analysis of systems modeled by Petri nets. The existing techniques for state encoding use a variable-per-place strategy that leads
Medical Image Categorization using a Texture Based Symbolic Description
Filip Florea; Eugen Barbu; Alexandrina Rogozan; Abdelaziz Bensrhair; Vasile Buzuloiu
2006-01-01
In the field of medical image indexation, automatic catego- rization provides the means for extracting, otherwise unavail- able, information from images. Our work is focused on con- tent-based automatic medical image categorization methods, in the on-line context of the CISMeF health-catalogue. In this study we propose and evaluate a reduced symbolic image rep- resentation. The categorization of medical images according
Rule Induction through Integrated Symbolic and Subsymbolic Processing
Clayton Mcmillan; Michael Mozer; Paul Smolensky
1991-01-01
We describe a neural network, called RuleNet, that learns explicit, sym-bolic condition-action rules in a formal string manipulation domain. RuleNet discovers functional categories over elements of the domain, and, at various points during learning, extracts rules that operate on these categories. The rules are then injected back into RuleNet and training continues, in a process called iterative projection. By incorpo-rating
Real-Time Symbolic Model Checking for Discrete Time Models
Sergio V. Campos; Edmund M. Clarke
1995-01-01
The bdd-based symbolic model checking algorithm given in [4, 10] is extended to handlereal-time properties using the bounded until operator [9]. We believe that this algorithm,which is based on discrete time, is able to handle many real-time properties that arise inpractical problems. One example of such a property is priority inversion. This is a seriousproblem that can make real-time systems
Symbolic Model Checking for Real-time Systems
Thomas A. Henzingert; Xavier Nicollin; Joseph Sifakis; Sergio Yovine
1992-01-01
. We describe finite-state programs over real-numbered time in a guardedcommandlanguage with real-valued clocks or, equivalently, as finite automata withreal-valued clocks. Model checking answers the question which states of a real-timeprogram satisfy a branching-time specification (given in an extension of CTL with clockvariables). We develop an algorithm that computes this set of states symbolically as afixpoint of a functional on
Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.
2003-01-01
We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.
High-level language translation in SYMBOL 2R
J. W. Anderberg; C. L. Smith
1973-01-01
The SYMBOL 2R Computing System represents an attempt to bridge the gap between machine languages and higher level programming languages. This gap has always limited the users' ability to communicate with the machine, thus creating a communication problem. Early attempts at solving this communication problem consisted of developing a series of user-oriented programming languages, i.e., assembler languages and higher level
Symbolic description of periodic orbits for the quadratic Zeeman effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckhardt, Bruno; Wintgen, Dieter
1990-01-01
The organization of the periodic orbits of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field is studied. It is shown that the dynamics is qualitatively different from that for weak fields and negative energies. The orbits can be mapped one-to-one onto a ternary symbolic tree, an organization which turns out to be applicable for all values of energy and field strength. The results indicate that the field-free hydrogen atom has a purely chaotic limit for positive energies.
From Sequential Extended Regular Expressions to NFA with Symbolic Labels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cimatti, Alessandro; Mover, Sergio; Roveri, Marco; Tonetta, Stefano
Practical property specification languages such as the IEEE standard PSL use at their core Sequential Extended Regular Expressions (SERE). In order to enable the reuse of traditional verification techniques, it is necessary to translate SEREs into automata. SERE are regular expressions built over alphabets resulting from the state variables of the design under analysis. Thus, a traditional approach to generate the automaton would suffer from the fact that the size of the alphabet is exponential in the number of symbols in the design.
Physical and Functional Conditions for Symbols, Codes, and Languages
H. H. Pattee
2008-01-01
All sciences have epistemic assumptions, a language for expressing their theories or models, and symbols that reference observables\\u000a that can be measured. In most sciences the language in which their models are expressed are not the focus of their attention,\\u000a although the choice of language is often crucial for the model. On the contrary, biosemiotics, by definition, cannot escape\\u000a focusing
OFMC: A Symbolic Model-Checker for Security Protocols
David Basin; Sebastian Modersheim; Luca Vigan
Wepresenttheon-the-?ymodel-checkerOFMC,atoolthatcombinestwoideasforanalyzing security protocols based on lazy, demand-driven search. The flrst is the use of lazy data- types as a simple way of building e-cient on-the-?y model-checkers for protocols with very large, or even inflnite, state-spaces. The second is the integration of symbolic techniques and optimizations for modeling a lazy Dolev-Yao intruder, whose actions are generated in a demand-driven way. We
Efficient Symbolic State-Space Construction for Asynchronous Systems
Gianfranco Ciardo; Gerald Lüttgen; Radu Siminiceanu
Many techniques for the verification of reactive systems rely on the analysis of their reachable state spaces. In this paper,\\u000a a new algorithm for the symbolic generation of the state spaces of asynchronous system models, such as Petri nets, is developed. The algorithm is based on previous work that employs Multi-valued Decision Diagrams for efficiently storing sets of reachable states.
Structural Symbolic CTL Model Checking of Asynchronous Systems
Gianfranco Ciardo; Radu Siminiceanu
2003-01-01
In previous work, we showed how structural information can be used to ecien tly generate the state-space of asynchronous systems. Here, we apply these ideas to symbolic CTL model checking. Thanks to a Kronecker encoding of the transition relation, we detect and exploit event locality and apply better xed-p oint iteration strategies, resulting in orders-of-magnitude reductions for both execution times
Symbolic diagnosis for intelligent control of real-time systems
Jowers, Steven James
1989-01-01
through its analysis. As a search continues and becomes more fine-grained, rules attached to 'slots' within the prototype continue to guide the search [34]. This type of expert system structure is appealing for the current research, though the reasons... systems E. Warnings, observations and trends . F. Intelligent control -the union of two fundameutal problems . G. Chapter summary. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . H. The problem statement III THE SYMBOLIC DIAGNOSTICIAN ARCHITECTURE . . 3 5 8...
Symbolic Reachability Analysis Based on SAT-Solvers
Parosh Aziz Abdulla; Per Bjesse; Niklas Eén
2000-01-01
The introduction of symbolic model checking using BinaryDecision Diagrams (BDDs) has led to a substantial extension of theclass of systems that can be algorithmically verified. Although BDDshave played a crucial role in this success, they have some well-knowndrawbacks, such as requiring an externally supplied variable orderingand causing space blowups in certain applications. In a parallel development,SAT-solving procedures, such as Stalmarck's
ALHEP symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics
V. Makarenko
2007-04-13
ALHEP is the symbolic algebra program for high-energy physics. It deals with amplitudes calculation, matrix element squaring, Wick theorem, dimensional regularization, tensor reduction of loop integrals and simplification of final expressions. The program output includes: Fortran code for differential cross section, Mathematica files to view results and intermediate steps and TeX source for Feynman diagrams. The PYTHIA interface is available. The project website http://www.hep.by/alhep contains up-to-date executables, manual and script examples.
Symbolic Quantum Computation Simulation in SymPy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cugini, Addison; Curry, Matt; Granger, Brian
2010-10-01
Quantum computing is an emerging field which aims to use quantum mechanics to solve difficult computational problems with greater efficiency than on a classical computer. There is a need to create software that i) helps newcomers to learn the field, ii) enables practitioners to design and simulate quantum circuits and iii) provides an open foundation for further research in the field. Towards these ends we have created a package, in the open-source symbolic computation library SymPy, that simulates the quantum circuit model of quantum computation using Dirac notation. This framework builds on the extant powerful symbolic capabilities of SymPy to preform its simulations in a fully symbolic manner. We use object oriented design to abstract circuits as ordered collections of quantum gate and qbit objects. The gate objects can either be applied directly to the qbit objects or be represented as matrices in different bases. The package is also capable of performing the quantum Fourier transform and Shor's algorithm. A notion of measurement is made possible through the use of a non-commutative gate object. In this talk, we describe the software and show examples of quantum circuits on single and multi qbit states that involve common algorithms, gates and measurements.
Differential sensitivity of letters, numbers, and symbols to character transpositions.
Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, Maria; Grainger, Jonathan; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Carreiras, Manuel
2012-07-01
This study was designed to explore whether the human visual system has different degrees of tolerance to character position changes for letter strings, digit strings, and symbol strings. An explicit perceptual matching task was used (same-different judgment), and participants' electrophysiological activity was recorded. Materials included trials in which the referent stimulus and the target stimulus were identical or differed either by two character replacements or by transposing two characters. Behavioral results showed clear differences in the magnitude of the transposed-character effect for letters as compared with digit and symbol strings. Electrophysiological data confirmed this observation, showing an N2 character transposition effect that was only present for letter strings. An earlier N1 transposition effect was also found for letters but was absent for symbols and digits, whereas a later P3 effect was found for all types of string. These results provide evidence for a position coding mechanism that is specific to letter strings, that was most prominent in an epoch between 200 and 325 msec, and that operates in addition to more general-purpose position coding mechanisms. PMID:22185490
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991
1991-01-01
Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Longfield, Judith
2006-01-01
In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…
R. Percacci
2008-11-18
Asymptotic safety is a set of conditions, based on the existence of a nontrivial fixed point for the renormalization group flow, which would make a quantum field theory consistent up to arbitrarily high energies. After introducing the basic ideas of this approach, I review the present evidence in favor of an asymptotically safe quantum field theory of gravity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999
1999-01-01
The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.
1994-01-01
Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie
2011-01-01
Purpose: Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by…
2013-01-01
Background A significant debate surrounds the nature of the cognitive mechanisms involved in non-symbolic number estimation. Several studies have suggested the existence of the same cognitive system for estimation of time, space, and number, called “a theory of magnitude” (ATOM). In addition, researchers have proposed the theory that non-symbolic number abilities might support our mathematical skills. Despite the large number of studies carried out, no firm conclusions can be drawn on either topic. Methods In the present study, we correlated the performance of adults on non-symbolic magnitude estimations and symbolic numerical tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude abilities were assessed by asking participants to estimate which auditory tone lasted longer (time), which line was longer (space), and which group of dots was more numerous (number). To assess symbolic numerical abilities, participants were required to perform mental calculations and mathematical reasoning. Results We found a positive correlation between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical abilities. On the other hand, no correlation was found among non-symbolic estimations of time, space, and number. Conclusions Our study supports the idea that mathematical abilities rely on rudimentary numerical skills that predate verbal language. By contrast, the lack of correlation among non-symbolic estimations of time, space, and number is incompatible with the idea that these magnitudes are entirely processed by the same cognitive system. PMID:23815866
The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.
Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro
2014-09-19
Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. PMID:25092666
Semiclassical Analysis of the Wigner $12j$ Symbol with One Small Angular Momentum
Liang Yu
2011-07-31
We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner $12j$ symbol, in the limit of one small and 11 large angular momenta. There are two kinds of asymptotic formulas for the $12j$ symbol with one small angular momentum. We present the first kind of formula in this paper. Our derivation relies on the techniques developed in the semiclassical analysis of the Wigner $9j$ symbol [L. Yu and R. G. Littlejohn, Phys. Rev. A 83, 052114 (2011)], where we used a gauge-invariant form of the multicomponent WKB wave-functions to derive asymptotic formulas for the $9j$ symbol with small and large angular momenta. When applying the same technique to the $12j$ symbol in this paper, we find that the spinor is diagonalized in the direction of an intermediate angular momentum. In addition, we find that the geometry of the derived asymptotic formula for the $12j$ symbol is expressed in terms of the vector diagram for a $9j$ symbol. This illustrates a general geometric connection between asymptotic limits of the various $3nj$ symbols. This work contributes the first known asymptotic formula for the $12j$ symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum, and serves as a basis for finding asymptotic formulas for the Wigner $15j$ symbol with two small angular momenta.
Semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 12j symbol with one small angular momentum
Yu Liang [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2011-08-15
We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner 12j symbol, in the limit of one small and 11 large angular momenta. There are two kinds of asymptotic formulas for the 12j symbol with one small angular momentum. We present the first kind of formula in this paper. Our derivation relies on the techniques developed in the semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 9j symbol [L. Yu and R. G. Littlejohn, Phys. Rev. A 83, 052114 (2011)], where we used a gauge-invariant form of the multicomponent WKB wave functions to derive asymptotic formulas for the 9j symbol with small and large angular momenta. When applying the same technique to the 12j symbol in this paper, we find that the spinor is diagonalized in the direction of an intermediate angular momentum. In addition, we find that the geometry of the derived asymptotic formula for the 12j symbol is expressed in terms of the vector diagram for a 9j symbol. This illustrates a general geometric connection between asymptotic limits of the various 3nj symbols. This work contributes an asymptotic formula for the 12j symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum, and serves as a basis for finding asymptotic formulas for the Wigner 15j symbol with two small angular momenta.
Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention
... the NIOSH Website Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & Injuries Safety & Prevention Chemicals Emergency Preparedness & Response Publications and Products NIOSH Programs ...
... to install child safety seats, visit the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration online. ... safety. Pediatrics . 2011; 127(4):e1050-e1066. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Car seats . Accessed March 29, ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others
1982-01-01
This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)
Effectiveness Safety Committee
Farritor, Shane
Increase the Effectiveness of Your Safety Committee Lisa Tobiason An equal opportunity educator 302 Acres. East Campus 338 Acres. #12;UNL Safety Committees · Chancellors University Safety Committee (CUSC). · Unit Safety Committees. Thirty-two active committees representing Lincoln campuses
... Neighborhood Safety Network Community Outreach Resource Center CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety ... Guides These free CPSC safety materials include brochures, posters and alerts. CPSC provides free safety alerts, guides, ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Mary Anne Symons
1975-01-01
The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)
... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Child Passenger Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Pediatrics Child Passenger Safety Technical Report Podcasts on Child Passenger Safety CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety [ ...
Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sand Pit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)
1993-01-01
A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.
Gunter, L.W.
1991-04-08
A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment. The safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.
Calderon; Westinghouse Hanford
1996-01-01
Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety
Bergman, Ulf C. (Malmoe, SE)
1984-01-01
The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.
Suanda, Sumarga H; Namy, Laura L
2013-01-01
Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation task (Experiment 1) and a symbol-learning task (Experiment 2) were investigated. In Experiment 1 (N = 32), children avoided verbal lexical overlap, mapping novel words to unnamed objects; children failed to display this pattern with symbolic gestures. In Experiment 2 (N = 32), 18-month-olds mapped both novel words and novel symbolic gestures onto their referents. Implications of these findings for the specialized nature of word learning and the development of lexical overlap avoidance are discussed. PMID:22957802