Science.gov

Sample records for symbols safety

  1. Safety symbol comprehension: effects of symbol type, familiarity, and age.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Holly E; Rogers, Wendy A; Schroeder, Derek; Fisk, Arthur D

    2004-01-01

    A new procedure for evaluating symbol comprehension, the phrase generation procedure, was assessed with 52 younger and 52 older adults. Participants generated as many phrases as came to mind when viewing 40 different safety symbols (hazard alerting, mandatory action, prohibition, and information symbols). Symbol familiarity was also assessed. Comprehension rates for both groups were lower than the 85% level recommended by the American National Standards Institute. Moreover, older participants' comprehension was significantly worse than younger participants', and the older adults also generated significantly fewer phrases. Generally, prohibition symbols were comprehended best and hazard alerting symbols worst. In addition, symbol familiarity was positively correlated with symbol comprehension. These findings indicate that important safety information depicted on signs and household products may be misunderstood if presented in symbolic form. Furthermore, certain types of symbols may be better understood (e.g., prohibition symbols) than other types (e.g., hazard alerting symbols) by both younger and older individuals. These findings signify the utility of the phrase generation procedure as a method for evaluating symbol comprehension, particularly when it is not possible or desirable to provide contextual information. Actual or potential applications of this research include using the phrase generation approach to identify poorly comprehended symbols, including identification of critical confusions that may arise when processing symbolic information. PMID:15359669

  2. Medication safety issue brief. Eliminating dangerous abbreviations, acronyms and symbols.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    The use of abbreviations, acronyms and symbols in prescribing and transcribing medication orders too often results in the misinterpretation of the order's intent. Busy health care practitioners often use these shortcuts to indicate drug names, dosages, the patient's condition and route of administration. The result can be omission errors, extra or improper doses, administering the wrong drug, or giving a drug in the wrong manner. Stopping the use of unapproved abbreviations, acronyms and symbols can go a long way toward preventing these errors, but that's proven difficult to accomplish. This briefing examines ways that hospitals can put an end to the practice. PMID:16047621

  3. Engaging Latino farmworkers in the development of symbols to improve pesticide safety and health education and risk communication.

    PubMed

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Blanchard, Margaret R; Asuaje, Cesar R; Cope, W Gregory

    2013-10-01

    The working and living environments of farmworkers put them and their families at risk for pesticide exposure and, consequently, immediate and long-term health effects. In this study, visual materials for a pesticide toxicology safety and health curriculum were constructed by engaging farmworkers in various stages of symbol development. Twenty-seven farmworkers in two states participated in this descriptive case study through focused small group discussions and interviews. Our findings support the importance of vivid and realistic symbols, the effectiveness of a traffic-light symbol in communicating technical information to farmworkers, and the need to engage low-literacy end-users in the production of educational materials. This work informs the development of curricula for other vulnerable populations pertaining to a variety of health-related topics, as well as discussions surrounding regulatory proposals to revise the United States Worker Protection Standard. PMID:22833257

  4. Cultural ergonomics in Ghana, West Africa: a descriptive survey of industry and trade workers' interpretations of safety symbols.

    PubMed

    Smith-Jackson, Tonya L; Essuman-Johnson, Abeeku

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and technology transfer have led to the diffusion of risk communications to users from cultures that were not initially viewed as the target users. This study examined industry and trade workers' overall impressions of symbols used to convey varying degrees of hazardousness. Six symbols, including symbols from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z535 Standard (ANSI, 1998) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3864:1984 Standard (ISO, 1984) were selected. With the exception of the SKULL symbol, results showed wide discrepancies between users' perceptions of the symbols and their intended meanings. Implications for cross-cultural research on warning components and risk communications are discussed. PMID:11895581

  5. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna Nichols, John…

  6. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  7. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    PubMed

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity. PMID:11216422

  8. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  9. Pedagogical Symbols and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolin, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses symbolism in society, literature, and education. Describes the use of symbolism in the changes accompanying the Bolshevik revolution and the establishment of Marxist-Leninist society in the Soviet Union. Suggests that no effort has been made to develop a set of symbols to accompany the changes of perestroika. (DK)

  10. Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

  11. Handwritten mathematical symbols dataset.

    PubMed

    Chajri, Yassine; Bouikhalene, Belaid

    2016-06-01

    Due to the technological advances in recent years, paper scientific documents are used less and less. Thus, the trend in the scientific community to use digital documents has increased considerably. Among these documents, there are scientific documents and more specifically mathematics documents. In this context, we present our own dataset of handwritten mathematical symbols composed of 10,379 images. This dataset gathers Arabic characters, Latin characters, Arabic numerals, Latin numerals, arithmetic operators, set-symbols, comparison symbols, delimiters, etc. PMID:27006975

  12. Handwritten mathematical symbols dataset

    PubMed Central

    Chajri, Yassine; Bouikhalene, Belaid

    2016-01-01

    Due to the technological advances in recent years, paper scientific documents are used less and less. Thus, the trend in the scientific community to use digital documents has increased considerably. Among these documents, there are scientific documents and more specifically mathematics documents. In this context, we present our own dataset of handwritten mathematical symbols composed of 10,379 images. This dataset gathers Arabic characters, Latin characters, Arabic numerals, Latin numerals, arithmetic operators, set-symbols, comparison symbols, delimiters, etc. PMID:27006975

  13. Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

  14. The Symbolic Identity Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goud, Nelson H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.…

  15. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  16. Computers for symbolic processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Lowrie, Matthew B.; Li, Guo-Jie

    1989-01-01

    A detailed survey on the motivations, design, applications, current status, and limitations of computers designed for symbolic processing is provided. Symbolic processing computations are performed at the word, relation, or meaning levels, and the knowledge used in symbolic applications may be fuzzy, uncertain, indeterminate, and ill represented. Various techniques for knowledge representation and processing are discussed from both the designers' and users' points of view. The design and choice of a suitable language for symbolic processing and the mapping of applications into a software architecture are then considered. The process of refining the application requirements into hardware and software architectures is treated, and state-of-the-art sequential and parallel computers designed for symbolic processing are discussed.

  17. 47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class of station symbols. 87.171 Section 87.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES... the aviation services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph...

  1. Homecoming for Library Symbol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Bessie

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the significance and development of the library symbol and the history of its acceptance by the American Library Association (ALA) and the Canadian Library Association (CLA). Suggestions are made for its use. (CLB)

  2. Symbolic transfer entropy.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-18

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity. PMID:18518155

  3. Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.

  4. Memoized Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

  5. Symbolism in the Feature Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakony, Edward

    A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

  6. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  7. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  8. Symbolic Predictive Analysis for Concurrent Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Kundu, Sudipta; Ganai, Malay; Gupta, Aarti

    Predictive analysis aims at detecting concurrency errors during runtime by monitoring a concrete execution trace of a concurrent program. In recent years, various models based on happens-before causality relations have been proposed for predictive analysis to improve the interleaving coverage while ensuring the absence of false alarms. However, these models are based on only the observed events, and typically do not utilize source code. Furthermore, the enumerative algorithms they use for verifying safety properties in the predicted execution traces often suffer from the interleaving explosion problem. In this paper, we introduce a new symbolic causal model based on source code and the observed events, and propose a symbolic algorithm to check whether a safety property holds in all feasible permutations of events in the given execution trace. Rather than explicitly enumerating the interleavings, our algorithm conducts the verification using a novel encoding of the causal model and symbolic reasoning with a satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) solver. Our algorithm has a larger interleaving coverage than known causal models in the literature. We also propose a method to symbolically bound the number of context switches allowed in an interleaving, to further improve the scalability of the algorithm.

  9. Sign, Symbol and Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Louise Bowen; Ballinger, Raymond A.

    Signs are such a commonplace sight in our everyday lives, that we can easily miss the artistic beauty and graphic harmony of the symbols used. Thoughtfully well designed and planned signs communicate with a simplicity and directness that signmakers and designers have adhered to for ages. Even contemporary signs still reflect their timelessness…

  10. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  11. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  12. The Use of Pronunciation Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    The use of pronunciation symbols is investigated in this paper, with emphasis on the pronunciation symbols used by the Rules of Correspondence Activity and based on the conventions employed in linguistics, the agreement and variety of the pronunciation symbols commonly used in textbooks and dictionaries, and a suggested set of pronunciation…

  13. General American Speech and Phonic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    General American Symbols, speech and phonic symbols adapted from the Northampton symbols, are presented as a simplified system for teaching reading and speech to deaf children. Ways to use symbols for indicating features of speech production are suggested. (Author)

  14. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  15. Symbolic functions from neural computation.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Paul

    2012-07-28

    Is thought computation over ideas? Turing, and many cognitive scientists since, have assumed so, and formulated computational systems in which meaningful concepts are encoded by symbols which are the objects of computation. Cognition has been carved into parts, each a function defined over such symbols. This paper reports on a research program aimed at computing these symbolic functions without computing over the symbols. Symbols are encoded as patterns of numerical activation over multiple abstract neurons, each neuron simultaneously contributing to the encoding of multiple symbols. Computation is carried out over the numerical activation values of such neurons, which individually have no conceptual meaning. This is massively parallel numerical computation operating within a continuous computational medium. The paper presents an axiomatic framework for such a computational account of cognition, including a number of formal results. Within the framework, a class of recursive symbolic functions can be computed. Formal languages defined by symbolic rewrite rules can also be specified, the subsymbolic computations producing symbolic outputs that simultaneously display central properties of both facets of human language: universal symbolic grammatical competence and statistical, imperfect performance. PMID:22711873

  16. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  17. Perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, L W

    1999-08-01

    Prior to the twentieth century, theories of knowledge were inherently perceptual. Since then, developments in logic, statistics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories that rest on principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. In addition, perceptual approaches have become widely viewed as untenable because they are assumed to implement recording systems, not conceptual systems. A perceptual theory of knowledge is developed here in the context of current cognitive science and neuroscience. During perceptual experience, association areas in the brain capture bottom-up patterns of activation in sensory-motor areas. Later, in a top-down manner, association areas partially reactivate sensory-motor areas to implement perceptual symbols. The storage and reactivation of perceptual symbols operates at the level of perceptual components--not at the level of holistic perceptual experiences. Through the use of selective attention, schematic representations of perceptual components are extracted from experience and stored in memory (e.g., individual memories of green, purr, hot). As memories of the same component become organized around a common frame, they implement a simulator that produces limitless simulations of the component (e.g., simulations of purr). Not only do such simulators develop for aspects of sensory experience, they also develop for aspects of proprioception (e.g., lift, run) and introspection (e.g., compare, memory, happy, hungry). Once established, these simulators implement a basic conceptual system that represents types, supports categorization, and produces categorical inferences. These simulators further support productivity, propositions, and abstract concepts, thereby implementing a fully functional conceptual system. Productivity results from integrating simulators combinatorially and recursively to produce complex simulations. Propositions result from binding simulators to perceived individuals to represent

  18. Symbolic local information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that

  19. Symbol Sourcebook; An Authoritative Guide to International Graphic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Henry

    There are today some 5,000 languages and dialects in use throughout the world; in most instances, intercommunication among them ranges from difficult to impossible. This sourcebook of graphic symbols was compiled as a first step toward a basic means of communication through a system of universally recognizable symbols. The sourcebook is limited to…

  20. How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…

  1. International Icon Symbols: How Well Are These Symbols Understood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E.; Gibbs, William J.

    There is a great reliance on symbolic messages in our society, but the success of these messages depends on how they are interpreted. The variability of subjects' interpretations of commonly used visual symbols was investigated by comparing the interpretations of a U.S. audience and a Jamaican audience. Responses of 27 executive master's in…

  2. Shanahan on symbolization.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago. PMID:18293048

  3. Symbolic Communication Between Two Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Through the use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one and requested specific food of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. (Author/MA)

  4. SYMBOLS USED IN MUSIC ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, GEORGE T.

    A RECOMMENDED STANDARDIZED SYMBOLIZATION RESULTED FROM A DETAILED COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALYTICAL SYMBOLIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY FOUND IN MUSIC THEORY AND HARMONY TEXTBOOKS WHICH WERE IN GENERAL USE IN THE UNITED STATES. OVER 200 MEMBER SCHOOLS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOLS OF MUSIC PROVIDED DATA ON MATERIALS. ABSTRACTS SHOWING…

  5. The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.

  6. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  7. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Identifying and Marking Products § 592.310 Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Identifying and Marking Products § 592.310 Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. (a)...

  9. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Identifying and Marking Products § 592.310 Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. (a)...

  10. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Identifying and Marking Products § 592.310 Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  13. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  14. Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

  15. Symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Alternate symbol inversion is sometimes applied to the output of convolutional encoders to guarantee sufficient richness of symbol transition for the receiver symbol synchronizer. A bound is given for the length of the transition-free symbol stream in such systems, and those convolutional codes are characterized in which arbitrarily long transition free runs occur.

  16. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  17. Early Numerical Development and the Role of Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    For learning math, non-symbolic quantity skills, symbolic skills and the mapping between number symbols and non-symbolic quantities are all important precursors. Little is known, however, about the interrelated development of these skills. The current study focuses on numerical development by: (a) investigating the structure of non-symbolic,…

  18. Noncoherent DTTLs for Symbol Synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin; Tkacenko, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Noncoherent data-transition tracking loops (DTTLs) have been proposed for use as symbol synchronizers in digital communication receivers. [Communication- receiver subsystems that can perform their assigned functions in the absence of synchronization with the phases of their carrier signals ( carrier synchronization ) are denoted by the term noncoherent, while receiver subsystems that cannot function without carrier synchronization are said to be coherent. ] The proposal applies, more specifically, to receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signals generated by directly phase-modulating binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data streams onto carrier signals having known frequencies but unknown phases. The proposed noncoherent DTTLs would be modified versions of traditional DTTLs, which are coherent. The symbol-synchronization problem is essentially the problem of recovering symbol timing from a received signal. In the traditional, coherent approach to symbol synchronization, it is necessary to establish carrier synchronization in order to recover symbol timing. A traditional DTTL effects an iterative process in which it first generates an estimate of the carrier phase in the absence of symbol-synchronization information, then uses the carrier-phase estimate to obtain an estimate of the symbol-synchronization information, then feeds the symbol-synchronization estimate back to the carrier-phase-estimation subprocess. In a noncoherent symbol-synchronization process, there is no need for carrier synchronization and, hence, no need for iteration between carrier-synchronization and symbol- synchronization subprocesses. The proposed noncoherent symbolsynchronization process is justified theoretically by a mathematical derivation that starts from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method of estimation of symbol timing utilized in traditional, coherent DTTLs. In that MAP method, one chooses the value of a variable of interest (in this case, the offset in the estimated symbol

  19. Symbols of a cosmic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  20. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies. PMID:26983175

  1. Warning symbols as reminders of hazards: impact of training.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Mary F

    2008-05-01

    Prior research indicates that many warning symbols are poorly understood. However Lesch [Lesch, M.F., 2003. Comprehension and memory for warning symbols: Age-related differences and impact of training. J. Safety Res. 34, 495-505] found that accident scenarios could be used to improve comprehension of warning symbols. The current study further investigated the potential benefits of accident scenario training. During training, warning symbols with verbal labels corresponding to the meaning of the symbol were paired with accident scenarios which expanded on the nature of the hazard, the required/prohibited actions, as well as the possible consequences of failing to comply. A number of measures were obtained prior to, and following (immediately and 2 weeks later), the accident scenario training: comprehension across three knowledge types (verbal label, required/prohibited actions, potential consequences of failure to comply), ratings of agreement with statements reflecting perceived control, and ratings of hazard and intent to comply. Benefits of training were observed on all dependent measures: Comprehension improved from 43 to 82% correct, reaction times were reduced by about 2s, and level of confidence in correct responses increased by 23%. Ratings of perceived hazard, intent to comply, and perceived control over accident/injury involvement also increased. It is suggested that accident scenario training can be used to help prevent accidents and injuries by ensuring that responses to warnings are "sure and swift". PMID:18460368

  2. Unified optical symbolic substitution processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.

    1990-07-01

    Symbolic substitution operations can be realized optically on a correlator. This is a very attractive and efficient architecture for symbolic substitution. It allows parallel multichannel realization with a fixed set of filters (on film or easily realized on low space bandwidth product spatial light modulators) using space and frequency-multiplexing or sequential filters. All basic logic, numeric and morphological image processing functions can be achieved by symbolic substitution. Moreover, all operations are possible on one multifunctional optical processor. Morphological operations are felt to be essential for ATR and pattern recognition preprocessing in clutter. They greatly improve the role for optics by allowing the same optical architecture to be used for low, medium and high level vision.

  3. Fractions--Concepts before Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

    The learning difficulties that students experience with fractions begin immediately when they are shown fraction symbols with one numeral written above the other and told that the "top number" is called the numerator and the "bottom number" is called the denominator. This introduction to fractions will usually include a few visual diagrams to help…

  4. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  5. Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

  6. Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

  7. A Web of Symbolic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitalong, Karla Saari

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how a new technological-writing practice, World Wide Web publishing, meshes and clashes with what academics have meant by plagiarism. Applies psychologist Pierre Bourdieu's theories of capital and symbolic violence to examine some ways Web publishing challenges and complicates scholars' taken-for-granted ways of controlling and…

  8. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  9. Automating symbolic analysis with CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Keith E.

    1990-01-01

    Symbolic Analysis is a methodology first applied as an aid in selecting and generating test cases for 'white box' type testing of computer software programs. The feasibility of automating this analysis process has recently been demonstrated through the development of a CLIPS-based prototype tool. Symbolic analysis is based on separating the logic flow diagram of a computer program into its basic elements, and then systematically examining those elements and their relationships to provide a detailed static analysis of the process that those diagrams represent. The basic logic flow diagram elements are flow structure (connections), predicates (decisions), and computations (actions). The symbolic analysis approach supplies a disciplined step-by-step process to identify all executable program paths and produce a truth table that defines the input and output domains for each path identified. The resulting truth table is the tool that allows software test cases to be generated in a comprehensive manner to achieve total program path, input domain, and output domain coverage. Since the manual application of symbolic analysis is extremely labor intensive and is itself error prone, automation of the process is highly desirable. Earlier attempts at automation, utilizing conventional software approaches, had only limited success. This paper briefly describes the automation problems, the symbolic analysis expert's problem solving heuristics, and the implementation of those heuristics as a CLIPS based prototype, and the manual augmentation required. A simple application example is also provided for illustration purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of implementation experiences, automation limitations, usage experiences, and future development suggestions.

  10. Laguna Symbolic Geography and Silko's "Ceremony."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Edith

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the Laguna (Pueblo) symbolic geography or world view as it is woven into Leslie Silko's novel "Ceremony." Explains the protagonist's spiritual journey toward health and harmony in terms of symbols and beliefs in Laguna mythology. Contains 21 references. (SV)

  11. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  12. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  13. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

  14. Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

  15. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  16. Functions of Symbolizing Activity: A Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik

    2010-01-01

    I propose that attending how symbolizing activity functions for teachers and students helps to characterize student-teacher communication, and allows for an investigation of how symbolizing activity contributes to learning. I begin this discussion by articulating four ideas-schemes, symbolizing activity, communication, and learning. Then I propose…

  17. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red,...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  7. Symbolic communication between two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Rumbaugh, D M; Boysen, S

    1978-08-18

    Through use of learned symbols, two chimpanzees accurately specified 11 foods by name to one another when the food item's identity was known by only one. They could not do this when denied use of the symbols. The chimpanzees then spontaneously requested specific foods of one another by name. Requests resulted in cooperative and reciprocal symbolically mediated food exchange. PMID:675251

  8. Priming Reveals Differential Coding of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggeman, Chantal; Verguts, Tom; Fias, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Number processing is characterized by the distance and the size effect, but symbolic numbers exhibit smaller effects than non-symbolic numerosities. The difference between symbolic and non-symbolic processing can either be explained by a different kind of underlying representation or by parametric differences within the same type of underlying…

  9. Symbolic computations of nonlinear observability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S.; Letellier, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Observability is a very useful concept for determining whether the dynamics of complicated systems can be correctly reconstructed from a single (univariate or multivariate) time series. When the governing equations of dynamical systems are high-dimensional and/or rational, analytical computations of observability coefficients produce large polynomial functions with a number of terms that become exponentially large with the dimension and the nature of the system. In order to overcome this difficulty, we introduce here a symbolic observability coefficient based on a symbolic computation of the determinant of the observability matrix. The computation of such coefficients is straightforward and can be easily analytically carried out, as demonstrated in this paper for a five-dimensional rational system.

  10. Symbolic computations of nonlinear observability.

    PubMed

    Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S; Letellier, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Observability is a very useful concept for determining whether the dynamics of complicated systems can be correctly reconstructed from a single (univariate or multivariate) time series. When the governing equations of dynamical systems are high-dimensional and/or rational, analytical computations of observability coefficients produce large polynomial functions with a number of terms that become exponentially large with the dimension and the nature of the system. In order to overcome this difficulty, we introduce here a symbolic observability coefficient based on a symbolic computation of the determinant of the observability matrix. The computation of such coefficients is straightforward and can be easily analytically carried out, as demonstrated in this paper for a five-dimensional rational system. PMID:26172777

  11. Symbolic Execution Enhanced System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Misty D.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Raman, Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    We describe a testing technique that uses information computed by symbolic execution of a program unit to guide the generation of inputs to the system containing the unit, in such a way that the unit's, and hence the system's, coverage is increased. The symbolic execution computes unit constraints at run-time, along program paths obtained by system simulations. We use machine learning techniques treatment learning and function fitting to approximate the system input constraints that will lead to the satisfaction of the unit constraints. Execution of system input predictions either uncovers new code regions in the unit under analysis or provides information that can be used to improve the approximation. We have implemented the technique and we have demonstrated its effectiveness on several examples, including one from the aerospace domain.

  12. Patera in Aere. Symbols of the goddess of health on coins and medals.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2000-06-01

    The numismatic record, coins and medals, portrays many of the symbols of health. The oldest symbol which portrays health, as a positive state of physical well-being, is the patera. First associated with Hygeia, it extended to that of the Roman Goddess of Health, Salus, imparting to the concept of health the additional themes of safety and security. Ancient and modern coins and medals, which portray the patera, are included in this account. PMID:11624589

  13. Selforganization of Symbols and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Werner; Feistel, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    Following the spirit of the late John Nicolis, the purpose of this paper is to develop an evolutionary approach for the basic problem of generation, storage and dissipation of information in physical and biological systems via dynamical processes. After analysing the relation of entropy and information we develop our view that information is in general a nonphysical, emergent quantity, in spite of the fact that information transfer is always connected with flows of physical energy and entropy. We argue that information can have two basic forms: free information (like that of disks, tapes, books), that is what is transferred between sender and receiver, and bound information, that is a physical non-equilibrium structure which retains potential information reflecting the history of its formation (like fossils, geological strata or galaxies). As a basic concept we consider a kinetic phase transition of the second kind, termed the ritualization transition, which leads to the self-organized emergence of symbols, the key elements of free information. Ritualization occurs only in the context of life. Hence, the simplest physical example for a ritualization process is a system that starts as a physical and ends as a biological one, in other words, the origin of life. Our interest in this transition is focussed on the self-organization of information, on the way how a physical system can be enabled to create symbols and the related symbol-processing machinery out of ordinary pre-biological roots.

  14. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424

  15. Symbolic computation in system simulation and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Brian L.; Gu, Steve X.; Kalavade, Asa; Lee, Edward A.

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines some of the roles that symbolic computation plays in assisting system- level simulation and design. By symbolic computation, we mean programs like Mathematica that perform symbolic algebra and apply transformation rules based on algebraic identities. At a behavioral level, symbolic computation can compute parameters, generate new models, and optimize parameter settings. At the synthesis level, symbolic computation can work in tandem with synthesis tools to rewrite cascade and parallel combinations on components in sub- systems to meet design constraints. Symbolic computation represents one type of tool that may be invoked in the complex flow of the system design process. The paper discusses the qualities that a formal infrastructure for managing system design should have. The paper also describes an implementation of this infrastructure called DesignMaker, implemented in the Ptolemy environment, which manages the flow of tool invocations in an efficient manner using a graphical file dependency mechanism.

  16. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  17. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  18. Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

  19. Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

  20. Deconstructing spatiotemporal chaos using local symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pethel, Shawn D; Corron, Ned J; Bollt, Erik

    2007-11-23

    We find that the global symbolic dynamics of a diffusively coupled map lattice is well approximated by a very small local model for weak to moderate coupling strengths. A local symbolic model is a truncation of the full symbolic model to one that considers only a single element and a few neighbors. Using interval analysis, we give rigorous results for a range of coupling strengths and different local model widths. Examples are presented of extracting a local symbolic model from data and of controlling spatiotemporal chaos. PMID:18233220

  1. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures. PMID:24795662

  2. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    PubMed

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural. PMID:21180823

  3. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  4. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  5. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  6. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  7. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  8. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  9. MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver ODE2 is described. The code for this routine is delineated, which is of interest because it is written in top-level MACSYMA language, and may serve as a good example of programming in that language. Other symbolic ordinary differential equation solvers are mentioned.

  10. Computerized Symbol Processing for Handicapped Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others

    The paper describes the development of a computerized symbol processing system which allows nonspeaking severely handicapped persons to create communication electronically. Two pilot studies investigated the use of Rebus and Bliss Symbols with either an Apple Graphics Tablet or the Power Pad, a peripheral which allowed users to activate the…

  11. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  12. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  14. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  15. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  16. The Library, Praxis, and Symbolic Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of Wayne Wiegand's criticism of library and information science focuses on the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu to help form a new set of frameworks. Topics include social institutions and symbolic power; cultural production and librarianship; and classification as symbolic power. (LRW)

  17. THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAFFAL, JULIUS

    A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

  18. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  19. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  20. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  1. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A visa issued to an immigrant...

  2. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  3. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  4. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to...

  9. Symbolic LTL Compilation for Model Checking: Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    2007-01-01

    In Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) model checking, we check LTL formulas representing desired behaviors against a formal model of the system designed to exhibit these behaviors. To accomplish this task, the LTL formulas must be translated into automata [21]. We focus on LTL compilation by investigating LTL satisfiability checking via a reduction to model checking. Having shown that symbolic LTL compilation algorithms are superior to explicit automata construction algorithms for this task [16], we concentrate here on seeking a better symbolic algorithm.We present experimental data comparing algorithmic variations such as normal forms, encoding methods, and variable ordering and examine their effects on performance metrics including processing time and scalability. Safety critical systems, such as air traffic control, life support systems, hazardous environment controls, and automotive control systems, pervade our daily lives, yet testing and simulation alone cannot adequately verify their reliability [3]. Model checking is a promising approach to formal verification for safety critical systems which involves creating a formal mathematical model of the system and translating desired safety properties into a formal specification for this model. The complement of the specification is then checked against the system model. When the model does not satisfy the specification, model-checking tools accompany this negative answer with a counterexample, which points to an inconsistency between the system and the desired behaviors and aids debugging efforts.

  10. Traffic sign symbol comprehension: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shinar, David; Dewar, Robert; Summala, Heikki; Zakowska, Lidia

    2003-12-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the comprehension levels of highway traffic sign symbols used in different countries, to identify underlying rules that affect comprehension levels, and recommend approaches to deal with the problem. The need for such an evaluation was based on today's travel culture where people are often licensed in one country and then drive--without any further training--in another country. We compared the comprehension levels of different traffic sign symbols in four countries with moderate to high levels of motorization: Canada, Finland, Israel, and Poland. Five different driver populations were sampled in each country: novice drivers, college students, tourists, problem drivers, and older drivers. There were large differences in comprehension among specific sign messages, different countries, and different driver populations. Signs were comprehended best when they were consistent with general ergonomic guidelines for display design as they relate to spatial compatibility, conceptual compatibility, physical representation, familiarity, and standardization. Illustrations of compliance with these principles and violations of these principles are presented, and their implication for traffic safety are discussed. Specific recommendations for sign design that is compliant with ergonomic principles, and for greater international cooperation in sign symbol design are made. PMID:14668174

  11. Parallelizing a Symbolic Compositional Model-Checking Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ariel; Namjoshi, Kedar S.; Sa'Ar, Yaniv; Zuck, Lenore D.; Kisyova, Katya I.

    We describe a parallel, symbolic, model-checking algorithm, built around a compositional reasoning method. The method constructs a collection of per-process (i.e., local) invariants, which together imply a desired global safety property. The local invariant computation is a simultaneous fixpoint evaluation, which easily lends itself to parallelization. Moreover, locality of reasoning helps limit both the frequency and the amount of cross-thread synchronization, leading to good parallel performance. Experimental results show that the parallelized computation can achieve substantial speed-up, with reasonably small memory overhead.

  12. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  13. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  14. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  15. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  16. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a...

  17. Can Symbolic Play Prepare Children for Their Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrytkowski, Krystyna

    1994-01-01

    Presents findings concerning the role of symbolic play. Assumes that symbolic play has seven functions in the child's development: cognitive, creative, ordering, stimulative, social, expressive, and substitutive. Considers play as a phenomenon that prepares children's abilities through symbolic play. (BAC)

  18. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  19. 9 CFR 590.412 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 590.412 Section 590.412 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.412 Form of official identification...

  20. 9 CFR 590.412 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 590.412 Section 590.412 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and...

  1. 9 CFR 590.412 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 590.412 Section 590.412 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.412 Form of official identification...

  2. 9 CFR 590.412 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 590.412 Section 590.412 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.412 Form of official identification...

  3. 9 CFR 592.310 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 592.310 Section 592.310 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Identifying and Marking Products § 592.310 Form...

  4. 9 CFR 590.412 - Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol and inspection mark. 590.412 Section 590.412 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.412 Form of official identification...

  5. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  6. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  7. Workplace Safety: Minimum Print and Nonprint Literacy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcy, Doreen O.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the standardized safety sign system being established in the United States. Argues that these safety signs, symbols, and warnings may be a good place to begin a workplace literacy project for workers with limited reading skills. (SR)

  8. Symbol discriminability models for improved flight displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.; Trujillo San-Martin, Maite; Gille, Jennifer

    2006-02-01

    Aviation display system designers and evaluators need to know how discriminable displayed symbols will be over a wide range of conditions to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of flight display systems. If flight display symbols are to be safely recognized by pilots, it is necessary that they can be easily discriminated from each other. Sometimes psychophysical measurements can answer this question, but computational modeling may be required to assess the numerous conditions and even help design the empirical experiments that may be needed. Here we present an image discrimination model that includes position compensation. The model takes as input the luminance values for the pixels of two symbol images, the effective viewing distance, and gives as output the discriminability in just-noticeable-differences (d') and the x and y offset in pixels needed to minimize the discriminability. The model predictions are shown to be a useful upper bound for human symbol identification performance.

  9. Symbol Formation: Where Freud and Piaget Meet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, Hans G.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts to interpret Piaget's developmental theory of knowledge and Freud's metapsychology through a common focus on the human capacity for symbolic knowing. A sketch for a unified epistemological synthesis is presented.(Author/RH)

  10. The Use and Misuse of Mathematical Symbolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Donovan R.

    1978-01-01

    Many of the difficulties that students have with mathematical symbolism seem to stem from the use of a horizontal form for an equation and a vertical form for computation. The differences between these two forms are discussed. (JT)

  11. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tobacco. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, the combination symbols are XL—lug side, PO—oxidized primings...-bodied nondescript, LP—lemon (primings side), and FP—orange (primings side), KK-excessively scorched....

  12. Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

  13. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  14. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    PubMed

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed. PMID:26245862

  15. A symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dongxin; Sun, Xiangran; Yang, Zhanxin; Niu, Lipi

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor. We redefine the initial matrix of 3GPP MBMS Raptor, and add some ancillary information to help make up for destruction of linear relationship in matrix caused by advanced Gauss elimination in 3GPP MBMS Raptor. So we can realize a correct decoding by symbolby- symbol, while 3GPP can not. The proposed algorithm is adapted to an erasure channel with large symbols, low code rate, big time delay or high error probability , and it can greatly improve decoding efficiency.

  16. Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

  17. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  18. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory information, to investigate how sensitive Dutch speakers are to sound-symbolism in Japanese in a learning task. Participants were taught 2 sets of Japanese ideophones; 1 set with the ideophones' real meanings in Dutch, the other set with their opposite meanings. In Experiment 1, participants learned the ideophones and their real meanings much better than the ideophones with their opposite meanings. Moreover, despite the learning rounds, participants were still able to guess the real meanings of the ideophones in a 2-alternative forced-choice test after they were informed of the manipulation. This shows that natural language sound-symbolism is robust beyond 2-alternative forced-choice paradigms and affects broader language processes such as word learning. In Experiment 2, participants learned regular Japanese adjectives with the same manipulation, and there was no difference between real and opposite conditions. This shows that natural language sound-symbolism is especially strong in ideophones, and that people learn words better when form and meaning match. The highlights of this study are as follows: (a) Dutch speakers learn real meanings of Japanese ideophones better than opposite meanings, (b) Dutch speakers accurately guess meanings of Japanese ideophones, (c) this sensitivity happens despite learning some opposite pairings, (d) no such learning effect exists for regular Japanese adjectives, and (e) this shows the importance of sound-symbolism in scaffolding language learning. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844577

  19. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Equivalence Tasks: The Influence of Symbols on Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…

  20. How Do You Describe a Symbol? The Problems Involved in Retrieving Symbols from a Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Mary C.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes attributes of symbols and identifies the need for a suitable management system for retrieving images from a database. A classification structure that incorporates graphic, semantic, and bibliographic dimensions is described; experiments with describing, sorting, and drawing symbols are reviewed; and future work on a database management…

  1. Food and water: symbol and reality.

    PubMed

    Caspar, R

    1988-05-01

    The act of giving food and water to the needy and helpless is a reality that reflects the communitarian aspect of the human family and our commitment to nurture our more vulnerable members. The technology that delivers artificial nutrition and hydration to an irreversibly comatose patient is, some would say, a symbol of that reality. As a symbol, what does it communicate, to whom, and for whose benefit? The critical examination of the ethics surrounding this issue requires the careful navigation of one of the busiest intersections, where ethics, law, technology, medicine, and the Church enter, converge, and exit--each with its own preoccupation and destination. Symbols are a type of representation that point beyond themselves to something else. If the act of giving food and water is symbolic, to what reality does it point? Surely this reality is care--that most human and humane attention that we give to one another at the most basic level of need. But is this care realized when a patient who is dying is tethered to the technology of artificial nutrition and hydration against his or her will? The meaning communicated by this symbol in such a case is intended only for the care givers and society. For patients who have lived in the spirit of Christian faith, the message may be a death-denying one, out of keeping with the hope of resurrection and eternal life. PMID:10315753

  2. Getting symbols out of a neural architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, John E.

    2011-06-01

    Traditional connectionist networks are sharply limited as general accounts of human perception and cognition because they are unable to represent relational ideas such as loves (John, Mary) or bigger-than (Volkswagen, breadbox) in a way that allows them to be manipulated as explicitly relational structures. This paper reviews and critiques the four major responses to this problem in the modelling community: (1) reject connectionism (in any form) in favour of traditional symbolic approaches to modelling the mind; (2) reject the idea that mental representations are symbolic (i.e. reject the idea that we can represent relations); and (3) attempt to represent symbolic structures in a connectionist/neural architecture by finding a way to represent role-filler bindings. Approach (3) is further subdivided into (3a) approaches based on varieties of conjunctive coding and (3b) approaches based on dynamic role-filler binding. I will argue that (3b) is necessary to get symbolic processing out of a neural computing architecture. Specifically, I will argue that vector addition is both the best way to accomplish dynamic binding and an essential part of the proper treatment of symbols in a neural architecture.

  3. A comparison of two training methods for improving warning symbol comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Mary F

    2008-03-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of two different types of training in improving comprehension of warning symbols by younger (aged 20-35 years) and older adults (aged 50-70 years). The verbal label training paired the symbol with a label describing its meaning while the accident scenario training further expanded on the nature of the hazard, the required/prohibited actions, as well as the possible consequences of failing to comply. Contrary to prior research (e.g., [Lesch, M.F., 2003. Comprehension and memory for warning symbols: age-related differences and impact of training. J. Safety Res. 34, 495-505]), there was no difference in comprehension for younger and older adults prior to training, with both groups only obtaining about 40% correct responses. Both types of training improved performance on a subsequent comprehension test. However, the accident scenario training produced a higher percentage of correct responses, greater confidence in those responses, as well as a longer-lasting reduction of reaction times. In order to further improve symbol design, as well as training to address comprehension difficulties, future research should more closely examine symbol characteristics that influence comprehension. PMID:17900517

  4. The symbolic self in evolutionary context.

    PubMed

    Sedekides, C; Skowronski, J J

    1997-01-01

    We propose that the capacity for a symbolic self(a flexible and multifaceted cognitive representation of an organism's own attributes) in humans is a product of evolution. In pursuing this argument, we note that some primates possess rudimentary elements of a self (an objectified self) and that the symbolic self (a) is a trait that is widely shared among humans, (6) serves adaptive functions, and (c) could have evolved in response to environmental pressures, with ecological and social pressures being of particular relevance. We suggest that these two environmental pressures caused the symbolic self to emerge in the Pleistocene epoch as an adaptation for Homo erectus, and we review the possible functions served by such an adaptation. PMID:15647130

  5. Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.C. |

    1997-12-31

    Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.

  6. Efficient computation of Lorentzian 6J symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Joshua

    2007-04-01

    Spin foam models are a proposal for a quantum theory of gravity, and an important open question is whether they reproduce classical general relativity in the low energy limit. One approach to tackling that problem is to simulate spin-foam models on the computer, but this is hampered by the high computational cost of evaluating the basic building block of these models, the so-called 10J symbol. For Euclidean models, Christensen and Egan have developed an efficient algorithm, but for Lorentzian models this problem remains open. In this talk we describe an efficient method developed for Lorentzian 6J symbols, and we also report on recent work in progress to use this efficient algorithm in calculating the 10J symbols that are of real interest.

  7. Symbolic-numeric interface: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

  8. Use of symbolic computation in robotics education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward

    1992-01-01

    An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.

  9. Artificial symbols and the essence of intelligent computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus, Amy L.; Oxley, Mark E.

    2003-08-01

    A challenge for intelligent computing is translating the skills of innovation into mathematical theory and persistent learning algorithms. Computational intelligence differs from artificial intelligence in that artificial intelligence reasons over symbols while computational intelligence reasons over sub-symbolic data and information. Natural symbos arise from shared human experiences. The creative quality of human interaction suggests symbol generation involves a collection of cooperative agents capable of representing relative experience, negotiating innovation, and---finally---building consensus. As hybrids of sub-symbolic and symbolic reasoning become the norm, it is necessary to formalize the design and evaluation of artificial symbols. In this paper, we delineate the difference between sub-symbolic patterns and symbolic experience. Further, we propose fundamental theory supporting the autonomous construction of artificial symbols which---we assert---is the ultimate culmination of an intelligent computation. We apply this theory to model selection among neural networks.

  10. Symbolic Simulation Of Engineering Systems On A Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragheb, Magdi; Gvillo, Dennis; Makowitz, Henry

    1986-03-01

    Model-Based Production-Rule systems for analysis are developed for the symbolic simulation of Complex Engineering systems on a CRAY X-MP Supercomputer. The Fault-Tree and Event-Tree Analysis methodologies from Systems-Analysis are used for problem representation and are coupled to the Rule-Based System Paradigm from Knowledge Engineering to provide modelling of engineering devices. Modelling is based on knowledge of the structure and function of the device rather than on human expertise alone. To implement the methodology, we developed a Production-Rule Analysis System that uses both backward-chaining and forward-chaining: HAL-1986. The inference engine uses an Induction-Deduction-Oriented antecedent-consequent logic and is programmed in Portable Standard Lisp (PSL). The inference engine is general and can accommodate general modifications and additions to the knowledge base. The methodologies used will be demonstrated using a model for the identification of faults, and subsequent recovery from abnormal situations in Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis. The use of the exposed methodologies for the prognostication of future device responses under operational and accident conditions using coupled symbolic and procedural programming is discussed.

  11. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  12. Online Tester for a Symbol Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, D.; Mcconaugy, K.

    1985-01-01

    About 95 percent of faults detected. Programable instrument periodically checks for failures in system that generates alphanumerical and other symbol voltages for cathode-ray-tube displays. Symbol-generator tester compares gated test-point voltages with predetermined voltage limits while circuit under test performs commanded operation. A go/no-go indication given, depending on whether test voltage is or is not within its specification. Tester in plug-in modular form, temporarily wired to generator test points, or permanently wired to these points.

  13. Perception and view of consumers on food irradiation and the Radura symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria P.; Galotto, Maria J.; Valenzuela, Ximena; Dinten, Carolina M.; Aguirre, Paulina; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at carrying out a survey on the knowledge and acceptance level of food irradiation. The work was carried out in Santiago, Chile. As an above-average level country in South and Central America, the results may give an indication about the situation in other countries. The survey could also provide an indication about the impression of the public regarding the international "Radura" symbol, indicating on a food product that has been irradiated. A total of 497 persons were interviewed. Among the interviewed people, 76.5% did not know that irradiation could be used as a method for food preservation; 46% expressed their belief that irradiated food means the same as radioactive food. Nevertheless, 91% claimed that they would become consumers of irradiated food if they knew that "irradiated" is not "radioactive" and that proper irradiation enhances food safety; 95.8% of the interviewed persons were not familiar with the "Radura" symbol. However, 55.8% expressed their opinion that they would buy irradiated food because of the symbol, affirming that the "Radura" symbol transmits the sensation of confidence and safety.

  14. Factors affecting preference ratings of prohibitive symbols.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Kong-king; Huang, Shih-miao

    2003-11-01

    A sign consisting of a pictorial overlaid with a red circle-slash (i.e., a red circle with a red slash) is used ubiquitously to convey the message that some activity is prohibited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pictorial solidity, size, and direction of elongation (DE) of the pictorial and orientation and thickness of the red circle-slash on the preference ratings for prohibitive symbols. Solid (filled) pictorials were rated better than pictorials in outline form. Pictorials with a size equal to or greater than 75% of the length of the inner diameter of the circle-slash were rated higher than pictorials 50% in size. The effect of pictorial DE was not significant: pictorials with a greater vertical DE (i.e., tall/thin pictorials) did not differ from pictorials with a greater horizontal DE (i.e., short/wide pictorials), in terms of their preference ratings. However, pictorial DE interacted with slash orientation. Diagonal slashes were rated better than vertical or horizontal ones. Further, symbols were rated better when the thickness of the red circle-slash was such that its resulting area comprised 25% of the total area inside its outer circle at least. Moreover, the interaction of pictorial size and slash thickness indicated that the preference for prohibitive symbols of thicker slash and smaller pictorial size might be degraded drastically. Implications of the results for the design of prohibitive symbols were discussed. PMID:14559418

  15. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    PubMed

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor. PMID:20955247

  16. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Symbolic signs....

  17. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  18. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  19. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  20. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  1. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  2. Assessing levels of consciousness with symbolic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A

    2015-02-13

    'Covert consciousness' is a state in which consciousness is present without the capacity for behavioural response, and it can occur in patients with intraoperative awareness or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. To detect and prevent this undesirable state, it is critical to develop a reliable neurobiological assessment of an individual's level of consciousness that is independent of behaviour. One such approach that shows potential is measuring surrogates of cortical communication in the brain using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is practicable in clinical application, but involves many fundamental signal processing problems, including signal-to-noise ratio and high dimensional complexity. Symbolic analysis of EEG can mitigate these problems, improving the measurement of brain connectivity and the ability to successfully assess levels of consciousness. In this article, we review the problem of covert consciousness, basic neurobiological principles of consciousness, current methods of measuring brain connectivity and the advantages of symbolic processing, with a focus on symbolic transfer entropy (STE). Finally, we discuss recent advances and clinical applications of STE and other symbolic analyses to assess levels of consciousness. PMID:25548273

  3. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  4. Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language

    PubMed Central

    Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Kelso, J.A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed within a more general framework that deals with the role of information in biological systems. In this framework, symbols are seen as information-bearing entities that emerge under pressures of communicative needs and that serve as concrete constraints on development and communication. In an attempt to identify relevant dynamic aspects of such a system, one has to take into account events that happen on different time scales: evolutionary language change (i.e., a diachronic aspect), processes of communication (language use) and language acquisition. Acknowledging the role of dynamic processes in shaping and sustaining the structures of natural language calls for a change in methodology. In particular, a purely synchronic analysis of a system of symbols as “meaning-containing entities” is not sufficient to obtain answers to certain recurring problems in linguistics and the philosophy of language. A more encompassing research framework may be the one designed specifically for studying informationally based coupled dynamical systems (coordination dynamics) in which processes of self-organization take place over different time scales. PMID:19173014

  5. The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Donna Dee

    The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

  6. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combination symbols. 29.1008 Section 29.1008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards...

  7. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  8. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  9. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498

  10. The Development of Symbol Processing Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham-Diggory, Sylvia

    Visual and auditory stimuli were presented to children to measure symbol processing abilities. Slides which required matching the similarities in two objects in a group of three were presented. At times the matching criteria varied between function, color, and form. Reaction time was quicker when matching by color than by function, which was…

  11. Symbolic Play in Preschool and Primary Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nourot, Patricia Moninghan; Van Hoorn, Judith L.

    1991-01-01

    A review of research on children's symbolic play discusses ways for teachers to (1) defend the inclusion of play in the curriculum; (2) understand and respect differences in the ways children play; and (3) facilitate play in the classroom. Discusses the complexity of play and the controversy about play as part of the curriculum. (GLR)

  12. Teenage Drinking, Symbolic Capital and Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…

  13. Symbolic dynamics and the discrete variational principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullin, H. R.

    1998-11-01

    We show how to construct symbolic dynamics for the class of 2d-dimensional twist mappings generated by piecewise strictly convex/concave generating functions. The method is constructive and gives an efficient way to find all periodic orbits of these high-dimensional symplectic mappings. It is illustrated with the cardioid and the stadium billiard.

  14. Cartographic Symbolism and Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, E. O.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alleged special difficulties in teaching very young children how to interpret cartographic symbols. Adults too often reduce or temporarily destroy interest by introducing too many complications too fast. There is a vast difference between acceptance of a fact and understanding of the cause of the fact.…

  15. There Is More to Mathematics than Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    When teachers provide students with every opportunity to visually understand a mathematical concept, process, definition, or notation, they allow them to construct and manipulate relevant and useful images in their minds. Visual understanding has a dynamic character that they do not easily develop with alphanumeric symbols alone despite the…

  16. [The egg--symbol and myth].

    PubMed

    Hilbrich, P

    1991-04-01

    The egg is one of the most ancient symbols in mankind. This is exemplified on the basis of various myths--cosmogony, theogony, magic witchcraft for healing and defence--originating from different pre-Christian and Christian cultures. PMID:1712265

  17. Presentational Symbolism and the Production of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Using Susanne Langer's concepts of presentational and discursive symbolism, constructs a theory of text production that describes presentation and discourse and relations between them as major components in the evolution of text from thought to written language. Concludes by examining the implications of this theory for understanding students'…

  18. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols. We have prescribed distinctive...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on which taxes and duties have been collected to support...

  19. Computer Symbolic Math & Education: A Radical Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutemyer, David R.

    This document promotes computer symbolic mathematics and computer algebra as ideal instructional materials for mathematics, science, and engineering students. Further, computer algebra is viewed as appropriate for all students throughout the mathematics curriculum, by serving a vast area of mutual reinforcement and cross-motivation between…

  20. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259...

  5. Symbolic Computational Algebra Applied to Picard Iteration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, John

    1989-01-01

    Uses muMATH to illustrate the step-by-step process in translating mathematical theory into the symbolic manipulation setting. Shows an application of a Picard iteration which uses a computer to generate a sequence of functions which converge to a solution. (MVL)

  6. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  7. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  8. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  9. Symbolic-Graphical Calculators: Teaching Tools for Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role that symbolic-graphical calculators can play in the current calls for reform in the mathematics curriculum. Discusses symbolic calculators and graphing calculators in relation to problem solving, computational skills, and mathematics instruction. (MDH)

  10. NSL a Neuro-Symbolic Language for a Neuro-Symbolic Processor (NSP).

    PubMed

    Burattini, Ernesto; De Francesco, Antonio; De Gregorio, Massimo

    2003-04-01

    A Neuro-Symbolic Language for monotonic and non-monotonic parallel logical inference by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. Both the language and its compiler have been designed and implemented in order to translate the neural representation of a given problem into a VHDL software, which in turn can set devices such as FPGA. The result of this operation leads to an electronic circuit that we call NSP (Neuro-Symbolic Processor). PMID:12923922

  11. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  12. 32 CFR 310.42 - Reports control symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports control symbol. 310.42 Section 310.42... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Reports § 310.42 Reports control symbol. Any report established by this subpart in support of the Privacy Program shall be assigned Report Control Symbol DD-COMP(A)1379....

  13. Social Validation of Symbolic Play Training for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Schreibman, Laura; Powell, Nicole Palardy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the social significance of changes resulting from teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Qualitatively obtained results from a previous study indicated that, following symbolic play training, children with autism increased their symbolic play behaviors and play…

  14. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  15. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  16. The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Mary E.

    Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

  17. Gibberish or What? Use of Symbolic Language in Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinnell, Lorna; Carter, Merilyn

    2013-01-01

    Lorna Quinnell and Merrilyn Carter examine the use of symbols in teaching mathematics and outline the difficulties students experience in "reading symbols and abbreviations." We are sure teachers will appreciate the way the authors have examined the use of symbols and abbreviations in NAPLAN testing and organized them into five distinct…

  18. On the Use of Symbolic Computation in Undergraduate Microeconomics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how a computer software symbolic-processing program can be easily incorporated into an advanced undergraduate microeconomics course. Symbolic-processing programs are relatively sophisticated software packages that combine numeric, symbolic, and graphic computation in a single unified computing environment. Includes examples of…

  19. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol means that impression stamped on the...

  20. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol means that impression stamped on the...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  2. Developing Meaning for Algebraic Symbols: Possibilities and Pitfall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannin, John K.; Townsend, Brian E.; Armer, Nathan; Green, Savanna; Schneider, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Developing meaning for symbolic representations is an important part of the middle school mathematics experience for all students. Teachers must not see simply writing symbolic representations as the end goal, but focus on the internal meaning that students ascribe to these symbols. Too often, students lack a deep understanding of the algebraic…

  3. Transfer by Very Young Children in the Symbolic Retrieval Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoache, Judy S.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Marzolf, Donald P.

    2004-01-01

    Cumulative experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been hypothesized as a source of young children's increasing sensitivity to new symbol-referent relations. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from transfer studies showing that experience with a relatively easy symbolic retrieval task improves performance on a more difficult task.…

  4. The analysis of control trajectories using symbolic and database computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The research broadly concerned the symbolic computation, mixed numeric-symbolic computation, and data base computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. It was determined that trees can be used to compute symbolically series which approximate solutions to differential equations.

  5. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Julia F.; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed. PMID:26579012

  6. Symbols and ethics: integrity and the discipline of nursing.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2005-07-01

    Symbols give meaning to phenomena coconstituted in the human-universe-health process. There are many common symbols of ethics found in the discipline of nursing. Symbols of ethics may take the form of codes, oaths, pledges, resolutions, or position statements that represent notions of what one ought to do in a discipline or profession. Ethical symbols are intended to guide a particular discipline in practice, research, and education. What is their importance to the discipline of nursing? What are the possible implications of integrity for nursing when viewing the application of ethical symbols from a nursing theoretical perspective? PMID:15976042

  7. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people. PMID:17817633

  8. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  9. Symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    This paper aims to summarize the existing evidence for the symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Chimpanzees can represent, to some extent, both the cardinal and the ordinal aspect of number. Through the medium of Arabic numerals we compared working memory in humans and chimpanzees using the same apparatus and following the same procedure. Three young chimpanzees outperformed human adults in memorizing briefly presented numerals. However, we found that chimpanzees were less proficient at a variety of other cognitive tasks including imitation, cross-modal matching, symmetry of symbols and referents, and one-to-one correspondence. In sum, chimpanzees do not possess human-like capabilities for representation at an abstract level. The present paper will discuss the constraints of the number concept in chimpanzees, and illuminate some unique features of human cognition. PMID:19447029

  10. Symbolic vector analysis in plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1999-01-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the underlying coordinate systems. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. Besides the basic vector analysis functions, the package provides asymptotic capabilities, 2D vector analysis notation, and a simple interface for users to define their own coordinate systems. These features will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis in complicated coordinate systems is required. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  11. The symbolism and myth surrounding nurses' uniform.

    PubMed

    Richardson, M

    This article addresses nurses' uniform from the perspective of the symbolic, myth, legend and competing discourse. The analysis touches upon why nurses working with people who have learning disabilities discarded the nurses' uniform and why other nurses may consider doing so, particularly if suitable alternatives exist. The analysis draws from various areas of nursing practice, including the nursing of disabled people, elderly people and people with learning disabilities. Nurses' uniform is revealed as a totem of considerable potency such that to wear a uniform in just any setting or context has to be cautioned. The practicalities of protective clothing are addressed. A differentiation is drawn between uniform and protective clothing such that much of the undesirable symbolism associated with uniform may be discarded with a consequent enhancement of the image of the nurse. PMID:10222879

  12. Symbolic transfer entropy: inferring directionality in biosignals.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    Inferring directional interactions from biosignals is of crucial importance to improve understanding of dynamical interdependences underlying various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We here present symbolic transfer entropy as a robust measure to infer the direction of interactions between multidimensional dynamical systems. We demonstrate its performance in quantifying driver-responder relationships in a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators and in the human epileptic brain. PMID:19938889

  13. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, E.

    1985-10-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race.

  14. Another look at children's symbol reversals.

    PubMed

    Patton, J E; Yarbrough, D B; Thursby, D

    2000-04-01

    In a previously reported longitudinal study of reversal errors for static and kinetic written symbols we found no compelling support for their academic importance in kindergarten (n = 201), Grade 1 (n = 156), or Grade 2 (n = 129); however, for Grade 3 (n = 105), kinetic reversals became a significant predictor of tested reading achievement. If reliable, this finding might have implications for the identification of children with long-term reading impairment. PMID:10833756

  15. Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

  16. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field. PMID:12197200

  17. [Safety culture: definition, models and design].

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Holger; Hammer, Antje; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Ommen, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Safety culture is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Safety culture of a healthcare organization is high if it has a common stock in knowledge, values and symbols in regard to patients' safety. The article intends to define safety culture in the first step and, in the second step, demonstrate the effects of safety culture. We present the model of safety behaviour and show how safety culture can affect behaviour and produce safe behaviour. In the third step we will look at the causes of safety culture and present the safety-culture-model. The main hypothesis of this model is that the safety culture of a healthcare organization strongly depends on its communication culture and its social capital. Finally, we will investigate how the safety culture of a healthcare organization can be improved. Based on the safety culture model six measures to improve safety culture will be presented. PMID:19998775

  18. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication.

    PubMed

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  19. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  20. Symbolic attitude and reverie: problems of symbolization in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bovensiepen, Gustav

    2002-04-01

    In comparison to the 1970s and 1980s, we now treat more children and adolescents who, because they have had traumatic experiences of violence, child abuse, deprivation or chronic physical illness, are not able to adequately use their symbolizing function. The question is which qualities and which analytical attitude we should and can offer in analysis to help a child regain his or her capacity to symbolize, irrespective of how poorly developed or blocked this capacity may be. In contrast to Jung and some Jungians, the author argues that although the transcendent function is a 'natural process' and hence archetypally grounded as Jung maintained, the transcendent function does not work spontaneously. Rather it requires a matrix based on the child's earliest relationship, which can later be re-enacted in treatment. Jung's general concept of a 'symbolic attitude' can be complemented and focused in a specific way through the use of Bion's concept of 'reverie', which contributes in a fundamental way to symbol formation within the transference/countertransference. This idea is illustrated by clinical material from a nine-year-old boy who suffered from a severe congenital intestinal disease and was blocked in his capacity to symbolize. From the perspective of treatment technique, the author shows how the drawing of 'comic book' narratives in a reciprocal exchange was brought into the treatment. The drawings evolved in a way that he understood as a modified form of active imagination with children. The drawing process helped the boy gradually to develop a symbolic space in the therapy and to contain a psychic space in his mind. PMID:12025497

  1. The New Algorithm for Symbolic Network Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, John Tsai-Chiang

    A new and highly efficient tree identification algorithm is derived here for obtaining the determinant and the cofactors of a circuit's node admittance matrix, and hence, for obtaining various symbolic network functions for one-port and two-port reciprocal and nonreciprocal networks, with the network's topological description as its input. The algorithm is so devised that it is practically memory-storage free, and it is simple enough that even a microcomputer can obtain symbolic network functions for a fairly large circuit in a reasonably short time. It is worth noting that the algorithm can handle topological branches with infinite admittance values. Making use of this special feature, we have derived a simple topological model for the ideal operational amplifier, hence providing the ability to obtain various topological formulas of operational amplifier circuits in a reasonable time. By choosing appropriate symbolic network functions, along with some measured transfer function data, the circuit's nominal element values, and a nonlinear-equation solving subroutine, we have constructed a computer program to perform analog circuit fault diagnosis. This program can identify which of a circuit's elements are faulty or out of design tolerances. In the course of this research we have also identified an application to a biological problem, one in which the resistor values of an electrical model of the guinea-pig cochlea can easily be deduced even when some nodes are inaccessible for measurements. All these features have been implemented on a very modest microcomputer, the Apple II. Obviously, a larger computer will not only accomplish the same result faster but also it will be capable of analyzing much larger circuits.

  2. Principal symbol of Euler–Lagrange operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatibene, L.; Garruto, S.

    2016-07-01

    We shall introduce the principal symbol for quite a general class of (quasi linear) Euler–Lagrange operators and use them to characterise well-posed initial value problems in gauge covariant field theories. We shall clarify how constraints can arise in covariant Lagrangian theories by extending the standard treatment in GR and without resorting to Hamiltonian formalism. Finally as an example of application, we sketch a quantisation procedure based on what is done in LQG by framing it in a more general context which applies to general gauge covariant field theories.

  3. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  4. q-entropy for symbolic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Pesin, Yakov

    2015-12-01

    For symbolic dynamical systems we use the Carathéodory construction as described in (Pesin 1997 Dimension Theory in Dynamical Systems, ConTemporary Views and Applications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)) to introduce the notions of q-topological and q-metric entropies. We describe some basic properties of these entropies and in particular, discuss relations between q-metric entropy and local metric entropy. Both q-topological and q-metric entropies are new invariants respectively under homeomorphisms and metric isomorphisms of dynamical systems.

  5. Symbolic dynamics approach to parameter estimation without initial value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Hou, Xubo; Shen, Yi; He, Zhenya

    2009-12-01

    Symbolic dynamics, which partitions the infinite number of finite length trajectories into a finite number of trajectory sets, allows a simplified and “coarse-grained” description of the dynamics of a system with a limited number of symbols. In this Letter, we will show that control parameters affect dynamical characters of symbolic sequences. To be more specific, we will analyze how control parameters affect statistical property of Skewed Tent map symbolic sequences. Besides, we will also analyze how control parameters affect ergodic property of both Logistic map and Tent map symbolic sequences. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the above mentioned effects of control parameters discourage the use of chaotic symbolic sequences in cryptography. Furthermore, we will propose an improved scheme utilizing asymptotic deterministic randomness to avoid the undesirable effects.

  6. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  7. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  8. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26726913

  9. Symbolic derivation of material property matrices in finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, H. Q.

    1988-01-01

    The principles and operation of MMAX, a symbolic-computation program which automates the process of generating property matrices for structural materials, are briefly described and illustrated with sample analyses of a rubberlike material and an elastoplastic material. MMAX is written in LISP under the symbolic finite-element generator FINGER and the general symbolic manipulator MACSYMA; it first derives the formulas required by mathematical manipulation, and then translates the formulas into FORTRAN code, adapted to the particular type of machine to be used for the numerical calculations. This approach is shown to combine efficiently the advantages of symbolic and numerical computation for engineering applications.

  10. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.

    PubMed

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-01-01

    This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine. PMID:20039773