Science.gov

Sample records for symmetric top molecules

  1. Critical binding and electron scattering by symmetric-top polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W. R.

    2014-10-28

    Quantum treatments of electron interactions with polar symmetric-top rotor molecules show features not present in the treatment of the linear-polar-rotor model. For symmetric tops possessing non-zero angular momentum about the symmetry axis, a new critical dipole can be defined that guarantees an infinite set of dipole-bound states independent of the values of the components of the inertial tensor. Additionally, for this same class, the scattering cross section diverges for all nonzero values of dipole moments and inertial moments, similar to solutions for the fixed linear dipole. Additional predictions are presented for electron affinities and rotational resonances of these systems.

  2. Theory of x-ray absorption by laser-aligned symmetric-top molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Buth, C.; Santra, R.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    We devise a theory of x-ray absorption by symmetric-top molecules which are aligned by an intense optical laser. Initially, the density matrix of the system is composed of the electronic ground state of the molecules and a thermal ensemble of rigid-rotor eigenstates. We formulate equations of motion of the two-color (laser plus x rays) rotational-electronic problem. The interaction with the laser is assumed to be nonresonant; it is described by an electric dipole polarizability tensor. X-ray absorption is approximated as a one-photon process. It is shown that the equations can be separated such that the interaction with the laser can be treated independently of the x rays. The laser-only density matrix is propagated numerically. After each time step, the x-ray absorption is calculated. We apply our theory to study adiabatic alignment of bromine molecules (Br2). The required dynamic polarizabilities are determined using the ab initio linear response methods coupled-cluster singles (CCS), second-order approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CC2), and coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD). For the description of x-ray absorption on the {sigma}g1s-->{sigma}u4p resonance, a parameter-free two-level model is used for the electronic structure of the molecules. Our theory opens up novel perspectives for the quantum control of x-ray radiation.

  3. Rovibrational interaction and vibrational constants of the symmetric top molecule 14NF3.

    PubMed

    Najib, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Several accurate experimental values of the ?(C) and ?(B) rotation-vibration interaction parameters and ?(i), x(ij), and g(ij) vibrational constants have been extracted from the most recent high-resolution Fourier transform infrared, millimeter wave, and centimeter wave investigations in the spectra of the oblate symmetric top molecule (14)NF3. The band-centres used are those of the four fundamental, the overtones, the combination, and hot bands identified in the region between 400 cm(-1) and 2000 cm(-1). Comparison of our constants with the ones measured previously, by infrared spectroscopy at low resolution, reveals orders of magnitude higher accuracy of the new values. The agreement between our values and those determined by ab initio calculations employing the TZ2Pf basis is excellent. PMID:23766711

  4. Rovibrational Interaction and Vibrational Constants of the Symmetric Top Molecule 14NF3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Several accurate experimental values of the αC and αB rotation-vibration interaction parameters and ωi, xij, and gij vibrational constants have been extracted from the most recent high-resolution Fourier transform infrared, millimeter wave, and centimeter wave investigations in the spectra of the oblate symmetric top molecule 14NF3. The band-centres used are those of the four fundamental, the overtones, the combination, and hot bands identified in the region between 400 cm−1 and 2000 cm−1. Comparison of our constants with the ones measured previously, by infrared spectroscopy at low resolution, reveals orders of magnitude higher accuracy of the new values. The agreement between our values and those determined by ab initio calculations employing the TZ2Pf basis is excellent. PMID:23766711

  5. Development of the vibration-torsion-rotation Hamiltonian for symmetric-top molecules with large amplitude internal rotation from their high resolution infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borvayeh, Leila

    Internal rotation in C2H6, CH3SiH 3, and similar symmetric top molecules offers an excellent opportunity to investigate large amplitude motion in relatively simple molecules. Due to specific symmetry characteristics of symmetric top molecules, the large amplitude torsional motion is separable from the small amplitude vibrations and the overall rotation, therefore provides a relatively simple vibrational-torsional-rotational Hamiltonian. The results from studying torsional motion in symmetric top molecules may be applied to more complex systems, such as asymmetric internal rotors. This thesis deals with the internal rotation in two types of symmetric top molecules. The first group (X2Y6 type molecules) includes CH3CH3, SiH3SiH3, and CD3CD3. For ethane, we have presented the most complete vibrational-torsional-rotational Hamiltonian model for four lowest vibrational states, to date. For disilane, we have studied the nu9 vibrational fundamentals and nu9 + nu4 - nu4 hot band. In the case of CD3CD3, we have investigated the analysis of nu3 - nu9 difference band. This work demonstrates that observation of weak difference bands in ethane-like molecules might be a way to access vibrational states whose fundamentals are both infrared inactive and very difficult to observe using Raman spectroscopy. The second group (XY3AB3 type molecules) includes CH3SiH3, 12CH3 13CH 3, and CH3CD3. For CH3SiH3 and CH3CD3, we have presented an analysis that includes the nu12 + nu6 - nu6 hot band. In all cases, the torsional dependency of several purely-vibrational terms was found to be important. For CH3SiH3, a coupling between the nu12 + nu6 and nu5 fundamentals has been observed and treated properly. In the case of 12CH 313CH3, we have analyzed nu 6 and 2nu6 - nu6 torsional bands in combination with nu12 band. The torsion mediated Coriolis interactions were found between the torsional stacks of nu12 and ground vibrational state. The analysis of the hot band of CH3CD3 shows a local coupling between nu5 and nu12 + nu 6.

  6. Collision dynamics of symmetric top molecules: A comparison of the rotationally inelastic scattering of CD{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with He

    SciTech Connect

    Tkáč, Ondřej; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Alexander, Millard H.; Onvlee, Jolijn; Avoird, Ad van der

    2014-04-07

    We compare rotationally inelastic scattering of deuterated methyl radicals (CD{sub 3}) and ammonia (ND{sub 3}) in collisions with helium using close-coupling quantum-mechanical scattering calculations performed with ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs). The theoretical methods have been rigorously tested against angle-resolved experimental measurements obtained using crossed molecular beam apparatuses in combination with velocity map imaging [O. Tkáč, A. G. Sage, S. J. Greaves, A. J. Orr-Ewing, P. J. Dagdigian, Q. Ma, and M. H. Alexander, Chem. Sci. 4, 4199 (2013); O. Tkáč, A. K. Saha, J. Onvlee, C.-H. Yang, G. Sarma, C. K. Bishwakarma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, A. van der Avoird, D. H. Parker, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 477 (2014)]. Common features of the scattering dynamics of these two symmetric top molecules, one closed-shell and the other an open-shell radical, are identified and discussed. Two types of anisotropies in the PES influence the interaction of an atom with a nonlinear polyatomic molecule. The effects of these anisotropies can be clearly seen in the state-to-state integral cross sections out of the lowest CD{sub 3} rotational levels of each nuclear spin symmetry at a collision energy of 440 cm{sup −1}. Similarities and differences in the differential cross sections for the ND{sub 3}–He and CD{sub 3}–He systems can be linked to the coupling terms derived from the PESs which govern particular initial to final rotational level transitions.

  7. Rotational excitation of symmetric top molecules by collisions with atoms: Close coupling, coupled states, and effective potential calculations for NH3-He

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1976-01-01

    The formalism for describing rotational excitation in collisions between symmetric top rigid rotors and spherical atoms is presented both within the accurate quantum close coupling framework and also the coupled states approximation of McGuire and Kouri and the effective potential approximation of Rabitz. Calculations are reported for thermal energy NH3-He collisions, treating NH3 as a rigid rotor and employing a uniform electron gas (Gordon-Kim) approximation for the intermolecular potential. Coupled states are found to be in nearly quantitative agreement with close coupling results while the effective potential method is found to be at least qualitatively correct. Modifications necessary to treat the inversion motion in NH3 are discussed.

  8. Adiabatic Field-Free Alignment of Asymmetric Top Molecules with an Optical Centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobenko, A.; Milner, V.

    2016-05-01

    We use an optical centrifuge to align asymmetric top SO2 molecules by adiabatically spinning their most polarizable O-O axis. The effective centrifugal potential in the rotating frame confines the sulfur atoms to the plane of the laser-induced rotation, leading to the planar molecular alignment that persists after the molecules are released from the centrifuge. The periodic appearance of the full three-dimensional alignment, typically observed only with linear and symmetric top molecules, is also detected. Together with strong in-plane centrifugal forces, which bend the molecules by up to 10 deg, permanent field-free alignment offers new ways of controlling molecules with laser light.

  9. Rectification in Symmetric Conjugated Molecules with Asymmetric Linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Arunabh; Meisner, Jeffrey S.; Widawsky, Jonathan R.; Huisman, Eek; Nuckolls, Colin; Venkataraman, Latha

    2012-02-01

    Demonstrating single-molecule rectification is an important step towards the realization of molecule-based electronic devices. Most molecules put forward as potential rectifiers employ asymmetric molecular backbones. In contrast, we show that we can create rectifying junctions by designing asymmetry only into the linker groups used to bond the molecule to metal electrodes. Our molecules consist of a conjugated backbone terminated with methylsulfide on one end and methyl-trimethyltin on the other. These molecules couple to Au electrodes through an Au-SMe donor acceptor bond, which serves as the electronically weak link, and a Au-C covalent bond, which is created in-situ after the SnMe3 cleaves off [1]. We create thousands of molecular junctions using a modified STM setup in a solution of molecules, measure their current-voltage (IV) characteristics and create averaged IV curves. We find that asymmetrically terminated molecules show non-linear IV curves with significant rectification, while molecules terminated symmetrically with either SMe or SnMe3 do not show substantial rectification. We also find that the rectification direction is dependent on molecular orientation in the junction. [1] Chen, W., et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011. 133(43): p. 17160-17163

  10. Systematic studies of molecular vibrational anharmonicity and vibration-rotation interaction by self-consistent-field higher derivative methods: Applications to asymmetric and symmetric top and linear polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Clabo, D.A. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Inclusion of the anharmonicity normal mode vibrations (i.e., the third and fourth (and higher) derivatives of a molecular Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface) is necessary in order to theoretically reproduce experimental fundamental vibrational frequencies of a molecule. Although ab initio determinations of harmonic vibrational frequencies may give errors of only a few percent by the inclusion of electron correlation within a large basis set for small molecules, in general, molecular fundamental vibrational frequencies are more often available from high resolution vibration-rotation spectra. Recently developed analytic third derivatives methods for self-consistent-field (SCF) wavefunctions have made it possible to examine with previously unavailable accuracy and computational efficiency the anharmonic force fields of small molecules.

  11. Modulated structures in nematic monolayers formed by symmetric molecules.

    PubMed

    Lelidis, I; Barbero, G

    2005-02-01

    An analysis based on symmetry yields a general form for the deformation elastic energy of a nematic monolayer, formed by achiral symmetric molecules, deposited on a solid substrate. Lifshitz-invariant-like terms in the energy, which originate from the substrate field, can induce a modulated-tilt state if the anchoring energy is sufficiently low. A way to enhance the symmetry breaking is to apply a destabilizing magnetic or electric field that serves to lower the anchoring energy. In the case of an initial state with homeotropic alignment, the phase diagram displays a cusp-shaped tilt-modulated state intervening between two uniform tilt states. PMID:15783361

  12. Collisional Transitions in Interstellar Asymmetric Top Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Suresh

    2012-07-01

    For the study of a molecule in interstellar space or in circumstellar envelopes of an evolved star, one has to deal with a multi-level system in the molecule. These levels are connected through radiative as well as collisional transitions. The NLTE effects in a molecule come in the picture only when collisional transitions are present. Computation of collisional rates is quite cumbersome task. Besides emission and absorption, two anomalous phenomena: (i) MASER action and (ii) Anomalous absorption (Absorption against the CMB) are shown by some molecules in interstellar space. Both of these phenomena are good examples of NLTE prevailing in the interstellar space and circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. In the present talk, we shall discuss about the collisional transitions between rotational levels in a molecule. The collisional rate coefficients for the rotational transition J τ → J' τ' at the kinetic temperature T, averaged over the Maxwellian distribution are C(J τ → J' τ'|T) = \\Big(\\frac{8 k T}{π μ}\\Big)^{1/2} \\Big(\\frac{1}{k T}\\Big)^2 \\int_0^\\infty σ (J τ → J' τ'|E) E {e}^{-E/kT} {d} E where μ is the reduced mass of the system and the cross section σ(J τ → J' τ'|E) for the transition is \\begin{eqnarray} σ (J τ → J' τ'|E) = \\sum_{L M M'} S(J, τ, J', τ'|L, M, M') q(L, M, M'|E) The q(L, M, M'|E) are the parameters which can be obtained from the software MOLSCAT. The spectroscopic coefficients, S ( J, τ, J', τ'|L, M, M'), depend on the wave-functions of the molecules and on the angular momentum coupling factors: S(J, τ, J', τ'|L, M, M') = \\sum_{p, p', q, q'} g^p_{J τ} g^q_{J τ} g^{p'}_{J' τ'} g^{q'}_{J' τ'} \\big \\big Here, \\big represents the Clebsch-Gorden coefficient. The g-coefficients can be obtained from laboratory analysis of the molecule and the parameters q(L, M, M'|E) can be obtained with the help of the software MOLSCAT for a known interaction potential. As an example, we shall discuss collisional rates for rotational transitions in H_2CS molecule.

  13. Molecular collisions. 11: Semiclassical approximation to atom-symmetric top rotational excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D.; Curtiss, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    In a paper of this series a distorted wave approximation to the T matrix for atom-symmetric top scattering was developed which is correct to first order in the part of the interaction potential responsible for transitions in the component of rotational angular momentum along the symmetry axis of the top. A semiclassical expression for this T matrix is derived by assuming large values of orbital and rotational angular momentum quantum numbers.

  14. Molecular collisions 21: Semiclassical approximation to atom-symmetric top rotational excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D.; Curtiss, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    A distorted wave approximation to the T matrix for atom-symmetric top scattering was developed. The approximation is correct to first order in the part of the interaction potential responsible for transitions in the component of rotational angular momentum along the symmetry axis of the top. A semiclassical expression for this T matrix is derived by assuming large values of orbital and rotational angular momentum quantum numbers.

  15. Rare top quark decays in Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Models

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2007-06-19

    We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t {yields} H0 + c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t {yields} c + {gamma}, which involves radiative corrections.

  16. Multipulse Three-Dimensional Alignment of Asymmetric Top Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Makhija, Varun; Kumarappan, Vinod

    2014-05-01

    We show, by computation and experiment, that a sequence of nonresonant and impulsive laser pulses with different ellipticities can effectively align asymmetric top molecules in three dimensions under field-free conditions. By solving the Schrödinger equation for the evolution of the rotational wave packet, we show that the 3D alignment of 3,5 difluoroiodobenzene molecules improves with each successive pulse. Experimentally, a sequence of three pulses is used to demonstrate these results, which extend the multipulse schemes used for 1D alignment to full 3D control of rotational motion.

  17. Collisional decoherence and rotational quasirevivals in asymmetric-top molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Ian F.; Artamonov, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the observation of quasiperiodic revivals out to 27 ps in an impulsively aligned asymmetric-top molecule, sulfur dioxide (SO2), at high sample temperature and density (295 K, 0.5 bar). We find that the asymmetric top exhibits a strong correlation between population alignment and population lifetime (r =0.97 ), in accordance with the trend observed in linear molecules. We use a linear birefringence measurement fit to a full quantum simulation of the asymmetric rotor and are able to separately measure both the population (T1) and coherence (T2) lifetimes of the rotational wave packet. Additionally, we observe a high rate of elastic decoherence (T2*=9.6 ps ) and attribute this to long-range interactions mediated by the permanent dipole of the SO2 molecule. We propose the use of birefringence measurements to study intermolecular interactions in a coherent ensemble, as a step toward using field-free alignment to investigate reaction dynamics and dissipative processes.

  18. Rare top quark and Higgs boson decays in alternative left-right symmetric models

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O.G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L.G.

    2005-08-01

    Top quark and Higgs boson decays induced by flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC) are very much suppressed in the standard model. Their detection in colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider, Next Linear Collider, or Tevatron would be a signal of new physics. We evaluate the FCNC decays t{yields}H{sup 0}+c, t{yields}Z+c, and H{sup 0}{yields}t+c in the context of alternative left-right symmetric models with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; in this case, FCNC decays occur at tree level, and they are suppressed only by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks, which is poorly constrained by current experimental values. This provides the possibility for future colliders either to detect new physics or to improve present bounds on the parameters of the model.

  19. Towards Understanding Quantum Monodromy in Quasi-Symmetric Molecules: Fassst Rotational Spectra of CH_3NCO and CH_3NCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Fortman, Sarah; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Winnewisser, Manfred; De Lucia, Frank C.; Koput, Jacek

    2010-06-01

    The recent studies of the rotational spectrum of the NCNCS molecule demonstrated the success of quantum monodromy in describing the quasilinear behavior of this molecule, inclusive of the abrupt transition of spectroscopic behavior from the bent to the linear molecule regime. Similar, quasisymmetric behaviour, is known to be present in symmetric top molecules, and has been studied at lowest-J transitions for two such molecules, CH_3NCO and CH_3NCS. Further progress requires more experimental data and presently we report FASSST rotational spectra of CH_3NCO and CH_3NCS. The spectra provide practically continuous 117-376 GHz coverage and are very rich, since the ladder of excited vibrational states associated with the qusilinear bending coordinate is multiplied by the nearly free internal rotation of the methyl group. Initial stages of the analysis leading up to an analysis in an extension of the framework used for NCNCS are described. B.P.Winnewisser, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95. 243002 (2005). M.Winnewisser, et al., J. Mol. Struct. 798, 1 {2006}. B.P.Winnewisser, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. DOI:10.1039/B922023B (2010). J.Koput, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 115, 131 (1986) J.Koput, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 189 (1986)

  20. Consistent assignment of the vibrations of symmetric and asymmetric para-disubstituted benzene molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejeva, Anna; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William D.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    We give a description of the phenyl-ring-localized vibrational modes of the ground states of the para-disubstituted benzene molecules including both symmetric and asymmetric cases. In line with others, we quickly conclude that the use of Wilson mode labels is misleading and ambiguous; we conclude the same regarding the related ones of Varsányi. Instead we label the modes consistently based upon the Mulliken (Herzberg) method for the modes of para-difluorobenzene (pDFB). Since we wish the labelling scheme to cover both symmetrically- and asymmetrically-substituted molecules, we apply the Mulliken labelling under C2v symmetry. By studying the variation of the vibrational wavenumbers with mass of the substituent, we are able to identify the corresponding modes across a wide range of molecules and hence provide consistent assignments. Particularly interesting are pairs of vibrations that evolve from in- and out-of-phase motions in pDFB to more localized modes in asymmetric molecules. We consider the para isomers of the following: the symmetric dihalobenzenes, xylene, hydroquinone, the asymmetric dihalobenzenes, halotoluenes, halophenols and cresol.

  1. Electron-impact rotational excitation of symmetric-top molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, A.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    We present electron-impact rotational excitation calculations for polyatomic molecular ions. The theory developed in this paper is an extension of the work of Rabadán et al (Rabadán I, Sarpal B K and Tennyson J 1998 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 2077) on linear molecular ions to the case of symmetric-top species. The H3+ and H3O+ ions, as well as their deuterated forms D3+ and D3O+, are used as test cases and cross sections are obtained at various levels of approximation for impact energies up to 5 eV. As in the linear case, the widely used Coulomb-Born (CB) approximation is found to be unreliable in two major aspects: transitions with ΔJ > 1 are entirely dominated by short-range interactions and threshold effects are important at very low energies. Electron collisional selection rules are found to be consistent with the CB theory. In particular, dominant transitions are those for which ΔJ ≤ 2 and ΔK = 0.

  2. Inducing changes in the bond length of diatomic molecules by time-symmetric chirped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Bo Y.; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R.

    2010-12-15

    We show numerically that it is possible to change the structure of a simple molecule, that is, a diatomic molecule, where the bond length is modified at a precise timing with symmetrically chirped laser pulses. In the adiabatic regime, the process is fully time reversible, making it possible to design slow vibrations with large bond elongations. The scheme relies on the preparation of a separable state of both nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom with predominant amplitude on the dissociative (antibonding) electronic wave function. Shorter laser pulses can be used to dynamically induce larger bond elongations, preparing a highly excited vibrational wave packet in the ground potential as the laser is switched off.

  3. Langmuir Fiilms of Anthracene Derivatives on Liquid Mercury I: Symmetric Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Tamam,L.; Kraack, H.; Sloutskin, E.; Ocko, B.; Pershan, P.; Ofer, E.; Deutsch, M.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and phase sequence of liquid-mercury-supported Langmuir films (LFs) of two symmetric acenes, anthracene and anthraquinone, were studied by surface tensiometry and X-ray diffraction. At low coverage, both form a monolayer of surface-parallel, flat-lying, molecules. At high coverage, we find a monolayer of side-lying molecules, where the molecular plane is surface-normal, and the molecular long axis is surface-parallel. None of these phases exhibit long-range in-plane order.

  4. A polypeptide "building block" for the β-trefoil fold identified by "top-down symmetric deconstruction".

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihun; Blaber, Sachiko I; Dubey, Vikash K; Blaber, Michael

    2011-04-15

    Fibroblast growth factor-1, a member of the 3-fold symmetric β-trefoil fold, was subjected to a series of symmetric constraint mutations in a process termed "top-down symmetric deconstruction." The mutations enforced a cumulative exact 3-fold symmetry upon symmetrically equivalent positions within the protein and were combined with a stability screen. This process culminated in a β-trefoil protein with exact 3-fold primary-structure symmetry that exhibited excellent folding and stability properties. Subsequent fragmentation of the repeating primary-structure motif yielded a 42-residue polypeptide capable of spontaneous assembly as a homotrimer, producing a thermostable β-trefoil architecture. The results show that despite pronounced reduction in sequence complexity, pure symmetry in the design of a foldable, thermostable β-trefoil fold is possible. The top-down symmetric deconstruction approach provides a novel alternative means to successfully identify a useful polypeptide "building block" for subsequent "bottom-up" de novo design of target protein architecture. PMID:21315087

  5. Analysis and fit of the Fourier-transform microwave spectrum of the two-top molecule N-methylacetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, N.; Hougen, J. T.; Suenram, R. D.; Lovas, F. J.; Kawashima, Y.; Fujitake, M.; Pyka, J.

    2004-09-01

    The jet-cooled Fourier-transform microwave spectrum of N-methylacetamide (CH 3NHC(O)CH 3), a molecule containing two methyl tops with relatively low barriers to internal rotation, has been recorded and fit to nearly experimental uncertainty. Measurements were carried out between 10 and 26 GHz, with the nitrogen quadrupole splittings resolved for many transitions. The permutation-inversion group for this molecule is G18 (not isomorphic to any point group), with irreducible representations A1, A2, E1, E2, E3, and E4. One of these symmetry species and the usual three asymmetric rotor quantum numbers JKaKc were assigned to each torsion-rotation level involved in the observed transitions. F values were assigned to hyperfine components, where F= J+ IN. Transitions involving levels of A1 and A2 species could be fit to an asymmetric rotor Hamiltonian. The other transitions were first fit separately for each symmetry species using a Pickett-like effective rotational Hamiltonian. Constants from these fits show a number of additive properties which can be correlated with sums and differences of effects involving the two tops. A final global fit to 48 molecular parameters for 839 hyperfine components of 216 torsion-rotation transitions involving 152 torsion-rotation levels was carried out using a newly written two-top computer program, giving a root-mean-square deviation of observed-minus-calculated residuals of 4 kHz. This program was written in the principal axis system of the molecule and uses a free-rotor basis set for each top, a symmetric-top basis set for the rotational functions, and a single-step diagonalization procedure. Such an approach requires quite long computation times, but it is much less prone to subtle programming errors (a consideration felt to be important since checking the new program against precise fits of low-barrier two-top molecules in the literature was not possible). The two internal rotation angles in this molecule correspond to the Ramachandran angles ψ and φ often defined to describe polypeptide folding. Barriers to internal rotation about these two angles were found to be 73 and 79 cm -1, respectively. Top-top coupling in both the kinetic and potential energy part of the Hamiltonian is relatively small in this molecule.

  6. Conductance through single biphenyl molecules: symmetric and asymmetric coupling to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, Karthiga; Pfnür, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    The contacts and the chemical bonds formed between metallic electrodes and molecules determine to a large extent the conductive properties of single molecular junctions, which represent the smallest possible active elements in an electronic circuit. We therefore investigated in a comparative study, using the break junction technique (MCBJ), the conductive properties of [1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dithiol (M1) and of 4'-mercapto-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carbonitrile (M2) between gold electrodes. As a function of electrode separation, characterized by the conductance close to 0 V, we found several plateaus of relative stability, with those close to 0.01G0 being the most pronounced. The overall conductance of symmetric and asymmetric molecules were surprisingly similar, only the range of stability was smaller for M2. While M1 yielded symmetric I-V-curves, only small asymmetries were detected for M2. These are also reflected in the comparable values for coupling parameters using the single level resonance model. The high conductance for the asymmetric molecule is interpreted as a result of coherent coupling of electronic states through the whole molecule, so that the outcome cannot be predicted just by adding conductive properties of individual molecular groups. PMID:26425419

  7. Conductance through single biphenyl molecules: symmetric and asymmetric coupling to electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kanthasamy, Karthiga

    2015-01-01

    Summary The contacts and the chemical bonds formed between metallic electrodes and molecules determine to a large extent the conductive properties of single molecular junctions, which represent the smallest possible active elements in an electronic circuit. We therefore investigated in a comparative study, using the break junction technique (MCBJ), the conductive properties of [1,1-biphenyl]-4,4-dithiol (M1) and of 4-mercapto-[1,1-biphenyl]-4-carbonitrile (M2) between gold electrodes. As a function of electrode separation, characterized by the conductance close to 0 V, we found several plateaus of relative stability, with those close to 0.01G0 being the most pronounced. The overall conductance of symmetric and asymmetric molecules were surprisingly similar, only the range of stability was smaller for M2. While M1 yielded symmetric IV-curves, only small asymmetries were detected for M2. These are also reflected in the comparable values for coupling parameters using the single level resonance model. The high conductance for the asymmetric molecule is interpreted as a result of coherent coupling of electronic states through the whole molecule, so that the outcome cannot be predicted just by adding conductive properties of individual molecular groups. PMID:26425419

  8. Lie algebraic approach to potential energy surface for symmetrical linear tetratomic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Shiliang

    2004-02-01

    Using Lie algebraic method, we obtain the fitting coefficients of an effective Hamiltonian operator, which conveniently describes vibration spectra of symmetrical linear tetratomic molecules, including both stretching and bending modes. With the classical limit of the Hamiltonian and the kinetic energy equal to zero, we get the potential energy surface of the linear symmetry tetratomic molecule. For an example, we use the method to calculate the potential energy surface of C 2D 2. We fit 41 data with 7 coefficients; the data are from Iachello et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 149 (1991) 132]. The fitting rms is 6.68 cm -1. At last, we use the potential energy surface to get the force constants and the dissociation energy. The method can be applied to a number of linear symmetry tetratomic molecules.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy of Spherical Top (Td) Molecules: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Thomas C.; Gallaher, Thomas N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment which uses group theory to help interpret the infrared spectrum of a polyatomic molecule with Td symmetry (spherical tops). Topics covered in the experiment: background information and theory, experimental procedures, and typical student results. (JN)

  10. Single-molecule Observation of Protein Folding in Symmetric GroEL-(GroES)2 Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Yodai; Iizuka, Ryo; Ueno, Taro; Funatsu, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The chaperonin, GroEL, is an essential molecular chaperone that mediates protein folding together with its cofactor, GroES, in Escherichia coli. It is widely believed that the two rings of GroEL alternate between the folding active state coupled to GroES binding during the reaction cycle. In other words, an asymmetric GroEL-GroES complex (the bullet-shaped complex) is formed throughout the cycle, whereas a symmetric GroEL-(GroES)2 complex (the football-shaped complex) is not formed. We have recently shown that the football-shaped complex coexists with the bullet-shaped complex during the reaction cycle. However, how protein folding proceeds in the football-shaped complex remains poorly understood. Here, we used GFP as a substrate to visualize protein folding in the football-shaped complex by single-molecule fluorescence techniques. We directly showed that GFP folding occurs in both rings of the football-shaped complex. Remarkably, the folding was a sequential two-step reaction, and the kinetics were in excellent agreement with those in the bullet-shaped complex. These results demonstrate that the same reactions take place independently in both rings of the football-shaped complex to facilitate protein folding. PMID:23048033

  11. Charge symmetric dissociation of doubly ionized N{sub 2} and CO molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, A. Bapat, B.; Shamasundar, K. R.

    2014-01-21

    We report a comparative study of the features in dissociative double ionization by high energy electron impact of N{sub 2} and CO molecules. The ratio of cross-section of charge symmetric dissociative ionization to non-dissociative ionization (CSD-to-ND ratio) and the kinetic energy release (KER) spectra of dissociation are experimentally measured and carefully corrected for various ion transmission losses and detector inefficiencies. Given that the double ionization cross sections of these iso-electronic diatomics are very similar, the large difference in the CSD-to-ND ratios must be attributable to the differences in the evolution dynamics of the dications. To understand these differences, potential energy curves (PECs) of dications have been computed using multi-reference configuration interaction method. The Franck-Condon factors and tunneling life times of vibrational levels of dications have also been computed. While the KER spectrum of N{sub 2}{sup ++} can be readily explained by considering dissociation via repulsive states and tunneling of meta-stable states, indirect dissociation processes such as predissociation and autoionization have to be taken into account to understand the major features of the KER spectrum of CO{sup ++}. Direct and indirect processes identified on the basis of the PECs and experimental KER spectra also provide insights into the differences in the CSD-to-ND ratios.

  12. Charge symmetric dissociation of doubly ionized N2 and CO molecules.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Bapat, B; Shamasundar, K R

    2014-01-21

    We report a comparative study of the features in dissociative double ionization by high energy electron impact of N2 and CO molecules. The ratio of cross-section of charge symmetric dissociative ionization to non-dissociative ionization (CSD-to-ND ratio) and the kinetic energy release (KER) spectra of dissociation are experimentally measured and carefully corrected for various ion transmission losses and detector inefficiencies. Given that the double ionization cross sections of these iso-electronic diatomics are very similar, the large difference in the CSD-to-ND ratios must be attributable to the differences in the evolution dynamics of the dications. To understand these differences, potential energy curves (PECs) of dications have been computed using multi-reference configuration interaction method. The Franck-Condon factors and tunneling life times of vibrational levels of dications have also been computed. While the KER spectrum of N2 (++) can be readily explained by considering dissociation via repulsive states and tunneling of meta-stable states, indirect dissociation processes such as predissociation and autoionization have to be taken into account to understand the major features of the KER spectrum of CO(++). Direct and indirect processes identified on the basis of the PECs and experimental KER spectra also provide insights into the differences in the CSD-to-ND ratios. PMID:25669391

  13. Laser-field-free orientation of state-selected asymmetric top molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Je Hoi; Takei, Daisuke; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi

    2014-05-01

    With combined electrostatic and shaped laser fields with a slow turn on and rapid turn off, laser-field-free orientation of asymmetric top iodobenzene molecules with higher degrees of orientation has been achieved. In order to further increase the degrees of orientation, state-selected molecules are used as a sample. It is confirmed that higher degrees of orientation are maintained in the laser-field-free condition for 5-10 ps, which is long enough to study femtosecond-attosecond dynamics in molecules, after the rapid turn off of the laser pulse. The observation of the slow dephasing time of 5-10 ps ensures future prospects in molecular orientation techniques. This accomplishment means not only that a unique molecular sample has become available in various applications but also that the present technique can be used as a spectroscopic technique to investigate ultrafast rotational dynamics of molecules.

  14. Anomalous absorption in a-type asymmetric top molecules in cosmic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Suresh

    Since the detection of the first molecule OH in cosmic objects in 1963, scientists got interested in identification of molecules in the cosmic objects. By now more than 170 molecules have been identified. In order to know about the physical conditions prevailing in the cool cosmic objects and about the chemical reactions going on there, scientists are interested in identification of as many molecules as possible. In some molecular clouds, the kinetic temperature is very low, 10 - 20 K. For such objects, anomalous absorption, i.e., the absorption against the cosmic microwave background, may play an important role for identification of molecules. The transition 111 - 110 at 4.829 GHz of H_2CO was the first one showing the anomalous absorption in the cosmic objects. The molecule H_2CS also has been identified in the cosmic objects. We have discussed about the anomalous absorption of 111 - 110 transition in a-type asymmetric top molecules. For the investigation, the required parameters are the radiative and collisional transition probabilities. We can calculate radiative transition probabilities between the rotational levels. Calculation of collisional rates is a tedious job. In absence of accurate collisional rates, we can investigated the anomalous absorption in a qualitative manner by using the scaled values for collisional rates. We find that anomalous absorption of 111 - 110 transition is possible, provided collisional rates satisfy the required condition.

  15. Identification and in silico characterisation of defective molecules associated with isolates of banana bunchy top virus.

    PubMed

    Stainton, Daisy; Martin, Darren P; Collings, David A; Thomas, John E; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a multi-component single-stranded DNA virus. From 267 potentially infected Musa plants, 24 apparently 'defective' BBTV components have been identified. Interestingly, 23/24 of these defective molecules were apparently derived from DNA-R. All of the identified defective molecules had retained at least part of the CR-SL and CR-M but had insertions and/or deletions that in most cases resulted in open reading frame disruptions. Our detection of three monophyletic but diverse (and therefore likely circulating) defective DNA-R lineages suggests that, in many cases, defective DNA-R molecules might remain associated with BBTV genomes for prolonged periods. PMID:26733296

  16. Saddle points of potential-energy surfaces for symmetric triatomic molecules determined by an algebraic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yujun; Ding, Shiliang

    2001-09-01

    The conditions satisfied by saddle points of the analytical potential-energy surfaces of the triatomic molecule are derived from the algebraic approach. The conditions cause the potential parameter α, introduced in a previous paper [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4466 (1999)], to be imaginary. The criterion is applied to the triatomic molecules H2O and O3.

  17. Crankshafts: using simple, flat C2h-symmetric molecules to direct the assembly of chiral 2D nanopatterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Wuest, James D

    2013-06-18

    Linear D2h-symmetric bisisophthalic acids 1 and 2 and related substances have well-defined flattened structures, high affinities for graphite, and strong abilities to engage in specific intermolecular interactions. Their adsorption produces characteristic nanopatterns that reveal how 2D molecular organization can be controlled by reliable interadsorbate interactions such as hydrogen bonds when properly oriented by molecular geometry. In addition, the behavior of these compounds shows how large-scale organization can be obstructed by programming molecules to associate strongly according to competing motifs that have similar stability and can coexist smoothly without creating significant defects. Analogous new bisisophthalic acids 3a and 4a have similar associative properties, and their unique C2h-symmetric crankshaft geometry gives them the added ability to probe the poorly understood effect of chirality on molecular organization. Their adsorption shows how nanopatterns composed predictably of a single enantiomer can be obtained by depositing molecules that can respect established rules of association only by accepting neighbors of the same configuration. In addition, an analysis of the adsorption of crankshaft compounds 3a and 4a and their derivatives by STM reveals directly on the molecular level how kinetics and thermodynamics compete to control the crystallization of chiral compounds. In such ways, detailed studies of the adsorption of properly designed compounds on surfaces are proving to be a powerful way to discover and test rules that broadly govern molecular organization in both 2D and 3D. PMID:23092394

  18. Symmetrized rovibrational local states for triply degenerate modes of spherical molecules: application to intensity calculations in the upsilon3 ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujut, V.; Michelot, F.; Leroy, C.

    XY6 octahedral molecules, like SF6, WF6 and UF6, reveal a localized behaviour in the excited states of their stretching mode upsilon3. This character may be described through the G U (3) K3 Ok group chain (Boujut, V., Michelot, F., and Leroy, C., 1998, Molec. Phys., 93, 879). In this paper, we extend our previous theoretical developments by: the construction of a symmetrized local rovibrational basis, denoted |n;Jeta|K|Gamma, well adapted to the study of the(n 00) states of the upsilon3 ladder the introduction of an approximate infrared intensity model for the transitions (000) (n 00) with n odd. We believe that the simplicity of the analytic expressions obtained in each case should facilitate future rovibrational analyses of molecules exhibiting such a localized behaviour, especially when the density of states becomes important (high n and J values). As an illustration, results of simulations, made on the 238UF6 molecule, are presented and discussed.

  19. Off-resonance and non-resonant dispersion of Kerr nonlinearity for symmetric molecules [Invited].

    PubMed

    Stegeman, George; Kuzyk, Mark G; Papazoglou, Dimitris G; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2011-11-01

    The exact formula is derived from the "sum over states" (SOS) quantum mechanical model for the frequency dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index coefficient n₂ for centrosymmetric molecules in the off-resonance and non-resonant regimes. This expression is characterized by interference between terms from two-photon transitions from the ground state to the even-symmetry excited states and one-photon transitions between the ground state and odd-symmetry excited states. When contributions from the two-photon terms exceed those from the one-photon terms, the non-resonant intensity-dependent refractive index n₂>0, and vice versa. Examples of the frequency dispersion for the three-level SOS model are given. Comparison is made with other existing theories. PMID:22109126

  20. Extension of the measurement, assignment, and fit of the rotational spectrum of the two-top molecule methyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle; Shipman, Steven T.; Mae, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Kazue; Hatanaka, Shota; Kobayashi, Kaori

    2014-05-01

    New and previous spectroscopic data were recorded for the two-top molecule methyl acetate using five spectrometers in four different labs: a room temperature chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometer in the frequency range from 8.7 to 26.5 GHz, two molecular beam FTMW spectrometers (2-40 GHz), a free jet absorption Stark-modulated spectrometer (60-78 GHz), and a room temperature millimeter-wave spectrometer (44-68 GHz). Approximately 800 new lines with J up to 40 and K up to 16 were assigned. In total, 1603 lines were fitted with 34 parameters using an internal rotation Hamiltonian in the Rho Axis Method (RAM) and the program BELGI-Cs-2tops to standard deviations close to the experimental uncertainties. More precise determinations of the top-top interaction and the J, K dependent parameters were carried out.

  1. Homochiral D4-symmetric metal-organic cages from stereogenic Ru(II) metalloligands for effective enantioseparation of atropisomeric molecules.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Li, Kang; Hou, Ya-Jun; Pan, Mei; Zhang, Lu-Yin; Chen, Ling; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Absolute chiral environments are rare in regular polyhedral and prismatic architectures, but are achievable from self-assembly of metal-organic cages/containers (MOCs), which endow us with a promising ability to imitate natural organization systems to accomplish stereochemical recognition, catalysis and separation. Here we report a general assembly approach to homochiral MOCs with robust chemical viability suitable for various practical applications. A stepwise process for assembly of enantiopure ΔΔΔΔΔΔΔΔ- and ΛΛΛΛΛΛΛΛ-Pd6(RuL3)8 MOCs is accomplished by pre-resolution of the Δ/Λ-Ru-metalloligand precursors. The obtained Pd-Ru bimetallic MOCs feature in large D4-symmetric chiral space imposed by the predetermined Ru(II)-octahedral stereoconfigurations, which are substitutionally inert, stable, water-soluble and are capable of encapsulating a dozen guests per cage. Chiral resolution tests reveal diverse host-guest stereoselectivity towards different chiral molecules, which demonstrate enantioseparation ability for atropisomeric compounds with C2 symmetry. NMR studies indicate a distinctive resolution process depending on guest exchange dynamics, which is differentiable between host-guest diastereomers. PMID:26839048

  2. Homochiral D4-symmetric metal–organic cages from stereogenic Ru(II) metalloligands for effective enantioseparation of atropisomeric molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai; Li, Kang; Hou, Ya-Jun; Pan, Mei; Zhang, Lu-Yin; Chen, Ling; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Absolute chiral environments are rare in regular polyhedral and prismatic architectures, but are achievable from self-assembly of metal–organic cages/containers (MOCs), which endow us with a promising ability to imitate natural organization systems to accomplish stereochemical recognition, catalysis and separation. Here we report a general assembly approach to homochiral MOCs with robust chemical viability suitable for various practical applications. A stepwise process for assembly of enantiopure ΔΔΔΔΔΔΔΔ- and ΛΛΛΛΛΛΛΛ-Pd6(RuL3)8 MOCs is accomplished by pre-resolution of the Δ/Λ-Ru-metalloligand precursors. The obtained Pd–Ru bimetallic MOCs feature in large D4-symmetric chiral space imposed by the predetermined Ru(II)-octahedral stereoconfigurations, which are substitutionally inert, stable, water-soluble and are capable of encapsulating a dozen guests per cage. Chiral resolution tests reveal diverse host–guest stereoselectivity towards different chiral molecules, which demonstrate enantioseparation ability for atropisomeric compounds with C2 symmetry. NMR studies indicate a distinctive resolution process depending on guest exchange dynamics, which is differentiable between host–guest diastereomers. PMID:26839048

  3. ATIRS package: A program suite for the rovibrational analysis of infrared spectra of asymmetric top molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasinato, N.; Pietropolli Charmet, A.; Stoppa, P.

    2007-06-01

    Nowadays high-resolution infrared spectra can be recorded quite easily and therefore it has become important to assist the rovibrational analysis, especially the assignment step, that is still fraught with many problems in the presence of perturbation effects. In this article we provide a description of ATIRS, a complete software suite developed for assisting in the rotational investigation of vibrational bands of asymmetric top molecules. This package uses the Pickett's CALPGM suite for fitting transitions and predicting line positions and is composed by three stand-alone applications: (1) Visual Loomis-Wood for the assignment of spectral lines based on Loomis-Wood type diagrams; (2) Visual CALPGM, a new graphical interface to Pickett's programs SPFIT and SPCAT; (3) Visual Spectra Simulator for the simulation of spectra. The graphical interface to the CALPGM suite is developed for asymmetric rotors. The main feature of this application is to avoid the use of the parameter codes that are here replaced employing the well known parameter names or symbols. Highlighting the regular transition sequences, Visual Loomis-Wood assists in the assignment of the spectral lines. It visualizes the description of a transition and the assignment can be simply done by mouse-clicking on the diagram; moreover its display mode feature lets to check the experimental spectrum in which all the assigned lines together with their description are reported. Visual Spectra Simulator provides a simple and functionally application that, using the calculated frequencies and intensities given by SPCAT, simulates the high-resolution infrared spectrum and compare it to the experimental one. ATIRS, freely available to the spectroscopic community, is designed to be easy to use and presents a standard graphical interface; being based on the CALPGM package it can handle forbidden transitions and perturbations among many states.

  4. Ionization of one- and three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric-top molecules by intense circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Jonas L.; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Kragh, Sofie Louise; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Martiny, Christian Per Juul; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-02-15

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study on strong-field ionization of a three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecule, benzonitrile (C{sub 7}H{sub 5}N), by circularly polarized, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulses. Prior to the interaction with the strong field, the molecules are quantum-state selected using a deflector and three-dimensionally (3D) aligned and oriented adiabatically using an elliptically polarized laser pulse in combination with a static electric field. A characteristic splitting in the molecular frame photoelectron momentum distribution reveals the position of the nodal planes of the molecular orbitals from which ionization occurs. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical tunneling model that includes and quantifies the splitting in the momentum distribution. The focus of the present article is to understand strong-field ionization from 3D-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals. In the preceding article [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 023405 (2011)] the focus is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons.

  5. Molecular assembly of highly symmetric molecules under a hydrogen bond framework controlled by alkyl building blocks: a simple approach to fine-tune nanoscale structures.

    PubMed

    Tanphibal, Pimsai; Tashiro, Kohji; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2016-01-14

    To date, molecular assemblies under the contribution of hydrogen bond in combination with weak interactions and their consequent morphologies have been variously reported; however, how the systematic variation of the structure can fine-tune the morphologies has not yet been answered. The present work finds an answer through highly symmetric molecules, i.e. diamine-based benzoxazine dimers. This type of molecule develops unique molecular assemblies with their networks formed by hydrogen bonds at the terminal, while, at the same time, their hydrogen bonded frameworks are further controlled by the hydrophobic segment at the center of the molecule. When this happens, slight differences in hydrophobic alkyl chain lengths (, , and ) bring a significant change to the molecular assemblies, thus resulting in tunable morphologies, i.e. spheres, needles and dendrites. The superimposition between the crystal lattice obtained from X-ray single crystal analysis and the electron diffraction pattern obtained from transmission electron microscopy allows us to identify the molecular alignment from single molecules to self-assembly until the morphologies developed. The present work, for the first time, shows the case of symmetric molecules, where the hydrophobic building block controls the hydrogen bond patterns, leading to the variation of molecular assemblies with tunable morphologies. PMID:26482133

  6. Abnormal difference between the mobilities of left- and right-twisted conformations of C6H12N2 roto-symmetrical molecules at very low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gabuda, S P; Kozlova, S G

    2015-06-21

    We report an abnormal difference of low-temperature mobility of left-twisted and right-twisted conformations of roto symmetric molecules C6H12N2 (dabco) located in the same positions in crystal Zn2(C8H4O4)2⋅C6H12N2. The difference between (1)H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spin-relaxation data for left-twisted and right-twisted molecules reaches ∼3 × 10(3) times at 8 K and tends to grow at lower temperatures. We argue that taking into account four-component relativistic Dirac wave functions in the vicinity of the nodal plane of dabco molecules and vacuum fluctuations due to virtual particle-antiparticle pairs can explain the changes which C6H12N2 conformations undergo at low temperatures. PMID:26093554

  7. Generalized Vibrational Perturbation Theory for Rotovibrational Energies of Linear, Symmetric and Asymmetric Tops: Theory, Approximations, and Automated Approaches to Deal with Medium-to-Large Molecular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Models going beyond the rigid-rotor and the harmonic oscillator levels are mandatory for providing accurate theoretical predictions for several spectroscopic properties. Different strategies have been devised for this purpose. Among them, the treatment by perturbation theory of the molecular Hamiltonian after its expansion in power series of products of vibrational and rotational operators, also referred to as vibrational perturbation theory (VPT), is particularly appealing for its computational efficiency to treat medium-to-large systems. Moreover, generalized (GVPT) strategies combining the use of perturbative and variational formalisms can be adopted to further improve the accuracy of the results, with the first approach used for weakly coupled terms, and the second one to handle tightly coupled ones. In this context, the GVPT formulation for asymmetric, symmetric, and linear tops is revisited and fully generalized to both minima and first-order saddle points of the molecular potential energy surface. The computational strategies and approximations that can be adopted in dealing with GVPT computations are pointed out, with a particular attention devoted to the treatment of symmetry and degeneracies. A number of tests and applications are discussed, to show the possibilities of the developments, as regards both the variety of treatable systems and eligible methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345131

  8. Excited-state relaxation processes of DPA-DSB: Investigation of the reason for high fluorescence quantum yield of symmetric D-π-D molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xing; Liu, Yuqiang; Du, Xin; Yang, Yanqiang; Xu, Bin; Tian, Wenjing; Ma, Yuguang

    2011-01-01

    The temporal evolution of excited states of a symmetric D-π-D structure two-photon absorption material, 1,4-di(4‧-N,N-diphenylaminostyryl) benzene (DPA-DSB), was investigated by femtosecond transient absorption spectrum and solvent polarity dependent fluorescence properties. The results suggested that the structure of DPA-DSB did not change much during the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process, which could be the reason for good radiative ability of the ICT state. The major non-radiative deactive channel may be a large structure-changed process, which was formed more slowly than the radiative ICT state. Symmetric charge-transfer in this D-π-D structure molecule could make the non-radiative structure-changed process slow and ineffective, which should be the reason for the high fluorescence quantum yield.

  9. Calculation of Anharmonicities in Overtone Modes and Small-Cluster Shifts of Spherical-Top Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Javier D.; Fiol, Juan; Cortizo, Eduardo; Fainstein, Pablo D.; Fregenal, Daniel E.; Guozden, Tomás; Kaúl, Enrique; Knoblauch, Pablo; Lamagna, Alberto; Maceira, Pablo; Rozas, Guillermo; Zarco, Martín

    2014-06-01

    Harmonic and anharmonic vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) calculations were employed to investigate the fundamental and overtone modes of SF6 molecules. Determination of the Potential Energy Surface (PES) on a multidimensional grid of more than 65000 nodes was performed, and a system of 1D coupled-equations was solved. Corrections to the harmonic approximation for the frequencies of the fundamental modes and their overtones were obtained. Ab-initio calculations to the interaction potential between two molecules as a function of their position and orientation, and the corresponding energies for dimer formation, have been computed. Finally, the effect of dimerization on the molecular frequencies is investigated.

  10. A new graphical version of STROTAB: The analysis and fitting of singlet triplet spectra of asymmetric top molecules in the prolate or oblate limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodet, John; Judge, Richard H.

    2007-05-01

    The original version of STROTAB has been modified to run under Microsoft Windows using the C++ programming language. The new version takes full advantage of the Microsoft Foundation Classes available within the Microsoft Visual C++ Version 6 development environment. Specifically, windows can be created that edit the input file, summarize the results of the least-squares fit, display the calculated and observed spectra, display whole or partial sections of the calculated spectra as a stick or Gaussian de-convoluted spectrum. A listing of the rotational quantum numbers in the cases (a) and (b) limits for each of the displayed lines is provided. A branch annotating routine provides a quick visual guide to the assignment of the spectrum. A new eigenvalue sorting method has been added as an option that complements the existing method based on the eigenvector coefficients. The new sorting method has eliminated some difficulties that may arise using the existing "Least Ambiguous Method". The program has been extended to handle near-oblate asymmetric tops using a type III r representation. New version summaryTitle of program: STROTAB Version number: 2 Catalogue identifier:ADCA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADCA_v2_0 Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Reference in CPC to previous version: 93 (1996) 241-264 Catalog identifier of previous version: ADCA Authors of previous version: R.H. Judge, E.D. Womeldorf, R.A. Morris, D.E. Shimp, D.J. Clouthier, D.L. Joo, D.C. Moule Does the new version supersede the original program: Yes Computers for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Pentium Xenon, Pentium Pro and Later Operating systems or monitors under which program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP Programming language used in the new version: ANSI C, C++, Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:11 913 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 816 652 Memory required to execute with typical data: 7 Meg No of bits in a word: 16 No of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: ˜3.2 MB (compressed) Distribution format: zip file Additional keywords:near oblate top, bootstrap eigenvalue sorting, graphical environment, band contour Nature of physical problem: The least-squares/band contour fitting of the singlet-triplet spectra of asymmetric tops of orthorhombic symmetry using a basis set appropriate to the symmetric top limit (prolate or oblate) of the molecule in either Hund's case (a) or case (b) coupling situations. Method of solution: The calculation of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues remains unchanged from the earlier version. An option to sort the eigenvalues of the current J by fitting them to regular progressions formed from earlier J values (bootstrap method) can be used as an option in place of the existing method based on eigenvector coefficients. Reasons for the new version: The earlier version can only handle oblate tops by diagonalizing using the prolate limit. This has turned out to be unacceptable. An improved method of sorting eigenvalues under certain conditions is also needed. A graphical interface has been added to ease the use of the program. Summary of revisions: The Hamiltonian can now be constructed in a limit appropriate the representation for of the molecule. Sorting by an alternate method is now offered. Numerous graphical features have been added. Restrictions on complexity of the problem: The rotational quantum number restrictions are J⩽255 and K (or P) ⩽127. The allowed transition frequency minus the band origin frequency must be in the range of ±10 000 cm -1. Up to five decimal places may be reported. The number of observed lines is limited by the dynamic memory and the amount of disk space available. Only molecules of symmetry D 2h, D 2 and C 2v can be accommodated in this version. Only constants of the excited triplet state may be varied.

  11. Effects on calculated half-widths and shifts from the line coupling for asymmetric-top molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-06-28

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy formalism by considering the line coupling for linear molecules developed in our previous studies [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013); 140, 104304 (2014)] have been extended to asymmetric-top molecules. For H{sub 2}O immersed in N{sub 2} bath, the line coupling selection rules applicable for the pure rotational band to determine whether two specified lines are coupled or not are established. Meanwhile, because the coupling strengths are determined by relative importance of off-diagonal matrix elements versus diagonal elements of the operator −iS{sub 1} − S{sub 2}, quantitative tools are developed with which one is able to remove weakly coupled lines from consideration. By applying these tools, we have found that within reasonable tolerances, most of the H{sub 2}O lines in the pure rotational band are not coupled. This reflects the fact that differences of energy levels of the H{sub 2}O states are pretty large. But, there are several dozen strongly coupled lines and they can be categorized into different groups such that the line couplings occur only within the same groups. In practice, to identify those strongly coupled lines and to confine them into sub-linespaces are crucial steps in considering the line coupling. We have calculated half-widths and shifts for some groups, including the line coupling. Based on these calculations, one can conclude that for most of the H{sub 2}O lines, it is unnecessary to consider the line coupling. However, for several dozens of lines, effects on the calculated half-widths from the line coupling are small, but remain noticeable and reductions of calculated half-widths due to including the line coupling could reach to 5%. Meanwhile, effects on the calculated shifts are very significant and variations of calculated shifts could be as large as 25%.

  12. Effects on Calculated Half-Widths and Shifts from the Line Coupling for Asymmetric-Top Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy formalism by considering the line coupling for linear molecules developed in our previous studies [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013); 140, 104304 (2014)] have been extended to asymmetric-top molecules. For H2O immersed in N2 bath, the line coupling selection rules applicable for the pure rotational band to determine whether two specified lines are coupled or not are established. Meanwhile, because the coupling strengths are determined by relative importance of off-diagonal matrix elements versus diagonal elements of the operator -iS1 -S2, quantitative tools are developed with which one is able to remove weakly coupled lines from consideration. By applying these tools, we have found that within reasonable tolerances, most of the H2O lines in the pure rotational band are not coupled. This reflects the fact that differences of energy levels of the H2O states are pretty large. But, there are several dozen strongly coupled lines and they can be categorized into different groups such that the line couplings occur only within the same groups. In practice, to identify those strongly coupled lines and to confine them into sub-linespaces are crucial steps in considering the line coupling. We have calculated half-widths and shifts for some groups, including the line coupling. Based on these calculations, one can conclude that for most of the H2O lines, it is unnecessary to consider the line coupling. However, for several dozens of lines, effects on the calculated half-widths from the line coupling are small, but remain noticeable and reductions of calculated half-widths due to including the line coupling could reach to 5%. Meanwhile, effects on the calculated shifts are very significant and variations of calculated shifts could be as large as 25%.

  13. Enhanced ionization of the non-symmetric HeH{sup +} molecule driven by intense ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghanian, E.; Bandrauk, A. D.; Lagmago Kamta, G.

    2013-08-28

    We study enhanced single and double ionizations and enhanced single and double excitations in the nonsymmetric two-electron diatomic molecular ion HeH{sup +} in an intense ultrashort laser pulse linearly polarized along the internuclear axis (z axis). We solve a three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation, TDSE, via correlated two-electron ab initio calculations within the fixed-nuclei approximation. A complex scaling method is used for calculation of both single and double ionizations. These nonperturbative processes increase with large internuclear distance R and reach a maximum at some critical distance R{sub c} and decrease by further increase of R. This enhanced ionization (EI) at R{sub c} is accompanied by enhanced single and double excitation processes. Furthermore, EI is stronger when the permanent dipole moment of the molecule and the electric field at the peak of the laser pulse are antiparallel than when they are parallel. We predict analytically the R{sub c} at which the enhancement of all these molecular processes happens in HeH{sup +} from a simple quasistatic model and investigate the effect of Carrier Envelope Phase on these nonlinear nonperturbative processes.

  14. Quasi-Classical Trajectory Study of Atom-Diatomic Molecule Collisions in Symmetric Hyperspherical Coordinates: The F + HCl Reaction as a Test Case.

    PubMed

    Freixas-Lemus, Victor Manuel; Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer; Uranga-Piña, Llinersy

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the reactive dynamics of the triatomic system F + HCl → HF + Cl for total angular momentum equal zero and for different low-lying rovibrational states of the diatomic molecule. For each of the initial vibrational quantum numbers, the time evolution of the atom-diatom collision process is investigated for a wide range of impact angles and collision energies. To this purpose, the Quasi-Classical Trajectories (QCT) method was implemented in a hyperspherical configuration space. The Hamilton equations of motion are solved numerically in an intermediate effective Cartesian space to exploit the relative simplicity of this intermediate representation. Interatomic interactions are described by a London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, specifically developed for the title reaction, and the results of the QCT simulations are discussed in terms of the time-evolution of the hyperangles. The analysis of the collision dynamics using symmetric hyperspherical coordinates provides, in addition to the description in terms of a natural reaction coordinate (the hyperradius), a more striking representation of the exchange dynamics, in terms of the time-dependent probability distribution along the kinematic rotation hyperangle, and a precise distinction between direct and indirect mechanisms of the reaction. PMID:27002240

  15. Organometallic complexes of bulky, optically active, C3-symmetric tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Songchen; Magoon, Yitzhak; Reinig, Regina R.; Schmidt, Bradley M.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-07-16

    A bulky, optically active monoanionic scorpionate ligand, tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*), is synthesized from the naturally occurring amino acid l-valine as its lithium salt, Li[ToP*] (1). That compound is readily converted to the thallium complex Tl[ToP*] (2) and to the acid derivative H[ToP*] (3). Group 7 tricarbonyl complexes ToP*M(CO)3 (M = Mn (4), Re (5)) are synthesized by the reaction of MBr(CO)5 and Li[ToP*] and are crystallographically characterized. The νCO bands in their infrared spectra indicate that π back-donation in the rhenium compounds is greater with ToP* than with non-methylated tris(4S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP). The reaction of H[ToP*] and ZnEt2 gives ToP*ZnEt (6), whilemore » ToP*ZnCl (7) is synthesized from Li[ToP*] and ZnCl2. The reaction of ToP*ZnCl and KOtBu followed by addition of PhSiH3 provides the zinc hydride complex ToP*ZnH (8). In this study, compound 8 is the first example of a crystallographically characterized optically active zinc hydride. We tested its catalytic reactivity in the cross-dehydrocoupling of silanes and alcohols, which provided Si-chiral silanes with moderate enantioselectivity.« less

  16. C2v top data system (C2v TDS) software for infrared spectrum simulation of XY2Z2 asymmetric molecules: some improvements to the TDS packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Ch.; Rotger, M.; Boudon, V.

    2005-07-01

    The spherical top data system (STDS) program suite developed in Dijon has been extended with the aim of studying any rovibrational band or polyad of XY2Z2(C2v) asymmetric top molecules. We work in the O(3)⊃Td⊃C2v chain because these species result from the substitution of two ligands of a corresponding “parent” spherical top and thus are relatively close to tetrahedral symmetry. The choice of this group chain has consequences on the method used to specify the input parameters of the programs for Hamiltonian and transition moment model calculations. One example concerning the ground state of the SO2F2 quasi-spherical molecule is presented. As before, this suite consists in a series of FORTRAN programs called by a script. The whole package is freely accessible through ftp (user anonymous) at jupiter.u-bourgogne.fr/dist or through the World Wide Web at http://www.u-bourgogne.fr/LPUB/c2vTDS.html. Further general improvements have been brought about for all the TDS packages (STDS, HTDS, C4vTDS) developed in our group and are briefly discussed in the present paper.

  17. Polymer-facilitated low temperature fusing of spray-coated silver nanowire networks as transparent top and bottom electrodes in small molecule organic photovoltaics (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Franz; Weiß, Nelli; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Leo, Karl; Müller-Meskamp, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Networks of silver nanowires (AgNWs) are promising candidates for transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics (OPV), as they achieve similar performance as the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) at lower cost and increased flexibility. The initial sheet resistance (Rs) of AgNW electrodes typically needs to be reduced by a post-annealing step (90 min@200 °C), being detrimental for processing on polymeric substrates. We present novel low temperature-based methods to integrate AgNWs in organic small molecule-based photovoltaics, either as transparent and highly conductive bottom-electrode or, for the first time, as spray-coated AgNW top-electrode. The bottom-electrodes are prepared by organic matrix assisted low-temperature fusing. Here, selected polymers are coated below the AgNWs to increase the interaction between NWs and substrate. In comparison to networks without these polymeric sublayers, the Rs is reduced by two orders of magnitude. AgNW top-electrodes are realized by dispersing modified high-quality AgNWs in inert solvents, which do not damage small molecule layers. Accordingly, our AgNW dispersion can be spray-coated onto all kind of OPV devices. Both bottom- and top-electrodes show a Rs of <11 Ω/ at >87 % transparency directly after spray-coating at very low substrate temperatures of <80 °C. We also demonstrate the implementation of our AgNW electrodes in organic solar cells. The corresponding devices show almost identical performance compared to organic solar cells exploiting ITO as bottom or thermally evaporated thin-metal as top-electrode.

  18. Rotational Spectroscopy as a Tool to Investigate Interactions Between Vibrational Polyads in Symmetric Top Molecules: Low-Lying States v_8 ≤ 2 OF Methyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Ordu, Matthias H.; Lewen, Frank; Brown, Linda; Drouin, Brian; Pearson, John; Sung, Keeyoon; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Rotational and rovibrational spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627~GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2ν_8 around 717~cm-1 with assignments covering 684-765~cm-1. Additional spectra in the ν _8 region were used to validate the analysis. Using ν _8 data as well as spectroscopic parameters for v_4 = 1, v_7 = 1, and v_8 = 3 from previous studies, we analyzed rotational data involving v = 0, v_8 = 1, and v_8 = 2 up to high J and K quantum numbers. We analyzed a strong Δ v_8 = ± 1, Δ K = 0, Δ l = ±3 Fermi resonance between v_8 = 1-1 and v_8 = 2+2 at K = 14 and obtained preliminary results for two further Fermi resonances between v_8 = 2 and 3. We also found resonant Δ v_8 = ± 1, Δ K = ∓ 2, Δ l = ± 1 interactions between v_8 = 1 and 2 and present the first detailed analysis of such a resonance between v_8 = 0 and 1. We discuss the impact of this analysis on the v_8 = 1 and 2 as well as on the axial v = 0 parameters and compare selected CH_3CN parameters with those of CH_3CCH and CH_3NC. We evaluated transition dipole moments of ν _8, 2ν _8 - ν _8, and 2ν _8 for remote sensing in the IR. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. M. Koivusaari et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152 (1992) 377-388. A.-M. Tolonen et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160 (1993) 554-565.

  19. Rotational spectroscopy as a tool to investigate interactions between vibrational polyads in symmetric top molecules: Low-lying states v(8) <= 2 of methyl cyanide, CH3CN

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, H. S.; Brown, Linda R.; Drouin, B. J.; Pearson, J. C.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Sung, Keeyoon; Ordu, Matthias H.; Lewen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Rotational and rovibrational spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627 GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2v(8) around 717 cm(-1) with assignments covering 684-765 cm-1. Additional spectra in the vs region were used to validate the analysis.

  20. D2h top data system (D2hTDS) software for spectrum simulation of X2Y4 asymmetric molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Ch.; Raballand, W.; Rotger, M.; Boudon, V.

    2005-11-01

    The D2hTDS (D2hTop Data System) program suite has been developed with the aim of studying any rovibrational band or polyad of X2Y4 (D2h) asymmetric top molecules. It is based on the same principles as similar programs from our group already released for various molecular symmetries (Td, Oh, C4v, C2v). We work in the O(3)⊃D2h chain and this choice has consequences on the method used to specify the input parameters of the programs for Hamiltonian and transition moment calculations. Two examples concerning the ν12 and ν2 bands of the C2H4 molecule are presented. This suite consists of a series of FORTRAN programs called by a script. The whole package is freely accessible through ftp (user anonymous) at jupiter.u-bourgogne.fr or through the World Wide Web athttp://www.u-bourgogne.fr/LPUB/d2hTDS.html

  1. Toward optimization of AgoshRNA molecules that use a non-canonical RNAi pathway: variations in the top and bottom base pairs.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Harwig, Alex; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are widely used for gene knockdown by inducing the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism. The shRNA precursor is processed by Dicer into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and subsequently programs the RNAi-induced silencing complex (RISC) to find a complementary target mRNA (mRNA) for post-transcriptional gene silencing. Recent evidence indicates that shRNAs with a relatively short basepaired stem bypass Dicer to be processed directly by the Ago2 nuclease of the RISC complex. We named this design AgoshRNA as these molecules depend on Ago2 both for processing and subsequent silencing activity. This alternative AgoshRNA processing route yields only a single active RNA strand, an important feature to restrict off-target effects induced by the passenger strand of regular shRNAs. It is therefore important to understand this novel AgoshRNA processing route in mechanistic detail such that one can design the most effective and selective RNA reagents. We performed a systematic analysis of the optimal base pair (bp) composition at the top and bottom of AgoshRNA molecules. In this study, we document the importance of the 5' end nucleotide (nt) and a bottom mismatch. The optimized AgoshRNA design exhibits improved RNAi activity across cell types. These results have important implications for the future design of more specific RNAi therapeutics. PMID:25747107

  2. Abnormal difference between the mobilities of left- and right-twisted conformations of C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 2} roto-symmetrical molecules at very low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gabuda, S. P.; Kozlova, S. G.

    2015-06-21

    We report an abnormal difference of low-temperature mobility of left-twisted and right-twisted conformations of roto symmetric molecules C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 2} (dabco) located in the same positions in crystal Zn{sub 2}(C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}. The difference between {sup 1}H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spin-relaxation data for left-twisted and right-twisted molecules reaches ∼3 × 10{sup 3} times at 8 K and tends to grow at lower temperatures. We argue that taking into account four-component relativistic Dirac wave functions in the vicinity of the nodal plane of dabco molecules and vacuum fluctuations due to virtual particle-antiparticle pairs can explain the changes which C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 2} conformations undergo at low temperatures.

  3. Two Dimensional Symmetric Correlation Functions of the S Operator and Two Dimensional Fourier Transforms: Considering the Line Coupling for P and R Lines of Linear Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  4. Two dimensional symmetric correlation functions of the S-circumflex operator and two dimensional Fourier transforms: Considering the line coupling for P and R lines of linear molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-03-14

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS{sub 1} − S{sub 2} introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the S-circumflex operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters’ two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} broadened by N{sub 2}. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  5. Birefringing arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Heritage, J. P.; Gustafson, T. K.; Chiao, R. Y.; Mctague, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index change in a collisionless gas is evaluated from the Stark shifts of the rotational energy levels that arise from the polarizability anisotropy. For the limit of an extremely short-duration excitation, a multilevel coherent effect resulted in delayed refractive index bursts. Both stationary and transient responses of this birefringence to an optical field were considered for symmetric top molecules, with particular emphasis on the special case of linear molecules.

  6. Rigid rotators. [deriving the time-independent energy states associated with rotational motions of the molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two-particle, steady-state Schroedinger equation is transformed to center of mass and internuclear distance vector coordinates, leading to the free particle wave equation for the kinetic energy motion of the molecule and a decoupled wave equation for a single particle of reduced mass moving in a spherical potential field. The latter describes the vibrational and rotational energy modes of the diatomic molecule. For fixed internuclear distance, this becomes the equation of rigid rotator motion. The classical partition function for the rotator is derived and compared with the quantum expression. Molecular symmetry effects are developed from the generalized Pauli principle that the steady-state wave function of any system of fundamental particles must be antisymmetric. Nuclear spin and spin quantum functions are introduced and ortho- and para-states of rotators, along with their degeneracies, are defined. Effects of nuclear spin on entropy are deduced. Next, rigid polyatomic rotators are considered and the partition function for this case is derived. The patterns of rotational energy levels for nonlinear molecules are discussed for the spherical symmetric top, for the prolate symmetric top, for the oblate symmetric top, and for the asymmetric top. Finally, the equilibrium energy and specific heat of rigid rotators are derived.

  7. Top studies

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dorigo

    2003-01-02

    The top quark, discovered in 1994 at the Tevatron, has proven a very interesting particle. Its characteristics allow both to perform stringent tests of electroweak theory, and to search for new physics through a deviation from standard model predictions for several of its peculiar properties. I will review the status of top physics and briefly describe the potential of experiments of the near future.

  8. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  9. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  10. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop

  11. Braids, shuffles and symmetrizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2009-07-01

    Multiplicative analogues of the shuffle elements of the braid group rings are introduced; in local representations they give rise to certain graded associative algebras (b-shuffle algebras). For the Hecke and BMW algebras, the (anti)-symmetrizers have simple expressions in terms of the multiplicative shuffles. The (anti)-symmetrizers can be expressed in terms of the highest multiplicative 1-shuffles (for the Hecke and BMW algebras) and in terms of the highest additive 1-shuffles (for the Hecke algebras). The spectra and multiplicities of eigenvalues of the operators of the multiplication by the multiplicative and additive 1-shuffles are examined. Dedicated to the memory of Aleosha Zamolodchikov.

  12. PT-symmetric kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Santos, V. G. C. S. dos; Amaro de Faria, A. C. Jr.

    2007-06-15

    Some kinks for non-Hermitian quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions are constructed. A class of models where the soliton energies are stable and real are found. Although these kinks are not Hermitian, they are symmetric under PT transformations.

  13. PT-symmetric strings

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German

    2014-04-15

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑{sub n=1}{sup ∞}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.

  14. Design and synthesis of a C2-symmetric self-complementary hydrogen-bonding cleft molecule based on the bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane and 4-oxo-5-azaindole framework. formation of channels and inclusion complexes in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Stoncius, Sigitas; Butkus, Eugenius; Zilinskas, Albinas; Larsson, Krister; Ohrström, Lars; Berg, Ulf; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2004-08-01

    The synthesis of a C2-symmetric cleft molecule 2 based on the fused framework between bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane and 4-oxo-5-azaindole, incorporating a self-complementary hydrogen-bonding motif, in both racemic and enantiomerically pure forms is reported. This cleft molecule is reminiscent of analogues of Tröger's base though with different cleft dimensions and tilt angles. The framework of 2 provides a building block for the construction of self-assembled hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structures. The solid-state structure of 2 is highly influenced by the limited solubility of (+/-)-2 and (-)-2. The solvents interact with the potential hydrogen-bonding motifs of (+/-)-2 and (-)-2, forming different three-dimensional structures as revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis. In the solid state (+/-)-(2)2 x 5DMF forms hydrogen-bonded pleated band structures that build up three-dimensional pens between adjacent bands in which two molecules of DMF are trapped. In contrast, the aggregate obtained from (-)-2, (-)-2 x 2AcOH, showed infinite bands of complex constitution. PMID:15287761

  15. Influence of Electron Molecule Resonant Vibrational Collisions over the Symmetric Mode and Direct Excitation-Dissociation Cross Sections of CO2 on the Electron Energy Distribution Function and Dissociation Mechanisms in Cold Pure CO2 Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M

    2016-05-01

    A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism. PMID:27064438

  16. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping constraints. Positive and negative aspects of wave engine topping in gas turbine engines are identified.

  17. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  18. Unidirectional flow over asymmetric and symmetric ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, Patricia L.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    1992-08-01

    An LDV-equipped flume has yielded detailed measurements of velocity and turbulence over fixed sets of two-dimensional symmetric and asymmetric ripples. The measured velocities over the ripples are compared with the Nelson and Smith (1989)results for flow over larger-scale dunes; the new results are larger in the outer region of the flow, and the velocity profiles exhibit no sharp inflection at the top of the lowest wake. A model for flow over bedforms which has yielded excellent agreement with dune measurements is presently modified to better represent the observed flow over ripples.

  19. Top hypercharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Jiang, Jing; Li, Tianjun; Wang, Yong-Rui

    2007-12-01

    We propose a top hypercharge model with gauge symmetry SU(3)C × SU(2)L × U(1)1 × U(1)2 where the first two families of the Standard Model (SM) fermions are charged under U(1)1 while the third family is charged under U(1)2. The U(1)1 × U(1)2 gauge symmetry is broken down to the U(1)Y gauge symmetry, when a SM singlet Higgs field acquires a vacuum expectation value. We consider the electroweak constraints, and compare the fit to experimental observables to that of the SM. We study the quark CKM mixing between the first two families and the third family, the neutrino masses and mixing, the flavour changing neutral current effects in meson mixing and decays, the Z' discovery potential at the Large Hadron Collider, the dark matter with a gauged Z2 symmetry, and the Higgs boson masses.

  20. Tensorial Formalism for Rovibronic Spectroscopy of C3v Molecules Spectroscopy of XY3Z (C3v) Molecules with AN Even or Odd Number of Electrons: a Tensorial Formalism Adapted to the SU(2)otimes CIsupset C∞ vSsupset C3vS Group Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilali, A. El; Boudon, V.

    2010-06-01

    In molecular spectroscopy, it is often considered that sophisticated group theoretical and tensorial formalism methods are only really useful for spherical top (i.e. highly symmetrical) molecules, for which they have proven their high efficiency. Consequently, it is usually admitted that symmetric and asymmetric tops (i.e. lower symmetry) species should be treated using more ``conventional'' methods. However, some key elements of the formalism developed in our group for tetrahedral or octahedral molecules can be used with great profit even for less symmetrical systems: the ability of performing systematic developments of all rovibrational interactions in case of complex polyads and the so-called ``vibrational extrapolation'' which makes global analyses much easier. Firstly, we present the development of a tensorial formalism adapted to the study of XY3Z type molecules which possess integer angular momenta (i.e. in a singlet electronic state) by using the O(3)supset C∞ vsupset C3v chain. We present also the C3v TDS(C3v Top Data System) software for spectrum simulation dedicated to the study of symmetric-top molecules belonging to the C3v point group. Secondly, we present the development of a tensorial formalism adapted to the study of XY_3Z type open-shell species which possess half-integer angular momenta by using the SU(2)otimes C_Isupset C∞ vSsupset C3vS group chain A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 234, 176-181 (2005). A. El Hilali, Ch. Wenger, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfert., accepted (2010). A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 239, 41-50 (2006). A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 253, 92-98 (2009). A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 234, 131-121 (2005).

  1. Aspects of Quantum Computing with Polar Paramagnetic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Mallikarjun; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2015-05-01

    Since the original proposal by DeMille, arrays of optically trapped ultracold polar molecules have been considered among the most promising prototype platforms for the implementation of a quantum computer. The qubit of a molecular array is realized by a single dipolar molecule entangled via its dipole-dipole interaction with the rest of the array's molecules. A superimposed inhomogeneous electric field precludes the quenching of the body-fixed dipole moments by rotation and a time dependent external field controls the qubits to perform gate operations. Much like our previous work in which we considered the simplest cases of a polar 1 Σ and a symmetric top molecule, here we consider a X2Π3 / 2 polar molecule (exemplified by the OH radical) which, by virtue of its nonzero electronic spin and orbital angular momenta, is, in addition, paramagnetic. We demonstrate entanglement tuning by evaluating the concurrence (and the requisite frequencies needed for gate operations) between two such molecules in the presence of varying electric and magnetic fields. Finally, we discuss the conditions required for achieving qubit addressability (transition frequency difference, Δω , as compared with the concomitant Stark and Zeeman broadening) and high fidelity. International Max Planck Research School - Functional Interfaces in Physics and Chemistry.

  2. Symmetrization for redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.

  3. Top decays in extended models

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2009-04-20

    Top quark decays are interesting as a mean to test the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-suppressed process t{yields}cWW, and the rare decays t{yields}cZ, t{yields}H{sup 0}+c, and t{yields}c{gamma} an excellent window to probe the predictions of theories beyond the SM. We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t{yields}H{sup 0}+c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t{yields}c+{gamma}, which involves radiative corrections.

  4. Modifications to Axially Symmetric Simulations Using New DSMC (2007) Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2008-01-01

    Several modifications aimed at improving physical accuracy are proposed for solving axially symmetric problems building on the DSMC (2007) algorithms introduced by Bird. Originally developed to solve nonequilibrium, rarefied flows, the DSMC method is now regularly used to solve complex problems over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. These new algorithms include features such as nearest neighbor collisions excluding the previous collision partners, separate collision and sampling cells, automatically adaptive variable time steps, a modified no-time counter procedure for collisions, and discontinuous and event-driven physical processes. Axially symmetric solutions require radial weighting for the simulated molecules since the molecules near the axis represent fewer real molecules than those farther away from the axis due to the difference in volume of the cells. In the present methodology, these radial weighting factors are continuous, linear functions that vary with the radial position of each simulated molecule. It is shown that how one defines the number of tentative collisions greatly influences the mean collision time near the axis. The method by which the grid is treated for axially symmetric problems also plays an important role near the axis, especially for scalar pressure. A new method to treat how the molecules are traced through the grid is proposed to alleviate the decrease in scalar pressure at the axis near the surface. Also, a modification to the duplication buffer is proposed to vary the duplicated molecular velocities while retaining the molecular kinetic energy and axially symmetric nature of the problem.

  5. Minimally symmetric Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective Lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal among all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  6. Symmetric Waveguide Orthomode Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Grammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Imaging applications at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths demand precise characterization of the amplitude, spectrum, and polarization of the electromagnetic radiation. The use of a waveguide orthomode transducer (OMT) can help achieve these goals by increasing spectral coverage and sensitivity while reducing exit aperture size, optical spill, instrumental polarization offsets, and lending itself to integration in focal plane arrays. For these reasons, four-fold symmetric OMTs are favored over a traditional quasi-optical wire grid for focal plane imaging arrays from a systems perspective. The design, fabrication, and test of OMTs realized with conventional split-block techniques for millimeter wave-bands are described. The design provides a return loss is -20 dB over a full waveguide band (40% bandwidth), and the cross-polarization and isolation are greater than -40 dB for tolerances readily achievable in practice. Prototype examples realized in WR10.0 and WR3.7 wavebands will be considered in detail.

  7. Symmetric Waveguide Orthomode Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Grammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Imaging applications at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths demand precise characterization of the amplitude, spectrum, and polarization of the electromagnetic radiation. The use of a waveguide orthomode transducer (OMT) can help achieve these goals by increasing spectral coverage and sensitivity while reducing exit aperture size, optical spill, instrumental polarization offsets, and lending itself to integration in focal plane arrays. For these reasons, four-old symmetric OMTs are favored over a traditional quasi-optical wire grid for focal plane imaging arrays from a systems perspective. The design, fabrication, and test of OMTs realized with conventional split-block techniques for millimeter wave-bands are described. The design provides a return loss is -20 dB over a full waveguide band (40% bandwidth), and the cross-polarization and isolation are greater than -40 dB for tolerances readily achievable in practice. Prototype examples realized in WR10.0 and WR3.7 wavebands will be considered in detail.

  8. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  9. Green's function method for calculation of adsorption of organic molecules on noble metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farberovich, O. V.; Fainberg, B. D.; Maslov, V. G.; Fleurov, V.

    2011-02-01

    A numerical method for the calculation of electronic structure of a nanosystem composed of a pseudoisocyanine (PIC) molecule assembled on a silver nanoparticle is developed. The electronic structure of the silver nanoparticle containing 125 atoms is calculated within the local density version of the density functional method. A model of an Ag atom embedded in the center of a spherical jellium cluster is used. The host electron Green’s function is calculated by means of the spherically symmetric expansion. The principal theoretical tool is the scattering theory using the Green’s function method. The molecule-silver nanosystem interaction is studied using the approach similar to that of the Anderson model for transition metal impurities in solids. Localized levels are shown to split off from the top of the band of the Ag nanoparticle. The electronic structure calculations yield information on the character of chemical bonding in the PIC molecule-silver particle nanosystem.

  10. Tensor species and symmetric functions.

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, M

    1991-01-01

    An equivariant representation of the symmetric group Sn (equivariant representation from here on) is defined as a particular type of tensor species. For any tensor species R the characteristic generating function of R is defined in a way that generalizes the Frobenius characters of representations of the symmetric groups. If R is an equivariant representation, then the characteristic is a homogeneous symmetric function. The combinatorial operations on equivariant representations correspond to formal operations on the respective characteristic functions. In particular, substitution of equivariant representations corresponds to plethysm of symmetric functions. Equivariant representations are constructed that have as characteristic the elementary, complete, and Schur functions. Bijective proofs are given for the formulas that connect them with the monomial symmetric functions. PMID:11607233

  11. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  12. Buckets of tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Plehn, Tilman; Takeuchi, Michihisa

    2013-08-01

    Reconstructing hadronically decaying top quarks is a key challenge at the LHC, affecting a long list of Higgs analyses and new physics searches. We propose a new method of collecting jets in buckets, corresponding to top quarks and initial state radiation. This method is particularly well suited for moderate transverse momenta of the top quark, closing the gap between top taggers and traditional top reconstruction. Applying it to searches for supersymmetric top squarks we illustrate the power of buckets.

  13. Rare top quark decays in extended models

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2006-09-25

    Flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decays t {yields} H0 + c, t {yields} Z + c, and H0 {yields} t + c-bar are discussed in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions where FCNC decays may take place at tree-level and are only suppressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks, which is poorly constraint by current experimental values. The non-manifest case is also briefly discussed.

  14. Hydrogen-bond symmetrization and molecular dissociation in hydrogen halids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Katoh, E.; Yamawaki, H.; Sakashita, M.; Fujihisa, H.

    1999-04-01

    Hydrogen chloride is a simple diatomic molecule forming a planar zig-zag chain of molecules connected by hydrogen bonds in the solid phase. Raman spectra were measured for solid HCl to 60 GPa at room temperature. The molecular stretching frequency falls toward zero at about 51 GPa, where the molecular vibrational peaks disappear and the lattice peaks remain. The spectral changes are very similar to those observed for HBr at about 42 GPa and interpreted as hydrogen bond symmetrization. Molecular dissociation into diatomic halogen molecules, which has been observed for HBr, does not occur in HCl.

  15. Cylindrically symmetric electrohydrodynamic patterning.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Paru; Pease, Leonard F; Chen, Lei; Chou, Stephen Y; Russel, William B

    2004-10-01

    Cylindrically symmetric structures such as concentric rings and rosettes arise out of thin polymeric films subjected to strong electric fields. Experiments that formed concentric rings and theory capable of explaining these and other cylindrical structures are presented. These rings represent an additional member of a class of structures, including pillars and holes, formed by electrohydrodynamic patterning of thin films, occasionally referred to as lithographically induced self-assembly. Fabrication of a set of concentric rings begins by spin coating a thin poly(methyl methacrylate) film onto a silicon wafer. A mask is superimposed parallel to the film leaving a similarly thin air gap. Electric fields, acting in opposition to surface tension, destabilize the free interface when raised above the glass transition temperature. Central pillars nucleate under small cylindrical protrusions patterned on the mask. Rings then emerge sequentially, with larger systems having as many as 10 fully formed rings. Ring-to-ring spacings and annular widths, typically on the order of a micron, are approximately constant within a concentric cluster. The formation rate is proportional to the viscosity and, consequently, has the expected Williams-Landel-Ferry dependence on temperature. In light of these developments we have undertaken a linear stability analysis in cylindrical coordinates to describe these rings and ringlike structures. The salient feature of this analysis is the use of perturbations that incorporate their radial dependence in terms of Bessel functions as opposed to the traditional sinusoids of Cartesian coordinates. The theory predicts approximately constant ring-to-ring spacings, constant annular widths, and growth rates that agree with experiment. A secondary instability is observed at higher temperatures, which causes the rings to segment into arcs or pillar arrays. The cylindrical theory may be generalized to describe hexagonal pillar/hole packing, gratings, and rosettes with the first being of particular importance given the ubiquitous observation of hexagonal packing. The perturbation analysis presented here is relevant to any system with cylindrical symmetry, for which the radial dependence can be described in terms of Bessel functions. PMID:15600415

  16. Top physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-06-24

    Precision studies of top quark properties are a primary goal of the Run II physics program at the Fermilab Tevatron. Marking the first stages of this program, the CDF collaboration presents recent results on top pair production cross section, single top physics and top mass, using between 109 and 200 pb{sup -1} of Run II data.

  17. Progressive symmetrical erythrokeratodermia - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guaraldi, Bianca de Mello; Jaime, Thaís Jerez; Guaraldi, Rafael de Mello; Melo, Daniel Fernandes; Nogueira, Osvania Maris; Rodrigues, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Progressive symmetrical erythrokeratodermia is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis with variable penetrance described by Darier in 1911. It is characterized by erythematous and keratotic plaques, sharply defined and symmetrically distributed along the extremities, buttocks and, more rarely, on the face. We report a case of a 55-year-old patient with lesions on the dorsum of the hands, interphalangeal pads, wrists, groin and back feet. This case demonstrates a rare and late diagnosis, clinical profusion and presence of familiar involvement. PMID:23539014

  18. Symmetric Composite Laminate Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T.; Smolinski, K. F.; Gellin, S.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that COSMIC/NASTRAN may be used to analyze plate and shell structures made of symmetric composite laminates. Although general composite laminates cannot be analyzed using NASTRAN, the theoretical development presented herein indicates that the integrated constitutive laws of a symmetric composite laminate resemble those of a homogeneous anisotropic plate, which can be analyzed using NASTRAN. A detailed analysis procedure is presented, as well as an illustrative example.

  19. Ultracold Molecules in Crystals of Light: A Highly Tunable System for Exploring Novel Materials, Quantum Dynamics, and Quantum Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln; Maeda, Kenji; Wall, Michael L.

    2015-03-01

    Ultracold molecules trapped in optical lattices present a new regime of physical chemistry and a new state of matter: complex dipolar matter. Such systems open up the prospect of tunable quantum complexity. We present models for the quantum many-body statics and dynamics of present experiments on polar bi-alkali dimer molecules. We are developing Hamiltonians and simulations for upcoming experiments on dimers beyond the alkali metals, including biologically and chemically important naturally occurring free radicals like the hydroxyl free radical (OH), as well as symmetric top polyatomic molecules like methyl fluoride (CH3F). These systems offer surprising opportunities in modeling and design of new materials. For example, symmetric top polyatomics can be used to study quantum molecular magnets and quantum liquid crystals. We use matrix-product-state (MPS) algorithms, supplemented by exact diagonalization, variational, perturbative, and other approaches. MPS algorithms not only produce experimentally measurable quantum phase diagrams but also explore the dynamical interplay between internal and external degrees of freedom inherent in complex dipolar matter. We maintain open source code (openTEBD and openMPS) available freely and used widely. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.

  20. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by the small sample of top quarks collected at the Tevatron up to now. The LHC is, in comparison, a top factory, producing about 8 million t{bar t}pairs per experiment per year at low luminosity (10 fb{sup {minus}1}/year), and another few million (anti-)tops in EW single (anti-)top quark production. They therefore expect that top quark properties can be examined with significant precision at the LHC. Entirely new measurements can be contemplated on the basis of the large available statistics.

  1. Experimental Support for the Evolution of Symmetric Protein Architecture from a Simple Peptide Motif

    SciTech Connect

    J Lee; M Blaber

    2011-12-31

    The majority of protein architectures exhibit elements of structural symmetry, and 'gene duplication and fusion' is the evolutionary mechanism generally hypothesized to be responsible for their emergence from simple peptide motifs. Despite the central importance of the gene duplication and fusion hypothesis, experimental support for a plausible evolutionary pathway for a specific protein architecture has yet to be effectively demonstrated. To address this question, a unique 'top-down symmetric deconstruction' strategy was utilized to successfully identify a simple peptide motif capable of recapitulating, via gene duplication and fusion processes, a symmetric protein architecture (the threefold symmetric {beta}-trefoil fold). The folding properties of intermediary forms in this deconstruction agree precisely with a previously proposed 'conserved architecture' model for symmetric protein evolution. Furthermore, a route through foldable sequence-space between the simple peptide motif and extant protein fold is demonstrated. These results provide compelling experimental support for a plausible evolutionary pathway of symmetric protein architecture via gene duplication and fusion processes.

  2. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  3. Spherical Tippe Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A tippe top (see Fig. 1) is usually constructed as a truncated sphere with a cylindrical peg on top, as indicated in Fig. 2(a). When spun rapidly on a horizontal surface, a tippe top spins about a vertical axis while rotating slowly about a horizontal axis until the peg touches the surface. At that point, weight is transferred to the peg, the…

  4. Dare We Teach Tops?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    "Tops" are mentioned in classical literature and references are even found in the ancient world. For many children a top is one of the first mechanical toys that they play with by themselves, yet a full appreciation of their motion is rare. My hope is that this article will stimulate the reader's interest in tops, will help with the first stages

  5. Spherical Tippe Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A tippe top (see Fig. 1) is usually constructed as a truncated sphere with a cylindrical peg on top, as indicated in Fig. 2(a). When spun rapidly on a horizontal surface, a tippe top spins about a vertical axis while rotating slowly about a horizontal axis until the peg touches the surface. At that point, weight is transferred to the peg, the

  6. Dare We Teach Tops?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    "Tops" are mentioned in classical literature and references are even found in the ancient world. For many children a top is one of the first mechanical toys that they play with by themselves, yet a full appreciation of their motion is rare. My hope is that this article will stimulate the reader's interest in tops, will help with the first stages…

  7. CDF Top Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Tartarelli, G. F.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The authors present the latest results about top physics obtained by the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data sample used for these analysis (about 110 pb{sup{minus}1}) represents almost the entire statistics collected by CDF during four years (1992--95) of data taking. This large data size has allowed detailed studies of top production and decay properties. The results discussed here include the determination of the top quark mass, the measurement of the production cross section, the study of the kinematics of the top events and a look at top decays.

  8. Bumblebee preference for symmetrical flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, A P

    1995-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry, which represents small random deviations from otherwise bilateral symmetry, is a measure of the phenotypic quality of individuals indicating the ability of controlled development under given environmental and genetic conditions. I tested whether floral symmetry reliably reflects phenotypic quality measured in terms of pollinator rewards and whether pollinators respond to floral symmetry in a series of observations and experiments on Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae). Lower petal asymmetry was negatively related to mean lower petal length, whereas asymmetry in leaf width was positively related to mean leaf width. Flowers visited by bumblebees were larger and more symmetrical than the nearest neighboring flower. This relationship between pollinator preference for large and symmetrical flowers was demonstrated to be causal in experiments in which the lower petals were manipulated symmetrically or asymmetrically. Nectar production was larger in symmetrical flowers, and this may explain the bumblebee preference for flower symmetry. Floral symmetry therefore reliably reflects nectar production and hence enhances pollen transport. Extensive embryo abortion has been documented in E. angustifolium and other outcrossing plant species. Floral fluctuating asymmetry, which reflects general developmental homeostasis, may explain such developmental selection in these plants. PMID:11607519

  9. Benign symmetric lipomatosis (Madelung's disease).

    PubMed

    Economides, N G; Liddell, H T

    1986-08-01

    A black man with benign symmetrical lipomatosis had extensive complete surgical removal of lipomas in the neck and shoulder regions, with an excellent functional result. Despite previous reports advocating conservative surgical debulking, we believe that adequate excision under direct exposure can produce a permanent cure of these tumors. PMID:3738576

  10. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, Robin D.; /UC, Davis

    2005-10-01

    While the top quark was discovered in 1995 at the Fermilab Tevatron, a decade later they still have very little information about the top. As the heaviest particle yet discovered, the top quark is interesting in and of itself, but some speculate that it may play a special role in physics beyond the Standard Model. With Run 2 of the Tevatron well underway, they have the opportunity to study top quark properties with much better sensitivity, and to test whether top quarks behave as predicted by current theories. This article focuses on the basics of top quark physics at the Tevatron, highlighting only a sample of the many recent measurements, as new results are being released monthly, and constantly changing the landscape of our knowledge of top.

  11. Molecule nanoweaver

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  12. Soliton dynamics in symmetric and non-symmetric complex potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Soliton propagation dynamics under the presence of a complex potential are investigated. A large variety of qualitatively different potentials, including periodic, semi-infinite periodic and localized potentials, is considered. Cases of both symmetric and non-symmetric potentials are studied in terms of their effect on soliton dynamics. The rich set of dynamical features of soliton propagation includes dynamical trapping, periodic and non-periodic soliton mass variation and non-reciprocal scattering dynamics. These features are systematically investigated with the utilization of an effective particle phase space approach which is shown in remarkable agreement with direct numerical simulations. The generality of the results enables the consideration of potential applications where the inhomogeneity of the gain and loss is appropriately engineered in order to provide desirable soliton dynamics.

  13. HUBBLE'S TOP TEN GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hubble Space Telescope serendipitous survey of the sky has uncovered exotic patterns, rings, arcs and crosses that are all optical mirages produced by a gravitational lens, nature's equivalent of having giant magnifying glass in space. Shown are the top 10 lens candidates uncovered in the deepest 100 Hubble fields. Hubble's sensitivity and high resolution allow it to see faint and distant lenses that cannot be detected with ground-based telescopes whose images are blurred by Earth's atmosphere. [Top Left] - HST 01248+0351 is a lensed pair on either side of the edge-on disk lensing galaxy. [Top Center] - HST 01247+0352 is another pair of bluer lensed source images around the red spherical elliptical lensing galaxy. Two much fainter images can be seen near the detection limit which might make this a quadruple system. [Top Right] - HST 15433+5352 is a very good lens candidate with a bluer lensed source in the form of an extended arc about the redder elliptical lensing galaxy. [Middle Far Left] - HST 16302+8230 could be an 'Einstein ring' and the most intriguing lens candidate. It has been nicknamed the 'the London Underground' since it resembles that logo. [Middle Near Left] - HST 14176+5226 is the first, and brightest lens system discovered in 1995 with the Hubble telescope. This lens candidate has now been confirmed spectroscopically using large ground-based telescopes. The elliptical lensing galaxy is located 7 billion light-years away, and the lensed quasar is about 11 billion light-years distant. [Middle Near Right] - HST 12531-2914 is the second quadruple lens candidate discovered with Hubble. It is similar to the first, but appears smaller and fainter. [Middle Far Right] - HST 14164+5215 is a pair of bluish lensed images symmetrically placed around a brighter, redder galaxy. [Bottom Left] - HST 16309+8230 is an edge-on disk-like galaxy (blue arc) which has been significantly distorted by the redder lensing elliptical galaxy. [Bottom Center] - HST 12368+6212 is a blue arc in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). [Bottom Right] - HST 18078+4600 is a blue arc caused by the gravitational potential of a small group of 4 galaxies. Credit: Kavan Ratnatunga (Carnegie Mellon Univ.) and NASA

  14. Benign symmetric lipomatosis (Madelung's disease).

    PubMed

    Smith, P D; Stadelmann, W K; Wassermann, R J; Kearney, R E

    1998-12-01

    Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung's disease, is a rare condition characterized by massive fatty deposits arranged symmetrically around the neck, shoulders, and arms. These patients might present for liposuction and body contouring. Although infrequently encountered in the average plastic surgeon's practice, this condition should be considered when evaluating candidates for these procedures. The deformity is associated with chronic alcohol use and also with malignant tumors of the upper airways. The deformity is prone to recurrence and its surgical treatment often results in less than optimal aesthetic outcomes. Despite this fact, surgical removal via either direct excision or suction-assisted lipectomy provides the only real hope of palliation. This report describes a patient with this deformity and a review of the literature. PMID:9869144

  15. PT-symmetric phonon laser.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hui; zdemir, S K; L, Xin-You; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting recent developments associated with coupled microcavities, we introduce the concept of the PT-symmetric phonon laser with balanced gain and loss. This is accomplished by introducing gain to one of the microcavities such that it balances the passive loss of the other. In the vicinity of the gain-loss balance, a strong nonlinear relation emerges between the intracavity-photon intensity and the input power. This then leads to a giant enhancement of both optical pressure and mechanical gain, resulting in a highly efficient phonon-lasing action. These results provide a promising approach for manipulating optomechanical systems through PT-symmetric concepts. Potential applications range from enhancing mechanical cooling to designing phonon-laser amplifiers. PMID:25126921

  16. Localized PT -symmetric directionally invisible scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Elisa; Gbur, Greg

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate how to create localized PT -symmetric directionally invisible scatterers directly from a governing wave equation. Moreover, we can construct general non-PT -symmetric objects which exhibit directional invisibility, though such an effect is typically associated with PT -symmetric objects. Whereas previously the determining condition for an optical PT -symmetric device was a PT -symmetric complex refractive index, we show that a broader condition, requiring only the scattering potential to be PT -symmetric, leads to the same behavior. This enables the construction of PT -symmetric objects without a PT -symmetric complex refractive index, effectively doubling the number of possible invisible objects. Consequently, the set of gain-loss invisible objects is much broader than previously realized, and several examples are shown.

  17. Top Physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2011-06-01

    We present the recent results of top-quark physics using up to 6 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV analyzed by the CDF collaboration. Thanks to this large data sample, precision top quark measurements are now a reality at the Tevatron. Further, several new physics signals could appear in this large dataset. We will present the latest measurements of top quark intrinsic properties as well as direct searches for new physics in the top sector.

  18. R-symmetric gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lope Amigo, Santiago; Blechman, Andrew E.; Fox, Patrick J.; Poppitz, Erich

    2009-01-01

    We present a version of Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking which preserves an R-symmetrythe gauginos are Dirac particles, the A-terms are zero, and there are four Higgs doublets. This offers an alternative way for gauginos to acquire mass in the supersymmetry-breaking models of Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shih. We investigate the possibility of using R-symmetric gauge mediation to realize the spectrum and large sfermion mixing of the model of Kribs, Poppitz, and Weiner.

  19. Viscosity in spherically symmetric accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Arnab K.

    2003-10-01

    The influence of viscosity on the flow behaviour in spherically symmetric accretion has been studied here. The governing equation chosen has been the Navier-Stokes equation. It has been found that at least for the transonic solution, viscosity acts as a mechanism that detracts from the effectiveness of gravity. This has been conjectured to set up a limiting scale of length for gravity to bring about accretion, and the physical interpretation of such a length scale has been compared with the conventional understanding of the so-called `accretion radius' for spherically symmetric accretion. For a perturbative presence of viscosity, it has also been pointed out that the critical points for inflows and outflows are not identical, which is a consequence of the fact that under the Navier-Stokes prescription, there is a breakdown of the invariance of the stationary inflow and outflow solutions - an invariance that holds good under inviscid conditions. For inflows, the critical point gets shifted deeper within the gravitational potential well. Finally, a linear stability analysis of the stationary inflow solutions, under the influence of a perturbation that is in the nature of a standing wave, has indicated that the presence of viscosity induces greater stability in the system than has been seen for the case of inviscid spherically symmetric inflows.

  20. Optical analogues of spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, S. S.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2014-03-01

    We have given an analytical formalism for developing optical analogues of spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes, and demonstrated the exact similarity between the electromagnetic wave equations in an inhomogeneous medium in flat spacetime and in a general relativistic curved spacetime. The permittivity and permeability of the inhomogeneous optical medium act as the metric components of an effective optical spacetime. Manifest properties of black holes, like curved trajectories of light rays and quasi-normal modes follow directly from our formalism. It is also applied to the specific case of Schwarzschild spacetime. The formalism would facilitate table-top experiments to investigate black hole phenomena.

  1. Octupolar (C3 and S4) Symmetric Cyclized Indole Derivatives: Syntheses, Structures, and NLO Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Qi; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Shao-jun; Jin, Ying-ying; Liu, Zhi-qiang

    2015-09-01

    Several cyclized indole derivatives have been synthesized, and their structures been determined. The C3-symmetric single-chiral N-phenyltriindole (Tr-Ph3) crystallized in the P1 space group, and the S4-symmetric saddle-like tetraindole (TTr) crystallized in the I4̅ space group. The Tr-Ph3 and TTr crystals exhibit remarkable powder SHG intensities 5 and 11 times that of KH2PO4 (KDP), respectively. TTr is a useful octupolar core to build S4-symmetric molecules and crystals for second-NLO materials. PMID:26304016

  2. Strong orientational coordinates and orientational order parameters for symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in the synthesis of anisotropic macromolecules and nanoparticles have spurred an immense interest in theoretical and computational studies of self-assembly. The cornerstone of such studies is the role of shape in self-assembly and in inducing complex order. The problem of identifying different types of order that can emerge in such systems can, however, be challenging. Here, we revisit the problem of quantifying orientational order in systems of building blocks with non-trivial rotational symmetries. We first propose a systematic way of constructing orientational coordinates for such symmetric building blocks. We call the arising tensorial coordinates strong orientational coordinates (SOCs) as they fully and exclusively specify the orientation of a symmetric object. We then use SOCs to describe and quantify local and global orientational order, and spatiotemporal orientational correlations in systems of symmetric building blocks. The SOCs and the orientational order parameters developed in this work are not only useful in performing and analyzing computer simulations of symmetric molecules or particles, but can also be utilized for the efficient storage of rotational information in long trajectories of evolving many-body systems.

  3. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The best learning and development organizations support business initiatives tactically "and" help drive strategic change. Verizon did just that, earning it the No. 1 spot for the first time on the Training Top 125. Verizon and the other 2012 Top 125 winners continued to invest in training, collectively dedicating a mean of 4.52 percent of their…

  4. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Top companies realize how vital training is to their success and continue to invest in it, even in trying times. This article presents "Training" magazine's 11th annual ranking of the top companies with employee-sponsored workforce training and development. First-time No. 1 winner Farmers Insurance puts such a premium on learning that its new

  5. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Top companies realize how vital training is to their success and continue to invest in it, even in trying times. This article presents "Training" magazine's 11th annual ranking of the top companies with employee-sponsored workforce training and development. First-time No. 1 winner Farmers Insurance puts such a premium on learning that its new…

  6. Top search at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    We review top quark searches carried out at CDF with data collected during the 1988--1989 Collider Run. The latest analyses give a lower limit on the top quark mass of 91 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level, assuming Standard Model decays. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The Tippe Top Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Supports the contention that sliding friction explains the inversion of a tippe top when it is spun upon a flat surface. Provides a rigorous analysis of the top's mechanics, together with computer-generated solutions of its equations of motion. (MLH)

  8. Training Top 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The best learning and development organizations support business initiatives tactically "and" help drive strategic change. Verizon did just that, earning it the No. 1 spot for the first time on the Training Top 125. Verizon and the other 2012 Top 125 winners continued to invest in training, collectively dedicating a mean of 4.52 percent of their

  9. Top physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    We report on top physics results using a 100 pb{sup -1} data sample of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We have identified top signals in a variety of decay channels, and used these channels to extract a measurement of the top mass and production cross section. A subset of the data (67 pb{sup -1}) is used to determine M{sub top} = 176 {+-} 8(stat) {+-} 10(syst) and {sigma}(tt) = 7.6 {sub -2.0}{sup +2.4} pb. We present studies of the kinematics of t{bar t} events and extract the first direct measurement of V{sub tb}. Finally, we indicate prospects for future study of top physics at the Tevatron.

  10. Postural stability in symmetrical gaits.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Teresa; Trojnacki, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the method of stability analysis of dynamic symmetrical gaits is discussed. The problem of dynamic postural equilibrium, taking into account the role of compliant feet, is solved. The equilibrium conditions are split between the foot attachment points and the points within the foot-end area. The present method is useful for motion synthesis, taking into account robot parameters. It also helps in the robot foot design. As an illustrative example a four-legged diagonal gait is considered. The theoretical results were verified by implementing and observing the diagonal gait in four-legged machine with and without feet. PMID:19839558

  11. Top Quark Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    Since its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, the top quark has undergone intensive studies. Besides the Tevatron experiments, with the start of the LHC in 2010 a top quark factory started its operation. It is now possible to measure top quark properties simultaneously at four different experiments, namely ATLAS and CMS at LHC and CDF and D0 at Tevatron. Having collected thousands of top quarks each, several top quark properties have been measured precisely, while others are being measured for the first time. In this article, recent measurements of top quark properties from ATLAS, CDF, CMS and D0 are presented, using up to 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at the Tevatron and 1.1 fb{sup -1} at the LHC. In particular, measurements of the top quark mass, mass difference, foward backward charge asymmetry, t{bar t} spin correlations, the ratio of branching fractions, W helicity, anomalous couplings, color flow and the search for flavor changing neutral currents are discussed.

  12. Top physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Palencia, Enrique; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-06-01

    The top quark is the most massive fundamental particle observed so far, and the study of its properties is interesting for several reasons ranging from its possible special role in electroweak symmetry breaking to its sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). This article focuses on the latest top physics results from CDF based on 320-750 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The t{bar t} cross section and the top mass have been measured in different decay channels and using different methods. They have also searched for massive t{bar t} resonances.

  13. The driven spinning top

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosu, Ioan; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    This driven top is quite a novelty and can, with some trials, be made using the principles outlined here. This new top has many applications in developing both understanding and skills and these are detailed in the article. Depending on reader’s available time and motivation they may feel an urge to make one themselves, or simply invest a few pounds in the one that has been designed, tested and manufactured to a high standard. Either way the unique design of the driven top can provide several hours of interesting experimentation. Our aim here is simply to inform and inspire readers to further investigation and experimentation.

  14. STED microscopy based on axially symmetric polarized vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhehai, Zhou; Lianqing, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    A stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy scheme using axially symmetric polarized vortex beams is proposed based on unique focusing properties of such kinds of beams. The concept of axially symmetric polarized vortex beams is first introduced, and the basic principle about the scheme is described. Simulation results for several typical beams are then shown, including radially polarized vortex beams, azimuthally polarized vortex beams, and high-order axially symmetric polarized vortex beams. The results indicate that sharper doughnut spots and thus higher resolutions can be achieved, showing more flexibility than previous schemes based on flexible modulation of both phase and polarization for incident beams. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61108047 and 61475021), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, China (Grant No. 4152015), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Universities of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0667), and the Top Young Talents Support Program of Beijing, China (Grant No. CIT&TCD201404113).

  15. Cycles in symmetric sequence processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Fernando L.; Theumann, Walter K.

    2007-02-01

    The competition between pattern reconstruction and sequence processing is studied here in an exactly solvable feed-forward layered neural network model of binary units and patterns near saturation. We show results for both symmetric and asymmetric sequence processing, either one competing with pattern reconstruction represented by a Hebbian interaction, in order to compare these two kinds of sequence processing. Phase diagrams of stationary states are obtained and a new phase of cycles of period two is found for a weak Hebbian term in the case of symmetric sequence processing, independently of the number of condensed patterns c which have macroscopic overlaps with the states of the network. In contrast, the stability of these cycles depends strongly on c. These results are in contrast with those for the competition between a Hebbian interaction and an asymmetric sequence processing interaction, in which the period of the cycles is c and the stability of these solutions does not depend on c. The dynamics of the macroscopic overlaps in the stationary cyclic phase is analyzed in both models.

  16. Interstellar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.

    1987-09-01

    Some 70 different molecular species have so far been detected variously in diffuse interstellar clouds, dense interstellar clouds, and circumstellar shells. Only simple (diatomic and triatomic) species exist in diffuse clouds because of the penetration of destructive UV radiations, whereas more complex (polyatomic) molecules survive in dense clouds as a result of the shielding against this UV radiation provided by dust grains. A current list of interstellar molecules is given together with a few other molecular species that have so far been detected only in circumstellar shells. Also listed are those interstellar species that contain rare isotopes of several elements. The gas phase ion chemistry is outlined via which the observed molecules are synthesized, and the process by which enrichment of the rare isotopes occurs in some interstellar molecules is described.

  17. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  18. Mobius Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses formation of chemical molecules via Mobius strip intermediates, and concludes that many special physics-chemical properties of the fully closed circular form (1) of polyoma DNA are explainable by this topological feature. (CC)

  19. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  20. Top physics: CDF results

    SciTech Connect

    K. Bloom

    2004-06-23

    The top quark plays an important role in the grand scheme of particle physics, and is also interesting on its own merits. We present recent results from CDF on top-quark physics based on 100-200 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data. We have measured the t{bar t} cross section in different decay modes using several different techniques, and are beginning our studies of top-quark properties. New analyses for this conference include a measurement of {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} in the lepton-plus-jets channel using a neural net to distinguish signal and background events, and measurements of top-quark branching fractions.

  1. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-12-15

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  2. Circular symmetrization of condensers on Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    We give a simplified definition of the new version of circular symmetrization which has previously been suggested by the author for solving extremal problems in geometric function theory. A proof of the symmetrization principle for the capacities of condensers on Riemann surfaces is presented. In addition, the class of condensers under consideration is extended and all the cases of equality in the symmetrization principle are found. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  3. Open String on Symmetric Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Yutaka

    We discuss some basic properties of the open string on the symmetric product which is supposed to describe the open string field theory in discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ). We first derive the consistent twisted boundary conditions for Annulus/Möbius/Klein Bottle diagrams and give the explicit form of the corresponding amplitude. They have the interpretation as the long open (or closed) string amplitude but the world sheet topology viewed from the short string and from the long string is in general different. Boundary (cross-cap) states of the short string are classified into three categories, the boundary (cross-cap) states of the long string and the "joint" state which connects two strings. The partition function has the typical structure of the string field theory in DLCQ. Tadpole condition is also analyzed and gives a reasonable gauge group SO(213).

  4. Nonlinear {PT}-symmetric plaquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Günther, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D {PT}-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its {P} {T}symmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain-loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  5. Kernel mucking in top

    SciTech Connect

    LeFebvre, W.

    1994-08-01

    For many years, the popular program top has aided system administrations in examination of process resource usage on their machines. Yet few are familiar with the techniques involved in obtaining this information. Most of what is displayed by top is available only in the dark recesses of kernel memory. Extracting this information requires familiarity not only with how bytes are read from the kernel, but also what data needs to be read. The wide variety of systems and variants of the Unix operating system in today`s marketplace makes writing such a program very challenging. This paper explores the tremendous diversity in kernel information across the many platforms and the solutions employed by top to achieve and maintain ease of portability in the presence of such divergent systems.

  6. Top-ophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Almost from the moment in June 1977 when the discovery of the Upsilon resonance revealed the existence of what we now call the bottom quark, physicists began searching for its partner. Through the years, as we established the electric charge and weak isospin of the b-quark, and detected the virtual influence of its mate, it became clear that the top quark must exist. Exactly at what mass, we couldn't say, but we knew just how top events would look. We also knew that top events would be rare--if the Tevatron could make them at all--and that picking out the events would pose a real challenge for the experimenters and their detectors.

  7. Continuity and Separation in Symmetric Topologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J.; Lynch, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, it is shown that in a symmetric topological space, the pairs of sets separated by the topology determine the topology itself. It is then shown that when the codomain is symmetric, functions which separate only those pairs of sets that are already separated are continuous, generalizing a result found by M. Lynch.

  8. Symmetric nested complexes of fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Mar, Naveicy; Sansores, Luis Enrique; Muhl, Stephen; Ramos, Estrella; Salcedo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Large fullerenes such as C180 and C116 can be used as hosts for other molecules of the same family. Based on this idea, two complexes were designed, one in which C180 accepts a C60 molecule as a guest and the other in which C20 was placed inside C116. The behavior of these new assemblies was closer to that of a large endohedral complex rather than onion-like. There were marked differences between the systems. In the first system, there was minor interaction between the two cages but the association resulted in a more stable thermodynamic state. In the second system, there was strong electronic interchange between the cages, and the thermodynamic results suggest that such a combination might be useful for forming stable C20. PMID:25823391

  9. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.; Vejcik, S.; Berger, E.L.

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  10. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source

  11. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  12. Top Concerns for 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sandra L.; Meyerson, Joel W.

    1992-01-01

    An annual national survey of college and university trustees indicates five top social, political, and economic areas of concern for higher education: public opinion about higher education; demographic trends; implications of family income and savings rate; effects of recession and unemployment; and the direction of national education policy. (MSE)

  13. Choosing a Top Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of 34 animals and 32 plants which are candidates for a list of the top 10 endangered species. Also presents the criteria used to formulate these lists. They include the conservation value (urgency prominance, biological value) and operational considerations (such as cost factors) for each species. (JN)

  14. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  15. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  16. Top quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, Shulamit; /Harvard U.

    2010-01-01

    The large data samples of top quark candidate events collected at the Tevatron CDF II experiment allow for a variety of measurements to analyze the production of the top quark. This article discusses recent results of top quark production at CDF presented at the SUSY09 conference, including updates to the top pair production cross section, forward-backward asymmetry in t{bar t} production, single top search, search for top resonances and a search for heavy top. The discussed measurements utilize up to 3.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at CDF.

  17. Boot top fractures.

    PubMed

    Höflin, F; van der Linden, W

    1976-01-01

    Low transverse fractures of the tibiofibular complex due to ski injuries were formerly virtually unknown but are now met in ever increasing numbers. A series of 126 such fractures occurring in patients 13 years or older was analyzed. The sex and age distributions of these patients were found to differ significantly from those in skiers with other tibial shaft fractures. Among boot top fractures cases, boys younger than 20 years predominated much more than among patients with other fractures of the tibial shaft. In the boot top fracture there is characteristically a backward angulation, which may be combined with a forward displacement of the distal fragment. A simple technique for reduction of this typical deformity is described. According to this technique the surgeon should take a steady grip on the foot held in extreme plantar flexion. By applying strong traction, disimpaction is achieved after which the distal fragment is forced back into position and the fracture is immobilized with the foot in full equinus. This technique was successfully applied in the majority of our cases (112 of 126). Patients with boot top fractures were hospitalized for shorter periods than were skiers with other tibial fractures, and they were able to resume their normal activities much sooner. This held true even when allowance was made for differences in age. During the last few years a new type of boot top fracture has been observed. In this type there is a forward instead of a backward angulation. Its occurrence is most probably related to the new "scoot foot" or "sitting back" technique in downhill skiing. The appearance of this new type of boot top fracture implies that successful prevention can be achieved only with safety bindings that release not only at rotation but also when the skier falls backward. PMID:1256788

  18. Dirac-Lorentz Equation in Symmetrized Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meter, J. R.; Hartemann, F. V.; Chen, P.

    1998-11-01

    Motivated by considerations regarding high field electrodynamics and the classical limit of QED(M. Zolotorev, private communication, AAC 1998), the fundamental equations of classical electrodynamics are symmetrized to include magnetic charges. A double 4-potential formalism is introduced, in terms of which the field tensor and its dual are employed to symmetrize Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force equation in covariant form. Within this framework, the symmetrized Dirac-Lorentz force equation is derived, giving the radiation reaction (self-force) for a particle possessing both electric and magnetic charge.

  19. Edge charge asymmetry in top pair production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Bo; Wang Youkai; Zhou Zhongqiu; Zhu Shouhua

    2011-03-01

    In this brief report, we propose a new definition of charge asymmetry in top pair production at the LHC, namely, the edge charge asymmetry (ECA). ECA utilizes the information of drifting direction only for single top (or antitop) with hadronic decay. Therefore, ECA can be free from the uncertainty arising from the missing neutrino in the tt event reconstruction. Moreover, rapidity Y of top (or antitop) is required to be greater than a critical value Y{sub C} in order to suppress the symmetric tt events mainly due to the gluon-gluon fusion process. In this paper, ECA is calculated up to next-to-leading order QCD in the standard model and the choice of the optimal Y{sub C} is investigated.

  20. Cloud top entrainment instability and cloud top distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, Reinout; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Classical cloud-top entrainment instability condition formulation is discussed. A saturation point diagram is used to investigate the details of mixing in cases where the cloud-top entrainment instability criterion is satisfied.

  1. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  2. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTION - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  3. An optimized TOPS+ comparison method for enhanced TOPS models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although methods based on highly abstract descriptions of protein structures, such as VAST and TOPS, can perform very fast protein structure comparison, the results can lack a high degree of biological significance. Previously we have discussed the basic mechanisms of our novel method for structure comparison based on our TOPS+ model (Topological descriptions of Protein Structures Enhanced with Ligand Information). In this paper we show how these results can be significantly improved using parameter optimization, and we call the resulting optimised TOPS+ method as advanced TOPS+ comparison method i.e. advTOPS+. Results We have developed a TOPS+ string model as an improvement to the TOPS [1-3] graph model by considering loops as secondary structure elements (SSEs) in addition to helices and strands, representing ligands as first class objects, and describing interactions between SSEs, and SSEs and ligands, by incoming and outgoing arcs, annotating SSEs with the interaction direction and type. Benchmarking results of an all-against-all pairwise comparison using a large dataset of 2,620 non-redundant structures from the PDB40 dataset [4] demonstrate the biological significance, in terms of SCOP classification at the superfamily level, of our TOPS+ comparison method. Conclusions Our advanced TOPS+ comparison shows better performance on the PDB40 dataset [4] compared to our basic TOPS+ method, giving 90% accuracy for SCOP alpha+beta; a 6% increase in accuracy compared to the TOPS and basic TOPS+ methods. It also outperforms the TOPS, basic TOPS+ and SSAP comparison methods on the Chew-Kedem dataset [5], achieving 98% accuracy. Software Availability The TOPS+ comparison server is available at http://balabio.dcs.gla.ac.uk/mallika/WebTOPS/. PMID:20236520

  4. Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Astashkin, S V

    2014-12-31

    We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  5. Symmetric tensor decomposition description of fermionic many-body wave functions.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Wataru; Sugino, Osamu

    2012-12-21

    The configuration interaction (CI) is a versatile wave function theory for interacting fermions, but it involves an extremely long CI series. Using a symmetric tensor decomposition method, we convert the CI series into a compact and numerically tractable form. The converted series encompasses the Hartree-Fock state in the first term and rapidly converges to the full-CI state, as numerically tested by using small molecules. Provided that the length of the symmetric tensor decomposition CI series grows only moderately with the increasing complexity of the system, the new method will serve as one of the alternative variational methods to achieve full CI with enhanced practicability. PMID:23368456

  6. Hypercubane: DFT-based prediction of an Oh-symmetric double-shell hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichierri, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    Using density functional theory we design a molecular analog of the four-dimensional hypercube or tesseract which we called hypercubane. The title hydrocarbon (C40H24) is Oh-symmetric like cubane and is characterized by a double-shell architecture. The perfluorinated analog of hypercubane also is stable with a positive value of the electron affinity. Removal of the C8 core from hypercubane yields a hollowed Oh-symmetric hydrocarbon with enough room to host a single atom/ion guest. The resonances of the NMR-active 13C and 1H nuclei have been computed so as to assist the spectroscopic identification of the predicted molecules.

  7. The Design and Synthesis of Highly Branched and Spherically Symmetric Fluorinated Oils and Amphiles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    A new emulsifier design principle, based on concepts borrowed from protein science, is proposed. Using this principle, a class of highly branched and spherically symmetric fluorinated oils and amphiles has been designed and synthesized, for potential applications in the construction of fluorocarbon nanoparticles. The Mitsunobu reaction was employed as the key step for introducing three perfluoro-tert-butoxyl groups into pentaerythritol derivatives with excellent yields and extremely simple isolation procedures. Due to the symmetric arrangement of the fluorine atoms, each fluorinated oil or amphile molecule gives one sharp singlet 19F NMR signal. PMID:18461118

  8. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  9. Complex symmetric matrices with strongly stable iterates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    Complex-valued symmetric matrices are studied. A simple expression for the spectral norm of such matrices is obtained, by utilizing a unitarily congruent invariant form. A sharp criterion is provided for identifying those symmetric matrices whose spectral norm is not exceeding one: such strongly stable matrices are usually sought in connection with convergent difference approximations to partial differential equations. As an example, the derived criterion is applied to conclude the strong stability of a Lax-Wendroff scheme.

  10. Lax Operator for Macdonald Symmetric Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Maxim; Sklyanin, Evgeny

    2015-07-01

    Using the Lax operator formalism, we construct a family of pairwise commuting operators such that the Macdonald symmetric functions of infinitely many variables and of two parameters q, t are their eigenfunctions. We express our operators in terms of the Hall-Littlewood symmetric functions of the variables and of the parameter t corresponding to the partitions with one part only. Our expression is based on the notion of Baker-Akhiezer function.

  11. Top physics results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Vickey, Trevor; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2005-05-01

    The most recent results on top quark physics at CDF are reported. Measurements of cross-section and mass are presented, and the status of single top quark production searches are discussed. The results obtained from probing various top quark properties are also presented.

  12. Top quark physics: Future Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Raymond; Gerdes, David; Jaros, John; Vejcik, Steve; Berger, Edmond L.; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cuypers, Frank; Drell, Persis S.; Fero, Michael; Hadley, Nicholas; Han, Tao; Heinson, Ann P.; Knuteson, Bruce; Larios, Francisco; Miettinen, Hannu; Orr, Lynne H.; Peskin, Michael E.; Rizzo, Thomas; Sarid, Uri; Schmidt, Carl; Stelzer, Tim; Sullivan, Zack

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  13. Electronic transport through single molecules: effects of strain and contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacham, Helio; Batista, Ronaldo; Mazzoni, Mario; Garzon, Ignacio; Beltran, Marcela; Ordejon, Pablo; Artacho, Emilio

    2007-03-01

    We will present theoretical investigations on single-molecule electron transport. We will focus on the following systems: a) Connected Au nanoparticles: we performed a first principles study [1] of the electronic properties of lattices of Au nanoparticles functionalized by the conjugated molecules BDMT and BDCT. Distinct behaviors of the electron hopping matrix elements between particles as a function of compression are predicted for functionalized lattices. b) Current rectification with symmetric molecules: In an interesting experiment, Reichet et al. [2] measured the current through symmetric organic molecules and obtained asymmetric IV curves when the Au contacts are pulled apart. We show, by means of first-principles calculations, that this effect can originate from the formation of small Au chains between the molecule and the Au surfaces in an asymmetric way. [1] R. J. C. Batista et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 116802 (2006). [2] J. Reichet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 176804 (2002).

  14. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  15. Symmetric Galerkin boundary formulations employing curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, J. H.; Balakrishna, C.

    1993-01-01

    Accounts of the symmetric Galerkin approach to boundary element analysis (BEA) have recently been published. This paper attempts to add to the understanding of this method by addressing a series of fundamental issues associated with its potential computational efficiency. A new symmetric Galerkin theoretical formulation for both the (harmonic) heat conduction and the (biharmonic) elasticity problem that employs regularized singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations (BIEs) is presented. The novel use of regularized BIEs in the Galerkin context is shown to allow straightforward incorporation of curved, isoparametric elements. A symmetric reusable intrinsic sample point (RISP) numerical integration algorithm is shown to produce a Galerkin (i.e., double) integration strategy that is competitive with its counterpart (i.e., singular) integration procedure in the collocation BEA approach when the time saved in the symmetric equation solution phase is also taken into account. This new formulation is shown to be capable of employing hypersingular BIEs while obviating the requirement of C 1 continuity, a fact that allows the employment of the popular continuous element technology. The behavior of the symmetric Galerkin BEA method with regard to both direct and iterative equation solution operations is also addressed. A series of example problems are presented to quantify the performance of this symmetric approach, relative to the more conventional unsymmetric BEA, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. It is concluded that appropriate implementations of the symmetric Galerkin approach to BEA indeed have the potential to be competitive with, if not superior to, collocation-based BEA, for large-scale problems.

  16. Controlling electric, magnetic, and chiral dipolar emission with PT-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeian, Hadiseh; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effect of parity-time (PT) symmetric optical potentials on the radiation of achiral and chiral dipole sources. Two properties unique to PT-symmetric potentials are observed. First, the dipole can be tuned to behave as a strong optical emitter or absorber based on the non-Hermiticity parameter and the dipole location. Second, exceptional points give rise to new system resonances that lead to orders-of-magnitude enhancements in the dipolar emitted or absorbed power. Utilizing these properties, we show that enantiomers of chiral molecules near PT-symmetric metamaterials exhibit a 4.5-fold difference in their emitted power and decay rate. The results of this work could enable new atom-cavity interactions for quantum optics, as well as all-optical enantioselective separation.

  17. Mind Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific styles vary tremendously. For me, research is largely about the unfettered pursuit of novel ideas and experiments that can test multiple ideas in a day, not a year, an approach that I learned from my mentor Julius “Julie” Axelrod. This focus on creative conceptualizations has been my métier since working in the summers during medical school at the National Institutes of Health, during my two years in the Axelrod laboratory, and throughout my forty-five years at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Equally important has been the “high” that emerges from brainstorming with my students. Nothing can compare with the eureka moments when, together, we sense new insights and, better yet, when high-risk, high-payoff experiments succeed. Although I have studied many different questions over the years, a common theme emerges: simple biochemical approaches to understanding molecular messengers, usually small molecules. Equally important has been identifying, purifying, and cloning the messengers' relevant biosynthetic, degradative, or target proteins, at all times seeking potential therapeutic relevance in the form of drugs. In the interests of brevity, this Reflections article is highly selective, and, with a few exceptions, literature citations are only of findings of our laboratory that illustrate notable themes. PMID:21543333

  18. Synthesis and physical properties of symmetrical and non-symmetrical triacylglycerols containing two palmitic fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both the amounts of and specific structures of the triacylglycerols (TAG) present in the oil phase of a margarine or spread are considered responsible for such properties as its spreadability, resistance to water/oil loss, and melting characteristics. A series of symmetrical and non-symmetrical TAG...

  19. Symmetric and anti-symmetric LS hyperon potentials from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji; Inoue, Takashi; HAL QCD Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of odd-parity hyperon-hyperon potentials from lattice QCD. By using HAL QCD method, we generate hyperon-hyperon potentials from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions generated by lattice QCD simulation in the flavor SU(3) limit. Potentials in the irreducible flavor SU(3) representations are combined to make a Lambda-N potential which has a strong symmetric LS potential and a weak anti-symmetric LS potential. We discuss a possible cancellation between symmetric and anti-symmetric LS (Lambda-N) potentials after the coupled Sigma-N sector is integrated out. We present recent results of odd-parity hyperon-hyperon potentials from lattice QCD. By using HAL QCD method, we generate hyperon-hyperon potentials from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions generated by lattice QCD simulation in the flavor SU(3) limit. Potentials in the irreducible flavor SU(3) representations are combined to make a Lambda-N potential which has a strong symmetric LS potential and a weak anti-symmetric LS potential. We discuss a possible cancellation between symmetric and anti-symmetric LS (Lambda-N) potentials after the coupled Sigma-N sector is integrated out. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25400244.

  20. Symmetric Kv1.5 Blockers Discovered by Focused Screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Guided by computational methods, a set of 1920 compounds were selected from the AstraZeneca corporate collection and screened for Kv1.5 activity. To facilitate rapid generation of structure–activity relationships, special attention was given to selecting subsets of structurally similar molecules by using a maximum common substructure similarity-based procedure. The focused screen hit rate was relatively high (12%). More importantly, a structural series featured by the symmetric 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine substructure was identified as potent Kv.1.5 blockers. The property profile for the series is shown to meet stringent lead-optimization criteria, providing a springboard for the development of a new and safe treatment for atrial fibrillation. PMID:24900546

  1. Structural studies of symmetric DNA undecamers containing non-symmetrical sheared (PuGAPu):(PyGAPy) motifs.

    PubMed

    Chou, S H; Tseng, Y Y; Chen, Y R; Cheng, J W

    1999-06-01

    Interstrand purine-purine stacks originate from tandem sheared purine.purine pairing and represent one of the most important motifs in both DNA and RNA structures. Several RNA and DNA structures, solved recently in both solution and the solid state, contain these special motifs, which greatly increase the structural diversity of nucleic acid molecules. The direct evidence for the sheared purine-purine pairing at neutral pH in solution remains, however, elusive. In this manuscript, we have used high resolution NMR methods to study a series of symmetrical DNA duplexes containing two non-symmetrical 5'-(PuGAPu)/(PyGAPy)-3' motifs. Many strong- and medium-strength NOEs across the G.A base pair were detected in the H2O-NOESY spectra collected at a relatively low temperature (-5 degrees C). These NOEs, especially those from A-6NH2 to G-H1', G-H4', and G-2NH2, clearly define the proposed side-by-side sheared G.A pairing nature. Another interesting feature is the strong NOEs exhibited by the unpaired G-imino proton in the G.A pair to its own G-2NH2, which implies that G-2NH2 is involved in H-bonding with a base in the minor groove edge. The finding that non-symmetrical (PuGAPu):(PyGAPy) motif also form similarly stable structures loosens the requirement for a more restricted (PyGAPu)2 motif in forming the interstrand purine-purine stacks. PMID:10427743

  2. CAST: Contraction Algorithm for Symmetric Tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajbhandari, Samyam; NIkam, Akshay; Lai, Pai-Wei; Stock, Kevin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2014-09-22

    Tensor contractions represent the most compute-intensive core kernels in ab initio computational quantum chemistry and nuclear physics. Symmetries in these tensor contractions makes them difficult to load balance and scale to large distributed systems. In this paper, we develop an efficient and scalable algorithm to contract symmetric tensors. We introduce a novel approach that avoids data redistribution in contracting symmetric tensors while also avoiding redundant storage and maintaining load balance. We present experimental results on two parallel supercomputers for several symmetric contractions that appear in the CCSD quantum chemistry method. We also present a novel approach to tensor redistribution that can take advantage of parallel hyperplanes when the initial distribution has replicated dimensions, and use collective broadcast when the final distribution has replicated dimensions, making the algorithm very efficient.

  3. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result,more » the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.« less

  4. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result, the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.

  5. Hunting Mixed Top Squark Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graesser, Michael L.; Shelton, Jessie

    2013-09-01

    We point out that, in the irreducible natural supersymmetric spectrum, top squarks have comparable branching fractions to chargino-bottom and neutralino-top final states in the vast bulk of parameter space, provided only that both decay modes are kinematically accessible. The total top squark pair branching fractions into tt¯+MET (MET=missingtransverseenergy) can therefore be reduced to O(50%), whereas bb¯+X branching fractions are typically much smaller, O(10%), thus limiting the reach of traditional top squark searches. We propose a new top squark search targeting the asymmetric final state t˜t˜*→tχ0b¯χ-+H.c., which can restore sensitivity to natural top squarks in the 7 and 8 TeV LHC runs. In addition, we present a new variable, topness, which efficiently suppresses the dominant top backgrounds to semileptonic top partner searches. We demonstrate the utility of topness in both our asymmetric search channel and traditional t˜t˜*→tt¯+MET searches and show that it matches or outperforms existing variables.

  6. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei; Ren, Yu-Xuan

    2015-12-07

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  7. Observational tests of Baryon symmetric cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence for Baryon symmetric (matter/antimatter) cosmology and future observational tests are reviewed. The most significant consequences of Baryon symmetric cosmology lie in the prediction of an observable cosmic background of gamma radiation from the decay of pi(0)-mesons produced in nucleon-antinucleon annihilations. Equations for the prediction of the amma ray background spectrum for the case of high redshifts are presented. The theoretical and observational plots of the background spectrum are shown to be in good agreement. Measurement of cosmic ray antiprotons and the use of high energy neutrino astronomy to look for antimatter elsewhere in the universe are also addressed.

  8. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Ren, Yu-Xuan; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei

    2015-12-01

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  9. Top physics results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Gervasio; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2005-05-01

    The top quark is by far the most massive fundamental particle observed so far, and the study of its properties is interesting for several reasons ranging from its possible special role in electroweak symmetry breaking to its sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model. They present recent top physics results from CDF based on 160-320 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The t{bar t} cross section and the top mass have been measured in different decay channels and using different methods. they have searched for evidence of single top production, setting upper limits on its production rate. Other results shown in this conference include studies of the polarization of W bosons from top decays, a search for charged Higgs decaying from top, and a search for additional heavy t' quarks.

  10. A single-molecule diode

    PubMed Central

    Elbing, Mark; Ochs, Rolf; Koentopp, Max; Fischer, Matthias; von Hänisch, Carsten; Weigend, Florian; Evers, Ferdinand; Weber, Heiko B.; Mayor, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized a molecular rod that consists of two weakly coupled electronic π -systems with mutually shifted energy levels. The asymmetry thus implied manifests itself in a current–voltage characteristic with pronounced dependence on the sign of the bias voltage, which makes the molecule a prototype for a molecular diode. The individual molecules were immobilized by sulfur–gold bonds between both electrodes of a mechanically controlled break junction, and their electronic transport properties have been investigated. The results indeed show diode-like current–voltage characteristics. In contrast to that, control experiments with symmetric molecular rods consisting of two identical π -systems did not show significant asymmetries in the transport properties. To investigate the underlying transport mechanism, phenomenological arguments are combined with calculations based on density functional theory. The theoretical analysis suggests that the bias dependence of the polarizability of the molecule feeds back into the current leading to an asymmetric shape of the current–voltage characteristics, similar to the phenomena in a semiconductor diode. PMID:15956208

  11. Dark matter on top

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, M.A.; Jackson, C.B.; Shaughnessy, G. E-mail: chris@uta.edu

    2014-12-01

    We consider a simplified model of fermionic dark matter which couples exclusively to the right-handed top quark via a renormalizable interaction with a color-charged scalar. We first compute the relic abundance of this type of dark matter and investigate constraints placed on the model parameter space by the latest direct detection data. We also perform a detailed analysis for the production of dark matter at the LHC for this model. We find several kinematic variables that allow for a clean signal extraction and we show that the parameter space of this model will be well probed during LHC Run-II. Finally, we investigate the possibility of detecting this type of dark matter via its annihilations into gamma rays. We compute the continuum and the line emission (which includes a possible ''Higgs in Space!'' line) and its possible discovery by future gamma-ray telescopes. We find that the annihilation spectrum has distinctive features which may distinguish it from other models.

  12. Top quark tensor couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Sprinberg, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Roberto; Vidal, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    We compute the real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM). For both tensorial couplings we find that the real part of the electroweak SM correction is close to 10% of the leading contribution given by the QCD gluon exchange. We also find that the electroweak real and imaginary parts for the anomalous right coupling are almost of the same order of magnitude. The one loop SM prediction for the real part of the left coupling is close to the 3 σ discovery limit derived from b → sγ. Besides, taking into account that the predictions of new physics interactions are also at the level of a few percents when compared with the one loop QCD gluon exchange, these electroweak corrections should be taken into account in order to disentangle new physics effects from the standard ones. These anomalous tensorial couplings of the top quark will be investigated at the LHC in the near future where sensitivity to these contributions may be achieved.

  13. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD AND TOP CHORD CONNECTIONS NEAR NORTH CORNER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  14. On integrability of strings on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, Linus

    2015-09-01

    In the absence of NSNS three-form flux the bosonic string on a symmetric space is described by a symmetric space coset sigma-model. Such models are known to be classically integrable. We show that the integrability extends also to cases with non-zero NSNS flux (respecting the isometries) provided that the flux satisfies a condition of the form H abc H cde ˜ R abde . We then turn our attention to the type II Green-Schwarz superstring on a symmetric space. We prove that if the space preserves some supersymmetry there exists a truncation of the full superspace to a supercoset space and derive the general form of the superisometry algebra. In the case of vanishing NSNS flux the corresponding supercoset sigma-model for the string is known to be integrable. We prove that the integrability extends to the full string by augmenting the supercoset Lax connection with terms involving the fermions which are not captured by the supercoset model. The construction is carried out to quadratic order in these fermions. This proves the integrability of strings on symmetric spaces supported by RR flux which preserve any non-zero amount of supersymmetry. Finally we also construct Lax connections for some supercoset models with non-zero NSNS flux describing strings in AdS 2,3 × S 2,3 × S 2,3 × T 2,3,4 backgrounds preserving eight supersymmetries.

  15. Unidirectional nonlinear PT-symmetric optical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramezani, Hamidreza; Kottos, Tsampikos; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2010-10-15

    We show that nonlinear optical structures involving a balanced gain-loss profile can act as unidirectional optical valves. This is made possible by exploiting the interplay between the fundamental symmetries of parity (P) and time (T), with optical nonlinear effects. This unidirectional dynamics is specifically demonstrated for the case of an integrable PT-symmetric nonlinear system.

  16. Symmetrical parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Rodejohann, W.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2011-10-01

    Advantages of the original symmetrical form of the parametrization of the lepton mixing matrix are discussed. It provides a conceptually more transparent description of neutrino oscillations and lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay, clarifying the significance of Dirac and Majorana phases. It is also ideal for parametrizing scenarios with light sterile neutrinos.

  17. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  18. Dissociative recombination of highly symmetric polyatomic ions.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Nicolas; Orel, Ann E; Greene, Chris H; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

    2012-01-13

    A general first-principles theory of dissociative recombination is developed for highly symmetric molecular ions and applied to H(3)O(+) and CH(3)(+), which play an important role in astrophysical, combustion, and laboratory plasma environments. The theoretical cross sections obtained for the dissociative recombination of the two ions are in good agreement with existing experimental data from storage ring experiments. PMID:22324682

  19. Resonances for Symmetric Two-Barrier Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for the accurate calculation of bound-state and resonance energies for one-dimensional potentials. We calculate the shape resonances for symmetric two-barrier potentials and compare them with those coming from the Siegert approximation, the complex scaling method and the box-stabilization method. A comparison of the…

  20. Conformal cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkog˜lu, Murat Metehan; Dog˜ru, Melis Ulu

    2015-11-01

    We investigate cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in the context of f(R) gravity. We firstly attain conformal symmetry of the cylindrically symmetric spacetime. We obtain solutions to use features of the conformal symmetry, field equations and their solutions for cylindrically symmetric spacetime filled with various cosmic matters such as vacuum state, perfect fluid, anisotropic fluid, massive scalar field and their combinations. With the vacuum state solutions, we show that source of the spacetime curvature is considered as Casimir effect. Casimir force for given spacetime is found using Wald’s axiomatic analysis. We expose that the Casimir force for Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacuum states could have attractive, repulsive and ineffective features. In the perfect fluid state, we show that matter form of the perfect fluid in given spacetime must only be dark energy. Also, we offer that potential of massive and massless scalar field are developed as an exact solution from the modified field equations. All solutions of field equations for vacuum case, perfect fluid and scalar field give a special f(R) function convenient to Λ-CDM model. In addition to these solutions, we introduce conformal cylindrical symmetric solutions in the cases of different f(R) models. Finally, geometrical and physical results of the solutions are discussed.

  1. Amplituhedron Cells and Stanley Symmetric Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The amplituhedron was recently introduced in the study of scattering amplitudes in {N = 4} super Yang-Mills. We compute the cohomology class of a tree amplituhedron subvariety of the Grassmannian to be the truncation of an affine Stanley symmetric function.

  2. Miniaturized symmetrization optics for junction laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Jacob M. (Inventor); Kaiser, Charlie J. (Inventor); Neil, Clyde C. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Miniaturized optics comprising transverse and lateral cylindrical lenses composed of millimeter-sized rods with diameters, indices-of-refraction and spacing such that substantially all the light emitted as an asymmetrical beam from the emitting junction of the laser is collected and translated to a symmetrical beam.

  3. Are vacuum-filtrated reduced graphene oxide membranes symmetric?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Wu, Jinbo; Hedhili, Mohamed Neijib; Wang, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane-based materials are promising for many advanced applications due to their exceptional properties. One of the most widely used synthesis methods for rGO membranes is vacuum filtration of graphene oxide (GO) on a filter membrane, followed by reduction, which shows great advantages such as operational convenience and good controllability. Despite vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes being widely used in many applications, a fundamental question is overlooked: are the top and bottom surfaces of the membranes formed at the interfaces with air and with the filter membrane respectively symmetric or asymmetric? This work, for the first time, reports the asymmetry of the vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes and discloses the filter membranes' physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane, which takes place when the filter membrane surface pores have similar dimension to GO sheets. This result points out that the asymmetric surface properties should be cautiously taken into consideration while designing the surface-related applications for GO and rGO membranes.Graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane-based materials are promising for many advanced applications due to their exceptional properties. One of the most widely used synthesis methods for rGO membranes is vacuum filtration of graphene oxide (GO) on a filter membrane, followed by reduction, which shows great advantages such as operational convenience and good controllability. Despite vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes being widely used in many applications, a fundamental question is overlooked: are the top and bottom surfaces of the membranes formed at the interfaces with air and with the filter membrane respectively symmetric or asymmetric? This work, for the first time, reports the asymmetry of the vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes and discloses the filter membranes' physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane, which takes place when the filter membrane surface pores have similar dimension to GO sheets. This result points out that the asymmetric surface properties should be cautiously taken into consideration while designing the surface-related applications for GO and rGO membranes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06797a

  4. Turbulence near thunderstorm tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter F.

    1993-01-01

    For several years, scientists at San Jose State University, NASA-Ames, and the University of Arizona have carried out cooperative research programs to understand the causes and effects of severe turbulence. The primary sources of data for this work are Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) tapes from airliners that have been involved in turbulence incidents. A significant result of the analysis of these data has been the identification and quantification of the turbulence causes. Turbulence signatures include breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, large amplitude mountain lee waves, turbulence in and around thunderstorms, and maneuvering. The requirements that must be met for a turbulence incident to be included in the NASA study are rather straightforward: (1) severe or greater turbulence must have been reported (usually with passenger injuries) and (2) the flight data tapes must be available. Despite these rather general criteria, and the fact that our cases are drawn from a wide geographical area over the U.S. and the Atlantic Ocean, we have found an interesting bias in our sample. Of 12 cases at cruise altitude, four were definitely associated with thunderstorms and two are suspected thunderstorm cases. The others were due to mountain waves, CAT, high level windshear/maneuvering, or to causes not yet determined. Although our sample is small, these numbers have raised several questions, not the least of which are: How pervasive is the problem of aircraft encounters with severe turbulence in or near thunderstorm tops (TNTT)? Given the available visible and radar evidence of thunderstorms, Why do such incidents occur? Can anything be done to allevaite the problem? This paper outlines some very preliminary efforts to answer these questions. In the following sections, physical and statistical characteristics of TNTT are discussed (Section 2), TNTT causes are summarized (Section 3), current recommendations for TNTT avoidance are reviewed (Section 4), and some suggestions to ameliorate the problem are given (Section 5).

  5. Learning at the Top. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on learning at the top that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Learning at the Top: An Investigation of Nonprofit CEOs' (Chief Executive Officers') Learning Experiences" (John J. Sherlock) reports on a study that used Mezirow's theory of adult learning as…

  6. Symmetry calculation for molecules and transition states.

    PubMed

    Vandewiele, Nick M; Van de Vijver, Ruben; Van Geem, Kevin M; Reyniers, Marie-Franoise; Marin, Guy B

    2015-01-30

    The symmetry of molecules and transition states of elementary reactions is an essential property with important implications for computational chemistry. The automated identification of symmetry by computers is a very useful tool for many applications, but often relies on the availability of three-dimensional coordinates of the atoms in the molecule and hence becomes less useful when these coordinates are a priori unavailable. This article presents a new algorithm that identifies symmetry of molecules and transition states based on an augmented graph representation of the corresponding structures, in which both topology and the presence of stereocenters are accounted for. The automorphism group order of the graph associated with the molecule or transition state is used as a starting point. A novel concept of label-stereoisomers, that is, stereoisomers that arise after labeling homomorph substituents in the original molecule so that they become distinguishable, is introduced and used to obtain the symmetry number. The algorithm is characterized by its generic nature and avoids the use of heuristic rules that would limit the applicability. The calculated symmetry numbers are in agreement with expected values for a large and diverse set of structures, ranging from asymmetric, small molecules such as fluorochlorobromomethane to highly symmetric structures found in drug discovery assays. The new algorithm opens up new possibilities for the fast screening of the degree of symmetry of large sets of molecules. PMID:25421576

  7. Symmetric Key Structural Residues in Symmetric Proteins with Beta-Trefoil Fold

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanzhao; Xiao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To understand how symmetric structures of many proteins are formed from asymmetric sequences, the proteins with two repeated beta-trefoil domains in Plant Cytotoxin B-chain family and all presently known beta-trefoil proteins are analyzed by structure-based multi-sequence alignments. The results show that all these proteins have similar key structural residues that are distributed symmetrically in their structures. These symmetric key structural residues are further analyzed in terms of inter-residues interaction numbers and B-factors. It is found that they can be distinguished from other residues and have significant propensities for structural framework. This indicates that these key structural residues may conduct the formation of symmetric structures although the sequences are asymmetric. PMID:21152439

  8. Uncovering the single top: Observation of electroweak top quark production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Jorge Armando

    The top quark is generally produced in quark and anti-quark pairs. However, the Standard Model also predicts the production of only one top quark which is mediated by the electroweak interaction, known as "Single Top." Single Top quark production is important because it provides a unique and direct way to measure the CKM matrix element Vtb, and can be used to explore physics possibilities beyond the Standard Model predictions. This dissertation presents the results of the observation of Single Top using 2.3 fb-1 of Data collected with the DO detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis includes the Single Top muon+jets and electron+jets final states and employs Boosted Decision Tress as a method to separate the signal from the background. The resulting Single Top cross section measurement is: spp→tb+X,tqb+X =3.74+0.95-0.74pb, 1 where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is p = 1.9 x 10-6. This corresponds to a standard deviation Gaussian equivalence of 4.6. When combining this result with two other analysis methods, the resulting cross section measurement is: spp→tb+X,tqb+X =3.94+/-0.88pb, 2 and the corresponding measurement significance is 5.0 standard deviations.

  9. Parity-time-symmetric plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeian, Hadiseh; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical properties of parity-time (PT)-symmetric three-dimensional metamaterials composed of strongly coupled planar plasmonic waveguides. By tuning the loss-gain balance, we show how the initially isotropic material becomes both asymmetric and unidirectional. Investigation of the band structure near the material's exceptional point reveals several interesting optical properties, including double negative refraction, Bloch power oscillations, unidirectional invisibility, and reflection and transmission coefficients that are simultaneously equal to or greater than unity. The highly tunable optical dispersion of PT-symmetric metamaterials provides a foundation for designing an unconventional class of three-dimensional bulk synthetic media, with applications ranging from lossless subdiffraction-limited optical lenses to nonreciprocal nanophotonic devices.

  10. Static spherically symmetric wormholes with isotropic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study static spherically symmetric wormhole solutions sustained by matter sources with isotropic pressure. We show that such spherical wormholes do not exist in the framework of zero-tidal-force wormholes. On the other hand, it is shown that for the often used power-law shape function there are no spherically symmetric traversable wormholes sustained by sources with a linear equation of state p = ωρ for the isotropic pressure, independently of the form of the redshift function ϕ (r). We consider a solution obtained by Tolman at 1939 for describing static spheres of isotropic fluids, and show that it also may describe wormhole spacetimes with a power-law redshift function, which leads to a polynomial shape function, generalizing a power-law shape function, and inducing a solid angle deficit.

  11. Integrability of PT-symmetric dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickton, J.; Susanto, H.

    2013-12-01

    The coupled discrete linear and Kerr nonlinear Schrödinger equations with gain and loss describing transport on dimers with parity-time (PT)-symmetric potentials are considered. The model is relevant among others to experiments in optical couplers and proposals on Bose-Einstein condensates in PT-symmetric double-well potentials. It is known that the models are integrable. Here, the integrability is exploited further to construct the phase portraits of the system. A pendulum equation with a linear potential and a constant force for the phase difference between the fields is obtained, which explains the presence of unbounded solutions above a critical threshold parameter. The behavior of all solutions of the system, including changes in the topological structure of the phase plane, is then discussed.

  12. Symmetrical Peripheral Gangrene Following Snake Bite

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Minal; Parikh, Mital; Patel, Dwijal; Chudasma, Ketan

    2014-01-01

    SPG (Symmetrical peripheral gangrene) is defined as symmetrical distal ischemic damage at two or more sites in the absence of large vessels obstruction. It has been ascribed to a number of infectious and non infectious conditions including connective tissue, cardiovascular, neoplastic and iatrogenic causes. We report a unique case of SPG in a 35-year-old Indian female who developed spontaneous gangrene of the distal phalanges of the right and left index, middle, ring and little fingers and the distal phalanges of all toes of the right and left foot following a snake bite. There have been very few cases of peripheral gangrene and acute renal failure associated with snake bite in literature. PMID:25386476

  13. Spherically symmetric solutions in a FRW background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradpour, H.; Riazi, N.

    2015-02-01

    We impose perfect fluid concept along with slow expansion approximation to derive new solutions which, considering non-static spherically symmetric metrics, can be treated as Black Holes (BHs). We will refer to these solutions as Quasi BHs. Mathematical and physical features such as Killing vectors, singularities, and mass have been studied. Their horizons and thermodynamic properties have also been investigated. In addition, relationship with other related works (including McVittie's) are described.

  14. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  15. Wave equation on spherically symmetric Lorentzian metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Al-Dweik, Ahmad Y.; Zaman, F. D.; Kara, A. H.; Karim, M.

    2011-06-15

    Wave equation on a general spherically symmetric spacetime metric is constructed. Noether symmetries of the equation in terms of explicit functions of {theta} and {phi} are derived subject to certain differential constraints. By restricting the metric to flat Friedman case the Noether symmetries of the wave equation are presented. Invertible transformations are constructed from a specific subalgebra of these Noether symmetries to convert the wave equation with variable coefficients to the one with constant coefficients.

  16. Symmetric space description of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, Michele; Magnea, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    Using an innovative technique arising from the theory of symmetric spaces, we obtain an approximate analytic solution of the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar (DMPK) equation in the insulating regime of a metallic carbon nanotube with symplectic symmetry and an odd number of conducting channels. This symmetry class is characterized by the presence of a perfectly conducting channel in the limit of infinite length of the nanotube. The derivation of the DMPK equation for this system has recently been performed by Takane, who also obtained the average conductance both analytically and numerically. Using the Jacobian corresponding to the transformation to radial coordinates and the parametrization of the transfer matrix given by Takane, we identify the ensemble of transfer matrices as the symmetric space of negative curvature SO*(4m + 2)/[SU(2m + 1) × U(1)] belonging to the DIII-odd Cartan class. We rederive the leading-order correction to the conductance of the perfectly conducting channel \\langle \\ln \\delta g \\rangle and its variance Var(ln δg). Our results are in complete agreement with Takane's. In addition, our approach based on the mapping to a symmetric space enables us to obtain new universal quantities: a universal group theoretical expression for the ratio \\mathrm {Var}(\\ln \\delta g)/\\langle \\ln \\delta g\\rangle , and as a by-product a novel expression for the localization length for the most general case of a symmetric space with BCm root system, in which all three types of roots are present.

  17. Symmetric multilayer megampere X-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; McBride, R. D.; Knapp, P. F.; Wilhelm, G.; Sinars, D. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Orlov, N. Yu.

    2010-01-15

    Raising the power of X-ray emission from an X-pinch by increasing the pinch current to the megampere level requires the corresponding increase in the initial linear mass of the load. This can be achieved by increasing either the number of wires or their diameter. In both cases, special measures should be undertaken to prevent the formation of a complicated configuration with an uncontrolled spatial structure in the region of wire crossing, because such a structure breaks the symmetry of the neck formed in the crossing region, destabilizes plasma formation, and degrades X-ray generation. To improve the symmetry of the wire crossing region, X-pinch configurations with a regular multilayer arrangement of wires in this region were proposed and implemented. The results of experiments with various symmetric X-pinch configurations on the COBRA facility at currents of {approx}1MA are presented. It is shown that an X-pinch with a symmetric crossing region consisting of several layers of wires made of different materials can be successfully used in megampere facilities. The most efficient combinations of wires in symmetric multilayer X-pinches are found in which only one hot spot forms and that are characterized by a high and stable soft X-ray yield.

  18. Spherically symmetric thick branes cosmological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, A. E.; Cavalcanti, R. T.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric time-dependent solutions for the 5D system of a scalar field canonically coupled to gravity are obtained and identified as an extension of recent results obtained by Ahmed et al. (JHEP 1404:061. arXiv:1312.3576 [hep-th], 2014). The corresponding cosmology of models with regularized branes generated by such a 5D scalar field scenario is also investigated. It has been shown that the anisotropic evolution of the warp factor and consequently the Hubble like parameter are both driven by the radial coordinate on the brane, which leads to an emergent thick brane-world scenario with spherically symmetric time dependent warp factor. Meanwhile, the separability of variables depending on fifth dimension, , which is exhibited by the equations of motion, allows one to recover the extra dimensional profiles obtained in Ahmed et al. (2014), namely the extra dimensional part of the scale (warp) factor and the scalar field dependence on . Therefore, our results are mainly concerned with the time dependence of a spherically symmetric warp factor. Besides evincing possibilities for obtaining asymmetric stable brane-world scenarios, the extra dimensional profiles here obtained can also be reduced to those ones investigated in Ahmed et al. (2014).

  19. Are vacuum-filtrated reduced graphene oxide membranes symmetric?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Wu, Jinbo; Hedhili, Mohamed Neijib; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-14

    Graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane-based materials are promising for many advanced applications due to their exceptional properties. One of the most widely used synthesis methods for rGO membranes is vacuum filtration of graphene oxide (GO) on a filter membrane, followed by reduction, which shows great advantages such as operational convenience and good controllability. Despite vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes being widely used in many applications, a fundamental question is overlooked: are the top and bottom surfaces of the membranes formed at the interfaces with air and with the filter membrane respectively symmetric or asymmetric? This work, for the first time, reports the asymmetry of the vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes and discloses the filter membranes' physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane, which takes place when the filter membrane surface pores have similar dimension to GO sheets. This result points out that the asymmetric surface properties should be cautiously taken into consideration while designing the surface-related applications for GO and rGO membranes. PMID:26667828

  20. High power terahertz quantum cascade lasers with symmetric wafer bonded active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstetter, Martin; Deutsch, Christoph; Krall, Michael; Detz, Hermann; MacFarland, Donald C.; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron M.; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2013-10-01

    We increased the active region/waveguide thickness of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with semi-insulating surface plasmon waveguides by stacking two symmetric active regions on top of each other, via a direct wafer bonding technique. In this way, we enhance the generated optical power in the cavity and the mode confinement. We achieved 470 mW peak output power in pulsed mode from a single facet at a heat sink temperature of 5 K and a maximum operation temperature of 122 K. Furthermore, the devices show a broad band emission spectrum over a range of 420 GHz, centered around 3.9 THz.

  1. Role of 2-D periodic symmetrical nanostructures in improving efficiency of thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Liyong; Li, Xiangyin

    2016-01-01

    We systematically investigated several different nanostructures in crystalline silicon (c-Si) thin film solar cells and then proposed a brand-new structure with two dimensional (2-D) periodic dielectric cylinders on the top and annular metal columns on bottom surface to enhance the optical harvesting. The periodic symmetrical nanostructures affect the solar cell efficiency due to the grating diffraction effect of dielectric columns and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) effect induced by metal nanostructures at the dielectric-metal interface. About 52.1% more optical absorption and 33.3% more power conversion efficiency are obtained, and the maximum short current reaches to 33.24 mA/cm2.

  2. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through...

  3. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through...

  4. Design, Activity, and 2.8 overset{circ}{A} Crystal Structure of a C_2 Symmetric Inhibitor Complexed to HIV-1 Protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, John; Neidhart, David J.; Vandrie, John; Kempf, Dale J.; Wang, Xiu Chun; Norbeck, Daniel W.; Plattner, Jacob J.; Rittenhouse, Judith W.; Turon, Mary; Wideburg, Norman; Kohlbrenner, William E.; Simmer, Robert; Helfrich, Rosalind; Paul, Deborah A.; Knigge, Mark

    1990-08-01

    A two-fold (C_2) symmetric inhibitor of the protease of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) has been designed on the basis of the three-dimensional symmetry of the enzyme active site. The symmetric molecule inhibited both protease activity and acute HIV-1 infection in vitro, was at least 10,000-fold more potent against HIV-1 protease than against related enzymes, and appeared to be stable to degradative enzymes. The 2.8 angstrom crystal structure of the inhibitor-enzyme complex demonstrated that the inhibitor binds to the enzyme in a highly symmetric fashion.

  5. Forum outlines top emerging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extance, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing, next-generation robotics, "sense and avoid" drones that fly themselves, artificial intelligence and "neuromorphic" computing have all made it into the World Economic Forum's top 10 emerging technologies for 2015.

  6. Trajectory correction propulsion for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H. R.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A blowdown-pressurized hydrazine propulsion system was selected to provide trajectory correction impulse for outer planet flyby spacecraft as the result of cost/mass/reliability tradeoff analyses. Present hydrazine component and system technology and component designs were evaluated for application to the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS); while general hydrazine technology was adequate, component design changes were deemed necessary for TOPS-type missions. A prototype hydrazine propulsion system was fabricated and fired nine times for a total of 1600 s to demonstrate the operation and performance of the TOPS propulsion configuration. A flight-weight trajectory correction propulsion subsystem (TCPS) was designed for the TOPS based on actual and estimated advanced components.

  7. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  8. Training Top 10 Hall of Fame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft Corporation and SCC Soft Computer are the newest inductees into the Training Top 10 Hall of Fame, joining the ranks of the 11 companies named to the hall since its inception in 2008 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals subsequently was acquired by Pfizer Inc. in 2009). These 11 companies held Top 10 spots in the Training Top 50, Top 100, and now Top

  9. Top 10 Products of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, American School & University (AS&U) showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the top ten most requested products as determined by readers. The top one on the list is the Bulb crusher which can cut recycling costs by 50%, can hold 1,350 4-foot lamps in a single 55-gallon drum, can crush a 4-foot lamp in…

  10. Top 10 Products of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, American School & University (AS&U) showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the top ten most requested products as determined by readers. The top one on the list is the Bulb crusher which can cut recycling costs by 50%, can hold 1,350 4-foot lamps in a single 55-gallon drum, can crush a 4-foot lamp in

  11. Nonthermal and geometric effects on the symmetric and anti-symmetric surface waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-02-15

    The nonthermal and geometric effects on the propagation of the surface dust acoustic waves are investigated in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab. The symmetric and anti-symmetric dispersion modes of the dust acoustic waves are obtained by the plasma dielectric function with the spectral reflection conditions the slab geometry. The variation of the nonthermal and geometric effects on the symmetric and the anti-symmetric modes of the surface plasma waves is also discussed.

  12. Uncovering the single top: observation of electroweak top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Jorge Armando; /Michigan State U.

    2009-08-01

    The top quark is generally produced in quark and anti-quark pairs. However, the Standard Model also predicts the production of only one top quark which is mediated by the electroweak interaction, known as 'Single Top'. Single Top quark production is important because it provides a unique and direct way to measure the CKM matrix element V{sub tb}, and can be used to explore physics possibilities beyond the Standard Model predictions. This dissertation presents the results of the observation of Single Top using 2.3 fb{sup -1} of Data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis includes the Single Top muon+jets and electron+jets final states and employs Boosted Decision Tress as a method to separate the signal from the background. The resulting Single Top cross section measurement is: (1) {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74{sub -0.74}{sup +0.95} pb, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is p = 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. This corresponds to a standard deviation Gaussian equivalence of 4.6. When combining this result with two other analysis methods, the resulting cross section measurement is: (2) {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb, and the corresponding measurement significance is 5.0 standard deviations.

  13. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    SciTech Connect

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  14. Force Field Calculation with a Top Desk Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jafar H.; Shanshal, Muthanna

    1981-04-01

    A modified "Consistent Force Field " method is described in which the energy minimization is carried out according to the Murtagh-Sargent method rather than the Newton-Raphson method and the number of non-bonded interactions is reduced to interactions between atoms separated by three bonds at the most. The smaller number of interaction terms allowed the programming of the method for a desk top calculator (HP-9810). Calculations are reported for a number of aliphatic molecules

  15. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  16. Symmetrical and anti-symmetrical coherent perfect absorption for acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Pengjiang; Croënne, Charles; Tak Chu, Sai; Li, Jensen

    2014-03-24

    We investigate tunable acoustic absorption enabled by the coherent control of input waves. It relies on coherent perfect absorption originally proposed in optics. By designing appropriate acoustic metamaterial structures with resonating effective bulk modulus or density, we show that complete absorption of incident waves impinging on the metamaterial can be achieved for either symmetrical or anti-symmetrical inputs in the forward and backward directions. By adjusting the relative phase between the two incident beams, absorption can be tuned effectively from unity to zero, making coherent control useful in applications like acoustic modulators, noise controllers, transducers, and switches.

  17. A synthetic method to access symmetric and non-symmetric 2-(N,N'-disubstituted)guanidinebenzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alejandro; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I; García-Báez, Efrén V

    2012-01-01

    Symmetric and non-symmetric 2-(N-H, N-methyl, N-ethylenyl and N-aryl)guanidinebenzothiazoles were synthesized from the reaction of ammonia, methylamine, pyrrolidine and aniline with dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-carbonodithioimidate as intermediate. The products were characterized by ¹H-, ¹³C-NMR spectroscopy and three of them by X-ray diffraction analysis. HN-phenyl protons formed intramolecular hydrogen bonds that assist the stereochemistry of the second substituent, whereas the HN-alkyl protons were involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:22922286

  18. Searching for a top-squark-top-squark pair sample from top counting experiments at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin Min; Young, Bing-Lin

    2000-12-01

    The light top-squark if produced in hadron colliders in the form of the t~1 t¯~1 pair and decaying through the likely decay chain t~1-->χ~+b followed by χ~+-->χ~0ff¯' can mimic closely a top quark event when the mass of the top squark is close to that of the top quark. Because of the much lower production rate, the top squark event can be buried under the top quark event sample. In order to uncover the top squark event, specific selection cuts need to be applied. Through Monte Carlo simulation with suitable kinematic cuts, we find that such a top squark event can be extracted from the top quark sample and detected by the top quark counting experiments in the upcoming upgraded Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC. However, because of the small statistics of run 1 of the Tevatron, the top squark signal remains hidden at run 1.

  19. Note on free symmetric rigid body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragović, Vladimir; Gajić, Borislav; Jovanović, Božidar

    2015-05-01

    We consider the Euler equations of motion of a free symmetric rigid body around a fixed point, restricted to the invariant subspace given by the zero values of the corresponding linear Noether integrals. In the case of the SO( n - 2)-symmetry, we show that almost all trajectories are periodic and that the motion can be expressed in terms of elliptic functions. In the case of the SO( n - 3)-symmetry, we prove the solvability of the problem by using a recent Kozlov's result on the Euler-Jacobi-Lie theorem.

  20. Dual frame symmetric wavelets with limited redundancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, Farras

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we explore the design of 5-band dual frame (overcomplete) wavelets with a dilation factor M = 4. The resulting limit functions are significantly smoother than their orthogonal counterparts at the same dilation factor. An advantage of the proposed filters over the dyadic filterbanks (M = 2) is that the proposed filterbanks result in a reduced redundancy when compared with dyadic frames, while maintaining smoothness. The proposed filterbanks are symmetric and generate four wavelets and a scaling function for each the synthesis and analysis limit functions. All wavelets are equipped with at least one vanishing moment each.

  1. Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1998-03-01

    Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

  2. Chaos in symmetric phase oscillator networks.

    PubMed

    Bick, Christian; Timme, Marc; Paulikat, Danilo; Rathlev, Dirk; Ashwin, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Phase-coupled oscillators serve as paradigmatic models of networks of weakly interacting oscillatory units in physics and biology. The order parameter which quantifies synchronization so far has been found to be chaotic only in systems with inhomogeneities. Here we show that even symmetric systems of identical oscillators may not only exhibit chaotic dynamics, but also chaotically fluctuating order parameters. Our findings imply that neither inhomogeneities nor amplitude variations are necessary to obtain chaos; i.e., nonlinear interactions of phases give rise to the necessary instabilities. PMID:22243002

  3. Stability analysis of axial reflection symmetric spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem Ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore instability regions of non-static axial reflection symmetric spacetime with anisotropic source in the interior. We impose linear perturbation on the Einstein field equations and dynamical equations to establish the collapse equation. The effects of different physical factors like energy density and anisotropic stresses on the instability regions are studied under Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that stiffness parameter has a significant role in this analysis while the reflection terms increase instability ranges of non-static axial collapse.

  4. Hoop conjecture in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri, Marcus A.

    2009-12-01

    We give general sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces due to concentration of matter in spherically symmetric initial data sets satisfying the dominant energy condition. These results are novel in that they apply and are meaningful for arbitrary spacelike slices, that is, they do not require any auxiliary assumptions such as maximality, time symmetry, or special extrinsic foliations, and most importantly they can easily be generalized to the nonspherical case once an existence theory for a modified version of the Jang equation is developed. Moreover, our methods also yield positivity and monotonicity properties of the Misner-Sharp energy.

  5. Study of anomalous top quark flavor-changing neutral current interactions via the tW channel of single-top-quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Etesami, S. M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.

    2010-06-01

    The potential of the LHC for investigation of anomalous top quark interactions with gluon (tug,tcg) through the production of tW channel of single top quarks is studied. In the standard model, the single top quarks in the tW-channel mode are charge symmetric, meaning that {sigma}(pp{yields}t+W{sup -})={sigma}(pp{yields}t+W{sup +}). However, the presence of anomalous flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) couplings leads to charge asymmetry. In this paper, a method is proposed in which this charge asymmetry may be used to constrain anomalous FCNC couplings. The strength of resulting constraints is estimated for the LHC for the center of mass energies of 7 and 14 TeV.

  6. Matrix isolation ESR spectroscopy and magnetic anisotropy of D{sub 3h} symmetric septet trinitrenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misochko, Eugenii Ya.; Akimov, Alexander V.; Masitov, Artem A.; Korchagin, Denis V.; Aldoshin, Sergei M.; Chapyshev, Sergei V.

    2013-05-28

    The fine-structure (FS) parameters D of a series of D{sub 3h} symmetric septet trinitrenes were analyzed theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and compared with the experimental D values derived from ESR spectra. ESR studies show that D{sub 3h} symmetric septet 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrenobenzene with D=-0.0957 cm{sup -1} and E= 0 cm{sup -1} is the major paramagnetic product of the photolysis of 1,3,5-triazido-2,4,6-trichlorobenzene in solid argon matrices at 15 K. Trinitrenes of this type display in the powder X-band ESR spectra intense Z{sub 1}-transition at very low magnetic fields, the position of which allows one to precisely calculate the parameter D of such molecules. Thus, our revision of the FS parameters of well-known 1,3,5-tricyano-2,4,6-trinitrenobenzene [E. Wasserman, K. Schueller, and W. A. Yager, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2, 259 (1968)] shows that this trinitrene has Double-Vertical-Line D Double-Vertical-Line = 0.092 cm{sup -1} and E= 0 cm{sup -1}. DFT calculations reveal that, unlike C{sub 2v} symmetric septet trinitrenes, D{sub 3h} symmetric trinitrenes have the same orientations of the spin-spin coupling tensor D-caret{sub SS} and the spin-orbit coupling tensor D-caret{sub SOC} and, as a result, have negative signs for both the D{sub SS} and D{sub SOC} values. The negative magnetic anisotropy of septet 2,4,6-trinitrenobenzenes is considerably strengthened on introduction of heavy atoms in the molecules, owing to an increase in contributions of various excitation states to the D{sub SOC} term.

  7. High-resolution direct-absorption spectroscopy of hydroxymethyl radical in the CH symmetric stretching region.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Melanie A; Sharp-Williams, Erin N; Nesbitt, David J

    2013-08-15

    High-resolution, fully rotationally resolved direct absorption spectra of hydroxymethyl radical, CH2OH, are presented in the infrared CH stretching region. As a result of low rotational temperatures and sub-Doppler linewidths obtained in the slit supersonic expansion, the Ka = 0 ← 0 band of the symmetric CH stretch for CH2OH has been unambiguously identified and analyzed. By way of chemical confirmation, hydroxymethyl radical is generated via two different slit jet discharge syntheses: (i) direct dissociation of CH3OH to form CH2OH and (ii) dissociation of Cl2 followed by the radical H atom extraction reaction Cl + CH3OH → HCl + CH2OH. The identified transitions are fit to a Watson A-reduced symmetric top Hamiltonian to yield first precision experimental values for the ground state rotational constants as well as improved values for the symmetric stretch rotational constants and vibrational band origin. The results both complement and substantially improve upon spectral efforts via previous double resonance ionization detected infrared methods by Feng et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 2004, 108, 7093], as well as offer high-resolution predictions for laboratory and astronomical detection of hydroxymethyl radical in the millimeter-wave region. PMID:23470104

  8. Top-of-barrier electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macek, J. H.

    1997-04-01

    The energy and angular distribution of electrons ejected from one-electron species by fast ion impact show two noticable features, namely, the binary encounter ridge and the continuum capture cusp. No other features have been conclusively identified although there has been some contradictory evidence for a third feature, namely, saddle point or top-of-barrier electrons. For electrons ejected from atoms by ions with velocities below the mean electron velocity in the initial state, both the binary encounter ridge and the continuum capture cusp are suppressed. In this region the top-of-barrier mechanism is predicted to contribute strongly to ionization. Theoretical and experimental evidence for the associated top-of-barrier electrons is reviewed.

  9. Light 't Hooft top partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Parolini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Vectorlike quarks, usually dubbed top partners, are a common presence in composite Higgs models. Being composite objects, their mass is expected to be of the order of their inverse size, that is the condensation scale of the new strong interactions. Light top partners, while not being a generic prediction, are, however, often considered in phenomenological models. We suggest that their lightness may be due to the matching of global 't Hooft anomalies of the underlying theory. We check this mechanism in explicit models, showing that, in one case, composite fermions with the quantum numbers of the top quark obtain a mass which is controlled by a soft breaking term and can be made parametrically small.

  10. Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.

  11. Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Light Galileon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, D.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Güdekli, E.; Rodrigues, M. E.; Alvarenga, F. G.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2016-02-01

    We have been studied the model of light Galileon with translational shift symmetry ϕ → ϕ + c. The matter Lagrangian is presented in the form {L}_{φ }= -η (partial φ )2+β G^{μ ν }partial _{μ }φ partial _{ν }φ . We have been addressed two issues: the first is that, we have been proven that, this type of Galileons belong to the modified matter-curvature models of gravity in type of f(R,R^{μ ν }T_{μ ν }m). Secondly, we have been investigated exact solution for spherically symmetric geometries in this model. We have been found an exact solution with singularity at r = 0 in null coordinates. We have been proven that the solution has also a non-divergence current vector norm. This solution can be considered as an special solution which has been investigated in literature before, in which the Galileon's field is non-static (time dependence). Our scalar-shift symmetrized Galileon has the simple form of ϕ = t, which it is remembered by us dilaton field.

  12. Fast numerical determination of symmetric sparsity patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.G.

    1994-08-01

    The author considers a function g: {Re}{sup n} {yields} {Re}{sup n} for which the Jacobian is symmetric and sparse. Such functions often arise, for instance, in numerical optimization, where g is the gradient of some objective function f so that the Jacobian of g is the Hessian of f. In many such applications one can generate extremely efficient algorithms by taking advantage of the sparsity structure of the problem if this pattern is known a priori. Unfortunately, determining such sparsity structures by hand is often difficult and prone to error. If one suspects a mistake has been made, or if g is a {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} so that the true structure is completely unknown, one often has no alternative but to compute the entire matrix by finite differences - a prohibitively expensive task for large problems. The author shows that it is possible to numerically determine symmetric sparsity patterns using a relatively small number of g evaluations. Numerical results are shown for n up to 100,000 in which all nonzeros in the Jacobian are correctly identified in about one-hundredth of the time required to estimate the sparsity structure by a full finite difference calculation. When a good initial guess for the sparsity structure is available, numerical results are presented for n up to 500,000, in which all missing nonzeros are correctly located almost five-thousand times faster than would be possible with a full finite difference calculation.

  13. Conditional symmetric instability and mesoscale rainbands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Q.

    1986-01-01

    The linear theory of conditional symmetric instability (CSI) is re-examined in a rigorous framework. In comparison with symmetric instability a new feature of CSI is that the moist updraught tends to be narrow, as with conditional buoyancy instability (CBI). As the width of the moist updraught varies from its tolerance maximum to infinitesimal, the inviscid growth rate increases from zero to its maximum and the slope of the moist updraught increases from the absolute momentum surface to the moist most unstable surface. The fact that CSI circulations absorb energy from the basic shear and moist thermal field but lose energy to the dry basic thermal field is responsible for the narrow and slant feature of the moist updraught. When a bulk viscosity is accounted for, the most rapidly growing CSI modes bear a qualitative resemblance to some observed rainbands. The stability criterion of viscous CSI also shows a better comparison with observational data than inviscid CSI. The linear CSI theory here predicts that the isolated mode is preferred to other non-isolated (periodic or irregular spacing) modes. The preference of non-isolated modes is speculated to occur in the nonlinear stage.

  14. Parallel solution of the symmetric tridiagonal eigenproblem

    SciTech Connect

    Jessup, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis discusses methods for computing all eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric tridiagonal matrix on a distributed memory MIMD multiprocessor. Only those techniques having the potential for both high numerical accuracy and significant large-grained parallelism are investigated. These include the QL method or Cuppen's divide and conquer method based on rank-one updating to compute both eigenvalues and eigenvectors, bisection to determine eigenvalues, and inverse iteration to compute eigenvectors. To begin, the methods are compared with respect to computation time, communication time, parallel speedup, and accuracy. Experiments on an iPSC hyper-cube multiprocessor reveal that Cuppen's method is the most accurate approach, but bisection with inverse iteration is the fastest and most parallel. Because the accuracy of the latter combination is determined by the quality of the computed eigenvectors, the factors influencing the accuracy of inverse iteration are examined. This includes, in part, statistical analysis of the effects of a starting vector with random components. These results are used to develop an implementation of inverse iteration producing eigenvectors with lower residual error and better orthogonality than those generated by the EISPACK routine TINVIT. This thesis concludes with adaptations of methods for the symmetric tridiagonal eigenproblem to the related problem of computing the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a bidiagonal matrix.

  15. Cyclicity of some symmetric nilpotent centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isaac A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present techniques for bounding the cyclicity of a wide class of monodromic nilpotent singularities of symmetric polynomial planar vector fields. The starting point is identifying a broad family of nilpotent symmetric fields for which existence of a center is equivalent to existence of a local analytic first integral, which, unlike the degenerate case, is not true in general for nilpotent singularities. We are able to relate so-called "focus quantities" to the "Poincaré-Lyapunov quantities" arising from the Poincaré first return map. When we apply the method to concrete examples, we show in some cases that the upper bound is sharp. Our approach is based on computational algebra methods for determining a minimal basis (constructed by focus quantities instead of by Poincaré-Lyapunov quantities because of the easier computability of the former) of the associated polynomial Bautin ideal in the parameter space of the family. The case in which the Bautin ideal is not radical is also treated.

  16. The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, B. A.; Wendt, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M. The vortex generators are mounted either in isolation or in a symmetric counter-rotating array configuration on the inside surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio is delta/R = 0. 17. Circulation and peak vorticity data are derived from crossplane velocity measurements conducted at or about 1 chord downstream of the vortex generator trailing edge. Shed vortex circulation is observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. With these parameters held constant, circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio AR. Shed vortex peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. Unlike circulation, however, peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at AR approx. 2.0 before falling off.

  17. Decay Structure for Symmetric Hyperbolic Systems with Non-Symmetric Relaxation and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Duan, Renjun; Kawashima, Shuichi

    2012-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the decay structure for linear symmetric hyperbolic systems with relaxation. When the relaxation matrix is symmetric, the dissipative structure of the systems is completely characterized by the Kawashima-Shizuta stability condition formulated in Umeda et al. (Jpn J Appl Math 1:435-457, 1984) and Shizuta and Kawashima (Hokkaido Math J 14:249-275, 1985) and we obtain the asymptotic stability result together with the explicit time-decay rate under that stability condition. However, some physical models which satisfy the stability condition have non-symmetric relaxation term (for example, the Timoshenko system and the Euler-Maxwell system). Moreover, it had been already known that the dissipative structure of such systems is weaker than the standard type and is of the regularity-loss type (see Duan in J Hyperbolic Differ Equ 8:375-413, 2011; Ide et al. in Math Models Meth Appl Sci 18:647-667, 2008; Ide and Kawashima in Math Models Meth Appl Sci 18:1001-1025, 2008; Ueda et al. in SIAM J Math Anal 2012; Ueda and Kawashima in Methods Appl Anal 2012). Therefore our purpose in this paper is to formulate a new structural condition which includes the Kawashima-Shizuta condition, and to analyze the weak dissipative structure for general systems with non-symmetric relaxation.

  18. Top Quark Spin Correlations - Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2012-02-01

    The top quark decay width (G{sub F}m{sub t}{sup 3} {approx} 1 GeV) is much larger than the QCD hadronization scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD} {approx} 0.1 GeV) and much larger than the spin decorrelation scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}/m{sub t} {approx} 0.1 MeV). Therefore, spin correlations in top quark pair production are reflected in angular correlations of the decay products, see [1] and [2].

  19. Single-molecule studies of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Stuart

    2005-03-01

    Structural heterogeniety, i.e., the existence of multiple nearly-degenerate conformational substates of molecules, plays a key role in biological machinery. Therefore, in order to understand many biological processes, it is necessary to examine processes at the single molecule level. This talk will describe AFM imaging of processes involved in turning on genes (1), methods for chemically-identifying single proteins (2) and methods for wiring single molecules into electrical circuits (3). .1. H. Wang et al., Biophys. J. 87, 1964--1971 (2004). 2. C. Stroh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 101, 12503--12507 (2004). 3. X. D. Cui et al., Science 294, 571 (2001).

  20. Magnetic control of a meta-molecule.

    PubMed

    Stenning, Gavin B G; Bowden, Graham J; Maple, Lewis C; Gregory, Simon A; Sposito, Alberto; Eason, Robert W; Zheludev, Nikolay I; de Groot, Peter A J

    2013-01-28

    Metamaterials offer the prospect of new science and applications. They have been designed by shaping or changing the material of the individual meta-molecules to achieve properties not naturally attainable. Composite meta-molecules incorporating a magnetic component offer new opportunities. In this work we report on the interaction between a non-magnetic split ring resonator (SRR) and a thin film of yttrium iron garnet (YIG). Strong hybridized resonances are observed. While the SRR is characterized by a magnetic and electric resonance, in practice, it is found that the YIG couples strongly to this symmetric (electric) mode of the SRR. It is also demonstrated that the anti-crossing region provides fertile ground for the creation of elementary excitations such as backward volume magnetostatic waves. PMID:23389127

  1. Training Top 10 Hall of Fame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft Corporation and SCC Soft Computer are the newest inductees into the Training Top 10 Hall of Fame, joining the ranks of the 11 companies named to the hall since its inception in 2008 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals subsequently was acquired by Pfizer Inc. in 2009). These 11 companies held Top 10 spots in the Training Top 50, Top 100, and now Top…

  2. Symmetric instability in the Gulf Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Leif N.; Taylor, John R.; Ferrari, Raffaele; Joyce, Terrence M.

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of wintertime surveys of the Gulf Stream (GS) conducted as part of the CLIvar MOde water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE) reveal that water with negative potential vorticity (PV) is commonly found within the surface boundary layer (SBL) of the current. The lowest values of PV are found within the North Wall of the GS on the isopycnal layer occupied by Eighteen Degree Water, suggesting that processes within the GS may contribute to the formation of this low-PV water mass. In spite of large heat loss, the generation of negative PV was primarily attributable to cross-front advection of dense water over light by Ekman flow driven by winds with a down-front component. Beneath a critical depth, the SBL was stably stratified yet the PV remained negative due to the strong baroclinicity of the current, suggesting that the flow was symmetrically unstable. A large eddy simulation configured with forcing and flow parameters based on the observations confirms that the observed structure of the SBL is consistent with the dynamics of symmetric instability (SI) forced by wind and surface cooling. The simulation shows that both strong turbulence and vertical gradients in density, momentum, and tracers coexist in the SBL of symmetrically unstable fronts. SI is a shear instability that draws its energy from geostrophic flows. A parameterization for the rate of kinetic energy (KE) extraction by SI applied to the observations suggests that SI could result in a net dissipation of 33 mW m-2 and 1 mW m-2 for surveys with strong and weak fronts, respectively. The surveys also showed signs of baroclinic instability (BCI) in the SBL, namely thermally direct vertical circulations that advect biomass and PV. The vertical circulation was inferred using the omega equation and used to estimate the rate of release of available potential energy (APE) by BCI. The rate of APE release was found to be comparable in magnitude to the net dissipation associated with SI. This result points to an energy pathway where the GS's reservoir of APE is drained by BCI, converted to KE, and then dissipated by SI and its secondary instabilities. Similar dynamics are likely to be found at other strong fronts forced by winds and/or cooling and could play an important role in the energy balance of the ocean circulation.

  3. The 2003 Training Top 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Tammy

    2003-01-01

    Identifies the top 100 U.S. companies in terms of the amount spent on training and development, the number of hours of training per employee, percentage of payroll spent on training, and tuition allotment per employee. Describes best practices in succession planning and leadership development, mentoring, and job shadowing and provides a detailed…

  4. Race to Top Applications Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen; Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    As peer reviewers for the U.S. Department of Education begin to comb through the thousands of pages of applications for $4 billion in federal Race to the Top Fund grants, they'll be under pressure to determine which are most worthy of funding: those that promise the most, or those with the best chance of delivering. In a competition whose criteria…

  5. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  6. Top, Higgs and Electroweak Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, Paul L.

    2006-11-17

    Hadron colliders are, and will continue to be, an excellent venue for testing the standard model of particle physics. We describe the status of top-quark physics and the direct search for a standard model Higgs boson. We briefly describe the use of Tevatron and LEP data to indirectly infer the standard model Higgs mass through precision electroweak measurements.

  7. Observation of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  8. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  9. "Top School Problems" Are Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1992-01-01

    A well-known "study" comparing the top school problems of 1940 (talking and gum chewing) with those of 1987 (drug abuse, pregnancy, and violence) is nonexistent. In 1940, 49 percent of all youth did not finish high school, 37,000 teenagers died from violence or disease, and 335,000 teens gave birth. Educators should discount pastoral memories and…

  10. Top quark mass and kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.

    2006-05-01

    A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.

  11. Top Internal Concerns for 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W.; Johnson, Sandra L.

    1991-01-01

    The top internal issues identified by leaders in higher education management as most likely to influence colleges' financial and competitive positions in the near future include tuition policy and financing, capital renewal and replacement, research funding, planning and budgeting, and cost and productivity. (Author/MSE)

  12. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority

  13. Exploring Rotation-Vibration Coupling in Highly Fluxional Molecules Using Surface Hopping Diffusion Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Andrew S.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2012-06-01

    Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) has widely been shown to be a powerful technique for studying ro-vibrational states of highly fluxional molecules and clusters. An extension of DMC to multiple potential energy surfaces (PESs) based on the Tully surface hopping approach has previously been developed by our group. Here, we report an application of this approach to the calculation of rotationally excited states of systems with pronounced rotation-vibration coupling and large-amplitude, zero-point vibrational motion. More specifically, for a chosen value of J, each walker in the DMC ensemble is expanded in a symmetric top basis. The expansion coefficients are updated each time-step based on the action of the rigid-rotor asymmetric top Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian is constructed using the inverse moment of inertia tensor evaluated in the Eckart frame at the walker's position in configuration space. Each walker is then localized onto a single, K-dependent effective PES, and the effective potential energy associated with the walker's position on that surface determines the evolution of its weight in the DMC ensemble. Preliminary results of the application of this methodology to model systems such as H_3^+ and H_2D^+ will be discussed as well as its prospect for accurately evaluating ro-vibrational states of systems like CH_5^+. Finally, a comparison of this technique with our previously developed fixed-node DMC approach for the evaluation of ro-vibrational energies and wave functions will be presented. J. C. Tully, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990). A.B. McCoy, Chem. Phys. Lett. 321, 71 (2000). A. S. Petit, B. A. Wellen, and A. B. McCoy, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 074101 (2012).

  14. Simultaneous Evaluation of Multiple Rotationally Excited States of Floppy Molecules Using Diffusion Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Anne B.; Ford, Jason E.; Marlett, Melanie L.; Petit, Andrew S.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, an extension to diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is proposed, allowing for the simultaneous calculation of the energy and wave function of multiple rotationally excited states of floppy molecules. The total wave function is expanded into a set of Dirac δ-functions called walkers, while the rotational portion of the wave function is expanded in a symmetric top basis set. Each walker is given a rotational state vector containing coefficients for all states of interest. The positions of the atoms and the coefficients in the state vector evolve according to the split operator approximation of the quantum propagator. The method was benchmarked by comparing calculated rotation-vibration energies for H_3^+, H_2D^+, and H_3O^+ to experimental values. For low to moderate values of J, the resulting energies are within the statistical uncertainty of the calculation. Rotation-vibration coupling is captured through flexibility introduced in the form of the vibrational wave function. This coupling is found to increase with increasing J-values. Based on the success achieved through these systems, the method was applied to CH_5^+ and its deuterated isotopologues for v = 0, J ≥ 10. Based on these calculations, the energy level structure of CH_5^+ is found to resemble that for a of a spherical top, and excitations up to J = 10 displayed insignificant rotation-vibration coupling. Extensions of this approach that explicitly account for vibrations will also be discussed. ` A. S. Petit, J. E. Ford and A. B. McCoy, J. Phys. Chem. A, in press, K. D. Jordan Festschrift, DOI: 10.1021/jp408821a

  15. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-01

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z2 subgroup of B -L . Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for S U (2 )×S U (2 )×U (1 ) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  16. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)SU(2)U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV. PMID:26430988

  17. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Latham; Khoo, Jun Yong; Smith, Kendrick

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems. PMID:26799028

  18. Radially symmetric transmon with long lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Martin; Vissers, Michael; Gao, Jiansong; Pappas, David

    2014-03-01

    We present a radially symmetric design for a large pad transmon qubit. The symmetry reduces the dipole radiation by orders of magnitude relative to axial large pad qubits that are widely used for 3D-circuit QED experiments. The reduction in radiation allows for the use of large area structures that are needed to reduce the effects of interface losses. This enables long qubit lifetimes without the use of a high-Q cavity resonator. Energy relaxation and coherence times of up to 35 microseconds have been measured. The qubit can be implemented in a microstrip geometry. This gives the advantage of removing discontinuous ground planes that can cause stray resonances. In addition, this geometry is well suited for implementing and exploring circuits with direct qubit-qubit coupling.

  19. Highly symmetric POVMs and their informational power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słomczyński, Wojciech; Szymusiak, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the dependence of the Shannon entropy of normalized finite rank-1 POVMs on the choice of the input state, looking for the states that minimize this quantity. To distinguish the class of measurements where the problem can be solved analytically, we introduce the notion of highly symmetric POVMs and classify them in dimension 2 (for qubits). In this case, we prove that the entropy is minimal, and hence, the relative entropy (informational power) is maximal, if and only if the input state is orthogonal to one of the states constituting a POVM. The method used in the proof, employing the Michel theory of critical points for group action, the Hermite interpolation, and the structure of invariant polynomials for unitary-antiunitary groups, can also be applied in higher dimensions and for other entropy-like functions. The links between entropy minimization and entropic uncertainty relations, the Wehrl entropy, and the quantum dynamical entropy are described.

  20. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  1. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  2. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Latham; Khoo, Jun Yong; Smith, Kendrick

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems.

  3. Plane-symmetric cosmology with relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Peter

    1998-09-01

    A numerical code, developed for cosmology and to investigate fully nonlinear behavior in the plane-symmetric Einstein equations, is described in detail. The field equations are solved self-consistently with the general relativistic hydrodynamical conservation equations, using artificial viscosity methods for shock capturing and an ideal fluid stress-energy tensor with a cosmological constant. Several tests of the code are presented, including anisotropically expanding vacuum and isotropically expanding de Sitter, dust-filled and radiation-filled cosmologies, gravitational waves in flat and anisotropically expanding background models, sub- and super-horizon scale density perturbations in an expanding FLRW background, and both Newtonian and relativistic shock tube evolutions. Also discussed is a gauge drift instability that can appear in near-geodesic evolutions of density perturbations when the dynamical time scale of collapse becomes smaller than the cosmological expansion rate.

  4. Symmetrical Taylor impact of glass bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N. H.; Bourne, N. K.; Field, J. E.; Rosenberg, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Brar and Bless pioneered the use of plate impact upon bars as a technique for investigating the 1D stress loading of glass but limited their studies to relatively modest stresses (1). We wish to extend this technique by applying VISAR and embedded stress gauge measurements to a symmetrical version of the test in which two rods impact one upon the other. Previous work in the laboratory has characterised the glass types (soda-lime and borosilicate)(2). These experiments identify the failure mechanisms from high-speed photography and the stress and particle velocity histories are interpreted in the light of these results. The differences in response of the glasses and the relation of the fracture to the failure wave in uniaxial strain are discussed.

  5. Implications of nonlinearity for spherically symmetric accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sourav; Ray, Arnab K.

    2014-03-01

    We subject the steady solutions of a spherically symmetric accretion flow to a time-dependent radial perturbation. The equation of the perturbation includes nonlinearity up to any arbitrary order and bears a form that is very similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. Casting the perturbation as a standing wave on subsonic solutions, and maintaining nonlinearity in it up to the second order, we get the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system. A dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system reveals a saddle point in real time, with the implication that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. The instability of initial subsonic states also adversely affects the temporal evolution of the flow toward a final and stable transonic state.

  6. Parametric separation of symmetric pure quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Jiménez, O.; Neves, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum state separation is a probabilistic map that transforms a given set of pure states into another set of more distinguishable ones. Here we investigate such a map acting onto uniparametric families of symmetric linearly dependent or independent quantum states. We obtained analytical solutions for the success probability of the maps—which is shown to be optimal—as well as explicit constructions in terms of positive operator valued measures. Our results can be used for state discrimination strategies interpolating continuously between minimum-error and unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination, which, in turn, have many applications in quantum information protocols. As an example, we show that quantum teleportation through a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel can be accomplished with higher probability than the one provided by unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination and with higher fidelity than the one achievable by minimum-error discrimination. Finally, an optical network is proposed for implementing parametric state separation.

  7. A symmetric bipolar nebula around MWC 922.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, P G; Lloyd, J P

    2007-04-13

    We report regular and symmetric structure around dust-enshrouded Be star MWC 922 obtained with infrared imaging. Biconical lobes that appear nearly square in aspect, forming this "Red Square" nebula, are crossed by a series of rungs that terminate in bright knots or "vortices," and an equatorial dark band crossing the core delimits twin hyperbolic arcs. The intricate yet cleanly constructed forms that comprise the skeleton of the object argue for minimal perturbation from global turbulent or chaotic effects. We also report the presence of a linear comb structure, which may arise from optically projected shadows of a periodic feature in the inner regions, such as corrugations in the rim of a circumstellar disk. The sequence of nested polar rings draws comparison with the triple-ring system seen around the only naked-eye supernova in recent history: SN1987A. PMID:17431173

  8. Torus quantization of symmetrically excited helium

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J. ); Burgdoerfer, J. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6377 ); Noid, D. )

    1992-02-01

    The recent discovery by Richter and Wintgen (J. Phys. B 23, L197 (1990)) that the classical helium atom is not globally ergodic has stimulated renewed interest in its semiclassical quantization. The Einstein-Brillouin-Keller quantization of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori around stable periodic orbits becomes locally possible in a selected region of phase space. Using a hyperspherical representation we have found a dynamically confining potential allowing for a stable motion near the Wannier ridge. The resulting semiclassical eigenenergies provide a test for full quantum calculations in the limit of very high quantum numbers. The relations to frequently used group-theoretical classifications for doubly excited states and to the periodic-orbit quantization of the chaotic portion of the phase space are discussed. The extrapolation of the semiclassical quantization to low-lying states give remarkably accurate estimates for the energies of all symmetric {ital L}=0 states of helium.

  9. Consistency of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Dorje C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent reports, suggestions have been put forward to the effect that parity and time-reversal (PT) symmetry in quantum mechanics is incompatible with causality. It is shown here, in contrast, that PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is fully consistent with standard quantum mechanics. This follows from the surprising fact that the much-discussed metric operator on Hilbert space is not physically observable. In particular, for closed quantum systems in finite dimensions there is no statistical test that one can perform on the outcomes of measurements to determine whether the Hamiltonian is Hermitian in the conventional sense, or PT-symmetric—the two theories are indistinguishable. Nontrivial physical effects arising as a consequence of PT symmetry are expected to be observed, nevertheless, for open quantum systems with balanced gain and loss.

  10. Pseudo-Z symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Suh, Young Jin

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate Pseudo-Z symmetric space-time manifolds. First, we deal with elementary properties showing that the associated form A{sub k} is closed: in the case the Ricci tensor results to be Weyl compatible. This notion was recently introduced by one of the present authors. The consequences of the Weyl compatibility on the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor are pointed out. This determines the Petrov types of such space times. Finally, we investigate some interesting properties of (PZS){sub 4} space-time; in particular, we take into consideration perfect fluid and scalar field space-time, and interesting properties are pointed out, including the Petrov classification. In the case of scalar field space-time, it is shown that the scalar field satisfies a generalized eikonal equation. Further, it is shown that the integral curves of the gradient field are geodesics. A classical method to find a general integral is presented.

  11. Symmetric Resonance Charge Exchange Cross Section Based on Impact Parameter Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, Kazem; Murphy, Kendrah; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using a two-state impact parameter approximation, a calculation has been carried out to obtain symmetric resonance charge transfer cross sections between nine ions and their parent atoms or molecules. Calculation is based on a two-dimensional numerical integration. The method is mostly suited for hydrogenic and some closed shell atoms. Good agreement has been obtained with the results of laboratory measurements for the ion-atom pairs H+-H, He+-He, and Ar+-Ar. Several approximations in a similar published calculation have been eliminated.

  12. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego M; Pimentel, Luciano A; Pessoa, André F; Dantas, Antônio F M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2010-09-01

    Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep. However, this lesion has not been reported in goats. The current paper reports a case of FSE in a goat from the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid region. As reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying between 1 and 14 days. The flock was grazing native pasture supplemented with wheat and corn bran. Additionally, lactating goats were supplemented with soybeans. A 4-month-old goat with nervous signs was examined clinically and then necropsied 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Bilateral, focal, and symmetrical areas of brown discoloration were observed in the internal capsule and thalamus. Histologic lesions in these areas consisted of multifocal, bilateral malacia with a few neutrophils; endothelial cell swelling; perivascular edema; and hemorrhages. The etiology of these lesions was not determined. However, FSE is considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep, and it is speculated that this microorganism was the etiologic agent in the present case. The flock had been vaccinated against type D enterotoxemia only once, approximately 3 months before the beginning of the outbreak. Insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination protocol, low efficacy of the vaccine used, and a diet including large amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates were suspected to be predisposing factors for this outbreak. PMID:20807946

  13. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient computational method for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures is proposed. The application of mixed models simplifies the analytical development and improves the accuracy of the response predictions, and operator splitting allows the reduction of the analysis model of the quasi-symmetric structure to that of the corresponding symmetric structure. The preconditoned conjugate gradient provides a stable and effective technique for generating the unsymmetric response of the structure as the sum of a symmetrized response plus correction modes. The effectiveness of the strategy is demonstrated with the example of a laminated anisotropic shallow shell of quadrilateral planform subjected to uniform normal loading.

  14. Integrable nonlinear parity-time-symmetric optical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Absar U.; Hodaei, Hossein; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a balanced parity-time-symmetric optical microring arrangement are analytically investigated. By considering gain and loss saturation effects, the pertinent conservation laws are explicitly obtained in the Stokes domain, thus establishing integrability. Our analysis indicates the existence of two regimes of oscillatory dynamics and frequency locking, both of which are analogous to those expected in linear parity-time-symmetric systems. Unlike other saturable parity-time-symmetric systems considered before, the model studied in this work first operates in the symmetric regime and then enters the broken parity-time phase.

  15. Passive PT -symmetric couplers without complex optical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Chan; Liu, Jibing; Chuang, You-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the implementation of parity-time-(PT -) symmetric optical systems by carefully and actively controlling the gain and loss, we show that a 2 ×2 PT -symmetric Hamiltonian has a unitarily equivalent representation without complex optical potentials in the resulting optical coupler. Through the Naimark dilation in operator algebra, passive PT -symmetric couplers can thus be implemented with a refractive index of real values and asymmetric coupling coefficients. This opens up the possibility to implement general PT -symmetric systems with state-of-the-art asymmetric slab waveguides, dissimilar optical fibers, or cavities with chiral mirrors.

  16. Entanglement equivalence of N-qubit symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Mathonet, P.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Godefroid, M.; Solano, E.

    2010-05-15

    We study the interconversion of multipartite symmetric N-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). We demonstrate that if two symmetric states can be connected with a nonsymmetric invertible local operation (ILO), then they belong necessarily to the separable, W, or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement class, establishing a practical method of discriminating subsets of entanglement classes. Furthermore, we prove that there always exists a symmetric ILO connecting any pair of symmetric N-qubit states equivalent under SLOCC, simplifying the requirements for experimental implementations of local interconversion of those states.

  17. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 and was the last of the quarks to be discovered. As the partner of the bottom quark the top quark is expected to have quantum numbers identical to that of the other known up-type quarks. Only the mass is a free parameter. We now know that it is more than 30 times heavier than the next heaviest quark, the bottom quark. Thus, within the Standard Model all production and decay properties are fully defined. Having the complete set of quarks further allows to verify constraints that the Standard Model puts on the sum of all quarks or particles. This alone is reason enough to experimentally study the top quark properties. The high value of the top quark mass and its closeness to the electroweak scale has inspired people to speculate that the top quark could have a special role in the electroweak symmetry breaking. Confirming the expected properties of the top quark experimentally establishes the top quark as we expect it to be. Any deviation from the expectations gives hints to new physics that may help to solve the outstanding questions. In this review the recent results on top quark properties obtained by the Tevatron experiments CDF and D0 are summarized. At the advent of the LHC special emphasis is given to the basic measurement methods and the dominating systematic uncertainties. After a short introduction to the Standard Model and the experimental environment in the remainder of this chapter, Chapter 2 describes the current status of top quark mass measurements. Then measurments of interaction properties are described in Chapter 3. Finally, Chapter 4 deals with analyses that consider hypothetical particles beyond the Standard Model in the observed events.

  18. Propagation of symmetric and non-symmetric lean hydrogen flames in narrow channels: influence of heat losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Carmen; Kurdyumov, Vadim

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations, including detailed chemistry and transport, are used to investigate the structure and stability of freely propagating lean hydrogen flames in planar narrow channels. Depending on the flame burning rate and the wall properties, the flame-wall heat exchange can result in flame extinction. For large heat losses only the fastest burning flames, corresponding to fast reactant flowing rates can propagate. We show that double flame solutions, symmetric and non-symmetric, can coexist for the same set of parameters. The symmetric solutions are calculated imposing symmetric boundary conditions in the channel mid-plane and when this restriction is relaxed non-symmetric solutions develop. This indicates that the symmetric flames are unstable to non-symmetric perturbations, as predicted before within the context of a constant density model. Moreover, the burning rates of the non-symmetric flames are found to be significantly larger than those of the corresponding symmetric solution and therefore the range of conditions for flame extinction and flashback also differ. This shows that assuming in CFD that the flame should reproduce the symmetry of the cold flow can have important safety implications in micro scale combustion devices burning lean hydrogen mixture.

  19. Trapping polar molecules in an ac trap

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Veldhoven, Jacqueline van; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard

    2006-12-15

    Polar molecules in high-field seeking states cannot be trapped in static traps as Maxwell's equations do not allow a maximum of the electric field in free space. It is possible to generate an electric field that has a saddle point by superposing an inhomogeneous electric field to an homogeneous electric field. In such a field, molecules are focused along one direction, while being defocused along the other. By reversing the direction of the inhomogeneous electric field the focusing and defocusing directions are reversed. When the fields are being switched back and forth at the appropriate rate, this leads to a net focusing force in all directions. We describe possible electrode geometries for creating the desired fields and discuss their merits. Trapping of {sup 15}ND{sub 3} ammonia molecules in a cylindrically symmetric ac trap is demonstrated. We present measurements of the spatial distribution of the trapped cloud as a function of the settings of the trap and compare these to both a simple model assuming a linear force and to full three-dimensional simulations of the experiment. With the optimal settings, molecules within a phase-space volume of 270 mm{sup 3} (m/s){sup 3} remain trapped. This corresponds to a trap depth of about 5 mK and a trap volume of about 20 mm{sup 3}.

  20. Attitude propulsion technology for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem (APS) effort is discussed. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of an anhydrous hydrazine baseline system, followed by a discussion of the 0.22 N thruster and its integration into a portable, self-contained propulsion module that was designed, developed, and man rated to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests. The results of a cold-start feasibility demonstration with a modified thruster are presented. A description of three types of 0.44 thrusters that were procured for in-house evaluation is included along with the results of the test program. This is followed by a description of the APS feed system components, their evaluations, and a discussion of an evaluation of elastomeric material for valve seat seals. A list of new technology items which will be of value for application to future systems of this type is included.

  1. Scalar top study: Detector optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-09-01

    A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  2. Top quark electromagnetic dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzas, Antonio O.; Larios, F.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic and electric dipole moments of the top quark are constrained indirectly by the Br(B ? Xs?) and the ACP(B ? Xs?) measurements. They can also be tested by top quark production and decay processes. The recent measurement of production by CDF are used to set direct constraints. The B ? Xs? measurements by themselves define an allowed parameter region that sets up stringent constraints on both dipole moments. The measurement by CDF has a ? 37% error that is too large to set any competitive bounds, for which a much lower 5% error would be required. For the LHC it is found that with its higher energy the same measurement could indeed further constrain the allowed parameter region given by the B ? Xs? measurement [1]. In addition, the proposed LHeC experiment (electron- proton) could provide even more stringent constraints than the LHC via the photoproduction channel [2].

  3. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  4. Top quark results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present the latest results on the top quark obtained by the CDF experiment using a data sample of about 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We briefly describe the candidate events selection and then discuss the production cross section determination and the mass measurement. The study of two new decay channels (all hadronic and ``tau dilepton``) is also reported.

  5. Cloud Top Scanning radiometer (CTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiometer to be used for measuring cloud radiances in each of three spectral regions is described. Significant features incorporated in the Cloud Top Scanner design are: (1) flexibility and growth potential through use of easily replaceable modular detectors and filters; (2) full aperture, multilevel inflight calibration; (3) inherent channel registration through employment of a single shared field stop; and (4) radiometric sensitivity margin in a compact optical design through use of Honeywell developed (Hg,Cd)Te detectors and preamplifiers.

  6. Observation of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, H.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-05-01

    The DO collaboration reports on a search for the Standard Model top quark in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, with an integrated luminosity of approximately 50 pb{sup {minus}1}. We have searched for t{bar t} production in the dilepton and single-lepton decay channels, with and without tagging of b quark jets. We observe 17 events with an expected background of 3.8 {plus_minus} 0.6 events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (equivalent to 4.6 standard deviations). The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with top quark decay. We conclude that we have observed the top quark and measure its mass to be 199{sub {minus}21}{sup +19} (stat.) {plus_minus}22 (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2} and its production cross section to be 6.4 {plus_minus} 2.2 pb.

  7. A natural symmetrization for the plummer potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    We propose a symmetrized form of the softened gravitational potential which is a natural extension of the Plummer potential. The gravitational potential at the position of particle i( xi, yi, zi), induced by particle j at ( xj, yj, zj), is given by: ϕij=-{Gmj}/{|rij2+ɛi2+ɛj2|}, where G is the gravitational constant, mj is the mass of particle j, rij = ∣( xi - xj) 2 + ( yi - yj) 2 + ( zi - zj) 2∣ 1/2 and ɛi and ɛj are the gravitational softening lengths of particles i and j, respectively. This form is formally an extension of the Newtonian potential to five dimensions. The derivative of this equation in the x, y, and z directions correspond to the gravitational accelerations in these directions and they are always symmetric between two particles. When one applies this potential to a group of particles with different softening lengths, as in the case with a tree code, an averaged gravitational softening length for the group can be used. We find that the most suitable averaged softening length for a group of particles is <ɛj2>=∑jNmjɛj2/M, where M=∑jNmj and N are the mass and number of all particles in the group, respectively. The leading error related to the softening length is O∑jδrjδ ɛj2/rij3, where δrj is the distance between particle j and the center of mass of the group and δɛj2=ɛj2-<ɛj2>. Using this averaged gravitational softening length with the tree method, one can use a single tree to evaluate the gravitational forces for a system of particles with a wide variety of gravitational softening lengths. Consequently, this will reduce the calculation cost of the gravitational force for such a system with different softenings without the need for complicated forms of softening. We present the result of simple numerical tests. We found that our modification of the Plummer potential works well.

  8. 47 CFR 51.711 - Symmetrical reciprocal compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. 51.711... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Reciprocal Compensation for Transport and Termination of Telecommunications Traffic § 51.711 Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. (a) Rates for transport and termination...

  9. 47 CFR 51.711 - Symmetrical reciprocal compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. 51.711... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Reciprocal Compensation for Transport and Termination of Telecommunications Traffic § 51.711 Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. (a) Rates for transport and termination...

  10. Reduction Formulae for Symmetric Products of Spin Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Palash B.

    2016-02-01

    We show that, for SU(2) generators of arbitrary dimension D there exist identities that express the completely symmetric product of D matrices in terms of completely symmetric products of fewer number of matrices. We also indicate why such identities are important in characterizing electromagnetic interactions of particles.

  11. 47 CFR 51.711 - Symmetrical reciprocal compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. 51.711 Section 51.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Traffic § 51.711 Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. (a) Rates for transport and termination of...

  12. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  13. Detection of chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, David

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have seen an enormous growth of rich physics performed with cold samples of diatomic molecules, as well as impressive demonstrations of techniques to cool polyatomic molecules containing several (~7) atoms. Here we present progress in our methods to produce cold, dense, slow moving samples of molecules of many (>20) atoms from cryogenic buffer gas cells. The ability to produce cold, slow samples of such molecules opens up a host of potential research paths, including ultra-high precision spectroscopy, searches for changes in fundamental constants, and a rich set of experiments in the complex, low-decoherence Hilbert space spanned by the rotational and hyperfine states of such molecules. As an early demonstration of the rich physics offered in such systems, recent results demonstrating chirality-sensitive microwave spectroscopy of cold molecules will be presented.

  14. Solution of the embedding problem and decomposition of symmetric matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Sippl, M J; Scheraga, H A

    1985-01-01

    A solution of the problem of calculating cartesian coordinates from a matrix of interpoint distances (the embedding problem) is reported. An efficient and numerically stable algorithm for the transformation of distances to coordinates is then obtained. It is shown that the embedding problem is intimately related to the theory of symmetric matrices, since every symmetric matrix is related to a general distance matrix by a one-to-one transformation. Embedding of a distance matrix yields a decomposition of the associated symmetric matrix in the form of a sum over outer products of a linear independent system of coordinate vectors. It is shown that such a decomposition exists for every symmetric matrix and that it is numerically stable. From this decomposition, the rank and the numbers of positive, negative, and zero eigenvalues of the symmetric matrix are obtained directly. PMID:3857574

  15. 5D non-symmetric gravity and geodesic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Suman; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2013-09-01

    This work focuses on an unexplored aspect of non-symmetric geometry where only the off-diagonal metric components along the extra dimension, in a 5-dimensional spacetime, are non-symmetric. We show that the energy densities of the stationary non-symmetric models are similar to that of brane models thereby mimicking the thick-brane scenario. We find that the massive test particles are confined near the location of the brane for both growing and decaying warp factors. This feature is unique to the non-symmetric nature of our model. We have also studied the dynamical models where standard 4D FLRW brane is embedded. Our analysis shows that the non-symmetric terms deconfine energy density at the early universe while automatically confine at late times.

  16. Bicriterion seriation methods for skew-symmetric matrices.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Michael J; Stahl, Stephanie

    2005-11-01

    The decomposition of an asymmetric proximity matrix into its symmetric and skew-symmetric components is a well-known principle in combinatorial data analysis. The seriation of the skew-symmetric component can emphasize information corresponding to the sign or absolute magnitude of the matrix elements, and the choice of objective criterion can have a profound impact on the ordering. In this research note, we propose a bicriterion approach for seriation of a skew-symmetric matrix incorporating both sign and magnitude information. Two numerical demonstrations reveal that the bicriterion procedure is an effective alternative to direct seriation of the skew-symmetric matrix, facilitating favourable trade-offs among sign and magnitude information. PMID:16293204

  17. Phase Behavior of Symmetric Sulfonated Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Moon Jeong; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2008-08-21

    Phase behavior of poly(styrenesulfonate-methylbutylene) (PSS-PMB) block copolymers was studied by varying molecular weight, sulfonation level, and temperature. Molecular weights of the copolymers range from 2.9 to 117 kg/mol. Ordered lamellar, gyroid, hexagonally perforated lamellae, and hexagonally packed cylinder phases were observed in spite of the fact that the copolymers are nearly symmetric with PSS volume fractions between 0.45 and 0.50. The wide variety of morphologies seen in our copolymers is inconsistent with current theories on block copolymer phase behavior such as self-consistent field theory. Low molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (<6.2 kg/mol) show order-order and order-disorder phase transitions as a function of temperature. In contrast, the phase behavior of high molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (>7.7 kg/mol) is independent of temperature. Due to the large value of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, x, between the sulfonated and non-sulfonated blocks, PSS-PMB copolymers with PSS and PMB molecular weights of 1.8 and 1.4 kg/mol, respectively, show the presence of an ordered gyroid phase with a 2.5 nm diameter PSS network. A variety of methods are used to estimate x between PSS and PMB chains as a function of sulfonation level. Some aspects of the observed phase behavior of PSS-PMB copolymers can be rationalized using x.

  18. Time-symmetric rolling tachyon profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longton, Matheson

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the tachyon profile of a time-symmetric rolling tachyon solution to open string field theory. We algebraically construct the solution of [1] at 6th order in the marginal parameter, and numerically evaluate the corresponding tachyon profile as well as the action and several correlation functions containing the equation of motion. We find that the marginal operator's singular self-OPE is properly regularized and all quantities we examine are finite. In contrast to the widely studied time-asymmetric case, the solution depends nontrivially on the strength of the deformation parameter. For example, we find that the number and period of oscillations of the tachyon field changes as the strength of the marginal deformation is increased. We use the recent renormalization scheme of [2], which contains two free parameters. At finite deformation parameter the tachyon profile depends on these parameters, while when the deformation parameter is small, the solution becomes insensitive to them and behaves like previously studied time-asymmetric rolling tachyon solutions. We also show that convergence of perturbation series is not as straightforward as in the time-asymmetric case with regular OPE, and find evidence that it may depend on the renormalization constants.

  19. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  20. The predation costs of symmetrical cryptic coloration.

    PubMed

    Cuthill, Innes C; Hiby, Elly; Lloyd, Emily

    2006-05-22

    In psychological studies of visual perception, symmetry is accepted as a potent cue in visual search for cryptic objects, yet its importance for non-human animals has been assumed rather than tested. Furthermore, while the salience of bilateral symmetry has been established in laboratory-based search tasks using human subjects, its role in more natural settings, closer to those for which such perceptual mechanisms evolved, has not, to our knowledge, been investigated previously. That said, the salience of symmetry in visual search has a plausible adaptive rationale, because biologically important objects, such as prey, predators or conspecifics, usually have a plane of symmetry that is not present in their surroundings. We tested the conspicuousness to avian predators of cryptic artificial, moth-like targets, with or without bilateral symmetry in background-matching coloration, against oak trees in the field. In two independent experiments, symmetrical targets were predated at a higher rate than otherwise identical asymmetrical targets. There was a small, but significant, fitness cost to symmetry in camouflage patterns. Given that birds are the most commonly invoked predators shaping the evolution of defensive coloration in insects, this raises the question of why bilateral asymmetry is not more common in cryptic insects. PMID:16720401

  1. On symplectic and symmetric ARKN methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Wu, Xinyuan

    2012-06-01

    Symplecticness and symmetry are favorable properties for solving Hamiltonian systems. For the oscillatory second-order initial value problems of the form q+ωq=f(q,q), adapted Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods (ARKN methods, in short notation) were investigated by several authors. In a wide range of physical applications from molecular dynamics to nonlinear wave propagation, an important class of the problems is Hamiltonian systems for which symplectic methods should be preferred. Hence it is quite natural to raise a question of the symplecticness for ARKN methods. In this paper we investigate the symplecticness conditions of ARKN methods for separable Hamiltonian systems. We conclude that there exist only one-stage explicit symplectic ARKN (SARKN, in short notation) methods under the symplecticness conditions of ARKN methods. The SARKN methods have a special form and the algebraic order cannot exceed 2. We also point out that no ARKN method can be symmetric. An explicit SARKN method of order two is proposed with the analysis of phase and stability properties. The numerical results accompanied show good performance for the new explicit symplectic algorithm in comparison with the popular symplectic methods in the scientific literature.

  2. Spherically symmetric conformal gravity and ``gravitational bubbles''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, V. A.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2016-01-01

    The general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity is described. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions is found. It consists of two classes. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar of our specific metrics, and the representatives are the famous Robertson-Walker metrics. One of them we called the ``gravitational bubbles'', which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. Thus, we obtained the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant) what is absolutely impossible in General Relativity. Such a phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from ``nothing''. The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family. It appears that it can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim-Kazanas solution. We also investigated the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and constructed the vectorial equation that reveals clearly some features of non-vacuum solutions. Two of them are explicitly written, namely, the metrics à la Vaidya, and the electrovacuum space-time metrics.

  3. Mitotoxicity in distal symmetrical sensory peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gary J.; Doyle, Timothy; Salvemini, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Chronic distal symmetrical sensory peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological complication of cancer chemotherapy, HIV treatment and diabetes. Although aetiology-specific differences in presentation are evident, the clinical signs and symptoms of these neuropathies are clearly similar. Data from animal models of neuropathic pain suggest that the similarities have a common cause: mitochondrial dysfunction in primary afferent sensory neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction is caused by mitotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs of several chemical classes, HIV-associated viral proteins, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor treatment, as well as the (possibly both direct and indirect) effects of excess glucose. The mitochondrial injury results in a chronic neuronal energy deficit, which gives rise to spontaneous nerve impulses and a compartmental neuronal degeneration that is first apparent in the terminal receptor arbor—that is, intraepidermal nerve fibres—of cutaneous afferent neurons. Preliminary data suggest that drugs that prevent mitochondrial injury or improve mitochondrial function could be useful in the treatment of these conditions. PMID:24840972

  4. Drift waves in helically symmetric stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Rafiq, T.; Hegna, C.

    2005-11-15

    The local linear stability of electron drift waves and ion temperature gradient modes (ITG) is investigated in a quasihelically symmetric (QHS) stellarator and a conventional asymmetric (Mirror) stellarator. The geometric details of the different equilibria are emphasized. Eigenvalue equations for the models are derived using the ballooning mode formalism and solved numerically using a standard shooting technique in a fully three-dimensional stellarator configuration. While the eigenfunctions have a similar shape in both magnetic geometries, they are slightly more localized along the field line in the QHS case. The most unstable electron drift modes are strongly localized at the symmetry points (where stellarator symmetry is present) and in the regions where normal curvature is unfavorable and magnitude of the local magnetic shear and magnetic field is minimum. The presence of a large positive local magnetic shear in the bad curvature region is found to be destabilizing. Electron drift modes are found to be more affected by the normal curvature than by the geodesic curvature. The threshold of stability of the ITG modes in terms of {eta}{sub i} is found to be 2/3 in this fluid model consistent with the smallest threshold for toroidal geometry with adiabatic electrons. Optimization to favorable drift wave stability has small field line curvature, short connection lengths, the proper combination of geodesic curvature and local magnetic shear, large values of local magnetic shear, and the compression of flux surfaces in the unfavorable curvature region.

  5. Quantum Behavior of Water Molecules Confined to Nanocavities in Gemstones.

    PubMed

    Gorshunov, Boris P; Zhukova, Elena S; Torgashev, Victor I; Lebedev, Vladimir V; Shakurov, Gil'man S; Kremer, Reinhard K; Pestrjakov, Efim V; Thomas, Victor G; Fursenko, Dimitry A; Dressel, Martin

    2013-06-20

    When water is confined to nanocavities, its quantum mechanical behavior can be revealed by terahertz spectroscopy. We place H2O molecules in the nanopores of a beryl crystal lattice and observe a rich and highly anisotropic set of absorption lines in the terahertz spectral range. Two bands can be identified, which originate from translational and librational motions of the water molecule isolated within the cage; they correspond to the analogous broad bands in liquid water and ice. In the present case of well-defined and highly symmetric nanocavities, the observed fine structure can be explained by macroscopic tunneling of the H2O molecules within a six-fold potential caused by the interaction of the molecule with the cavity walls. PMID:26283245

  6. Maximum symmetrical split of molecular graphs. Application to organic synthesis design.

    PubMed

    Vismara, Philippe; Tognetti, Yannic; Laurenço, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the potential symmetry of a molecule may be a feature of importance in synthesis design, this one is often difficult to detect visually in the structural formula. In the present article, we describe an efficient algorithm for the perception of this molecular property. We have addressed this problem in terms of graph theory and defined it as the Maximum Symmetrical Split of a molecular graph. A solution is obtained by deleting in such a graph a minimum number of edges and vertices so that the resulting subgraph consists of exactly two isomorphic connected components that correspond to a pair of synthetically equivalent synthons. In view to reduce the search space of the problem, we have based our algorithm on CSP techniques. In this study, we have found that the maximum symmetrical split is an original kind of Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The algorithm has been implemented into the RESYN_Assistant system, and its performance has been tested on a set of varied molecules which were the targets of previously published synthetic studies. The results show that potential symmetry is perceived quickly and efficiently by the program. The graphical display of this perception information may help a chemist to design reflexive or highly convergent syntheses. PMID:15921458

  7. Corrosion protection of surfaces by nanocomposite and urethane top coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmatulu, Ramazan; Claus, Richard O.; Mecham, J. B.; Corcoran, S. G.

    2005-05-01

    In the present study, nanosized silica particles (~100 nm) were incorporated into epoxy polymers, and then sprayed on molybdenum treated Al coupons (2024-T3) by a nozzle spray unit at different thicknesses. A urethane top coating (1 mil) was also applied on some of the initially coated surfaces. The main purpose of the SiO2 and urethane was to absorb/block unwanted ions/molecules (i.e., Cl-, O, OH-, H2O, etc.) and increase the coating performance. Several corrosion tests including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray and salt soaking were conducted on the prepared samples using a 0.5 M NaCl solution. The Al coupons coated with such nanocomposites and a urethane top coating showed excellent coating resistances (8x109 ohm-cm2) against corrosion attack. As a result, it is assumed that this novel coating system will allow coating industry to effectively protect the surface of materials.

  8. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, M.; CDF and D0 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{anti B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given.

  9. Heavy flavour physics from top to bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, M.; CDF and D0 Collaborations

    1997-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour physics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by summarizing recent top quark and B physics results from CDF and D0. In particular we discuss the measurement of the top quark mass and top production cross section as well as B meson lifetimes and time dependent B{bar B} mixing results. An outlook of perspectives for top and B physics in Run II starting in 1999 is also given. 38 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Top-down cellular pyramids

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.Y.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1982-07-01

    A cellular pyramid is an exponentially tapering stack of arrays of processors ('cells'), where each cell is connected to its neighbors ('siblings') on its own level, to a 'parent' on the level above, and to its 'children' on the level below. It is shown that in some situations, if information flows top-down only, from fathers to sons, then a cellular pyramid may be no faster than a one-level cellular array; but it may be possible to use simpler cells in the pyramid case.

  11. Table-top job analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  12. Top 10 TARN research publications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The last 25?years have seen Trauma Audit and Research Network's (TARN) research agenda develop into a significant portfolio of over 100 publications, including a number of international collaborations. Holding the largest trauma registry in Europe, TARN continues to provide researchers with the ability to pursue their interests in both epidemiological and clinical topics relating to traumatic injury. This edition of the Emergency Medicine Journal provides an opportunity to celebrate some of these papers with a Top 10, which have been voted by members of the TARN Research Committee on the basis of their impact. PMID:26598632

  13. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  14. In Praise of Top-Down Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the ongoing debate of the efficacy of top-down versus bottom-up strategies to improve school districts, top-down is clearly losing. Many district leaders are reluctant to champion improvement for fear of being labeled with the epithet "top-down leader," the unkindest cut of all. In this article, the author presents the change processes in three…

  15. Adhesion molecules and receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesion molecules are necessary for leukocyte trafficking and differentiation. They serve to initiate cell-cell interactions under conditions of shear, and they sustain the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions needed for cellular locomotion. They also can serve directly as signaling molecules act...

  16. Enzymatic DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor); Breaker, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses deoxyribonucleic acid enzymes--catalytic or enzymatic DNA molecules--capable of cleaving nucleic acid sequences or molecules, particularly RNA, in a site-specific manner, as well as compositions including same. Methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions are also disclosed.

  17. Molecules between the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a listing of molecules discovered to date in the vast interstellar clouds of dust and gas. Emphasizes the recent discoveries of organic molecules. Discusses molecular spectral lines, MASERs (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), molecular clouds, and star birth. (TW)

  18. Plane symmetric metrics associated with semi-plane symmetric electromagnetic fields in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Canbin; Tian, Guihua

    1994-11-01

    Electromagnetic fields yielding plane symmetric metrics in higher-dimensional spacetimes are exhausted and classified. It is shown that these EM fields must fall into one of the following two cases: (i)F it =F iz =0,i=1,...,n; (ii)Ftz=0. We give the general solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations in higher dimensions corresponding to electromagnetic fields of case (ii) withF it =F iz , which covers all even-dimensional spacetimes as well as a subcase of odd-dimensional spacetimes.

  19. Electrical readouts of single and few molecule systems in metal-molecule-metal device structures.

    PubMed

    Mahapatro, Ajit K; Janes, David B

    2007-06-01

    Electrical conduction through molecular junctions are measured in different local environments through two test beds that are ideal for single/few molecule and molecular monolayer systems. A technique has been developed to realize Au films with approximately 1.5 A surface roughness comparable to the best available techniques and suitable for formation of patterned device structures. The technique utilizes room temperature e-beam evaporated Au films over oxidized Si substrates silanized with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The lateral (single/few molecule) and vertical (many molecules) device structures are both enabled by the process for realizing ultraflat Au layer. Lateral metal-molecule-metal (M-M-M) device structures are fabricated by forming pairs of Au electrodes with nanometer separation (nano-gap) through an electromigration-induced break-junction (EIBJ) technique at room temperature and conductivity measurements are carried out for dithiol functionalized single molecules. We have used the flat Au layer (using the current technique) as the bottom contact in vertical M-M-M device structures. Here, molecular self-assembly are formed on the Au surface, and patterned (20 x 20 microm2) top Au contacts were successfully transferred on to the device using a stamping technique (where the Au is deposited on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pad and following a physical contact on the thiolated Au layer). The single molecular property of XYL, a highly conductive molecule and many molecular property of HS-C9-SH, an insulating molecule in its molecular monolayer form are measured. Observation of enhanced conduction following molecular deposition, and comparison of conductance-voltage characteristics to those predicted theoretically, confirms the success of trapping single/few molecules in the nano-gap. The observed approximately 10(2) less conductance through the molecular monolayer of HS-C9-SH compared to the estimation of a linear sum of single molecule conductances over large area indicate that either all the molecules are not in physical contact with the top stamping electrode or electrode-molecule coupling has a less broadening in presence of it own environment or both. PMID:17655006

  20. Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices

    PubMed Central

    Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N.

    2014-01-01

    We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size. PMID:26594079

  1. Recent advances in symmetric and network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We summarize some of the main results discovered over the past three decades concerning symmetric dynamical systems and networks of dynamical systems, with a focus on pattern formation. In both of these contexts, extra constraints on the dynamical system are imposed, and the generic phenomena can change. The main areas discussed are time-periodic states, mode interactions, and non-compact symmetry groups such as the Euclidean group. We consider both dynamics and bifurcations. We summarize applications of these ideas to pattern formation in a variety of physical and biological systems, and explain how the methods were motivated by transferring to new contexts René Thom's general viewpoint, one version of which became known as "catastrophe theory." We emphasize the role of symmetry-breaking in the creation of patterns. Topics include equivariant Hopf bifurcation, which gives conditions for a periodic state to bifurcate from an equilibrium, and the H/K theorem, which classifies the pairs of setwise and pointwise symmetries of periodic states in equivariant dynamics. We discuss mode interactions, which organize multiple bifurcations into a single degenerate bifurcation, and systems with non-compact symmetry groups, where new technical issues arise. We transfer many of the ideas to the context of networks of coupled dynamical systems, and interpret synchrony and phase relations in network dynamics as a type of pattern, in which space is discretized into finitely many nodes, while time remains continuous. We also describe a variety of applications including animal locomotion, Couette-Taylor flow, flames, the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, binocular rivalry, and a nonlinear filter based on anomalous growth rates for the amplitude of periodic oscillations in a feed-forward network.

  2. Symmetric coordinates in solids: magnetic Bloch oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    There has recently been a revival of the Bloch theory of energy bands in solids. This revival was caused, on one hand, by the discovery of topological insulators and the discovery of graphene, and, on the other end, by a very efficient new technique that was developed for creating artificial solids. These are the cold atoms in optical lattices. Last year geometric phases were measured in energy bands of cold atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice by using Bloch oscillations. These phases are related to the Wyckoff positions, or the symmetry centers in the Bravais lattice. In this lecture a theoretical frame is developed for magnetic Bloch oscillations, meaning oscillations in the presence of a magnetic field. The theory is based on the kq-representation and the symmetric coordinates in solids. It is shown that for a Bloch electron in a magnetic field the orbit quasi-center is a conserved quantity. This is similar to the conservation of the quasi-momentum for an electron in a periodic potential. When an electric field is turned on, the orbit quasi-center oscillates in a similar way to the Bloch oscillations in the absence of a magnetic field. But there is a difference because the magnetic Brillouin zone is different. It depends on the strength of the magnetic field. An analogy is drawn between Bloch oscillations and magnetic Bloch oscillations. By using the magnetic translations it is indicated that a magnetic Wannier-Stark ladder appears in the spectrum of a Bloch electron in crossed magnetic and electric fields. The geometric phases for magnetic Bloch oscillations should be magnetic field dependent.

  3. Recent advances in symmetric and network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We summarize some of the main results discovered over the past three decades concerning symmetric dynamical systems and networks of dynamical systems, with a focus on pattern formation. In both of these contexts, extra constraints on the dynamical system are imposed, and the generic phenomena can change. The main areas discussed are time-periodic states, mode interactions, and non-compact symmetry groups such as the Euclidean group. We consider both dynamics and bifurcations. We summarize applications of these ideas to pattern formation in a variety of physical and biological systems, and explain how the methods were motivated by transferring to new contexts René Thom's general viewpoint, one version of which became known as "catastrophe theory." We emphasize the role of symmetry-breaking in the creation of patterns. Topics include equivariant Hopf bifurcation, which gives conditions for a periodic state to bifurcate from an equilibrium, and the H/K theorem, which classifies the pairs of setwise and pointwise symmetries of periodic states in equivariant dynamics. We discuss mode interactions, which organize multiple bifurcations into a single degenerate bifurcation, and systems with non-compact symmetry groups, where new technical issues arise. We transfer many of the ideas to the context of networks of coupled dynamical systems, and interpret synchrony and phase relations in network dynamics as a type of pattern, in which space is discretized into finitely many nodes, while time remains continuous. We also describe a variety of applications including animal locomotion, Couette-Taylor flow, flames, the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, binocular rivalry, and a nonlinear filter based on anomalous growth rates for the amplitude of periodic oscillations in a feed-forward network. PMID:26428565

  4. Graphene-Enhanced Raman Scattering from the Adenine Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Pidhirnyi, Denys; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Lebedieva, Tetiana; Kiisk, Valter; Heinsalu, Siim; Lange, Sven; Jaaniso, Raivo; Sildos, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    An enhanced Raman scattering from a thin layer of adenine molecules deposited on graphene substrate was detected. The value of enhancement depends on the photon energy of the exciting light. The benzene ring in the structure of adenine molecule suggests π-stacking of adenine molecule on top of graphene. So, it is proposed that the enhancement in the adenine Raman signal is explained by the resonance electron transfer from the Fermi level of graphene to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of adenine.

  5. Graphene-Enhanced Raman Scattering from the Adenine Molecules.

    PubMed

    Dolgov, Leonid; Pidhirnyi, Denys; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Lebedieva, Tetiana; Kiisk, Valter; Heinsalu, Siim; Lange, Sven; Jaaniso, Raivo; Sildos, Ilmo

    2016-12-01

    An enhanced Raman scattering from a thin layer of adenine molecules deposited on graphene substrate was detected. The value of enhancement depends on the photon energy of the exciting light. The benzene ring in the structure of adenine molecule suggests π-stacking of adenine molecule on top of graphene. So, it is proposed that the enhancement in the adenine Raman signal is explained by the resonance electron transfer from the Fermi level of graphene to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of adenine. PMID:27075339

  6. MHD integrated topping cycle project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois no. 6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  7. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  8. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Caner, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present preliminary results on top quark physics recently obtained by the CDF collaboration. The data sample consists of 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} of {ital p{anti p}} collisions at {radical}{ital s} = 1.8 TeV, collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab during the period 1992 - 1995. We report on the {ital t{anti t}} production cross section and on the top quark mass. The measurements are made in three topologies, corresponding to the decay modes of the {ital Wb} pairs in the final state: lepton + multi-jets, dilepton and all hadronic final state. The analysis performed on the single lepton sample yields the most accurate measurements, due to the good acceptance and the favorable signal to noise ratio obtained after applying some b-tagging techniques. In this channel we measure: {sigma}{sub {ital t{anti t}}} = 6.8{sup +2.3}{sub -1.8} pb M{sub {ital t}} = 175.6 {+-} 5.7 ({ital stat}) {+-} 7.1 ({ital syst.}) {ital GeV/c{sup 2}} Combining the cross sections measured with the lepton + multi-jet and dilepton data we obtain: {sigma}{sub {ital t{anti t}}} = 7.5{sup +1.9}{sub -1.6} {ital pb} A preliminary investigation of the production mechanism of the {ital t{anti t}} system is shown and compared to Standard Model expectations.

  9. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  10. SelInv - An Algorithm for Selected Inversion of a Sparse Symmetric Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Lu, Jianfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-10-16

    We describe an efficient implementation of an algorithm for computing selected elements of a general sparse symmetric matrix A that can be decomposed as A = LDL^T, where L is lower triangular and D is diagonal. Our implementation, which is called SelInv, is built on top of an efficient supernodal left-looking LDL^T factorization of A. We discuss how computational efficiency can be gained by making use of a relative index array to handle indirect addressing. We report the performance of SelInv on a collection of sparse matrices of various sizes and nonzero structures. We also demonstrate how SelInv can be used in electronic structure calculations.

  11. Transient behavior of granular materials with symmetric conditions for tumbler shapes and fill fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Si, Yun

    2014-11-01

    The typical granular motion in circular tumblers is considered steady-state since there are no features to disrupt the top surface layer dimension. In polygon tumblers, however, the flowing layer is perpetually changing length, which creates unsteady conditions with corresponding change in the flow behavior. Prior work showed the minimization of free surface energy is independent of tumbler dimension, particle size, and rotation rate. This subsequent research reports on experiments where dimensional symmetry of the free surface in triangular and square tumblers with varying fill fractions do not necessarily produce the symmetric flow behaviors. Results of the quasi-2D tumbler experiment show that other dimensions aligned with gravity and the instantaneous free surface influence the phase when extrema for angle of repose and other flow features occur. The conclusion is that 50% fill fraction may produce geometric symmetry of dimensions, but the symmetry point of flow likely occurs at a lower fill fraction.

  12. Reconstruction of symmetric Dirac-Maxwell equations using nonassociative algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalauni, Pushpa; Barata, J. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of sources, the usual Maxwell equations are neither symmetric nor invariant with respect to the duality transformation between electric and magnetic fields. Dirac proposed the existence of magnetic monopoles for symmetrizing the Maxwell equations. In the present work, we obtain the fully symmetric Dirac-Maxwell's equations (i.e. with electric and magnetic charges and currents) as a single equation by using 4 × 4 matrix presentation of fields and derivative operators. This matrix representation has been derived with the help of the algebraic properties of quaternions and octonions. Such description gives a compact representation of electric and magnetic counterparts of the field in a single equation.

  13. (Anti)symmetric multivariate trigonometric functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimyk, A.; Patera, J.

    2007-09-01

    Four families of special functions, depending on n variables, are studied. We call them symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate sine and cosine functions. They are given as determinants or antideterminants of matrices, whose matrix elements are sine or cosine functions of one variable each. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator, satisfying specific conditions at the boundary of a certain domain F of the n-dimensional Euclidean space. Discrete and continuous orthogonality on F of the functions within each family allows one to introduce symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate Fourier-like transforms involving the symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate sine and cosine functions.

  14. A Windows based graphical package for symmetrical components analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.C.; Chen, D.; Ramasamy, S.; Flinn, D.G.

    1995-11-01

    A Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} graphical package to facilitate the teaching and learning of symmetrical component is described in this paper. This package is written in Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0. This software calculates and displays graphically, the ABC sequence and the corresponding symmetrical component phasors. Students can manipulate the graphical displays by keyboard input or by mouse operation. The objective of this package is to help the students to better understand the various aspects of symmetrical components` analysis through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI).

  15. Experimental scheme for unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Sanchez-Lozano, X.

    2007-12-15

    We propose an experimental setup for discriminating four linearly independent nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. The setup is based on linear optics only and can be configured to implement both optimal unambiguous state discrimination [Chefles and Barnett, Phys. Lett. A 250, 223 (1998)] and minimum error discrimination. In both cases, the setup is characterized by an optimal success probability. The experimental setup can be generalized to the case of discrimination among N linearly nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. We also study the discrimination between two incoherent superpositions of symmetric states. In this case, the setup also achieves an optimal success probability in the case of unambiguous discrimination as well as minimum error discrimination.

  16. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-01

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ∇ + Ω in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where Ω : TM → Λ∗(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  17. Measurements of top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kraan, Aafke C.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-11-01

    The top quark with its mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2} is the most massive fundamental particle observed by experiment. In this talk they highlight the most recent measurements of several top quark properties performed with the CDF detector based on data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities up to 1 fb{sup -1}. These results include a search for top quark pair production via new massive resonances, measurements of the helicity of the W boson from top-quark decay, and a direct limit on the lifetime of the top quark.

  18. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  19. Designing a small molecule erythropoietin mimetic.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a protein made by the kidneys in response to low red blood cell count that is secreted into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor on hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow inducing them to become new red blood cells. EPO made with recombinant DNA technology was brought to market in the 1980s to treat anemia caused by kidney disease and cancer chemotherapy. Because EPO infusion was able to replace blood transfusions in many cases, it rapidly became a multibillion dollar per year drug and as the first biologic created with recombinant technology it launched the biotech industry. For many years intense research was focused on creating a small molecule orally available EPO mimetic. The Robert Wood Johnson (RWJ) group seemed to definitively establish that only large peptides with a minimum of 60 residues could replace EPO, as anything less was not a full agonist. An intense study of the published work led me to hypothesize that the size of the mimetic is not the real issue, but the symmetry making and breaking of the EPO receptor induced by the ligand is the key to activating the stem cells. This analysis meant that residues in the binding site of the receptor deemed absolutely essential for ligand binding and activation from mutagenesis experiments, were probably not really that important. My fundamental hypotheses were: (a) the symmetric state of the homodimeric receptor is the most stable state and thus must be the off-state, (b) a highly localized binding site exists at a pivot point where the two halves of the receptor meet, (c) small molecules can be created that have high potency for this site that will be competitive with EPO and thus can displace the protein-protein interaction, (d) small symmetric molecules will stabilize the symmetric off-state of the receptor, and (e) a key asymmetry in the small molecule will stabilize a mirror image asymmetry in the receptor resulting in the stabilization of the on-state and proliferation of the stem cells into red blood cells. Researchers at Amgen published a co-crystal structure of EPO bound to the EPO receptor, which has a beautiful twofold symmetry-it was argued that this is the active state of the receptor. Activating the EPO receptor with EPO induces an almost instantaneous shutdown mechanism to sharply curtail any proliferative signal transduction, and thus, my hypotheses lead to the conclusion that the Amgen co-crystal is actually the state after receptor downregulation and thus an off-state. To put these hypotheses to the test, my computational method of Simulated Annealing of Chemical Potential was run using the co-crystal created at RWJ, which is the receptor trapped in a partial agonist state. The simulations predicted a previously unknown high affinity binding site at the pivot point where the two halves of the dimeric receptor meet, and detailed analysis of the fragment patterns led to the prediction of a molecule less than 300 MW that is basically twofold symmetric with a chiral center on one side and not the other. Thus, to the degree that computer simulations can be taken seriously, these results support my hypotheses on small molecule receptor activation. When this small molecule was synthesized and tested it indeed induced human hematopoietic stems cells to become red blood cells. When the predicted chiral center of this molecule was removed eliminating its one asymmetric feature, the resulting molecule was an antagonist-it could potently displace hot EPO but could no longer induce stem cell proliferation and differentiation. These results provided strong support for my theories on how to create potent small molecule EPO agonists and were used to launch the new company Locus Pharmaceuticals. These molecules, however, required significant chemical changes in order to make them stable in other in vitro assays and to be in vivo active, but these alterations had to be done in a way that maintained the symmetry-asymmetry considerations that led to the creation of an in vitro active molecule. The combination of changing functional groups to enable good pharmacokinetics, while not changing the key intrinsic symmetry properties were never seriously pursued at Locus and the program died. Investigations into how red blood cells are created have occupied many prominent researchers for the entire twentieth century. In the second half of the century EPO was discovered and by the end of the century it became a blockbuster commercial product that launched the biotech revolution. PMID:25709041

  20. Accommodation of a highly symmetric core within a symmetric protein superfold.

    PubMed

    Brych, Stephen R; Kim, Jaewon; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2003-12-01

    An alternative core packing group, involving a set of five positions, has been introduced into human acidic FGF-1. This alternative group was designed so as to constrain the primary structure within the core region to the same threefold symmetry present in the tertiary structure of the protein fold (the beta-trefoil superfold). The alternative core is essentially indistinguishable from the WT core with regard to structure, stability, and folding kinetics. The results show that the beta-trefoil superfold is compatible with a threefold symmetric constraint on the core region, as might be the case if the superfold arose as a result of gene duplication/fusion events. Furthermore, this new core arrangement can form the basis of a structural "building block" that can greatly simplify the de novo design of beta-trefoil proteins by using symmetric structural complementarity. Remaining asymmetry within the core appears to be related to asymmetry in the tertiary structure associated with receptor and heparin binding functionality of the growth factor. PMID:14627732

  1. The Molecule Pages database

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Brian; Lyon, Stephen; Day, Matthew; Riley, Brenda; Chenette, Emily; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2008-01-01

    The UCSD-Nature Signaling Gateway Molecule Pages (http://www.signaling-gateway.org/molecule) provides essential information on more than 3800 mammalian proteins involved in cellular signaling. The Molecule Pages contain expert-authored and peer-reviewed information based on the published literature, complemented by regularly updated information derived from public data source references and sequence analysis. The expert-authored data includes both a full-text review about the molecule, with citations, and highly structured data for bioinformatics interrogation, including information on protein interactions and states, transitions between states and protein function. The expert-authored pages are anonymously peer reviewed by the Nature Publishing Group. The Molecule Pages data is present in an object-relational database format and is freely accessible to the authors, the reviewers and the public from a web browser that serves as a presentation layer. The Molecule Pages are supported by several applications that along with the database and the interfaces form a multi-tier architecture. The Molecule Pages and the Signaling Gateway are routinely accessed by a very large research community. PMID:17965093

  2. A novel sandwich differential capacitive accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D. B.; Li, Q. S.; Hou, Z. Q.; Wang, X. H.; Chen, Z. H.; Xia, D. W.; Wu, X. Z.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel differential capacitive silicon micro-accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure and glass-silicon-glass sandwich structure. The symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure is fabricated with a novel pre-buried mask fabrication technology, which is convenient for manufacturing multi-layer sensors. The glass-silicon-glass sandwich structure is realized by a double anodic bonding process. To solve the problem of the difficulty of leading out signals from the top and bottom layer simultaneously in the sandwich sensors, a silicon pillar structure is designed that is inherently simple and low-cost. The prototype is fabricated and tested. It has low noise performance (the peak to peak value is 40 μg) and μg-level Allan deviation of bias (2.2 μg in 1 h), experimentally demonstrating the effectiveness of the design and the novel fabrication technology.

  3. Flow-separation patterns on symmetric forebodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keener, Earl R.

    1986-01-01

    Flow-visualization studies of ogival, parabolic, and conical forebodies were made in a comprehensive investigation of the various types of flow patterns. Schlieren, vapor-screen, oil-flow, and sublimation flow-visualization tests were conducted over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg. to 88 deg., over a Reynolds-number range from 0.3X10(6) to 2.0X10(6) (based on base diameter), and over a Mach number range from 0.1 to 2. The principal effects of angle of attack, Reynolds number, and Mach number on the occurrence of vortices, the position of vortex shedding, the principal surface-flow-separation patterns, the magnitude of surface-flow angles, and the extent of laminar and turbulent flow for symmetric, asymmetric, and wake-like flow-separation regimes are presented. It was found that the two-dimensional cylinder analogy was helpful in a qualitative sense in analyzing both the surface-flow patterns and the external flow field. The oil-flow studies showed three types of primary separation patterns at the higher Reynolds numbers owing to the influence of boundary-layer transition. The effect of angle of attack and Reynolds number is to change the axial location of the onset and extent of the primary transitional and turbulent separation regions. Crossflow inflectional-instability vortices were observed on the windward surface at angles of attack from 5 deg. to 55 deg. Their effect is to promote early transition. At low angles of attack, near 10 deg., an unexpected laminar-separation bubble occurs over the forward half of the forebody. At high angles of attack, at which vortex asymmetry occurs, the results support the proposition that the principal cause of vortex asymmetry is the hydrodynamic instability of the inviscid flow field. On the other hand, boundary-layer asymmetries also occur, especially at transitional Reynolds numbers. The position of asymmetric vortex shedding moves forward with increasing angle of attack and with increasing Reynolds number, and moves rearward with increasing Mach number.

  4. Discrete energy transport in collagen molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alain, Mvogo; Germain, H. Ben-Bolie; Timoléon, C. Kofané

    2014-09-01

    The modulational instability in the three coupled α-polypeptide chains of a collagen molecule is investigated. Choosing symmetric and asymmetric solutions, and applying the so-called rotating-wave approximation, we describe the dynamics of the system by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. The linear stability analysis of the continuous wave solution is performed. The numerical simulations show the generation of trains of solitonic structures in the lattice with increasing amplitude as time progresses. The effect of damping and noise forces of the physiological temperature (T = 300 K) introduces an erratic behavior to the formed patterns, reinforcing the idea that the energy used in metabolic processes is confined to specific regions for efficiency.

  5. Topping up experiments at SRRC

    SciTech Connect

    Ueng, T.S.; Hsu, K.T.; Chen, J.; Lin, K.K.; Weng, W.T. |

    1996-10-01

    In an operation of a synchrotron radiation facility, it is very desirable to be able to provide beam with almost constant intensity. This has considerable advantage in terms of calibration and normalization of detectors, heat load of optical components,and the duration of data taking time. To achieve that goal, the topping up mode injection has been tested at SRRC. The experiment was performed to fill automatically the stored beam current up to 200 mA whenever it was decreased to a present low limit value. The following items were examined: reproducibility of the bunch train structure of the injected beam, stability of the storage ring pulsed injection magnets, injection startup and bucket address system. Effects on the stored beam stability will be studied and methods to minimize disruption to research program during injection time will be investigated.

  6. Top-Down and Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The ``Top-Down Physics'' (TDP) project is aimed at unifying material traditionally covered in Classical Mechanics, and Electricity & Magnetism, as well as elements of Quantum Mechanics and Statistical Dynamics at the undergraduate level. The main computational platforms for the student projects have been LaTeX, MAPLE and JAVA. Relevant theoretic, algorithmic and technical (software) elements are introduced as needed to simulate laboratory-style experiments carried out in class. Ideally, solutions developed by ``senior'' students can be ``beta- tested'' during classroom and laboratory demonstrations to lower- level students. In this way, the curriculum naturally ``folds'' onto itself. Current efforts include the use of the Open Source Physics and Maxima to develop a platform-independent (and free) framework for the TDP framework.

  7. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  8. Noise Suppression Using Symmetric Exchange Gates in Spin Qubits.

    PubMed

    Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip K; Nissen, Peter D; Barnes, Edwin; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey C; Manfra, Michael J; Marcus, Charles M; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    2016-03-18

    We demonstrate a substantial improvement in the spin-exchange gate using symmetric control instead of conventional detuning in GaAs spin qubits, up to a factor of six increase in the quality factor of the gate. For symmetric operation, nanosecond voltage pulses are applied to the barrier that controls the interdot potential between quantum dots, modulating the exchange interaction while maintaining symmetry between the dots. Excellent agreement is found with a model that separately includes electrical and nuclear noise sources for both detuning and symmetric gating schemes. Unlike exchange control via detuning, the decoherence of symmetric exchange rotations is dominated by rotation-axis fluctuations due to nuclear field noise rather than direct exchange noise. PMID:27035316

  9. Noise Suppression Using Symmetric Exchange Gates in Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip K.; Nissen, Peter D.; Barnes, Edwin; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Manfra, Michael J.; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a substantial improvement in the spin-exchange gate using symmetric control instead of conventional detuning in GaAs spin qubits, up to a factor of six increase in the quality factor of the gate. For symmetric operation, nanosecond voltage pulses are applied to the barrier that controls the interdot potential between quantum dots, modulating the exchange interaction while maintaining symmetry between the dots. Excellent agreement is found with a model that separately includes electrical and nuclear noise sources for both detuning and symmetric gating schemes. Unlike exchange control via detuning, the decoherence of symmetric exchange rotations is dominated by rotation-axis fluctuations due to nuclear field noise rather than direct exchange noise.

  10. Symmetrical ilial pseudofractures: A complication of chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, C.N. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    A patient with chronic renal failure and progressive symmetrical ilial pseudofractures (Looser zones, Milkman's syndrome) is presented. The literature is reviewed in light of the findings in this patient, and possible mechanisms of pseudofracture formation are discussed.

  11. Topological States in Partially-PT-Symmetric Azimuthal Potentials.

    PubMed

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Torner, Lluis

    2015-11-01

    We introduce partially-parity-time (pPT)-symmetric azimuthal potentials composed from individual PT-symmetric cells located on a ring, where two azimuthal directions are nonequivalent in a sense that in such potential excitations carrying topological dislocations exhibit different dynamics for different directions of energy circulation in the initial field distribution. Such nonconservative ratchetlike structures support rich families of stable vortex solitons in cubic nonlinear media, whose properties depend on the sign of the topological charge due to the nonequivalence of azimuthal directions. In contrast, oppositely charged vortex solitons remain equivalent in similar fully-PT-symmetric potentials. The vortex solitons in the pPT- and PT-symmetric potentials are shown to feature qualitatively different internal current distributions, which are described by different discrete rotation symmetries of the intensity profiles. PMID:26588383

  12. On the general properties of symmetric incomplete Airy beams.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, R; Quinto-Su, P A

    2014-11-01

    We study the general properties of a class of Airy beams symmetric under reflection of the transverse coordinates. Following a recent proposal, their angular spectra depend on the absolute value of the third power of the transverse components of the wave vector. The proposed beams are shown to be described by symmetric superpositions of incomplete Airy special functions. Their angular spectra do not correspond to any of those described by standard catastrophe optics. However, the morphologies of the symmetric beams are similar to some of those already classified within that scheme, differing mainly on the scaling exponents. Finally, the structural stability of three-dimensional symmetric incomplete Airy beams is experimentally probed. PMID:25401361

  13. 47 CFR 51.711 - Symmetrical reciprocal compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. 51.711 Section 51.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Reciprocal Compensation for Transport and Termination of...

  14. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through 23... angular inertia of the airplane in a rational or conservative manner. (c) Mutual influence of...

  15. Symmetric polynomials in information theory: Entropy and subentropy

    SciTech Connect

    Jozsa, Richard; Mitchison, Graeme

    2015-06-15

    Entropy and other fundamental quantities of information theory are customarily expressed and manipulated as functions of probabilities. Here we study the entropy H and subentropy Q as functions of the elementary symmetric polynomials in the probabilities and reveal a series of remarkable properties. Derivatives of all orders are shown to satisfy a complete monotonicity property. H and Q themselves become multivariate Bernstein functions and we derive the density functions of their Levy-Khintchine representations. We also show that H and Q are Pick functions in each symmetric polynomial variable separately. Furthermore, we see that H and the intrinsically quantum informational quantity Q become surprisingly closely related in functional form, suggesting a special significance for the symmetric polynomials in quantum information theory. Using the symmetric polynomials, we also derive a series of further properties of H and Q.

  16. A parallel algorithm for the non-symmetric eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.; Sidani, M. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes a parallel algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a non-symmetric matrix. The algorithm is based on a divide-and-conquer procedure and uses an iterative refinement technique.

  17. Symmetric Pin Diversion Detection using a Partial Defect Detector (PDET)

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Ham, Y S

    2009-06-01

    Since the signature from the Partial Defect Detector (PDET) is principally dependent on the geometric layout of the guide tube locations, the capability of the technique in detecting symmetric diversion of pins needs to be determined. The Monte Carlo simulation study consisted of cases where pins were removed in a symmetric manner and the resulting signatures were examined. In addition to the normalized gamma-to-neutron ratios, the neutron and gamma signatures normalized to their maximum values, were also examined. Examination of the shape of the three curves as well as of the peak-to-valley differences in excess of the maximum expected in intact assemblies, indicated pin diversion. A set of simulations with various symmetric patterns of diversion were examined. The results from these studies indicated that symmetric diversions as low as twelve percent could be detected by this methodology.

  18. Topological States in Partially-PT -Symmetric Azimuthal Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Torner, Lluis

    2015-11-01

    We introduce partially-parity-time (p PT ) -symmetric azimuthal potentials composed from individual PT -symmetric cells located on a ring, where two azimuthal directions are nonequivalent in a sense that in such potential excitations carrying topological dislocations exhibit different dynamics for different directions of energy circulation in the initial field distribution. Such nonconservative ratchetlike structures support rich families of stable vortex solitons in cubic nonlinear media, whose properties depend on the sign of the topological charge due to the nonequivalence of azimuthal directions. In contrast, oppositely charged vortex solitons remain equivalent in similar fully-P T -symmetric potentials. The vortex solitons in the p P T - and P T -symmetric potentials are shown to feature qualitatively different internal current distributions, which are described by different discrete rotation symmetries of the intensity profiles.

  19. Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.

  20. Liquid-liquid interfacial properties of a symmetrical Lennard-Jones binary mixture.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, F J; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A I; Blas, F J

    2015-09-14

    We determine the interfacial properties of a symmetrical binary mixture of equal-sized spherical Lennard-Jones molecules, σ11 = σ22, with the same dispersive energy between like species, ϵ11 = ϵ22, but different dispersive energies between unlike species low enough to induce phase separation. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janec̆ek [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] and Martínez-Ruiz et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184701 (2014)], to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of the symmetrical mixture with different cut-off distances rc and in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The liquid-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures that exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles and coexistence densities and compositions as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cut-off distance rc is to sharpen the liquid-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative minimum in the total density profiles of the symmetrical mixture. This minimum is related with a desorption of the molecules at the interface, a direct consequence of a combination of the weak dispersive interactions between unlike species of the symmetrical binary mixture, and the presence of an interfacial region separating the two immiscible liquid phases in coexistence. PMID:26374055

  1. Liquid-liquid interfacial properties of a symmetrical Lennard-Jones binary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I.; Blas, F. J.

    2015-09-01

    We determine the interfacial properties of a symmetrical binary mixture of equal-sized spherical Lennard-Jones molecules, σ11 = σ22, with the same dispersive energy between like species, ɛ11 = ɛ22, but different dispersive energies between unlike species low enough to induce phase separation. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janec̆ek [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] and Martínez-Ruiz et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184701 (2014)], to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of the symmetrical mixture with different cut-off distances rc and in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The liquid-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures that exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles and coexistence densities and compositions as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cut-off distance rc is to sharpen the liquid-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative minimum in the total density profiles of the symmetrical mixture. This minimum is related with a desorption of the molecules at the interface, a direct consequence of a combination of the weak dispersive interactions between unlike species of the symmetrical binary mixture, and the presence of an interfacial region separating the two immiscible liquid phases in coexistence.

  2. Parity-time symmetric cloak with isotropic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Lei Mei, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a different kind of parity-time (PT) symmetric one-way cloak is proposed. Different from conventional PT-cloak, it enjoys the property of isotropic modulation for refractive index profiles. By combining PT-symmetry with the concept of cloaking at a distance, the dilemma of realizing anisotropic modulation is removed. This combination facilitates the practical realization of PT-symmetric one-way cloak.

  3. Rindler-like Horizon in Spherically Symmetric Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinbo; He, Tangmei; Zhang, Jingyi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the Rindler-like horizon in a spherically symmetric spacetime is proposed. It is showed that just like the Rindler horizon in Minkowski spacetimes, there is also a Rindler-like horizon to a family of special observers in general spherically symmetric spacetimes. The entropy of this type of horizon is calculated with the thin film brick-wall model. The significance of entropy is discussed. Our results imply some connection between Bekeinstein-Hawking entropy and entanglement entropy.

  4. On projective invariants of spherically symmetric Finsler spaces in Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghzadeh, Nasrin; Hesamfar, Maedeh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study projective invariants of spherically symmetric Finsler metrics in Rn. We find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the metrics to be Weyl, Douglas and generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) types. In particular, we find the necessary and sufficient condition for the metrics to be of scalar flag curvature. Also we show that two classes of GDW and Douglas spherically symmetric Finsler metrics coincide.

  5. Single-Molecule Enzymology

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xiaoliang; Lu, H PETER.

    1999-06-04

    Viewing a movie of an enzyme molecule made from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we see incredible details of molecular motions, be it a change of the conformation or the action of a chemical reaction.

  6. Of Molecules and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinner, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which models help students visualize both the DNA process and transcription. After constructing DNA, RNA messenger, and RNA transfer molecules; students model cells, protein synthesis, codons, and RNA movement. (MDH)

  7. Intracellular delivery of top-down fabricated tunable nano-plasmonic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Sadao; Wang, Sheng; Ryu, Jongeun; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Engineered plasmonic structures fabricated using top-down technologies have demonstrated huge enhancements in the optical response of molecules, including Raman scattering. However, providing a sufficient number of such top-down fabricated nanostructures in solution has been a nontrivial task which has limited their potential in intracellular applications. Here we report the development of a protocol for the intracellular delivery of tunable nanoplasmonic resonators fabricated via scalable top-down techniques. This offers excellent possibilities towards the real-time parallel optical detection of intracellular molecular events.Engineered plasmonic structures fabricated using top-down technologies have demonstrated huge enhancements in the optical response of molecules, including Raman scattering. However, providing a sufficient number of such top-down fabricated nanostructures in solution has been a nontrivial task which has limited their potential in intracellular applications. Here we report the development of a protocol for the intracellular delivery of tunable nanoplasmonic resonators fabricated via scalable top-down techniques. This offers excellent possibilities towards the real-time parallel optical detection of intracellular molecular events. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of fabrication methods are described. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02910g

  8. Single-molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, Sheila Marie Josee

    This thesis discusses the syntheses and magnetization studies of several single-molecule magnets. These single- molecule magnets are also shown to display resonant magnetization tunneling. In chapter 1 an introduction into this area of research and similar areas of research are presented. In chapter 2 several complexes from a family of molecules with [ Mn4O3X]6+ cores are shown to behave as single-molecule magnets based on AC magnetic susceptibility measurements on microcrystalline and dilute frozen solution samples. In chapter 3 more detailed magnetic studies are reported for one complex from the Mn4 family of molecules-[ Mn4O3Cl(O2CCH3)3(dbm)3], where dbm is dibenzoylmethane. It is shown that this Mn4 complex exhibits resonant magnetization tunneling based on the observation of steps on magnetic hysteresis loops, ac magnetic susceptibility studies and the observation of a temperature-independent rate of magnetization relaxation below 0.6 K. In chapters 4 through 6 the syntheses and magnetization studies of several new Mn12 molecules with general composition [ Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4] are reported. From ac susceptibility measurements it is shown that some of these complexes exhibit much faster magnetic relaxation than others. Also, steps are observed at constant intervals of field on the magnetization hysteresis loops collected on some of these Mn12 complexes. This is evidence of field-tuned resonant magnetization tunneling.

  9. Spherically symmetric model atmospheres for late-type giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Philip Desmond

    The ATHENA computer code was developed to model the extended atmospheres of late-type giant and supergiant stars. The atmospheres are assumed to be static, spherically symmetric and in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium. Molecular line blanketing (for now) is handled using the simplifying assumption of mean opacity. The complete linearization method of Auer and Mihalas, adapted to spherical geometry, is used to solve the model system. The radiative transfer is solved by using variable Eddington factors to close the system of moment transfer equations, and the entire system of transfer equations plus constraints is solved efficiently by arrangement into the Rybicki block matrix form. The variable Eddington factors are calculated from the full angle-dependent formal solution of the radiative transfer problem using the impact parameter method of Hummer, Kunas. We were guided by the work of Mihalas and Hummer in their development of extended models of O stars, but our method differs in the choice of the independent variable. The radius depth scale used by Mihals and Hummer was found to fail because of the strongly temperature-dependent opacities of late-type atmospheres. Instead, we were able to achieve an exact linearization of the radius. This permitted the use of the numerically well-behaved column mass or optical depth scales. The resulting formulation is analogous to the plane-parallel complete linearization method and reduces to this method in the compact atmosphere limit. Models of M giants were calculated for Teff = 3000K and 3500K with opacities of the CN, TiO, and H2O molecules included, and the results were in general agreement with other published spherical models. These models were calculated assuming radiative equilibrium. The importance of convective energy transport was estimated by calculating the convective flux that would result from the temperature structure of the models. The standard local mixing length theory was used for this purpose. Convection was found to be important only at depths with tauRM greater than 15 for the low gravity models with log g = O, but significant out to tauRM is approximately 1 at the most transparent frequencies for the higher gravity models with log g = 2. Thus, the temperature structure of the surface layers and the emergent flux for the log g = O models should be accurately modelled but the emergent flux for the log g = 2 models may be in error by up to 5 percent at the most transparent frequencies.

  10. Synthesis of symmetrical C- and pseudo-symmetrical O-linked disaccharide analogs for arabinosyltransferase inhibitory activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish K; Pathak, Vibha; Riordan, James R; Suling, William J; Gurcha, Sudagar S; Besra, Gurdyal S; Reynolds, Robert C

    2007-08-15

    Herein we report the synthesis of symmetrical C-linked and pseudo-symmetrical O-linked disaccharides structurally related to Araf motifs present in the cell wall of MTB. Their activity in a competition-based arabinosyltransferase assay using [14C]-DPA as the glycosyl donor is also presented. In addition, in vitro inhibitory activity for the disaccharides was determined in a colorimetric broth microdilution assay system against MTB H37Ra and Mycobacterium avium. PMID:17566735

  11. The significance of the heavy top quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    1997-06-01

    Experiment shows that the top quark is far heavier than the other elementary fermions. This finding has stimulated research on theories of electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking that include physics beyond the standard model. Efforts to accommodate a heavy top quark within existing frameworks have revealed constraints on model-building. Other investigations have started from the premise that a large top quark mass could signal a qualitative difference between the top quark and other fermions, perhaps in the form of new interactions peculiar to the top quark. Such new dynamics may also help answer existing questions about electroweak and flavor physics. This talk explores the implications of the heavy top quark in the context of weakly-coupled (e.g., SUSY) and strongly-coupled (e.g., technicolor) theories of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  12. Top quark mass measurements at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, Erik; /Chicago U., EFI

    2006-05-01

    The mass of the top quark M{sub top} is interesting both as a fundamental parameter of the standard model and as an important input to precision electroweak tests. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has a robust program of top quark mass analyses, including the most precise single measurement, M{sub top} = 173.4 {+-} 2.8 GeV/c{sup 2}, using 680 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data. A combination of current results from CDF gives M{sub top} = 172.0 {+-} 2.7 GeV/c{sup 2}, surpassing the stated goal of 3 GeV/c{sup 2} precision using 2 fb{sup -1} of data. Finally, a combination with current D0 results gives a world average top quark mass of 172.5 {+-} 2.3 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  13. Adhesion molecules and transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, U W; Tullius, S G; Azuma, H; Kupiec-Weglinsky, J; Tilney, N L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accessory adhesion molecules are thought to influence the first interaction between host leukocytes and graft vascular endothelial cells. Their role in transplantation is reviewed. SUMMARY: Adhesion molecules have been divided into three major families: the selectins, the integrins, and the immunoglobulin superfamily. Selectins are small proteins that mediate the first contact between stimulated endothelial cells and leukocytes. Integrins interact with cytoskeletal components of cells, presumably coordinating extracellular stimuli with cytoskeleton dependent actions, such as motility, shape change, and phagocytic responses. Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily are structurally homologous, although they do not necessarily share similar functions. They are involved in T-cell proliferation and intracellular events. METHODS: Various groups of investigators have studied the influence and expression of adhesion molecules following transplantation. The authors of this article have reviewed and summarized the available literature. RESULTS: Many different adhesion molecules are up-regulated during the rejection event. Treatment of transplant recipients with monoclonal antibodies against accessory molecules, such as leukocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), has resulted in either a prolongation of transplant survival or the induction of tolerance in some models. Other interventions are under study. CONCLUSION: By mediating the initial leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions, adhesion molecules may play an important role in graft rejection, mediation of infiltration into the graft, and dissemination of the antigenic message to the lymphoid tissues of the host. Future studies will have to deal not only with conceptualizing their function and mechanisms of action, but also with manipulating their interrelationships to the benefit of the graft recipient. PMID:8297174

  14. Gap solitons in PT -symmetric lattices with a lower refractive-index core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liangwei; Gu, Linlin; Guo, Dengchu

    2015-05-01

    We address the existence and stability properties of families of gap solitons in a lower refractive-index core, sandwiched between two optical lattices with a parity-time (PT ) symmetry imprinted in a defocusing medium. The scale of flat-topped complex solitons can be controlled arbitrarily by varying the embedded index core. Multipeaked solitons are found to exhibit equal peak values in the region of the index core, and they have no analog in other lattice-modulated or bulk media. We demonstrate that, in sharp contrast to solitons in regular PT lattices, flat-topped and multipeaked solitons are either stable or suffer a negligibly weak instability, even when the gain-loss coefficient approaches the PT -symmetry-breaking point. Our results, thus, build a bridge between the PT defect solitons in a narrow index core and the PT kink pairs in a broad index core. We also suggest an effective way for the observation of "surface solitons" in PT -symmetric lattices.

  15. Top quark physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gerdes

    2004-01-28

    Precision studies of the top quark are a prime goal of the Run II physics program at the Fermilab Tevatron. Since the start of Run II in early 2002, the CDF and D0 experiments have analyzed approximately 100 pb{sup -1} of data and have re-established the top quark signal. In this article the author summarizes recent measurements of the top production cross section and mass.

  16. Top quark mass: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Gaston; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    The top quark is the most massive elementary particle discovered thus far. Its large mass may help explain the mechanism by which fundamental particles gain mass - the Standard Model's greatest standing mystery. Today the top quark mass, together with the W boson mass, plays an important role in constraining the Higgs boson mass. The current status of the top quark mass measurement and a brief outline of the expectation at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider will be covered.

  17. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-06-23

    23rd Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: Japan's Earth Simulator Enters Third Year in Top Position MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 23rd edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2004) at the International Supercomputer Conference in Heidelberg, Germany.

  18. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2005-06-22

    25th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/L LNL BlueGene/L and IBM gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 25th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 22, 2005) at the 20th International Supercomputing Conference (ISC2005) in Heidelberg Germany.

  19. TOP500 Supercomputers for November 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-11-08

    24th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/IBM BlueGene/L and NASA/SGI's Columbia gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 24th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (November 8, 2004) at the SC2004 Conference in Pittsburgh, Pa.

  20. Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage Top, Mast House Top, Upper Deck, Flat House Tops, Forecastle Deck, Main Deck - American Racer, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  1. Top Quark Physics at the CDF Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stelzer, Bernd; Collaboration, for the CDF

    2010-07-01

    Fermilab's Tevatron accelerator is recently performing at record luminosities that enables a program systematically addressing the physics of top quarks. The CDF collaboration has analyzed up to 5 fb{sup -1} of proton anti-proton collisions from the Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The large datasets available allow to push top quark measurements to higher and higher precision and have lead to the recent observation of electroweak single top quark production at the Tevatron. This article reviews recent results on top quark physics from the CDF experiment.

  2. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  3. Single Top Quarks at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, Ann P.; /UC, Riverside

    2008-09-01

    After many years searching for electroweak production of top quarks, the Tevatron collider experiments have now moved from obtaining first evidence for single top quark production to an impressive array of measurements that test the standard model in several directions. This paper describes measurements of the single top quark cross sections, limits set on the CKM matrix element |Vtb|, searches for production of single top quarks produced via flavor-changing neutral currents and from heavy W-prime and H+ boson resonances, and studies of anomalous Wtb couplings. It concludes with projections for future expected significance as the analyzed datasets grow.

  4. The TOP-IMPLART project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronsivalle, C.; Carpanese, M.; Marino, C.; Messina, G.; Picardi, L.; Sandri, S.; Basile, E.; Caccia, B.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cisbani, E.; Frullani, S.; Ghio, F.; Macellari, V.; Benassi, M.; D'Andrea, M.; Strigari, L.

    2011-07-01

    A new proton therapy center is planned to be built in Rome, Italy. The project, named TOP-IMPLART, is developed by three institutions, ENEA (Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile - Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development), ISS (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italian National Institute of Health) and IFO-IRE (Istituto Fisioterapico Ospedaliero - Istituto Regina Elena, Regina Elena, National Cancer Institute in Rome). The project is centered on a medium-energy proton accelerator designed as a sequence of linear accelerators. Two phases of construction are foreseen: the first (funded by the Italian Regione Lazio for 11 M€ spread over four years) with a maximum energy of 150 MeV and the second one up to 230 MeV. The segment up to 150 MeV is under construction and will be tested at the ENEA Research Center in Frascati before the transfer to IFO that is the clinical user. The basic concepts of the design are described here.

  5. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  6. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  7. Conducting π Columns of Highly Symmetric Coronene, The Smallest Fragment of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Isomura, Kazuhide; Kishida, Hideo; Kumagai, Yoshihide; Mizuno, Motohiro; Sakata, Masafumi; Koretsune, Takashi; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Maesato, Mitsuhiko; Saito, Gunzi

    2016-04-18

    Coronene, which is the smallest D6h -symmetric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, attracts particular attention as a basic component of electronic materials because it is the smallest fragment of graphene. However, carrier generation by physical methods, such as photo- or electric field-effect, has barely been studied, primarily because of the poor π-conduction pathway in pristine coronene solid. In this work we have developed unprecedented π-stacking columns of cationic coronene molecules by electrochemical hole-doping with polyoxometallate dianions. The face-to-face π-π interactions as well as the partially charged state lead to electrical conductivity at room temperature of up to 3 S cm(-1) , which is more than 10 orders of magnitude higher than that of pristine coronene solid. Additionally, the robust π-π interactions strongly suppress the in-plane rotation of the coronene molecules, which has allowed the first direct observation of the static Jahn-Teller distortion of cationic coronene molecules. PMID:26989854

  8. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor TopIn

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Im-Sook; Park, Hyung-Soon; Oh, Sangtaek

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} TopIn activates p53-dependent transcription in colon cancer cells. {yields} TopIn induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells. {yields} TopIn selectively inhibits topoisomerase I activity. {yields} TopIn does not affect the activity of BCRP and MDR-1. -- Abstract: The tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in cellular emergency mechanisms through regulating the genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To identify small molecules that can activate p53-responsive transcription, we performed chemical screening using genetically engineered HCT116 reporter cells. We found that TopIn (7-phenyl-6H-[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e]indole 3-oxide) efficiently activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity and induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, thereby stabilizing the p53 protein. Furthermore, TopIn upregulated the expression of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}, a downstream target of p53, and suppressed cellular proliferation in various colon cancer cells. Additionally, TopIn induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3/7 activation and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage, typical biochemical markers of apoptosis, in p53 wild-type and mutated colon cancer cells. Finally, we found that TopIn inhibited topoisomerase I activity, but not topoisomerase II, in vitro and induced the formation of the topoisomerase I-DNA complex in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Unlike camptothecin (CPT) and its derivative SN38, TopIn did not affect the activity of the ATP-binding cassette transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or multidrug-resistant protein-1 (MDR-1). These results suggest that TopIn may present a promising new topoisomerase I-targeting anti-tumor therapeutics.

  9. Single-molecule bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Jacob K; Lemay, Serge G; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    Experimental techniques that interface single biomolecules directly with microelectronic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of powerful applications, from fundamental studies of biomolecules to ultra-sensitive assays. In this study, we review several technologies that can perform electronic measurements of single molecules in solution: ion channels, nanopore sensors, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, electron tunneling gaps, and redox cycling. We discuss the shared features among these techniques that enable them to resolve individual molecules, and discuss their limitations. Recordings from each of these methods all rely on similar electronic instrumentation, and we discuss the relevant circuit implementations and potential for scaling these single-molecule bioelectronic interfaces to high-throughput arrayed sensing platforms. PMID:25529538

  10. MOLECULES IN {eta} CARINAE

    SciTech Connect

    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2012-04-10

    We report the detection toward {eta} Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO{sup +}, HCN, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, {sup 13}CO and H{sup 13}CN. The line profiles are moderately broad ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO{sup +} do not appear to be underabundant in {eta} Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the {sup 13}C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of {eta} Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  11. 'Top down' protein characterization via tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gavin E; McLuckey, Scott A

    2002-07-01

    Technological and scientific advances over the past decade have enabled protein identification and characterization strategies to be developed that are based on subjecting intact protein ions and large protein fragments directly to tandem mass spectrometry. These approaches are referred to collectively as 'top down' to contrast them with 'bottom up' approaches whereby protein identification is based on mass spectrometric analysis of peptides derived from proteolytic digestion, usually with trypsin. A key step in enabling top down approaches has been the ability to assign tandem mass spectrometer product ion identities, which can be done either via high resolving power or through product ion charge state manipulation. The ability to determine product ion charge states has permitted studies of the reactions, including dissociation, ion-molecule reactions, ion-electron reactions and ion-ion reactions of high-mass, multiply charged protein ions. Electrospray ionization combined with high magnetic field strength Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance has proven to be particularly powerful for detailed protein characterization owing to its high mass resolution and mass accuracy and its ability to effect electron capture-induced dissociation. Other types of tandem mass spectrometers are also beginning to find increasing use in top down protein identification/characterization studies. Charge state manipulation via ion-ion reactions in electrodynamic ion traps, for example, enables top down strategies to be considered using instruments with relatively modest mass resolution capabilities. Precursor ion charge state manipulation techniques have also recently been demonstrated to be capable of concentrating and charge-state purifying proteins in the gas phase. Advances in technologies applied to the structural analysis of whole protein ions and in understanding their reactions, such as those described here, are providing new options for the study of complex protein mixtures. PMID:12124999

  12. A Symmetrical Tetramer for S. aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase in Complex with Coenzyme A

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Xiang, S; Lasso, G; Gil, D; Valle, M; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy (EM) studies of Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, and mutagenesis, biochemical, and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 might play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryo-EM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of Rhizobium etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that might be catalytically more competent.

  13. A parity-time symmetric coherent plasmonic absorber-amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Brian Dionne, Jennifer; Alaeian, Hadiseh

    2015-02-14

    Non-Hermitian parity-time (PT)-symmetric optical potentials have led to a new class of unidirectional photonic components based on the spatially symmetric and balanced inclusion of loss and gain. While most proposed and implemented PT-symmetric optical devices have wavelength-scale dimensions, no physical constraints preclude development of subwavelength PT-symmetric components. We theoretically demonstrate a nanoscale PT-symmetric, all-optical plasmonic modulator capable of phase-controlled amplification and directional absorption. The modulator consists of two deeply subwavelength channels composed of either gain or loss dielectric material, embedded in a metallic cladding. When illuminating on-resonance by two counter-propagating plane waves, the aperture's total output can be modulated by changing the phase offset between the two waves. Modulation depths are greater than 10 dB, with output power varying from less than one half of the incident power to more than six times amplification. Off-resonance, the aperture possesses strong phase-controlled directionality with the output from one side varying from perfect absorption to strong scattering and transmission. The device design provides a platform for nanoscale all-optical modulators with gain while potentially enabling coherent perfect absorption and lasing in a single, compact structure.

  14. PT -symmetric Hamiltonians and their application in quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croke, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the prospect of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians finding applications in quantum information science, and conclude that such evolution is unlikely to provide any benefit over existing techniques. Although it has been known for some time that PT -symmetric quantum theory, when viewed as a unitary theory, is exactly equivalent to standard quantum mechanics, proposals continue to be put forward for schemes in which PT -symmetric quantum theory can outperform standard quantum theory. The most recent of these is the suggestion to use PT -symmetric Hamiltonians to perform an exponentially fast database search, a task known to be impossible with a quantum computer. Further, such a scheme has been shown to apparently produce effects in conflict with fundamental information-theoretic principles, such as the impossibility of superluminal information transfer, and the invariance of entanglement under local operations. In this paper we propose three inequivalent experimental implementations of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians, with careful attention to the resources required to realize each such evolution. Such an operational approach allows us to resolve these apparent conflicts, and evaluate fully schemes proposed in the literature for faster time evolution and state discrimination.

  15. Symmetric peace education and Unesco's potential for promoting it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikas, Anatol

    1983-09-01

    Peace education activities, widely contrasting and often mutually inconsistent, may be understood as constituting a dialectic in which each step is based on fundamental human reaction patterns mobilized as incentives. Although neither thesis, `Sounding the Alarm', nor anthithesis, `Identifying Causes', is adequate on its own for building peace, each is a necessary stage in development towards the synthesis, `Symmetric Peace Education'. According to this concept, peace can only be achieved through co-operation between the parties threatening or threatened by each other; and the task of symmetric peace education is to bring both sides and involved neutrals together to work out a basis of common values and joint activities while protecting the identity and integrity of all participants. On the micro-level, in schools, appropriate exercises can be designed to enable pupils to learn, from their own experiences of conflict, symmetrical and constructive habits in communication. Extension to the macro-, international, level may be achieved by representative groups of educators working together without destructive confrontation to produce common peace education packages: these would be used symmetrically by mutual agreement in countries currently rearming against each other. A different approach is proposed for bringing together groups of other professional people in `prepared, constructive confrontations' in order to reduce distrust and increase mutual understanding. The express purpose for the foundation of Unesco was to build peace; and by virtue of this mandate and the nature of its constitution, the organization is uniquely placed to promote symmetric peace education in the ways described.

  16. A parity-time symmetric coherent plasmonic absorber-amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Brian; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Dionne, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Non-Hermitian parity-time ( P T )-symmetric optical potentials have led to a new class of unidirectional photonic components based on the spatially symmetric and balanced inclusion of loss and gain. While most proposed and implemented P T -symmetric optical devices have wavelength-scale dimensions, no physical constraints preclude development of subwavelength P T -symmetric components. We theoretically demonstrate a nanoscale P T -symmetric, all-optical plasmonic modulator capable of phase-controlled amplification and directional absorption. The modulator consists of two deeply subwavelength channels composed of either gain or loss dielectric material, embedded in a metallic cladding. When illuminating on-resonance by two counter-propagating plane waves, the aperture's total output can be modulated by changing the phase offset between the two waves. Modulation depths are greater than 10 dB, with output power varying from less than one half of the incident power to more than six times amplification. Off-resonance, the aperture possesses strong phase-controlled directionality with the output from one side varying from perfect absorption to strong scattering and transmission. The device design provides a platform for nanoscale all-optical modulators with gain while potentially enabling coherent perfect absorption and lasing in a single, compact structure.

  17. SymmRef: a Flexible Refinement Method for Symmetric Multimers

    PubMed Central

    Mashiach-Farkash, Efrat; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2011-01-01

    Symmetric protein complexes are abundant in the living cell. Predicting their atomic structure can shed light on the mechanism of many important biological processes. Symmetric docking methods aim to predict the structure of these complexes given the unbound structure of a single monomer, or its model. Symmetry constraints reduce the search-space of these methods and make the prediction easier compared to asymmetric protein-protein docking. However the challenge of modeling the conformational changes that the monomer might undergo is a major obstacle. In this paper we present SymmRef, a novel method for refinement and re-ranking of symmetric docking solutions. The method models backbone and side-chain movements and optimizes the rigid-body orientations of the monomers. The backbone movements are modeled by normal modes minimization and the conformations of the side-chains are modeled by selecting optimal rotamers. Since solved structures of symmetric multimers show asymmetric side-chain conformations, we do not use symmetry constraints in the side-chain optimization procedure. The refined models are re-ranked according to an energy score. We tested the method on a benchmark of unbound docking challenges. The results show that the method significantly improves the accuracy and the ranking of symmetric rigid docking solutions. SymmRef is available for download at http://bioinfo3d.cs.tau.ac.il/SymmRef/download.html. PMID:21721046

  18. Mechanical, physical, and physiological analysis of symmetrical and asymmetrical combat.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J; Robles-Pérez, José J

    2013-09-01

    In current theaters of operation, soldiers had to face a different situation as symmetrical (defined battlefield) and asymmetrical combat (non-defined battlefield), especially in urban areas. The mechanical and organic responses of soldiers in these combats are poorly studied in specific literature. This research aimed to analyze physical, mechanical, and physiological parameters during symmetrical and asymmetrical combat simulations. We analyzed 20 soldiers from the Spanish Army and Spanish Forces and Security Corps (34.5 ± 4.2 years; 176.4 ± 8.4 cm; 74.6 ± 8.7 kg; 63.3 ± 8.0 kg muscular mass; 7.6 ± 3.2 kg fat mass) during a symmetric combat (traditional combat simulation) and during an asymmetrical combat (urban combat simulation). Heart rate (HR), speed, sprints, distances, impact, and body load parameters were measured by a GPS system and a HR belt. Results showed many differences between symmetrical and asymmetrical combat. Asymmetrical combat presented higher maximum velocity movement, number of sprints, sprint distance, and average HR. By contrary, symmetric combat presented higher number of impact and body load. This information could be used to improve specific training programs for each type of combat. PMID:23254545

  19. Algorithm using LSP to find symmetric axes of chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang

    2001-12-01

    Chromosomes are the primary objects studied in cytogenetics. Recent efforts have been devoted to automating the analysis of banded metaphase chromosomes. Feature extraction is the first step to identify a chromosome. Many useful features, such as the length and the number of bands of a chromosome, can be measured along with the chromosome's longitudinal symmetric axis. Therefore, finding this axis is a necessary precursor to making those measurements. In this paper, a new algorithm for finding a symmetric axis of a chromosome is discussed. The author introduced a concept of local symmetric property of an oblong object, and, then, applied this concept to a chromosome to find the symmetric axis after the boundary of the chromosome has been found. The results of the experiments show that the algorithm works well for both straight and bent chromosomes. Since the algorithms is based on the geometric properties of an object rather than its biological properties, it also can be used to find the symmetric axis of any other oblong object.

  20. Stationary axially symmetric solutions in Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezli, Pınar; Delice, Özgür

    2015-11-01

    Stationary, axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are reexamined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electrovacuum spacetimes for this theory. This analysis also permits us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for BD theory from a seed solution of general relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e., the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman-type solutions. Some physical properties and the circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e., a Kerr-Newman-NUT-type solution for BD theory, are also investigated in some detail.

  1. Imaging of photoinduced tautomerism in single porphyrin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Regina; Chizhik, Anna M.; Chizhik, Alexey I.; Mack, Hans-Georg; Lyubimtsev, Alexey; Hanack, Michael; Meixner, Alfred J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we present our new experimental and theoretical results upon investigations of the photoinduced tautomerism processes of single metal-free porphyrin-type molecules. During tautomerization a molecule changes its structure, therefore the excitation transition dipole moment (TDM) of the molecule changes its orientation. Using confocal microscopy in combination with azimuthally and radially polarized laser beams we are able to determine the orientation of the TDM as well as the orientation of a single molecule itself. In the case of tautomerism we are able to visualize this process and even the involved isomers separately. The study first focuses on two symmetrical compounds: a phthalocyanine and a porphyrin. Additionally, differences of the single molecules embedded in a polymer matrix or just spin-coated on a glass cover slide and under nitrogen flow are investigated. In the latter case we observe a higher frequency of the change of the TDM orientation. The experimental studies are supplemented by quantum chemical calculations. Variations of the molecular substituents, the environment and excitation wavelength can give new insights into the excited-state tautomerism process of a single molecule. We also introduce some suggestions for future experiments to support the understanding of the photoinduced tautomerism.

  2. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions 236.779 Plate, top....

  3. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions 236.779 Plate, top....

  4. The Sakai Spinner: A Paperclip Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrao, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge: Can you create a stable top from a single paper clip? Several interesting solutions to this problem were provided by Takao Sakai from Japan, the requirement of each being that the center of gravity be located on the vertical y-axis at the center of the top. In the simplest configuration, we see that there exists a single angle ?

  5. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions 236.779 Plate, top....

  6. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions 236.779 Plate, top....

  7. 49 CFR 236.779 - Plate, top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plate, top. 236.779 Section 236.779 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions 236.779 Plate, top....

  8. Race to Top Draws out New Suitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The list of 61 finalists for the latest Race to the Top competition shows that the U.S. Department of Education was successful in enticing high-scoring applications from districts in rural America and in states that had not shared in the Race to the Top bounty before. But whether the ultimate winners, which will be announced this month, will be

  9. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  10. Search for top quark at Fermilab Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-10-01

    The status of a search for the top quark with Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), based on a data sample recorded during the 1988--1989 run is presented. The plans for the next Fermilab Collider run in 1992--1993 and the prospects of discovering the top quark are discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Top Quark Pair Production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jason

    2005-05-17

    The measurement of the top quark pair production crosssection inproton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV is a test ofquantumchromodynamics and could potentially be sensitive to newphysics beyondthe standard model. I report on the latest t-tbarcross section resultsfrom the CDF and DZero experiments in various finalstate topologies whicharise from decays of top quark pairs.

  12. Controlling Severe Curly Top in Sugarbeets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling curly top in sugarbeet has been industry priority in the western United States since the 1920s. Curly top is a virus disease that is vectored by the beet leafhopper. If the beet leafhopper moves into commercial fields early in the season, virus is more likely to be transmitted to sugar...

  13. Review of Top Quark Physics Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.; ,

    2007-12-01

    As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have been coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.

  14. The Sakai Spinner: A Paperclip Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrao, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge: Can you create a stable top from a single paper clip? Several interesting solutions to this problem were provided by Takao Sakai from Japan, the requirement of each being that the center of gravity be located on the vertical y-axis at the center of the top. In the simplest configuration, we see that there exists a single angle ?…

  15. Pinch Experiments in a Table Top Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo; Tarifeno, Ariel

    2009-01-21

    The design and construction of a table top multipurpose capacitor bank of hundred of Joules and hundred of kiloAmperes conceived to be used in small scale Z-pinch experiments is reported. A recent result on a Z-pinch gas embedded discharge using hollow conical electrodes done in a similar table top generator is also presented.

  16. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  17. Race to Top Draws out New Suitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The list of 61 finalists for the latest Race to the Top competition shows that the U.S. Department of Education was successful in enticing high-scoring applications from districts in rural America and in states that had not shared in the Race to the Top bounty before. But whether the ultimate winners, which will be announced this month, will be…

  18. Top 12 Web Resources for 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Lisa; Vodicka, Devin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe some of the top websites recommended by colleagues for the Association of California School Administrators. The Top 12 for 2012 are: (1) Facebook (facebook.com); (2) Twitter (twitter.com); (3) Tungle (tungle.me); (4) FCMAT (fcmat.org); (5) YouSendIt (yousendit.com); (6) Slideshare (slideshare.net); (7) QR…

  19. Testing the validity of Bose-Einstein statistics in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio Pastor, P.; Galli, I.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.

    2015-12-01

    The search for small violations of the validity of the symmetrization postulate and of the spin-statistics connection (SSC) has been addressed in the last four decades by experimental tests performed in different physical systems of identical fermions or bosons. In parallel and consequently, theories extending the quantum mechanics to a more general level have been proposed to explain such possible violations. In this paper, we present the most stringent test to a possible violation of the SSC under permutation of the bosonic 16O nuclei in the 12CO162 molecule. An upper limit of 3.8 ×10-12 for an SSC-anomalous CO2 molecule is obtained using saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the SSC-forbidden (0001 -0000 ) R (25) rovibrational transition of 12CO162 at a 4.25 -μ m wavelength. Quantum mechanics implications of this result are discussed in the frame of the q -mutator theory. Finally, the perspective of stringent experimental tests of the symmetrization postulate in molecules that contain three or more identical nuclei is discussed.

  20. Algebraic theory of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iachello, Franco

    1995-01-01

    An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.

  1. Mighty Molecule Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Rushton, Greg; Bencomo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SMATHematics Project: The Wonder of Science, The Power of Mathematics--a collaborative partnership between Kennesaw State University and two local school districts, fifth graders had the opportunity to puzzle out chemical formulas of propane, methanol, and other important molecules. In addition, they explored properties that…

  2. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of

  3. Halley's polymeric organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.; Korth, A.

    1989-01-01

    The detection of polymeric organic compounds in the mass spectrum of Comet Halley obtained with the Positive Ion Cluster Composition analyzer on Giotto are examined. It is found that, in addition to polyoxymethylene, other polymers and complex molecules may exist in the comet. It is suggested that polymerized hydrogen cyanide may be a source for the observed CN and NH2 jets.

  4. Halley's polymeric organic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, W.F.; Boice, D.C.; Korth, A.

    1989-01-01

    The detection of polymeric organic compounds in the mass spectrum of Comet Halley obtained with the Positive Ion Cluster Composition analyzer on Giotto are examined. It is found that, in addition to polyoxymethylene, other polymers and complex molecules may exist in the comet. It is suggested that polymerized hydrogen cyanide may be a source for the observed CN and NH2 jets. 31 refs.

  5. The Science of Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Paul J.

    1974-01-01

    The author maintains that chemistry has a key role as the science of molecules and rejects the concept of chemistry as a branch of physics. The scope of chemistry, the philosophies underlying its practice, and the teaching of the subject also are discussed. (DT)

  6. Prebiologically Important Interstellar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Charnley, S. B.; Tseng, W.-L.; Snyder, L. E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kisiel, Z.; Thorwirth, S.; Bohn, R. K.; Wilson, T. L.

    2004-06-01

    Understanding the organic chemistry of molecular clouds, particularly the formation of biologically important molecules, is fundamental to the study of the processes which lead to the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Galaxy. Determining the level of molecular complexity attainable in the clouds, and the nature of the complex organic material available to protostellar disks and the planetary systems that form from them, requires an understanding of the possible chemical pathways and is therefore a central question in astrochemistry. We have thus searched for prebiologically important molecules in the hot molecular cloud cores: Sgr B2(N-LMH), W51 e1/e2 and Orion-KL. Among the molecules searched: Pyrimidine is the unsubstituted ring analogue for three of the DNA and RNA bases. 2H-Azirine and Aziridine are azaheterocyclic compounds. And Glycine is the simplest amino acid. Detections of these interstellar organic molecular species will thus have important implications for Astrobiology. Our preliminary results indicate a tentative detection of interstellar glycine. If confirmed, this will be the first detection of an amino acid in interstellar space and will greatly strengthen the thesis that interstellar organic molecules could have played a pivotal role in the prebiotic chemistry of the early Earth.

  7. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  8. Single top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    CDF,; collaborations, D0; collaboration, Aran Garcia-Bellido for the;

    2010-08-01

    The observation of single top quark production by the CDF and D0 collaborations is one of the flagship measurements of the Run II of the Tevatron. The Tevatron combined single top quark cross section is measured to be: {sigma}(tb + X, tqb + X) = 2.8{sub -0.5}{sup +0.6} pb for a top quark mass of 170 GeV. This result is in agreement with the standard model production of a single top quark together with a jet in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV and allows to measure the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}| without assumptions about the number of quark families. Other analyses involving tau leptons have been performed, and several properties, like the top quark width or the polarization have been measured.

  9. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2002-06-20

    19th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 19th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (June 20, 2002). The recently installed Earth Simulator supercomputer at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan, is as expected the clear new number 1. Its performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (trillions of calculations per second) running the Linpack benchmark is almost five times higher than the performance of the now No.2 IBM ASCI White system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (7.2 Tflop/s). This powerful leap frogging to the top by a system so much faster than the previous top system is unparalleled in the history of the TOP500.

  10. Protein Identification Using Top-Down

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaowen; Sirotkin, Yakov; Shen, Yufeng; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan S.; Ting, Ying S.; Goodlett, David R.; Smith, Richard D.; Bafna, Vineet; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-06-01

    In the last two years, due to advances in protein separation and mass spectrometry, top-down mass spectrometry moved from analyzing single proteins to analyzing complex samples and identifying hundreds and even thousands of proteins. However, computational tools for database search of top-down spectra against protein databases are still in infancy. We describe MS-Align+, a fast algorithm for top-down protein identification based on spectral alignment that enables searches for unexpected post-translational modifications (PTMs). We also propose a method for evaluating statistical significance of top-down protein identifications and further benchmark MS-Align+ along with PIITA, ProSightPTM and SEQUEST, which were previously used for top-down MS/MS database searches. We demonstrate that MS-Align+ and PIITA significantly increase the number of identified proteins as compared to ProSightPTM and SEQUEST.

  11. Top Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Potamianos, Karolos; /Purdue U.

    2012-01-01

    First observed in 1995, the top quark is the third-generation up-type quark of the standard model of particle physics (SM). The CDF and D0 collaborations have analyzed many t{bar t} events produced by the Tevatron collider, studying many properties of the top quark. Among these, the mass of the top quark is a fundamental parameter of the SM, since its value constrains the mass of the yet to be observed Higgs boson. The analyzed events were used to measure the mass of the top quark m{sub t} {approx_equal} 173.2 GeV/c{sup 2} with an uncertainty of less than 1 GeV/c{sup 2}. We report on the latest top mass measurements at the Tevatron, using up to 6 fb{sup -1} of data for each experiment.

  12. Staggered parity-time-symmetric ladders with cubic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambroise, Jennie; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a ladder-shaped chain with each rung carrying a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric gain-loss dimer. The polarity of the dimers is staggered along the chain, meaning alternation of gain-loss and loss-gain rungs. This structure, which can be implemented as an optical waveguide array, is the simplest one which renders the system PT -symmetric in both horizontal and vertical directions. The system is governed by a pair of linearly coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with self-focusing or defocusing cubic onsite nonlinearity. Starting from the analytically tractable anticontinuum limit of uncoupled rungs and using the Newton's method for continuation of the solutions with the increase of the inter-rung coupling, we construct families of PT -symmetric discrete solitons and identify their stability regions. Waveforms stemming from a single excited rung and double ones are identified. Dynamics of unstable solitons is investigated too.

  13. Optomechanically-induced transparency in parity-time-symmetric microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Jing, H.; Özdemir, Şahin K.; Geng, Z.; Zhang, Jing; Lü, Xin-You; Peng, Bo; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Optomechanically-induced transparency (OMIT) and the associated slowing of light provide the basis for storing photons in nanoscale devices. Here we study OMIT in parity-time (PT)-symmetric microresonators with a tunable gain-to-loss ratio. This system features a sideband-reversed, non-amplifying transparency , i.e., an inverted-OMIT. When the gain-to-loss ratio is varied, the system exhibits a transition from a PT-symmetric phase to a broken-PT-symmetric phase. This PT-phase transition results in the reversal of the pump and gain dependence of the transmission rates. Moreover, we show that by tuning the pump power at a fixed gain-to-loss ratio, or the gain-to-loss ratio at a fixed pump power, one can switch from slow to fast light and vice versa. These findings provide new tools for controlling light propagation using nanofabricated phononic devices. PMID:26169253

  14. Symmetric Group Approach to the Many-Electron Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwowski, Jacek; Pestka, Grzegorz

    2001-04-01

    The eigenvalue problem of a Hamiltonian represented in a finite-dimensional model space selected as a spin-adapted N-electron subspace of the 2K-spinorbital Fock space is analyzed. The symmetric group { S}N is a very convenient framework for this analysis. The resulting approach is known as the symmetric group approach (SGA) to the N-electron problem. Its applications to the construction of a basis in the model space, to the evaluation of matrix elements of spin-independent and of spin-dependent operators and to solution of the eigenvalue problem of the Hamiltonian are briefly reviewed. Recently developed applications of the symmetric group to studies of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian spectra are also mentioned.

  15. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging. PMID:27025443

  16. Reciprocal and unidirectional scattering of parity-time symmetric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, G.; Song, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Parity-time symmetry is of great interest. The reciprocal and unidirectional features are intriguing besides the symmetry phase transition. Recently, the reciprocal transmission, unidirectional reflectionless and invisibility are intensively studied. Here, we show the reciprocal reflection/transmission in -symmetric system is closely related to the type of symmetry, that is, the axial (reflection) symmetry leads to reciprocal reflection (transmission). The results are further elucidated by studying the scattering of rhombic ring form coupled resonators with enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The nonreciprocal phase shift induced by the magnetic flux and gain/loss break the parity and time-reversal symmetry but keep the parity-time symmetry. The reciprocal reflection (transmission) and unidirectional transmission (reflection) are found in the axial (reflection) -symmetric ring centre. The explorations of symmetry and asymmetry from symmetry may shed light on novel one-way optical devices and application of -symmetric metamaterials.

  17. Staggered parity-time-symmetric ladders with cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    D'Ambroise, Jennie; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a ladder-shaped chain with each rung carrying a parity-time- (PT-) symmetric gain-loss dimer. The polarity of the dimers is staggered along the chain, meaning alternation of gain-loss and loss-gain rungs. This structure, which can be implemented as an optical waveguide array, is the simplest one which renders the system PT-symmetric in both horizontal and vertical directions. The system is governed by a pair of linearly coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with self-focusing or defocusing cubic onsite nonlinearity. Starting from the analytically tractable anticontinuum limit of uncoupled rungs and using the Newton's method for continuation of the solutions with the increase of the inter-rung coupling, we construct families of PT-symmetric discrete solitons and identify their stability regions. Waveforms stemming from a single excited rung and double ones are identified. Dynamics of unstable solitons is investigated too. PMID:25871238

  18. Harmonic gyrotrons operating in high-order symmetric modes

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2015-01-05

    It is shown that gyrotrons operating at cyclotron harmonics can be designed for operation in symmetric TE{sub 0,p}-modes. Such operation in fundamental harmonic gyrotrons is possible only at small radial indices (p≤3) because of the severe mode competition with TE{sub 2,p}-modes, which are equally coupled to annular beams as the symmetric modes. At cyclotron harmonics, however, this “degeneracy” of coupling is absent, and there is a region in the parameter space where harmonic gyrotrons can steadily operate in symmetric modes. This fact is especially important for sub-THz and THz-range gyrotrons where ohmic losses limit the power achievable in continuous-wave and high duty cycle regimes.

  19. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging. PMID:27025443

  20. Size-independent symmetric division in extraordinarily long cells

    PubMed Central

    Pende, Nika; Leisch, Nikolaus; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R.; Heindl, Niels R.; Ott, Jrg; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Two long-standing paradigms in biology are that cells belonging to the same population exhibit little deviation from their average size and that symmetric cell division is size limited. Here, ultrastructural, morphometric and immunocytochemical analyses reveal that two Gammaproteobacteria attached to the cuticle of the marine nematodes Eubostrichus fertilis and E. dianeae reproduce by constricting a single FtsZ ring at midcell despite being 45??m and 120??m long, respectively. In the crescent-shaped bacteria coating E. fertilis, symmetric FtsZ-based fission occurs in cells with lengths spanning one order of magnitude. In the E. dianeae symbiont, formation of a single functional FtsZ ring makes this the longest unicellular organism in which symmetric division has ever been observed. In conclusion, the reproduction modes of two extraordinarily long bacterial cells indicate that size is not the primary trigger of division and that yet unknown mechanisms time the localization of both DNA and the septum. PMID:25221974

  1. Reciprocal and unidirectional scattering of parity-time symmetric structures

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, G.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time symmetry is of great interest. The reciprocal and unidirectional features are intriguing besides the symmetry phase transition. Recently, the reciprocal transmission, unidirectional reflectionless and invisibility are intensively studied. Here, we show the reciprocal reflection/transmission in -symmetric system is closely related to the type of symmetry, that is, the axial (reflection) symmetry leads to reciprocal reflection (transmission). The results are further elucidated by studying the scattering of rhombic ring form coupled resonators with enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The nonreciprocal phase shift induced by the magnetic flux and gain/loss break the parity and time-reversal symmetry but keep the parity-time symmetry. The reciprocal reflection (transmission) and unidirectional transmission (reflection) are found in the axial (reflection) -symmetric ring centre. The explorations of symmetry and asymmetry from symmetry may shed light on novel one-way optical devices and application of -symmetric metamaterials. PMID:26876806

  2. Reciprocal and unidirectional scattering of parity-time symmetric structures.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, G; Song, Z

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time symmetry is of great interest. The reciprocal and unidirectional features are intriguing besides the symmetry phase transition. Recently, the reciprocal transmission, unidirectional reflectionless and invisibility are intensively studied. Here, we show the reciprocal reflection/transmission in -symmetric system is closely related to the type of symmetry, that is, the axial (reflection) symmetry leads to reciprocal reflection (transmission). The results are further elucidated by studying the scattering of rhombic ring form coupled resonators with enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The nonreciprocal phase shift induced by the magnetic flux and gain/loss break the parity and time-reversal symmetry but keep the parity-time symmetry. The reciprocal reflection (transmission) and unidirectional transmission (reflection) are found in the axial (reflection) -symmetric ring centre. The explorations of symmetry and asymmetry from symmetry may shed light on novel one-way optical devices and application of -symmetric metamaterials. PMID:26876806

  3. Taming the Exceptional Points of Parity-Time Symmetric Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Marc; Shi, Chengzhi; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric concept and development lead to a wide range of applications including coherent perfect absorbers, single mode lasers, unidirectional cloaking and sensing, and optical isolators. These new applications and devices emerge from the existence of a phase transition in PT symmetric complex-valued potential obtained by balancing gain and loss materials. However, the systematic extension of such devices is adjourned by the key challenge in the management of the complex scattering process within the structure in order to engineer PT phase and exceptional points. Here, based on active acoustic elements, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous control of complex-valued potentials and multiple interference inside the structure at any given frequency. This method broadens the scope of applications for PT symmetric devices in many fields including optics, microwaves, electronics, which are crucial for sensing, imaging, cloaking, lasing, absorbing, etc.

  4. Lift generation by a two-dimensional symmetric flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamuro, Takaji; Ota, Keigo; Suzuki, Kosuke

    2010-11-01

    Two-dimensional symmetric flapping flight is investigated by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. In the method we can treat the moving boundary problem efficiently on the Cartesian grid. First, we investigate the effect of the Reynolds number on flows around symmetric flapping wings under no-gravity field and find that at high Reynolds numbers asymmetric vortices are appeared and the time-averaged lift force is induced on the wings, while at low Reynolds numbers only symmetric vortices are appeared around the wings and no lift force is induced. Also, the effect of the initial position of the wings on the lift force is investigated. Secondly, we carry out free flight simulations under gravity field for various Reynolds and Froude numbers and find the region where upward flights are possible.

  5. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (PT) symmetric lasers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Li; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the -symmetric and -broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system's design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation against saturation nonlinearity in -symmetric lasers. PMID:27143324

  6. Plane symmetric thin-shell wormholes: Solutions and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-08-15

    Using the cut-and-paste procedure, we construct static and dynamic, plane symmetric wormholes by surgically grafting together two spacetimes of plane symmetric vacuum solutions with a negative cosmological constant. These plane symmetric wormholes can be interpreted as domain walls connecting different universes, having planar topology, and upon compactification of one or two coordinates, cylindrical topology or toroidal topology, respectively. A stability analysis is carried out for the dynamic case by taking into account specific equations of state, and a linearized stability analysis around static solutions is also explored. It is found that thin-shell wormholes made of a dark energy fluid or of a cosmological constant fluid are stable, while thin-shell wormholes made of phantom energy are unstable.

  7. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging.

  8. Quantum rotor model for a Bose-Einstein condensate of dipolar molecules.

    PubMed

    Armaitis, J; Duine, R A; Stoof, H T C

    2013-11-22

    We show that a Bose-Einstein condensate of heteronuclear molecules in the regime of small and static electric fields is described by a quantum rotor model for the macroscopic electric dipole moment of the molecular gas cloud. We solve this model exactly and find the symmetric, i.e., rotationally invariant, and dipolar phases expected from the single-molecule problem, but also an axial and planar nematic phase due to many-body effects. Investigation of the wave function of the macroscopic dipole moment also reveals squeezing of the probability distribution for the angular momentum of the molecules. PMID:24313496

  9. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  10. A New Approach to Materials Discovery for Electronic and Thermoelectric Properties of Single-Molecule Junctions.

    PubMed

    Manrique, David Zsolt; Al-Galiby, Qusiy; Hong, Wenjing; Lambert, Colin J

    2016-02-10

    We have investigated a large set of symmetric and asymmetric molecules to demonstrate a general rule for molecular-scale quantum transport, which provides a new route to materials design and discovery. The rule states "the conductance GXBY of an asymmetric molecule is the geometric mean of the conductance of the two symmetric molecules derived from it and the thermopower SXBY of the asymmetric molecule is the algebraic mean of their thermopowers". The studied molecules have a structure X-B-Y, where B is the backbone of the molecule, while X and Y are anchor groups, which bind the molecule to metallic electrodes. When applied to experimentally measured histograms of conductance and thermopower, the rules apply to the statistically most probable values. We investigated molecules with anchors chosen from the following family: cyano, pyridl, dihydrobenzothiol, amine and thiol. For the backbones B, we tested 14 different structures. We found that the formulas (GXBY)(2) = GXBX*GYBY and SXBY = (SXBX + SYBY)/2 were satisfied in the large majority of the cases, provided the Fermi energy is located within the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecules. The circuit rules imply that if measurements are performed on molecules with nA different anchors and nB different backbones, then properties of nA(nA + 1)nB/2 molecules can be predicted. So for example, in the case of 20 backbones and 10 anchors, 30 measurements (or reliable calculations) can provide a near quantitative estimate for 1070 measurements of other molecules, at no extra cost. PMID:26784577

  11. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne; /Wuppertal U.

    2008-10-01

    In 1995 the last missing member of the known families of quarks, the top quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab near Chicago. Until today, the Tevatron is the only place where top quarks can be produced. The determination of top quark production and properties is crucial to understand the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. The most striking property of the top quark is its mass--of the order of the mass of a gold atom and close to the electroweak scale--making the top quark not only interesting in itself but also as a window to new physics. Due to the high mass, much higher than of any other known fermion, it is expected that the top quark plays an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking, which is the most prominent candidate to explain the mass of particles. In the Standard Model, electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by one Higgs field, producing one additional physical particle, the Higgs boson. Although various searches have been performed, for example at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), no evidence for the Higgs boson could yet be found in any experiment. At the Tevatron, multiple searches for the last missing particle of the Standard Model are ongoing with ever higher statistics and improved analysis techniques. The exclusion or verification of the Higgs boson can only be achieved by combining many techniques and many final states and production mechanisms. As part of this thesis, the search for Higgs bosons produced in association with a top quark pair (t{bar t}H) has been performed. This channel is especially interesting for the understanding of the coupling between Higgs and the top quark. Even though the Standard Model Higgs boson is an attractive candidate, there is no reason to believe that the electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by only one Higgs field. In many models more than one Higgs boson are expected to exist, opening even more channels to search for charged or neutral Higgs bosons. Depending on its mass, the charged Higgs boson is expected to decay either into top quarks or be the decay product of a top quark. For masses below the top quark mass, the top decay into a charged Higgs boson and a b quark can occur at a certain rate, additionally to the decays into W bosons and a b quark. The different decays of W and charged Higgs bosons can lead to deviations of the observed final number of events in certain final states with respect to the Standard Model expectation. A global search for charged Higgs bosons in top quark pair events is presented in this thesis, resulting in the most stringent limits to-date. Besides the decay of top quarks into charged Higgs or W bosons, new physics can also show up in the quark part of the decay. While in the Standard Model the top quark decays with a rate of about 100% into a W boson and a b quark, there are models where the top quark can decay into a W boson and a non-b quark. The ratio of branching fractions in which the top quark decays into a b quark over the branching fractions in which the top quark decays into all quarks is measured as part of this thesis, yielding the most precise measurement today. Furthermore, the Standard Model top quark pair production cross section is essential to be known precisely since the top quark pair production is the main background for t{bar t}H production and many other Higgs and beyond the Standard Model searches. However, not only the search or the test of the Standard Model itself make the precise measurement of the top quark pair production cross section interesting. As the cross section is calculated with high accuracy in perturbative QCD, a comparison of the measurement to the theory expectation yields the possibility to extract the top quark mass from the cross section measurement. Although many dedicated techniques exist to measure the top quark mass, the extraction from the cross section represents an important complementary measurement. The latter is briefly discussed in this thesis and compared to direct top mass measurements. The goal of this thesis is the improved understanding of the top quark sector and its use as a window to new physics. Techniques are extended and developed to measure the top quark pair production cross section simultaneously with the ratio of branching fractions, the t{bar t}H cross section or the rate with which top quarks decay into charged Higgs bosons. Some of the results are then taken to extract more information. The cross section measurement is used to extract the top quark mass, and the ratio of the top quark pair production cross sections in different final states, yielding a limit on non-Standard Model top quark decays.

  12. Solitary electrostatic waves are possible in unmagnetized symmetric pair plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Dubinova, Irina D.; Gordienko, Victor A.

    2006-08-15

    A possibility of stationary solitary electrostatic waves with large amplitude in symmetric unmagnetized symmetric pair plasmas (e{sup -}e{sup +} plasma, C{sub 60}{sup -}C{sub 60}{sup +} plasma or e{sup -}h{sup +} plasma) is proven. The main idea of the work is a thermodynamic unequilibrium of plasma species which may be created in low-density ideal pair plasmas. Ranges of parameters (Mach number M and a nonequilibrium degree {tau}=T{sub +}/T{sub -}) which lead to the possibility of solitary waves are found.

  13. Bound states of PT-symmetric separable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Jones, Hugh F.

    2011-09-15

    All of the PT-symmetric potentials that have been studied so far have been local. In this paper, nonlocal PT-symmetric separable potentials of the form V(x,y)=i{epsilon}[U(x)U(y)-U(-x)U(-y)], where U(x) is real, are examined. Two specific models are examined. In each case, it is shown that there is a parametric region of the coupling strength {epsilon} for which the PT symmetry of the Hamiltonian is unbroken and the bound-state energies are real. The critical values of {epsilon} that bound this region are calculated.

  14. Lorentz symmetric dispersion relation from a random Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    We match the density of energy eigenstates of a local field theory with that of a random Hamiltonian order by order in a Taylor expansion. In our previous work we assumed Lorentz symmetry of the field theory, which entered through the dispersion relation. Here we extend that work to consider a generalized dispersion relation and show that the Lorentz symmetric case is preferred, in that the Lorentz symmetric dispersion relation give a better approximation to a random Hamiltonian than the other local dispersion relations we considered.

  15. Higher spins in the symmetric orbifold of K3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggio, Marco; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Peng, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    The symmetric orbifold of K3 is believed to be the conformal field theory (CFT) dual of string theory on AdS3×S3×K 3 at the tensionless point. For the case when the K3 is described by the orbifold T4/Z2 , we identify a subsector of the symmetric orbifold theory that is dual to a higher spin theory on AdS3 . We analyze how the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) spectrum of string theory can be described from the higher spin perspective and determine which single-particle BPS states are accounted for by the perturbative higher spin theory.

  16. Multigrid convergence of an implicit symmetric relaxation scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Kwak, Dochan

    1994-01-01

    The multigrid method has been applied to an existing three-dimensional compressible Euler solver to accelerate the convergence of the implicit symmetric relaxation scheme. This lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel implicit scheme is shown to be an effective multigrid driver in three dimensions. A grid refinement study is performed including the effects of large cell aspect ratio meshes. Performance figures of the present multigrid code on Cray computers including the new C90 are presented. A reduction of three orders of magnitude in the residual for a three-dimensional transonic inviscid flow using 920 k grid points is obtained in less than 4 min on a Cray C90.

  17. Multigrid convergence of an implicit symmetric relaxation scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan

    1993-01-01

    Multigrid has been applied to an existing three-dimensional compressible Euler solver to accelerate the convergence of the implicit symmetric relaxation scheme. This lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel implicit scheme is shown to be an effective multigrid driver in three-dimensions. A grid refinement study is performed including the effects of large cell aspect ratio meshes. Performance figures of the present multigrid code on Cray computers including the new C90 are presented. A reduction of three orders of of magnitude in the residual for a three-dimensional transonic inviscid flow using 920K grid points is obtained in less than 4 minutes on a Cray C90.

  18. A parallel Lanczos method for symmetric generalized eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.; Simon, H.D.

    1997-12-01

    Lanczos algorithm is a very effective method for finding extreme eigenvalues of symmetric matrices. It requires less arithmetic operations than similar algorithms, such as, the Arnoldi method. In this paper, the authors present their parallel version of the Lanczos method for symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem, PLANSO. PLANSO is based on a sequential package called LANSO which implements the Lanczos algorithm with partial re-orthogonalization. It is portable to all parallel machines that support MPI and easy to interface with most parallel computing packages. Through numerical experiments, they demonstrate that it achieves similar parallel efficiency as PARPACK, but uses considerably less time.

  19. Thermodynamics of Black Holes and the Symmetric Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black holes using the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle which contains correction terms involving momentum and position uncertainty. The mass-temperature relationship and the heat capacity for these black holes have been computed using which the critical and remnant masses have been obtained. The entropy is found to satisfy the area law upto leading order logarithmic corrections and corrections of the form A 2 (which is a new finding in this paper) from the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle.

  20. Thermodynamics of Black Holes and the Symmetric Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black holes using the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle which contains correction terms involving momentum and position uncertainty. The mass-temperature relationship and the heat capacity for these black holes have been computed using which the critical and remnant masses have been obtained. The entropy is found to satisfy the area law upto leading order logarithmic corrections and corrections of the form A 2 (which is a new finding in this paper) from the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle.

  1. Observation of Defect States in PT-Symmetric Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Näger, Jakob; Onishchukov, Georgy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf

    2013-05-01

    We provide the first experimental demonstration of defect states in parity-time (PT) symmetric mesh-periodic potentials. Our results indicate that these localized modes can undergo an abrupt phase transition in spite of the fact that they remain localized in a PT-symmetric periodic environment. Even more intriguing is the possibility of observing a linearly growing radiation emission from such defects provided their eigenvalue is associated with an exceptional point that resides within the continuum part of the spectrum. Localized complex modes existing outside the band-gap regions are also reported along with their evolution dynamics.

  2. Bimodal symmetric fission observed in the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Dougan, R.J.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, A.D.; Schadel, M.; Hahn, R.L.; Baisden, P.A.; Henderson, C.M.

    1986-01-27

    We measured the mass and kinetic-energy partitioning in the spontaneous fission of /sup 258/Fm, /sup 259/Md, /sup 260/Md, /sup 258/No, and /sup 260/(104). All fissioned with mass distributions that were symmetric. Total-kinetic-energy distributions peaked near either 200 or 235 MeV. Surprisingly, these energy distributions were skewed upward or downward from the peak in each case, except for /sup 260/(104), indicating a composite of two energy distributions. We interpret this as a mixture of liquid-drop-like and fragment-shell directed symmetric fission, although theory had not anticipated this phenomenon.

  3. Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Glycinium Oxalate under Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himal; Murli, Chitra; Mishra, A K; Verma, Ashok K; Garg, Nandini; Deo, M N; Chitra, R; Sharma, Surinder M

    2016-02-01

    The study of hydrogen bonds near symmetrization limit at high pressures is of importance to understand proton dynamics in complex bio-geological processes. We report here the evidence of hydrogen bond symmetrization in the simplest amino acid-carboxylic acid complex, glycinium oxalate, at moderate pressures of 8 GPa using in-situ infrared and Raman spectroscopic investigations combined with first-principles simulations. The dynamic proton sharing between semioxalate units results in covalent-like infinite oxalate chains. At pressures above 12 GPa, the glycine units systematically reorient with pressure to form hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies held together by these chains. PMID:26730739

  4. Bacterial invasion reconstructed molecule by molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    We propose to visualize the initial stages of bacterial infection of a human host cell with unmatched spatial and temporal resolution. This work will develop a new capability for the laboratory (super-resolution optical imaging), will test unresolved scientific hypotheses regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, and leverages state of the art 3D molecular tracking instrumentation developed recently by our group. There is much to be gained by applying new single molecule tools to the important and familiar problem of pathogen entry into a host cell. For example, conventional fluorescence microscopy has identified key host receptors, such as CD44 and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin, that aggregate near the site of Salmonella typhimurium infection of human cells. However, due to the small size of the bacteria ({approx} 2 {micro}m) and the diffraction of the emitted light, one just sees a fluorescent 'blob' of host receptors that aggregate at the site of attachment, making it difficult to determine the exact number of receptors present or whether there is any particular spatial arrangement of the receptors that facilitates bacterial adhesion/entry. Using newly developed single molecule based super-resolution imaging methods, we will visualize how host receptors are directed to the site of pathogen adhesion and whether host receptors adopt a specific spatial arrangement for successful infection. Furthermore, we will employ our 3D molecular tracking methods to follow the injection of virulence proteins, or effectors, into the host cell by the pathogen Type III secretion system (TTSS). We expect these studies to provide mechanistic insights into the early events of pathogen infection that have here-to-fore been technically beyond our reach. Our Research Goals are: Goal 1--Construct a super-resolution fluorescence microscope and use this new capability to image the spatial distribution of different host receptors (e.g. CD44, as {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin) at the point of bacterial attachment to a human cell. Goal 2--Determine if the transport method of host cell receptors to the site of Salmonella infection depends upon their initial spatial location. We hypothesize that host receptors originally near the infection site will diffuse in the host membrane till 'caught' by the bacteria, while receptors further away from the bacteria will be driven by actin to the infection site in a highly directed fashion. Goal 3--Measure the 3D path taken by a bacterial effector to find its host counterpart. We hypothesize that bacterial effectors, after passing into the host via the TTSS, fmd their host target proteins through an un-biased diffusion process (e.g. a random walk, rather than active transport). This hypothesis will be tested on the bacterial effector SopE as it searches for its host partner, Racl.

  5. Discovery of single top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Gillberg, Dag

    2009-05-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74{sub -0.74}{sup +0.95} pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element V{sub tb}, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f{sub 1}{sup L}| = 1.05{sub -0.12}{sup +0.13}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5 standard deviations.

  6. Single-photon nonlinearities using arrays of cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Rajapakse, R. M.; Bragdon, T.; Rey, A. M.; Calarco, T.; Yelin, S. F.

    2009-07-15

    We model single-photon nonlinearities resulting from the dipole-dipole interactions of cold polar molecules. We propose utilizing 'dark state polaritons' to effectively couple photon and molecular states; through this framework, coherent control of the nonlinearity can be expressed and potentially used in an optical quantum computation architecture. Due to the dipole-dipole interaction the photons pick up a measurable nonlinear phase even in the single-photon regime. A manifold of protected symmetric eigenstates is used as basis. Depending on the implementation, major sources of decoherence result from nonsymmetric interactions and phonon dispersion. We discuss the strength of the nonlinearity per photon and the feasibility of this system.

  7. Top-pions and single top production at the HERA and THERA colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chongxing; Zong, Hongjie; Wang, Wei

    2003-09-01

    The presence of physical top-pions in low-energy spectrum is an inevitable feature of topcolor scenario. We consider the contributions of the physical top-pions predicted by topcolor-assisted technicolor (TC2) models to the single top production via the t-channel process eq→ et at the HERA and THERA colliders. We find that the neutral top-pion can generate large contributions to the process ec→ et. In most of the parameter space, the production cross section is in the range of 1-6 pb. The signals and observability of the neutral top-pion can be studied in the HERA and THERA colliders.

  8. THE TOP QUARK, QCD, AND NEW PHYSICS.

    SciTech Connect

    DAWSON,S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup +}e{sup -} + t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup +}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  9. The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dawson, S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  10. Creation of Functional Micro/Nano Systems through Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tak-Sing; Brough, Branden; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Mimicking nature’s approach in creating devices with similar functional complexity is one of the ultimate goals of scientists and engineers. The remarkable elegance of these naturally evolved structures originates from bottom-up self-assembly processes. The seamless integration of top-down fabrication and bottom-up synthesis is the challenge for achieving intricate artificial systems. In this paper, technologies necessary for guided bottom-up assembly such as molecular manipulation, molecular binding, and the self assembling of molecules will be reviewed. In addition, the current progress of synthesizing mechanical devices through top-down and bottom-up approaches will be discussed. PMID:19382535

  11. Single-Molecule Diodes with High On/Off Ratios Through Environmental Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Dell, Emma; Adak, Olgun; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey; Campos, Luis; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-03-01

    Single-Molecule diodes were first proposed with an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Progress in molecular electronics has led to the realization of several single-molecule diodes; these have relied on asymmetric molecular backbones, asymmetric molecule-electrode linkers, or asymmetric electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for functional applications due to several pitfalls, including low rectification ratios (``on''/``off'' current ratios <10). Here, we introduce a powerful approach for inducing rectification in conventionally symmetric single-molecule junctions, taking advantage of environmental factors about the junction. By utilizing an asymmetric environment instead of an asymmetric molecule, we reproducibly achieve high rectification ratios at low operating voltages for molecular junctions based on a family of symmetric small-gap molecules. This technique serves as an unconventional approach for developing functional molecular-scale devices and probing their charge transport characteristics. Furthermore, this technique should be applicable to other nanoscale devices, providing a general route for tuning device properties.

  12. Semiconductor photonic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forchel, A.; Bayer, M.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Reinecke, T. L.; Kulakovskii, V. D.

    2000-05-01

    We have fabricated semiconductor photonic molecules based on microcavities with three-dimensional optical confinement. By connecting two or more microcavities by a semiconductor bridge structure, interaction between the optical modes of the individual microcavities can be observed. In the optical spectra the interaction leads to a splitting of the photonic ground state into an energetically favored and an energetically unfavored branch in analogy to the ground state of simple chemical molecules. By increasing the number of connected cavities, additional optical modes develop in the energy range of the fundamental and higher order modes of the individual structures. For systems with more than 10 connected microcavities, we observe a transition to a one-dimensional photonic crystal-like behavior.

  13. Characterization of a potentially axially symmetric europium(III) complex of a tetraacetate,tetraaza, macrocyclic ligand by luminescence excitation, emission and lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, Michael; de, William; Horrocks, W., Jr.; Liotta, Frank J.

    1982-01-01

    The Eu(III) complex of the octadentate macrocyclic ligand, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N''' -tetraacetate, DOTA, has been examined by luminescence excitation, emission, and lifetime spectroscopy using pulsed dye laser techniques. The results confirm the expected axially symmetric nature of the major component in solution and reveal that 1.2 ± 0.4 water molecules arc coordinatcd to the Eu(III) ion in the complex.

  14. Top quark properties from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Markus; /MIT, LNS

    2006-05-01

    This report describes latest measurements and studies of top quark properties from the Tevatron in Run II with an integrated luminosity of up to 750 pb{sup -1}. Due to its large mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2}, the top quark provides a unique environment for tests of the Standard Model and is believed to yield sensitivity to new physics beyond the Standard Model. With data samples of close to 1 fb{sup -1} the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron enter a new area of precision top quark measurements.

  15. Single Top Production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenbin; /Baylor U.

    2012-05-01

    We present recent results of single top quark production in the lepton plus jet final state, performed by the CDF and D0 collaborations based on 7.5 and 5.4 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data collected at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV from the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Multivariate techniques are used to separate the single top signal from the backgrounds. Both collaborations present measurements of the single top quark cross section and the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}|. A search for anomalous Wtb coupling from D0 is also presented.

  16. The search for top at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, T.M.; CDF Collaboration

    1991-08-01

    We present results on the search for the top quark in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. The data sample collected during the 1988--89 run with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) includes more than 4 pb{sup {minus}1}. We report here on an extension of previously published searches for the top quark in electron + jets and the dilepton channel electron-muon. The 95% confidence level limit on the top mass is 89 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  17. Precision Determination of the Top Quark Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Movilla Fernandez, Pedro A.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-05-01

    The CDF and D0 collaborations have updated their measurements of the mass of the top quark using proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV produced at the Tevatron. The uncertainties in each of the top-antitop decay channels have been reduced. The new Tevatron average for the mass of the top quark based on about 1 fb{sup -1} of data per experiment is 170.9 {+-} 1.8 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  18. Top quark mass measurement at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; /Harvard U.

    2004-12-01

    The authors report on the latest experimental measurements of the top quark mass by the CDF and D0 Collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron. They present a new top mass measurement using the t{bar t} events collected by the D0 Collaboration in Run I between 1994 and 1996. This result is combined with previous measurements to yield a new world top mass average. They also describe several preliminary results using up to 193 pb{sup -1} of t{bar t} events produced in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV during the Run II of the Tevatron.

  19. Single Molecule Mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; Zhang, Yanxing; Ho, Wilson; Wu, Ruqian; Ruqian Wu, Yanxing Zhang Team; Wilson Ho, Shaowei Li Team

    Mechanical forces can be used to trigger chemical reactions through bending and stretching of chemical bonds. Using the reciprocating movement of the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), mechanical energy can be provided to a single molecule sandwiched between the tip and substrate. When the mechanical pulse center was moved to the outer ring feature of a CO molecule, the reaction rate was significantly increased compared with bare Cu surface and over Au atoms. First, DFT calculations show that the presence of CO makes the Cu cavity more attractive toward H2 Second, H2 prefers the horizontal adsorption geometry in the Cu-Cu and Au-Cu cavities and no hybridization occurs between the antibonding states of H2 and states of Cu atoms. While H2 loses electrons from its bonding state in all three cavities, the filling of its anti-bonding state only occurs in the CO-Cu cavity. Both make the CO-Cu cavity much more effectively to chop the H2 molecule. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation Center for Chemical Innovation on Chemistry at the Space-Time Limit (CaSTL) under Grant No. CHE-1414466.

  20. Multiplexed single molecule immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Rissin, David M; Kan, Cheuk W; Song, Linan; Rivnak, Andrew J; Fishburn, Matthew W; Shao, Qichao; Piech, Tomasz; Ferrell, Evan P; Meyer, Raymond E; Campbell, Todd G; Fournier, David R; Duffy, David C

    2013-08-01

    We have developed a method that enables the multiplexed detection of proteins based on counting single molecules. Paramagnetic beads were labeled with fluorescent dyes to create optically distinct subpopulations of beads, and antibodies to specific proteins were then immobilized to individual subpopulations. Mixtures of subpopulations of beads were then incubated with a sample, and specific proteins were captured on their specific beads; these proteins were then labeled with enzymes via immunocomplex formation. The beads were suspended in enzyme substrate, loaded into arrays of femtoliter wells--or Single Molecule Arrays (Simoa)--that were integrated into a microfluidic device (the Simoa disc). The wells were then sealed with oil, and imaged fluorescently to determine: a) the location and subpopulation identity of individual beads in the femtoliter wells, and b) the presence or absence of a single enzyme associated with each bead. The images were analyzed to determine the average enzyme per bead (AEB) for each bead subpopulation that provide a quantitative parameter for determining the concentration of each protein. We used this approach to simultaneously detect TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β in human plasma with single molecule resolution at subfemtomolar concentrations, i.e., 200- to 1000-fold more sensitive than current multiplexed immunoassays. The simultaneous, specific, and sensitive measurement of several proteins using multiplexed digital ELISA could enable more reliable diagnoses of disease. PMID:23719780