Science.gov

Sample records for symptomatic chronic cholecystitis

  1. CHOLECYSTITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cholecystitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory disease of the gallbladder that may be classified as calculous or acalculous, based on the presence or absence of gallstones. In developed countries, gallstones occur in 50% to 70% of children who have cholecystitis, but in developing countries, a ca...

  2. A rare gallbladder ciliated foregut cyst in chronic cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Jin; Salinas, James; Varikatthas, Winny; Alsnih, Ghiyath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ciliated foregut cysts (CFC) are rare anomalies due to aberrant embryological development. It is thought to arise from a remnant of the embryologic foregut. The solitary cysts are characterised by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They are usually located above the diaphragm but they can also arise in relation to the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Presentation of case We present the first ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder case reported in Australia, and the ninth known case to be reported worldwide. A 61-year-old male with chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis underwent an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative cholangiogram. Intraoperatively, ‘out-pouching’ was noted on the lateral border of the gallbladder. Microscopically the histopathology showed that the cyst was lined by ciliated columnar epithelium the characteristic feature of a ciliated foregut cyst. Discussion To date only 8 cases of these ciliated foregut cysts in the gallbladder have been reported in literature. Our case is the first reported in Australia. It is unique in that the patient was an older male as opposed to most other previous cases, which were younger females. These cysts can be difficult to distinguish from neoplasms clinically and radiographically. Reports have shown that these cysts may become dysplastic and is best excised when discovered. Conclusion Despite the rarity of CFCs and their potential to mimic malignancy, we propose awareness and understanding of the management for them—being excision and hopefully not cause any confusion or devastatingly allow it to become malignant. PMID:26890682

  3. Gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis: differentiation with two-phase spiral CT.

    PubMed

    Yun, E J; Cho, S G; Park, S; Park, S W; Kim, W H; Kim, H J; Suh, C H

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether an analysis of two-phase spiral computed tomographic (CT) features provides a sound basis for the differential diagnosis between gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis. Eighty-two patients, 35 with gallbladder carcinoma and 47 with chronic cholecystitis, underwent two-phase spiral CT. We reviewed the two-phase spiral CT features of thickness and enhancement pattern of the gallbladder wall seen during the arterial and venous phases. Mean wall thicknesses were 12.6 mm in the gallbladder carcinoma group and 6.9 mm in the chronic cholecystitis group. The common enhancement patterns seen in gallbladder carcinoma were (a) a highly enhanced thick inner wall layer during the arterial phase that showed isoattenuation with the adjacent hepatic parenchyma during the venous phase (16 of 35, 45.7%) and (b) a highly enhanced thick inner wall layer during both phases (eight of 35, 22.9%). The most common enhancement pattern of chronic cholecystitis was isoattenuation of the thin inner wall layer during both phases (42 of 47, 89.4%). In conclusion, awareness of the wall thickening and enhancement patterns in gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis on two-phase spiral CT appears to be valuable in differentiating these two different disease entities. PMID:15160762

  4. Macrophages and mast cells in chronic cholecystitis and "normal" gall bladders.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, I; Hopwood, D

    1986-01-01

    An attempt was made to quantify mast cells using toluidine blue and macrophages, with alpha-1-antitrypsin as a marker, from adjacent sections in the mucosa of two groups of gall bladders showing either minimal inflammatory change or established chronic cholecystitis. The results were expressed as cells/mm2 of mucosa. Alpha-1-antitrypsin showed both macrophages and mast cells, and therefore an estimate of macrophage numbers was obtained by subtraction. Mast cells comprised more than 60% of the alpha-1-antitrypsin positive cells. There were significantly (p greater than 0.001) more mast cells and macrophages in minimal inflammatory gall bladder mucosa than in established chronic cholecystitis. Images PMID:2431004

  5. Percutaneous Cholecystostomy as a First-Line Therapy in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Acute Cholecystitis with Midterm Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Gumus, Burcak

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to share midterm results of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) as a first-line therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis. Methods: Fourteen chronic hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis underwent PC between March 2007 and May 2009 at our institute. On preoperative assessment, the patients were classified into the ASA score by the anesthesiology team. All patients were class IV because of severe underlying comorbidities. The patients were referred to interventional radiology unit for PC by consensus of the multidisciplinary team. Results: The PC was technically successful in all the patients without minor or major complications related to the procedure. Clinical symptoms in three patients who presented with sepsis and multiorgan failure did not resolve after PC, and these patients died following urgent surgery, including open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration. A new cholecystitis attack was detected in one patient in the acalculous group at the sixth month of the follow-up period. The mean catheterization time was 31.7 (range, 28-41) days. The mean follow-up time was 13.3 (range 4-21) months. Conclusions: The PC may come into consideration as a first-line treatment modality in the management of acute cholecystitis in poor surgical candidate chronic hemodialysis patients. This is the first report focusing on the midterm results of PC as a first-line therapy in hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis who could be operated on.

  6. Aberrant activation of Sonic hedgehog signaling in chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Xu, Xiaoping; Xu, Angao; Liu, Cuiping; Liang, Fenfen; Xue, Minmin; Bai, Lan

    2014-03-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been extensively studied and is implicated in various inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors. We summarized the clinicopathological features and performed immunohistochemistry assays to examine expression of Shh signaling proteins in 10 normal mucosa, 32 gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), and 95 chronic cholecystitis (CC) specimens. The CC specimens were classified into three groups according to degree of inflammation. Compared with normal mucosa, CC, and GBC specimens exhibited increased expression of Shh. The immunoreactive score of Shh in the GBC group was higher than that in the mild to moderate CC groups but lower than that in the severe CC group (P < .05). Expression of Patched (Ptch) and Gli1 gradually increased from non-malignant cholecystitis to malignant tumors. Compared with CC specimens, GBC specimens showed higher cytoplasmic and membranous expression for Ptch (P < .05). Gli1 staining showed cytoplasmic expression of Gli1 in both CC (60% for mild, 77% for moderate, and 84% for severe) and GBC specimens (97%). Nuclear expression of Gli1 was detected in 16% of severe CC specimens with moderate to poor atypical hyperplasia, and in 62.5% of GBC specimens. Shh expression strongly correlated with expression of Ptch and Gli1. Furthermore, patients with strongly positive Gli1 staining had significantly lower survival rates than those with weakly positive staining. Our data indicate that the Shh signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in CC and GBC, and altered Shh signaling may be involved in the course of development from CC to gallbladder carcinogenesis. PMID:24440094

  7. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  8. [Influence of antidepressant therapy on psychovegetative disorders in patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis in perioperative period].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Shchekotov, V V; Tret'iakova, Iu I; Solov'eva, I V; Tsimmerman, I Ia

    2008-01-01

    The results of prospective study of the stage of vascular endothelium and neutrophil phagocytic activity (NPA) in patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis (CCC) in perioperative period, who had anxious depressive disturbances (ADD), were represented. 61 patients were examined 3 weeks before cholecystectomy (CE). Intensity of anxiety and depression, vegetative tonus, desquamated endotheliocytes (DE) in blood and phagocytosis degree were assessed. The patients were randomized into 2 groups. The patients of 1st group (n = 30) received antidepressant coaxil during perioperative period (6 weeks); 2nd group (the control) was composed of 31 patients and was treated without coaxil. In 1st group significant decrease in AAD and symptoms of vegetative dystonia (VD) in 3 weeks after CE was detected; number of DE in blood was considerable reduces, and NPA was significantly increased vs. control group. Correlation analysis made possible to show that the higher AAD and VD intensity, the more frequently epithelium desquamation was detected, and percentage of phagocytes was reduced at increase in DE in blood. Use of balanced antidepressant coaxil in perioperative period in CCC patients makes possible to reduce occurrence and intensity of AAD and VD after operation, improve vascular endothelium state, increase NPA and adaptive reserves of organism. PMID:18720713

  9. [New approaches to diagnosing and treating hyperkinetic biliary dyskinesia associated with chronic acalculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Bartosh, L F; Balakina, I V; Gridneva, L M

    2004-01-01

    Ninety patients aged 21 to 56 years who had chronic non-calculous cholecystitis (CNCC) concurrent with hyperkinetic dyskinesia (HKD) detectable by a stepwise duodenal probing and sonography, by using a choleretic breakfast and by determining the relaxation coefficient (RC) that was equal to the ratio of the volume of the gallbladder (GB) after the use of a spasmolytic to the baseline GB volume. The patients were divided into 3 groups. The authors used as a spasmolytic agent pinaverium bromide (dicetel) in a dose of 50 mg (1 tablet) in Group 1), octylonium bromide (spasmomen) in a dose of 40 mg (1 dragee) in Group 2, and drotaverine (no-spa) in a dose of 40 mg (1 tablet). There was a more significant sonographic increase in the size of GB in Groups 1 and 2 as compared with Group 3. In the acute drug test and during long-term treatment as well, the highest spasmolytic effect was noted in patients receiving dicetel (Group 1) and spasmomen (Group 2) as compared with that in Group 3 patients taking drotaverine. With this, RC was 1.25 +/- 0.2, 1.6 +/- 0.15, and 1.08 +/- 0.1, respectively. No adverse reactions occurred in the patients having selective calcium blockers (SCBs) whereas the patients receiving no-spa were found to have the following side effects: dry mouth (n = 3), transient constipation (n = 1), and numb tongue (n = 1). Thus, the study has provided evidence for the fact that SCBs have some advantage over myotropic spasmolytic agents in the treatment of CNCC with the signs of HKD. PMID:15540426

  10. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer. PMID:24811556

  11. [Electrophoresis with the mulberry leave extract and officinal peat for the rehabilitative treatment of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Grigorian, E G; Malerian, D S; Seropian, N S; Sarkisian, R A; Iskandarian, V A; Khachatrian, K K; Avetisian, K G

    2008-01-01

    Electrophoresis using a 5% aqueous extract of mulberry leaves and a 5% aqueous extract of Tavish peat at the right hypochondrium of patients included in the study had beneficial effect on the clinical picture of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis. Specifically, the state of the hepatobiliary system improved judging by the results of staged chromatic duodenal probing, ultrasonographic examination of biliary ducts, and bioresonance diagnostics. Also, positive changes were recorded in energy metabolism. It is recommended that electrophoresis using an aqueous mulberry leaf extract be prescribed to patients with a short duration of the disease and hyperkinetic biliary ducts and intestines. In case of an inflammatory process in these organs or hypomotor dyskinesia of biliary ducts, good results can be obtained using electrophoresis with Tavish peat extracts having a wide spectrum of action. They are indicated for the rehabilitative treatment of digestive organ pathology. PMID:19069798

  12. Granulomatous Lithiasic Cholecystitis in Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder granulomas are exceedingly rare, reported in association with tuberculosis or sarcoidosis. Here we report a case of gallbladder granulomatous cholecystitis occurring in the context of sarcoidosis. A 70-years old man presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The medical history revealed sarcoidosis diagnosed more than 20-years previously. 2-years previously the patient showed renal lithiasis, hypercalcemia and, increased angiotensin converting enzyme. The imaging features suggested thoraco-abdominal sarcoidosis. Prednisone was given at 1.2 mg/kg/day initially, than decreased, being at 2.5 mg/day at present. The ultrasound examination showed gallbladder lithiasis. A cholecystectomy was performed. Microscopy showed subacute and chronic cholecystitis with several epithelioid and giant cell granulomas some of them perineural. In conclusion, we report a case of granulomatous cholecystitis occurring in the course of treated sarcoidosis. The perineural location of granulomas may give further insights into the pathogenesis of gallbladder dysmotility. PMID:27162601

  13. [CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HYPERTROPHIC GINGIVITIS: CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE].

    PubMed

    Shinkevich, V; Udaltsova, K; Pisarenko, E; Kolomiets, S; Khmil, T

    2015-12-01

    Gingivitis in traditional national dentistry referred to independent diseases or symptomatic condition in periodontitis and classified morphologically. The diagnostic features of the diseases are characteristic, but the clinical presentation of symptomatic gingivitis and patterns of bone destructions may vary between patients. Successful treatment of the disease depends from proper diagnosis and advanced disease stages, but for symptomatic gingivitis that accompanying chronic periodontitis, protocols include surgical excision. Despite of the high prevalence of chronic generalized periodontitis, its active treatment often start in severe destruction and bone loss (2-3 stage severity). Today etiotropic antimicrobial therapy is real way to control microbial biofilm and has solid evidence base. Applying of etiotropic antimicrobial therapy as systemic azithromycin with timely treatment of mild to moderate periodontal and bone destruction may reduce severe periodontitis incidence of and treatment-related complications in the future. This paper attempts to describe the clinical diagnostic features and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol for comprehensive management of chronic generalized periodontitis and hypertrophic gingivitis patient with case reports and a brief review. PMID:26719550

  14. Use of morphine in cholescintigraphy for obstructive cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Nguyen, M.; Pjura, G.; Pollack, M.; Gobuty, A.

    1985-05-01

    Non-visualization of the gallbladder (GB) during the first hour of cholescintigraphy is observed in cystic duct obstruction (e.g. in acute cholecystitis) but may also occur in chronic cholecystitis, hepatocellular disease, alcoholism and prolonged total parenteral nutrition. Low dose morphine is shown to improve the specificity of the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (from 85% to 100%) with no loss in sensitivity (98%) at a small cost in terms of additional study time. The authors reviewed 27 selected cholescintigraphic examinations augmented by intravenous (IV) morphine (0.04 mg/Kg). Of the 16 cases with persistent nonvisualization of the GB, ultrasound revealed gallstones in 5 cases, sludge in 4, acalculous cholecystitis in 3, one distended GB, one contracted GB and 2 normal GB's. Of the 4 patients taken to surgery, one with gallstones and one with acalculous cholecystitis were confirmed to have acute cholecystitis while another with gallstones had chronic cholecystitis and the final patient, who was sonographically normal, presented a single common duct stone. The authors conclude that the use of IV morphine is an effective adjunct to cholescintigraphy in the evaluation of gallbladder disease, especially when visualization post morphine rules out acute cholecystitis.

  15. Passive tobacco exposure may impair symptomatic improvement in patients with chronic angina undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation

    PubMed Central

    Efstratiadis, Stilianos; Kennard, Elizabeth D; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Michaels, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Background The adverse effects of tobacco abuse on cardiovascular outcomes are well-known. However, the impact of passive smoke exposure on angina status and therapeutic response is less well-established. We examined the impact of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on symptomatic improvement in patients with chronic ischemic coronary disease undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP). Methods This observational study included 1,026 non-smokers (108 exposed and 918 not-exposed to SHS) from the Second International EECP Patient Registry. We also assessed angina response in 363 current smokers. Patient demographics, symptomatic improvement and quality of life assessment were determined by self-report prior and after EECP treatment. Results Non-smoking SHS subjects had a lower prevalence of prior revascularization (85% vs 90%), and had an increased prevalence of stroke (13% vs 7%) and prior smoking (72% vs 61%; all p < 0.05) compared to non-smokers without SHS exposure. Despite comparable degrees of coronary disease, baseline angina class, medical regimens and side effects during EECP, fewer SHS non-smokers completed a full 35-hour treatment course (77% vs 85%, p = 0.020) compared to non-smokers without SHS. Compared to non-smokers without SHS, non-smoking SHS subjects had less angina relief after EECP (angina class decreased ≥ 1 class: 68% vs 79%; p = 0.0082), both higher than that achieved in current smokers (66%). By multivariable logistic regression, SHS exposure was an independent predictor of failure to symptomatic improvement after EECP among non-smokers (OR 1.81, 95% confidence intervals 1.16–2.83). Conclusion Non-smokers with SHS exposure had an attenuated improvement in anginal symptoms compared to those without SHS following EECP. PMID:18798998

  16. Schistosomal cholecystitis: report of six cases.

    PubMed Central

    al-Saleem, T.; al-Janabi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Six cases of schistosomal cholecystitis are reported; five also had calculi. Histopathological studies revealed extensive fibrocalcific reaction of the walls and around the cystic ducts. We hypothesise that this fibrosis produced strictures of the cystic duct and stagnation of bile, predisposing to cholelithiasis. Surgeons practising in endemic areas should be aware of this rare complication of chronic schistosomiasis. Images fig. 1 PMID:2513766

  17. Cholecystitis secondary to infusion chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pietrafitta, J J; Anderson, B G; O'Brien, M J; Deckers, P J

    1986-04-01

    This report centers on a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer who developed acute and chronic cholecystitis secondary to the infusion of FUDR (fluoro-deoxyuridine) into the hepatic artery. This was documented by sonography, cholescintigraphy, and, ultimately, pathologically on the surgically removed specimen. Undoubtedly, with increasing cumulative treatment days made possible through technological advances in delivery systems, this complication will be seen more frequently. Prophylactic removal of the gallbladder, at the time of pump placement, which does not significantly prolong the operative time nor increase the operative mortality, should be performed to prevent this complication from occurring. PMID:2941626

  18. Suppurative Granulomatous Cholecystitis in a Pediatric Chronic Carrier with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Herman, Haley K; Hampshire, Karly N; Khoshnam, Nasim; Khan, Aleena A; Jerris, Robert; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Shehata, Bahig M

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is rare in the United States but endemic in many developing countries. Approximately 3-5% of patients become chronic asymptomatic carriers. We describe an atypical presentation of S. enterica serotype Typhi infection in a 10-year-old male, whose cholecystechtomy and bile culture revealed chronic carrier status despite negative stool tests and the absence of gallstones. The gallbladder showed marked thickening of the wall with an intense suppurative granulomatous reaction. PMID:26838767

  19. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph M.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Carlile, David J.; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  20. Therapist Effects and the Impact of Early Therapeutic Alliance on Symptomatic Outcome in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Graham; Bentall, Richard P.; Lewis, Shôn W.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined therapist effects and therapeutic alliance (TA) in treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therapist effects are the differences in outcomes achieved by different therapists. TA is the quality of the bond and level of agreement regarding the goals and tasks of therapy. Prior research suffers the methodological problem that the allocation of therapist was not randomized, meaning therapist effects may be confounded with selection effects. We used data from a randomized controlled treatment trial of 296 people with CFS. The trial compared pragmatic rehabilitation (PR), a nurse led, home based self-help treatment, a counselling-based treatment called supportive listening (SL), with general practitioner treatment as usual. Therapist allocation was randomized. Primary outcome measures, fatigue and physical functioning were assessed blind to treatment allocation. TA was measured in the PR and SL arms. Regression models allowing for interactions were used to examine relationships between (i) therapist and therapeutic alliance, and (ii) therapist and average treatment effect (the difference in mean outcomes between different treatment conditions). We found no therapist effects. We found no relationship between TA and the average treatment effect of a therapist. One therapist formed stronger alliances when delivering PR compared to when delivering SL (effect size 0.76, SE 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.41). In these therapies for CFS, TA does not influence symptomatic outcome. The lack of significant therapist effects on outcome may result from the trial’s rigorous quality control, or random therapist allocation, eliminating selection effects. Further research is needed. Trial Registration: ISRCTN74156610 PMID:26657793

  1. Symptomatic benefit of supplemental oxygen in hypoxemic patients with chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, C R; Mould, H; Stone, T N; Corris, P A; Gibson, G J

    1991-05-01

    We have compared the symptomatic benefit of air and oxygen at rest in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD) or interstitial lung disease (ILD). A total of 12 severely disabled patients with COAD (mean +/- SEM, PaO2, 50.3 +/- 3.7 mm Hg) and 10 with ILD (PaO2, 48.0 +/- 3.1 mm Hg) received 28% oxygen and air by Venturi face mask, each gas on two occasions, in a double-blind randomized fashion. SaO2 increased (p less than 0.01) in both groups during oxygen breathing: COAD, 85.1 +/- 2.3% versus 93.1 +/- 1.4%; ILD, 85.5 +/- 1.7% versus 94.7 +/- 0.9%. The patients with COAD stated that air helped their breathing on 15 of 24 occasions and that oxygen helped on 22 of 24 occasions (p less than 0.05). In the patients with ILD the values were 6 of 20 and 13 of 20 occasions, respectively (p less than 0.05). In both groups of patients the severity of breathlessness recorded on a 100-mm visual analog scale was significantly (p less than 0.05) lower during oxygen breathing: COAD, 29.6 +/- 4.5 versus 45.6 +/- 6.0; ILD, 30.2 +/- 5.1 versus 48.1 +/- 4.4. Ventilation measured by magnetometers was significantly lower during oxygen breathing in the patients with COAD (8.2 +/- 1.0 versus 9.3 +/- 1.1 L/min; p less than 0.05), but the difference between oxygen and air in patients with ILD was not statistically significant (9.3 +/- 1.3 versus 11.2 +/- 1.6 L/min; p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2024842

  2. Atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis resulting in large intestinal hypoperfusion: a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lotun, Kapildeo; Shetty, Ranjith; Topaz, On

    2012-11-01

    Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia results from intestinal hypoperfusion and is classically thought to result from involvement of two or more mesenteric arteries. The celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery are most frequently implicated in this disease process, and their involvement usually results in symptoms of small intestinal ischemia. Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia resulting predominantly from inferior mesenteric artery involvement has largely been overlooked but does gives rise to its own, unique clinical presentation with symptoms resulting from large intestinal ischemia. We present four patients with atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis with symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia that have unique clinical presentations consistent with large intestinal ischemia that resolved following percutaneous endovascular treatment of the inferior mesenteric artery stenosis. These cases represent a novel approach to the diagnosis and management of this disease process and may warrant a further subclassification of chronic mesenteric ischemia into chronic small intestinal ischemia and chronic large intestinal ischemia. PMID:22407990

  3. Actual Therapeutic Indication of an Old Drug: Urea for Treatment of Severely Symptomatic and Mild Chronic Hyponatremia Related to SIADH

    PubMed Central

    Decaux, Guy; Gankam Kengne, Fabrice; Couturier, Bruno; Vandergheynst, Frédéric; Musch, Wim; Soupart, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Oral urea has been used in the past to treat various diseases like gastric ulcers, liver metastases, sickle cell disease, heart failure, brain oedema, glaucoma, Meniere disease, etc. We have demonstrated for years, the efficacy of urea to treat euvolemic (SIADH) or hypervolemic hyponatremia. We briefly describe the indications of urea use in symptomatic and paucisymptomatic hyponatremic patients. Urea is a non-toxic, cheap product, and protects against osmotic demyelinating syndrome (ODS) in experimental studies. Prospective studies showing the benefit to treat mild chronic hyponatremia due to SIADH and comparing water restriction, urea, high ceiling diuretics, and antivasopressin antagonist antagonist should be done. PMID:26237492

  4. Cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Berman, D.S.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-08-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a relatively rare but potentially lethal condition if not treated promptly. Since stones are not present, diagnostic procedures such as ultrasound or other radiological procedures are frequently not helpful. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid scan results were analyzed in 11 proven cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis. All had positive tests with nonvisualization of the gallbladder giving a sensitivity of 100%. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy is a highly reliable test and is easily performed even in acutely ill patients and should be the test of choice in all patients predisposed to and suspected of acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  5. A literature review to evaluate the economic value of ranolazine for the symptomatic treatment of chronic angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Vellopoulou, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Maniadakis, Nikos; Vardas, Panagiotis

    2016-05-15

    To conduct a systematic review of the evidence regarding the economic value of ranolazine relative to standard-of-care (SOC) for the treatment of symptomatic chronic stable angina (CSA). Electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords. The identified studies were independently reviewed by two investigators against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Their data were extracted using a relevant form and consequently were synthesized. Studies were also evaluated using the Quality of Health Economic Studies scale. The main outcomes considered were the cost and effectiveness for each comparator and the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life year (QALY) gained. Six studies were included in the review. Five of these assessed the cost-utility of ranolazine added to SOC, compared to SOC alone, using decision trees or Markov models whereas one was a retrospective cost evaluation study. The analysis was conducted from a payer perspective in five studies and from a societal perspective in one study with the time horizon varying between six months and a year. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), ranged from €4000 to €15,000 per QALY gained. Ranolazine appears to be dominant or cost-effective, mainly due to its ability to decrease angina-related hospitalizations and also due to a marginal improvement in quality of life. The acquisition cost of ranolazine was the variable with the greatest impact upon the ICER. The existing evidence, although limited, indicates that ranolazine may be a dominant or cost-effective therapy option, for the treatment of patients with symptomatic CSA. Further research is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ranolazine. PMID:26994453

  6. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: What every radiologist should know

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vaibhav P; Rajesh, S; Bihari, Chhagan; Desai, Saloni N; Pargewar, Sudheer S; Arora, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterized by xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the gallbladder. Intramural accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and acute and chronic inflammatory cells is the hallmark of the disease. The xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the gallbladder can be very severe and can spill over to the neighbouring structures like liver, bowel and stomach resulting in dense adhesions, perforation, abscess formation, fistulous communication with adjacent bowel. Striking gallbladder wall thickening and dense local adhesions can be easily mistaken for carcinoma of the gallbladder, both intraoperatively as well as on preoperative imaging. Besides, cases of concomitant gallbladder carcinoma complicating XGC have also been reported in literature. So, we have done a review of the imaging features of XGC in order to better understand the entity as well as to increase the diagnostic yield of the disease summarizing the characteristic imaging findings and associations of XGC. Among other findings, presence of intramural hypodense nodules is considered diagnostic of this entity. However, in some cases, an imaging diagnosis of XGC is virtually impossible. Fine needle aspiration cytology might be handy in such patients. A preoperative counselling should include possibility of differential diagnosis of gallbladder cancer in not so characteristic cases. PMID:26981227

  7. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: What every radiologist should know.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vaibhav P; Rajesh, S; Bihari, Chhagan; Desai, Saloni N; Pargewar, Sudheer S; Arora, Ankur

    2016-02-28

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterized by xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the gallbladder. Intramural accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and acute and chronic inflammatory cells is the hallmark of the disease. The xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the gallbladder can be very severe and can spill over to the neighbouring structures like liver, bowel and stomach resulting in dense adhesions, perforation, abscess formation, fistulous communication with adjacent bowel. Striking gallbladder wall thickening and dense local adhesions can be easily mistaken for carcinoma of the gallbladder, both intraoperatively as well as on preoperative imaging. Besides, cases of concomitant gallbladder carcinoma complicating XGC have also been reported in literature. So, we have done a review of the imaging features of XGC in order to better understand the entity as well as to increase the diagnostic yield of the disease summarizing the characteristic imaging findings and associations of XGC. Among other findings, presence of intramural hypodense nodules is considered diagnostic of this entity. However, in some cases, an imaging diagnosis of XGC is virtually impossible. Fine needle aspiration cytology might be handy in such patients. A preoperative counselling should include possibility of differential diagnosis of gallbladder cancer in not so characteristic cases. PMID:26981227

  8. First detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with Sarcocystis infection in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza

    2014-06-01

    Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide. PMID:24827104

  9. The Health Impact of Symptomatic Adult Spinal Deformity: Comparison of Deformity Types to United States Population Norms and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bess, Shay; Line, Breton; Fu, Kai-Ming; McCarthy, Ian; Lafage, Virgine; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher; Ames, Christopher; Akbarnia, Behrooz; Jo, Han; Kelly, Michael; Burton, Douglas; Hart, Robert; Klineberg, Eric; Kebaish, Khaled; Hostin, Richard; Mundis, Gregory; Mummaneni, Praveen; Smith, Justin S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. A retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter database. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health impact of symptomatic adult spinal deformity (SASD) by comparing Standard Form Version 2 (SF-36) scores for SASD with United States normative and chronic disease values. Summary of Background Data. Recent data have identified radiographic parameters correlating with poor health-related quality of life for SASD. Disability comparisons between SASD patients and patients with chronic diseases may provide further insight to the disease burden caused by SASD. Methods. Consecutive SASD patients, with no history of spine surgery, were enrolled into a multicenter database and evaluated for type and severity of spinal deformity. Baseline SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) values for SASD patients were compared with reported U.S. normative and chronic disease SF-36 scores. SF-36 scores were reported as normative-based scores (NBS) and evaluated for minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results. Between 2008 and 2011, 497 SASD patients were prospectively enrolled and evaluated. Mean PCS for all SASD was lower than U.S. total population (ASD = 40.9; US = 50; P < 0.05). Generational decline in PCS for SASD patients with no other reported comorbidities was more rapid than U.S. norms (P < 0.05). PCS worsened with lumbar scoliosis and increasing sagittal vertical axis (SVA). PCS scores for patients with isolated thoracic scoliosis were similar to values reported by individuals with chronic back pain (45.5 vs 45.7, respectively; P > 0.05), whereas patients with lumbar scoliosis combined with severe sagittal malalignment (SVA >10 cm) demonstrated worse PCS scores than values reported by patients with limited use of arms and legs (24.7 vs 29.1, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusions. SASD is a heterogeneous condition that, depending upon the type and severity of the deformity, can have a debilitating impact on health often exceeding the disability of more recognized chronic diseases. Health care providers must be aware of the types of SASD that correlate with disability to facilitate appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and research efforts. Level of Evidence: 3. PMID:26571174

  10. A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Kami; Ruppert, Amy S; Browning, Rebekah; Jones, Jeffrey; Flynn, Joseph; Kefauver, Cheryl; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yao; Rozewski, Darlene M; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch A; Harper, Erica; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C; Andritsos, Leslie A

    2014-09-01

    Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5mg followed by 5.0mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 1-2 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD. PMID:25082342

  11. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as a rare etiology of acute cholecystitis in endemic areas because the typical signs of scrub typhus such as skin rash and eschar can present after the abdominal pain. PMID:26539017

  12. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as a rare etiology of acute cholecystitis in endemic areas because the typical signs of scrub typhus such as skin rash and eschar can present after the abdominal pain. PMID:26539017

  13. Acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Muta, Yuki; Odaka, Akio; Inoue, Seiichiro; Komagome, Masahiko; Beck, Yoshifumi; Tamura, Masanori; Arai, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was referred with right abdominal pain. Imaging demonstrated marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and peri-cholecystic effusion. Acute acalculous cholecystitis was diagnosed. Symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment, therefore cholecystectomy was performed. Pathology indicated infiltration of eosinophils into all layers of the gallbladder wall. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has had no further symptoms. Eosinophilic cholecystitis is acute acalculous cholecystitis with infiltration of eosinophils. The causes include parasites, gallstones, allergies, and medications. In addition, it may be seen in conjunction with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic pancreatitis, or both. An allergic reaction to abnormal bile is thought to be the underlying cause. The present case did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria of eosinophilic cholecystitis, but this may have been in the process of developing. PMID:26315204

  14. Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wingert, Willis A.; Mikity, Victor G.

    1967-01-01

    Six cases of cholecystitis and cholelithiasis confirmed by x-ray examination and surgical operation were observed in a ten-year period. Due to the wide variability in signs and symptoms in children, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis can be diagnosed only with a high degree of clinical suspicion and roentgenological examination. Gallbladder disease is uncommon in childhood but should be considered in children with vague abdominal pains or bouts of unexplained jaundice. If a normal appendix is found at laparotomy in the “acute abdomen,” the surgeon would be wise to palpate other specific organs within the abdomen, including the liver and gallbladder. The treatment of choice is cholecystectomy. The prognosis for recovery is excellent if there is no complicating systemic disease. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6045485

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, E H; Carroll, B J; Bello, J M; Fallas, M J; Daykhovsky, L

    1992-05-01

    Between August 1989 and December 1990, twenty-five patients with a preoperative diagnosis of acute cholecystitis underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twenty-one patients (84%) had abdominal tenderness, 16 (64%) had leukocytosis, and 10 (40%) had fever. Eleven patients (44%) came to the hospital with only one of these previously mentioned clinical signs. Six patients (24%) had two clinical signs. Eight patients (32%) came to the physician with all three findings. The length of surgery correlated directly with the number of presenting clinical signs. The average operating time was 119 minutes. Intraoperative cholangiograms were routinely performed on all patients. Four patients (16%) had common bile duct stones. The average hospitalization was 3.8 days and patients returned to work or routine physical activity between 3 days and 2 weeks (average 8 days) after surgery. There were three wound infections and two cases of hyperamylasemia. One patient developed urinary retention and another had a CO2 embolus. There were no intra-abdominal abscesses and no mortality. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis is technically difficult. The incidence of common bile duct stones is greater than in elective cases, and routine cholangiography is crucial. With sufficient experience and skill, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely in patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:1535763

  16. Bile Peritonitis in Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Roland; Tranberg, Karl-Göran; Bengmark, Stig

    1990-01-01

    A review of all patients treated for acute cholecystitis (n=5848) during an 18-year period (1969–1986) at two hospitals (one practising early surgery in patients with acute cholecystitis and the other not) disclosed that 104 (1.8%) had bile within the abdominal cavity at surgery; 71 with a visible perforation of the gallbladder and 33 without. The bile was infected in 82% of performed cultures (most commonly with Escherichia coli). Mortality was 7.7% (8/104 patients), being 20% (4/20)in the hospital practising delayed surgery and 5% (4/84) in the hospital practising early surgery (p<0.10). Infectious complications were responsible for the deaths by leading to multiple organ failure with pulmonary or renal insufficiency or gastro-intestinal bleeding. The timing of surgery was the only factor that had prognostic significance, i.e. the longer the hospital delay before surgery the higher the mortality, although elderly patients or patients with perforation tended to have a worse prognosis. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that early surgery is important in patients with acute cholecystitis as a means of lowering mortality in bile peritonitis in this condition. PMID:2282332

  17. [Laparoscopic surgeries in acute cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Cherkasov, M F; Sitnikov, V N; Mitiurin, M S; Turbin, M V; Chinenaia, L V

    2004-01-01

    Results of 2035 laparoscopic cholecystectomies for acute cholecystitis and its complications were analyzed. Indications and contraindications are clarified. Some technical features made the procedure easier in perivesical infiltration and adhesive process in the upper abdominal cavity. Efficacy and safety of intrasurgical cholangiography are validated. Method of drainage of the common hepatic duct by Holsted-Pikovsky was used. Surgical algorithm adjusted to pathological changes of extrahepatic bile ducts revealed during intrasurgical cholangiography was developed that permits to apply widely mini-invasive technologies. PMID:14983157

  18. Cholecystitis during pregnancy. A case report and brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chloptsios, C; Karanasiou, V; Ilias, G; Kavouras, N; Stamatiou, K; Lebren, F

    2007-01-01

    Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder caused by obstruction of the cystic duct. A gallstone usually causes the obstruction (calculus cholecystitis). However, in some cases the obstruction may be acalculous or caused by sludge. The clinical course of biliary sludge varies, from complete resolution to gallbladder obstruction. This obstruction can result in gallbladder distension and acute cholecystitis. When inflammation occurs it could either be aseptic or bacterial. Biliary disease during pregnancy is relatively rare and occurs mainly during the last trimester. Whether women who are pregnant or have multiple pregnancies are more likely to develop stones or whether they are simply more symptomatic with stones is unknown. We present a 33-year-old obese pregnant woman with fever, moderately elevated bile acids, and leukocytosis in the 28th week of pregnancy. Since need for surgery in these cases is controversial, the patient has been treated conservatively. In our case cholecystitis responded very well to treatment with amoxicillin, with no detrimental effects for mother and child. A healthy child was born at term. In the differential diagnosis of liver function abnormalities during pregnancy, cholelithiasis should be included. PMID:18225691

  19. Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zheng, Wei; Halloran, Jonathan J; Burbank, Raquel R; Hussong, Stacy A; Hart, Matthew J; Javors, Martin; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Muir, Eric; Solano Fonseca, Rene; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan G; Lechleiter, James D; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density, reduced cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages, decreased amyloid burden, and improved cognitive function in symptomatic hAPP (AD) mice. Like acetylcholine (ACh), a potent vasodilator, acute rapamycin treatment induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO release in brain endothelium. Administration of the NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester reversed vasodilation as well as the protective effects of rapamycin on CBF and vasculature integrity, indicating that rapamycin preserves vascular density and CBF in AD mouse brains through NOS activation. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin blocked the progression of AD-like cognitive and histopathological deficits by preserving brain vascular integrity and function. Drugs that inhibit the TOR pathway may have promise as a therapy for AD and possibly for vascular dementias. PMID:23801246

  20. Acute cholecystitis as a postoperative complication.

    PubMed Central

    Ottinger, L W

    1976-01-01

    The clinical course and management of 40 patients who underwent operation for acute cholecystitis developing as a postoperative complication were reviewed. Of note was the mortality of 47%, the high incidence of gangrene, perforation, empyema, and cholangitis, and the atypical clinical presentation of acute cholecystitis under these conditions. Awareness of this possible complication, knowledge of its clinical features, and early surgical intervention are important facets of successful management. PMID:952563

  1. Intramural gas in stomach along with acute calculus cholecystitis: an unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Zohaib Gulzar; Shahzad, Noman; Alvi, Abdul Rehman; Effendi, Shahrukh

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gas in stomach is a rare finding, but differential diagnosis of this condition into gastric emphysema and emphysematous gastritis is clinically important because of vastly different aetiologies and prognosis. Emphysematous gastritis is caused by gas producing micro-organisms inside the stomach wall and is a potentially fatal condition, while, on the other hand, gas enters stomach wall through mucosal breach in the case of gastric emphysema and prognosis is usually good with complete resolution. To date, no case has been reported in the literature showing gas in the stomach wall in a patient with acute calculus cholecystitis. We present a case of a young man with upper abdominal pain, and who, upon diagnostic work up was diagnosed with acute calculus cholecystitis with associated intramural gas in the stomach with no known aetiological factors to be positive. Conservative management with close observation resulted in complete symptomatic resolution. PMID:23645637

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Omalizumab in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic/Spontaneous Urticaria Who Remain Symptomatic on H1 Antihistamines: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Sarbjit S; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Maurer, Marcus; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Bülbül Baskan, Emel; Bradley, Mary S; Canvin, Janice; Rahmaoui, Abdelkader; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Alpan, Oral; Spector, Sheldon; Rosén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    ASTERIA I was a 40-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous omalizumab as add-on therapy for 24 weeks in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria/spontaneous urticaria (CIU/CSU) who remained symptomatic despite H1 antihistamine treatment at licensed doses. Patients aged 12–75 years with CIU/CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with approved doses of H1 antihistamines were randomized (1:1:1:1) in a double-blind manner to subcutaneous omalizumab 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg or placebo every 4 weeks for 24 weeks followed by 16 weeks of follow-up. The primary end point was change from baseline in weekly itch severity score (ISS) at week 12. Among randomized patients (N=319: placebo n=80, omalizumab 75 mg n=78, 150 mg n=80, 300 mg n=81), 262 (82.1%) completed the study. Compared with placebo (n=80), mean weekly ISS was reduced from baseline to week 12 by an additional 2.96 points (95% confidence interval (CI): −4.71 to −1.21; P=0.0010), 2.95 points (95% CI: −4.72 to −1.18; P=0.0012), and 5.80 points (95% CI: −7.49 to −4.10; P<0.0001) in the omalizumab 75-mg (n=77), 150-mg (n=80), and 300-mg groups (n=81), respectively. The omalizumab 300-mg group met all nine secondary end points, including a significant decrease in the duration of time to reach minimally important difference response (⩾5-point decrease) in weekly ISS (P<0.0001) and higher percentages of patients with well-controlled symptoms (urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) ⩽6: 51.9% vs. 11.3% P<0.0001) and complete response (UAS7=0: 35.8% vs. 8.8% P<0.0001) versus placebo. During the 24-week treatment period, 2 (2.9%), 3 (3.4%), 0, and 4 (5.0%) patients in the omalizumab 75-mg, 150-mg, 300-mg, and placebo groups, respectively, experienced a serious adverse event. Omalizumab 300 mg administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks reduced weekly ISS and other symptom scores versus placebo in CIU/CSU patients who remained symptomatic despite treatment with approved doses of H1 antihistamines. PMID:25046337

  3. Acute Cholecystitis: Video-Laparoscopic Versus Traditional Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ázaro Filho, Euler M.; Galvão-Neto, Manoel P.; Fortes, Marcos F.; Souza, Elias L.Q.; Alcântara, Rogério S.M; Ettinger, João E.M.T.M.; Regis, Adrian B.; Sousa, Manoela M.; do Carmo, Vinício M.; Santana, Pedro A.; Fahel, Edvaldo

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown that a video-laparoscopic approach is the preferred method for treatment of cholecystitis. However, when we consider acute cholecystitis, many questions must be answered. The aim of this study is to compare video-laparoscopic and conventional surgery in the management of acute cholecystitis. PMID:11394429

  4. Evolving Management of Symptomatic Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Experience of a Single Institution and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Balser, David; Rodgers, Shaun D.; Johnson, Blair; Shi, Chen; Tabak, Esteban; Samadani, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic subdural hematoma has an increasing incidence and results in high morbidity and mortality. We review here the ten-year experience of a single institution and the literature regarding the treatment and major associations of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cSDHs surgically treated from 2000 to 2010 at our institution to evaluate duration from admission to treatment, type of treatment, length of stay in critical care, length of stay in the hospital and recurrence. The literature was reviewed with regards to incidence, associations and treatment of cSDH. Results From 2000–2008, 44 patients were treated with burr holes. From 2008 to 2010, 29 patients were treated with twist drill evacuation (SEPS). 4 patients from each group were readmitted for reoperation (9% vs. 14%; p=.53). The average time to intervention for SEPS (11.2±15.3 hrs) was faster than for burr holes (40.3±69.1 hrs) (p=.02). The total hospital LOS was shorter for SEPS (9.3±6.8 days) versus burr holes (13.4±10.2 days) (p=.04); both were significantly longer than for a brain tumor patient undergoing craniotomy (7.0±0.5 days, n=94, P<.01). Conclusion Despite decreasing lengths of stay over time as treatment for cSDH evolved from burr holes to SEPS, the length of stay for a cSDH is still greater than that of a patient undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor. We noted 11% recurrence in our series of patients, which included individuals who recurred as late as 3 years after initial diagnosis. PMID:23485050

  5. Pneumomediastinum as a complication of emphysematous cholecystitis: Case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Emphysematous cholecystitis is a variant of acute cholecystitis which is generally caused by gas-forming organisms. Emphysematous cholecystitis may cause gas spreading within the subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneum. Case presentation We present a case of emphysematous cholecystitis in a middle-aged diabetic patient who, postoperatively, presented edema in both flanks and left chest crepitation on palpation, associated with hemodynamic worsening. Computed tomography scan of the chest and abdomen revealed a large pneumomediastinum, pneumoretroperitoneum, gas in subcutaneous tissue and flank abscesses. In both blood and surgical wound exudate cultures, Escherichia coli was found. Conclusion Emphysematous cholecystitis should be considered as a possible cause of pneumomediastinum. PMID:20813063

  6. Acute cholecystitis – early laparoskopic surgery versus antibiotic therapy and delayed elective cholecystectomy: ACDC-study

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Kilian; Köninger, Jörg; Encke, Jens; Büchler, Markus W; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gutt, Carsten N

    2007-01-01

    Background Acute cholecystitis occurs frequently in the elderly and in patients with gall stones. Most cases of severe or recurrent cholecystitis eventually require surgery, usually laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the Western World. It is unclear whether an initial, conservative approach with antibiotic and symptomatic therapy followed by delayed elective surgery would result in better morbidity and outcome than immediate surgery. At present, treatment is generally determined by whether the patient first sees a surgeon or a gastroenterologist. We wish to investigate whether both approaches are equivalent. The primary endpoint is the morbidity until day 75 after inclusion into the study. Design A multicenter, prospective, randomized non-blinded study to compare treatment outcome, complications and 75-day morbidity in patients with acute cholecystitis randomized to laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours of symptom onset or antibiotic treatment with moxifloxacin and subsequent elective cholecystectomy. For consistency in both arms moxifloxacin, a fluorquinolone with broad spectrum of activity and high bile concentration is used as antibiotic. Duration: October 2006 – November 2008 Organisation/Responsibility The trial was planned and is being conducted and analysed by the Departments of Gastroenterology and General Surgery at the University Hospital of Heidelberg according to the ethical, regulatory and scientific principles governing clinical research as set out in the Declaration of Helsinki (1989) and the Good Clinical Practice guideline (GCP). Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00447304 PMID:17916243

  7. Emphysematous cholecystitis in a Siberian husky.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J A; Taylor, S M; Tryon, K A; Porter, C D

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Siberian husky was evaluated for a 24-hour history of vomiting and lethargy. Diagnosis of emphysematous cholecystitis was achieved based on survey abdominal radiographs, a barium contrast gastrointestinal series, and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis and medical and surgical management of the condition are discussed. PMID:10642874

  8. Emphysematous cholecystitis in a Siberian husky.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J A; Taylor, S M; Tryon, K A; Porter, C D

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Siberian husky was evaluated for a 24-hour history of vomiting and lethargy. Diagnosis of emphysematous cholecystitis was achieved based on survey abdominal radiographs, a barium contrast gastrointestinal series, and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis and medical and surgical management of the condition are discussed. Images Figure 1. PMID:10642874

  9. [A case of acute cholecystitis after colonoscopy].

    PubMed

    Yun, Jung Ho; Jeong, Woo Jin; Chang, Woo Sung; Jo, Min Hyeong; Park, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Young Don; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-25

    A 43-year-old man, who received total gastrectomy five years ago for advanced gastric cancer, underwent a screening colonoscopy and abdominal CT scan. Abdominal CT scan revealed no abnormal findings. Colonoscopy revealed polyps at the rectum, which were removed by polypectomy. The patient did not complain of abdominal pain or discomfort throughout the procedure. But, he developed right upper quadrant abdominal pain on the next day after colonoscopy. Abdominal CT scan revealed the distended gallbladder with mild wall thickening and suspicious sandy stones or sludge in the gallbladder. The patient underwent an open cholecystectomy. Pathology was compatible with acute cholecystitis. We should be aware of and consider cholecystitis in the differential diagnosis for patients with abdominal pain after colonoscopy. PMID:23354349

  10. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Edmond SK; Wong, Chris LP; Lai, Kristi TW; Chan, Edmond CH; Yam, WC; Chan, Angus CW

    2005-01-01

    Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases. PMID:16029488

  11. Monitoring, characterization and control of chronic, symptomatic malaria infections in rural Zambia through monthly household visits by paid community health workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Active, population-wide mass screening and treatment (MSAT) for chronic Plasmodium falciparum carriage to eliminate infectious reservoirs of malaria transmission have proven difficult to apply on large national scales through trained clinicians from central health authorities. Methodology Fourteen population clusters of approximately 1,000 residents centred around health facilities (HF) in two rural Zambian districts were each provided with three modestly remunerated community health workers (CHWs) conducting active monthly household visits to screen and treat all consenting residents for malaria infection with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). Both CHWs and HFs also conducted passive case detection among residents who self-reported for screening and treatment. Results Diagnostic positivity was higher among symptomatic patients self-reporting to CHWs (42.5%) and HFs (24%) than actively screened residents (20.3%), but spatial and temporal variations of diagnostic positivity were highly consistent across all three systems. However, most malaria infections (55.6%) were identified through active home visits by CHWs rather than self-reporting to CHWs or HFs. Most (62%) malaria infections detected actively by CHWs reported one or more symptoms of illness. Most reports of fever and vomiting, plus more than a quarter of history of fever, headache and diarrhoea, were attributable to malaria infection. The minority of residents who participated >12 times had lower rates of malaria infection and associated symptoms in later contacts but most residents were tested <4 times and high malaria diagnostic positivity (32%) in active surveys, as well as incidence (1.7 detected infections per person per year) persisted in the population. Per capita cost for active service delivery by CHWs was US$5.14 but this would rise to US$10.68 with full community compliance with monthly testing at current levels of transmission, and US$6.25 if pre-elimination transmission levels and negligible treatment costs were achieved. Conclusion Monthly active home visits by CHWs equipped with RDTs were insufficient to eliminate the human infection reservoir in this typical African setting, despite reasonably high LLIN/IRS coverage. However, dramatic impact upon infection and morbidity burden might be attainable and cost-effective if community participation in regular testing could be improved and the substantial, but not necessarily prohibitive, costs are affordable to national programmes. PMID:24678631

  12. Gallbladder melanoma mimicking acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    De Simone, P; Mainente, P; Bedin, N

    2000-06-01

    Gallbladder (GB) melanoma is a rare entity with a dismal prognosis. Its primary or secondary status is difficult to establish in the absence of an overt cutaneous localization. We report herein the case of a misdiagnosed GB melanoma mimicking acute acalculous cholecystitis that was treated by means of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A 54-year-old man was referred to our institution for acute cholecystitis. Apart from the ablation of some nevocytic nevi 7 years before admission, the patient's medical history was unremarkable. The ultrasound (US) examination showed a slightly enlarged acalculous gallbladder with thickened walls and a well-circumscribed polypoid mass in the fundus. The patient was treated medically and referred to LC. At surgery, some satellite nodules were visualized in the GB hepatic bed. The GB was removed, and two hepatic nodules were excised. Histology showed a pT3 melanoma. The patient underwent an open hepatic wedge resection 3 weeks after laparoscopy. No recurrence was observed at 6-month follow-up. To date, only one case of melanoma of the gallbladder treated with LC has been reported. GB melanoma is a diagnostic challenge when there is no evidence of a primary lesion. However, the occurrence of acalculous cholecystitis and a GB polyp in patients with a positive history of mole ablation should alert surgeons to the possibility of a melanoma. PMID:11265063

  13. Endoscopic Gallbladder Drainage for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jessica; Alvarez, Paloma; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Gossain, Sonia; Kedia, Prashant; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sethi, Amrita; Turner, Brian G.; Millman, Jennifer; Lieberman, Michael; Nandakumar, Govind; Umrania, Hiren; Gaidhane, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for cholecystitis. However, gallbladder stenting (GBS) has shown promise in debilitated or high-risk patients. Endoscopic transpapillary GBS and endoscopic ultrasound-guided GBS (EUS-GBS) have been proposed as safe and effective modalities for gallbladder drainage. Methods Data from patients with cholecystitis were prospectively collected from August 2004 to May 2013 from two United States academic university hospitals and analyzed retrospectively. The following treatment algorithm was adopted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and cystic duct stenting was initially attempted. If deemed feasible by the endoscopist, EUS-GBS was then pursued. Results During the study period, 139 patients underwent endoscopic gallbladder drainage. Among these, drainage was performed in 94 and 45 cases for benign and malignant indications, respectively. Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was defined as decompression of the gallbladder without incidence of cholecystitis, and was achieved with ERCP and cystic duct stenting in 117 of 128 cases (91%). Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was also achieved with EUS-guided gallbladder drainage using transmural stent placement in 11 of 11 cases (100%). Complications occurred in 11 cases (8%). Conclusions Endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques are safe and efficacious methods for gallbladder decompression in non-surgical patients with comorbidities. PMID:26473125

  14. [Xantogranulomatous cholecystitis. A clinicopathologic study of a case].

    PubMed

    Sáenz de Santamaría Morales, F J; Campos de Orellana Gómez, A M; Moreno Casado, J

    1990-02-01

    A case of xantomatogranulomatous cholecystitis found in a review of 615 surgical gallbladders is reported, an incidence of 0.16%. Symptoms were those of acute cholecystitis. There was xantogranulomatous infiltration of the neighboring tissues. Both macroscopic and imaging features were those of a carcinomatous lesion. The definitive diagnosis was made by peroperative frozen sections. PMID:2346687

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to diagnose complicated acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Sagrini, Elisabetta; Pecorelli, Anna; Pettinari, Irene; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Stefanini, Federico; Bolondi, Luigi; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation are severe complications of acute cholecystitis, which have a challenging preoperative diagnosis. Early identification allows better surgical management. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) is the current diagnostic gold standard. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is a promising tool for the diagnosis of gallbladder perforation, but data from the literature concerning efficacy are sparse. The aim of the study was to evaluate CEUS findings in pathologically proven complicated cholecystitis (gangrenous, perforated gallbladder, pericholecystic abscess). A total of 8 patients submitted to preoperative CEUS, and with subsequent proven acute complicated cholecystitis at surgical inspection and pathological analysis, were retrospectively identified. The final diagnosis was gangrenous/phlegmonous cholecystitis (n. 2), phlegmonous/ulcerative changes plus pericholecystic abscess (n. 2), perforated plus pericholecystic abscess (n. 3), or perforated plus pericholecystic biliary collection (n. 1). Conventional US findings revealed irregularly thickened gallbladder walls in all 8 patients, with vaguely defined walls in 7 patients, four of whom also had striated wall thickening. CEUS revealed irregular enhancing gallbladder walls in all patients. A distinct wall defect was seen in six patients, confirmed as gangrenous/phlegmonous cholecystitis at pathology in all six, and in four as perforation at macroscopic surgical inspection. CEUS is a non-invasive easily repeatable technique that can be performed at the bedside, and is able to accurately diagnose complicated/perforated cholecystitis. Despite the limited sample size in the present case series, CEUS appears as a promising tool for the management of patients with the clinical possibility of having an acute complicated cholecystitis. PMID:26078199

  16. Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Mimicking Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Bashar; Bhatt, Amit; Kumaravel, Arthi; Aucejo, Federico; Jang, Sunguk; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John; Parsi, Mansour

    2015-10-01

    We present a 42-year-old man with a 1-month history of painless jaundice, dark urine, clay-colored stools, and a 13.5-kg weight loss. Laboratory tests revealed elevated liver enzymes and CA19-9. Imaging showed dilation of both the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, narrowing of the bile duct at the junction of the common bile duct and common hepatic duct, and a hypoechoic mass involving the neck of the gallbladder and the muscularis propria of the duodenum. Examination of the resected gallbladder and perihilar nodes ruled out malignancy and revealed a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of giant histiocytes with clear, lipid-containing cytoplasm (xanthoma cells), consistent with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. PMID:26504881

  17. Evaluation of a real-time two-step RT-PCR assay for quantitation of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in experimentally-infected bee tissues and in life stages of a symptomatic colony.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Philippe; Ribière, Magali; Celle, Olivier; Lallemand, Perrine; Schurr, Frank; Olivier, Violaine; Iscache, Anne Laure; Faucon, Jean Paul

    2007-04-01

    A two-step real-time RT-PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology using a fluorescent probe (FAM-TAMRA) was developed to quantify Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in bee samples. Standard curves obtained from a CBPV control RNA and from a plasmid containing a partial sequence of CBPV showed that this assay provided linear detection over a 7-log range (R(2)>0.99) with a limit of detection of 100 copies, and reliable inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility. Standardisation including RNA purification and cDNAs synthesis was also validated. The CBPV TaqMan methodology was first evaluated by quantifying the CBPV genomic load in bee samples from an experimental infection obtained by topical application. Up to 1.9 x 10(10) CBPV copies per segment of insect body (head, thorax and abdomen) were revealed whereas a lower CBPV genomic load was detected in dissected organs such as mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, brain and alimentary canal (up to 7.2 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The CBPV genomic loads in different categories of bees from a hive presenting the trembling symptoms typical of Chronic paralysis were then quantified. Significantly higher CBPV loads were found in guard, symptomatic and dead bees (up to 1.9 x 10(13) CBPV copies) than in forager, drones and house bees (up to 3.4 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The results obtained for symptomatic or dead bees support the correlation between high CBPV genomic load and pathology expression. Moreover, the high CBPV genomic load revealed in guard bees highlights the possible pivotal role played by this category of bees in CBPV infection. PMID:17166598

  18. Evaluation of Early versus Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rati; Sood, K. C.; Agarwal, Bhupender

    2015-01-01

    Background. The role of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis with cholelithiasis is not yet established. The aim of our prospective randomized study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of early LC for acute cholecystitis and to compare the results with delayed LC. Methods. Between March 2007 to December 2008, 50 patients with diagnosis of acute cholecystitis were assigned randomly to early group, n = 25 (LC within 24 hrs of admission), and delayed group, n = 25 (initial conservative treatment followed by delayed LC, 6–8 weeks later). Results. We found in our study that the conversion rate in early LC and delayed LC was 16% and 8%, respectively, Operation time for early LC was 69.4 min versus 66.4 min for delayed LC, postoperative complications for early LC were 24% versus 8% for delayed LC, and blood loss was 159.6 mL early group versus 146.8 mL for delayed group. However early LC had significantly shorter hospital stay (4.1 days versus 8.6 days). Conclusions. Early LC for acute cholecystitis with cholelithiasis is safe and feasible, offering the additional benefit of shorter hospital stay. It should be offered to the patients with acute cholecystitis, provided that the surgery is performed within 96 hrs of acute symptoms by an experienced surgeon. PMID:25729775

  19. Circulating Endothelial-Derived Apoptotic Microparticles in the Patients with Ischemic Symptomatic Chronic Heart Failure: Relevance of Pro-Inflammatory Activation and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Alexander E.; Kremzer, Alexander A.; Samura, Tatayna A.; Martovitskaya, Yulia V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endothelial-derived apoptotic microparticles (EMPs) play a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction in hronic Heart Failure (CHF). Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between EMPs and pro-inflammatory biomarkers, clinical status, and outcomes in the patients with ischemic CHF. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 154 patients with ischemic symptomatic moderate-to-severe CHF on discharge from hospital. The observation period was up to 3 years. Circulating NT-pro-BNP, TNF-alpha, sFas, and sFas ligand were determined at baseline. Flow cytometry analysis was used for quantifying the number of EMPs. All-cause mortality, CHF-related death, and CHD-re-hospitalization rate were examined. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Receive Operation Characteristic Curve (ROC), and logistic regression analysis. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: During a median follow-up of 2.18 years, 21 participants died and 106 subjects were hospitalized repetitively. The results showed a significant difference between the patients with a large number of EMPs (> 0.514 n/mL) and those with a low level of the biomarker (< 0.514 n/mL) regarding their survival. The number of circulating EPMs independently predicted all-cause mortality (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.20 – 1.88; P = 0.001), CHF-related death (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.12 – 1.36; P < 0.001), and CHF-related re-hospitalization (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.11 – 1.32; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Among the patients with symptoms of CHF, increased number of circulating EMPs was associated with increased 3-year CHF-related death, all-cause mortality, and risk of recurrent hospitalization due to CHF. PMID:25177675

  20. Feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikumoto, Taro; Yamagishi, Hidetsugu; Iwatate, Mineo; Sano, Yasushi; Kotaka, Masahito; Imai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for acute cholecystitis. METHODS: All patients who underwent SILC at Sano Hospital (Kobe, Japan) between January 2010 and December 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical data related to patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were collected from medical records. The parameters for assessing the safety of the procedure included operative time, volume of blood loss, achievement of the critical view of safety, use of additional trocars, conversion to laparotomy, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and duration of postoperative hospital stay. Patient backgrounds were statistically compared between those with and without conversion to laparotomy. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients underwent SILC for acute cholecystitis during the period. Preoperative endoscopic treatment was performed for suspected choledocholithiasis in 41 patients (41%). The mean time from onset of acute cholecystitis was 7.7 d. According to the Updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) for the severity of cholecystitis, 86 and 14 patients had grade I and grade II acute cholecystitis, respectively. The mean operative time was 87.4 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 80.6 mL. The critical view of safety was obtained in 89 patients (89%). Conversion laparotomy was performed in 12 patients (12%). Postoperative complications of Clavien-Dindo grade III or greater were observed in 4 patients (4%). The mean duration of postoperative hospital stay was 5.7 d. Patients converted from SILC to laparotomy tended to have higher days after onset. CONCLUSION: SILC is feasible for acute cholecystitis; in addition, early surgical intervention may reduce the risk of laparotomy conversion. PMID:26722614

  1. Acalculous cholecystitis associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J B

    2015-10-01

    Hantaviruses are responsible for various types of hemorrhagic fevers depending on the involved subtype. In Europe, Puumala virus is responsible for an epidemic nephropathy. This infection can be complicated by severe abdominal pain. A rarely reported cause of this presenting symptom is acalculous cholecystitis, which must be integrated in the clinicobiological spectrum and should not lead to a surgical sanction. Its presence seems to be correlated with the severity of the disease, whose main pathophysiological phenomenon is plasma leakage induced by a microvascular endothelial dysfunction. We report the case of a young male patient who presented with severe hantavirus infection complicated by acalculous cholecystitis. PMID:25982259

  2. Cholescintigraphy in acute cholecystitis: use of intravenous morphine

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Shi, E.C.; McLean, R.G.; Hoschl, R.; Murray, I.P.C.; Ham, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional cholescintigraphy (60 patients) and a modified protocol (59 patients) were compared in 74 females and 45 males with acute cholecystitis. In the modified protocol, intravenous morphine was administered whenever the gallbladder was not seen 40 minutes after injection of Tc-99m-pyroxylidene-glutamate. Accuracy was 98% with morphine, compared with 88% for the conventional protocol; specificity improved from 83% to 100% with no loss of sensitivity. Low doses of morphine are well tolerated and can result in a highly accurate diagnosis of acute cholecystitis without the need for delayed imaging.

  3. Acalculous Cholecystitis in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma on Sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Sanda, Mariko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Moribata, Kosaku; Shingaki, Naoki; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Oka, Masashi; Ichinose, Masao

    2011-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with compensated cirrhosis type B associated with hepatocellular carcinoma was started on sorafenib for multiple pulmonary metastases. The patient developed right upper quadrant pain and high fever 4 weeks later. Imaging revealed marked enlargement of the gallbladder without calculi. Following percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration, her symptoms resolved, but the gallbladder remained enlarged. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Arteriolar occlusion with intimal thickening in the muscular layer of the gallbladder was seen sporadically. The fact that this patient had no risk factors for acalculous cholecystitis suggested that the cholecystitis resulted from ischemia, implying a strong causal relationship with sorafenib. PMID:21991498

  4. [Leptospirosis with necro-haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a Boxer puppy].

    PubMed

    Steil, D; Quandt, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Sie, J M; Löhr, C V; Teifke, J P

    2014-01-01

    A Boxer puppy from the island of Rügen, which was properly vaccinated according to its age, was presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis with acute renal failure, hepatic damage, and jaundice was confirmed by seroconversion (increased titre to 1 : 800 in a non-vaccine serogroup 4 weeks after disease onset). Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and sonographic results. After an initial improvement, the puppy's condition deteriorated and cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis indicated a haemorrhagic necrotizing cholecystitis. PMID:25423604

  5. Scaling and root planning, and locally delivered minocycline reduces the load of Prevotella intermedia in an interdependent pattern, correlating with symptomatic improvements of chronic periodontitis: a short-term randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shuli; Wang, Ying; Sun, Wei; Chen, Hui; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the respective or combinatory efficacy of locally delivered 2% minocycline (MO), and scaling and root planning (SRP) by assessing both clinical parameters and the loads of four main periodontal pathogens in treating chronic periodontitis (CP). Methods Seventy adults with CP were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups: 1) SRP alone; 2) MO alone; and 3) combinatory use of SRP and MO (SRP + MO). Before and 7 days after the treatments, we evaluated both clinical parameters (pocket depth [PD] and sulcus bleeding index [SBI]) and the gene load of four main periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], and Prevotella intermedia [Pi]). Results The bacterial prevalence per patient was: Aa, 31.25%; Fn, 100%; Pg, 95.31%; and Pi, 98.44%. Seven days after treatment, the three treatments significantly reduced both PD and SBI, but not detection frequencies of the four pathogens. For PD, the reduction efficacy of SRP + MO was significantly higher than that of either MO or SRP. Only Pg responded significantly to SRP. Pg and Fn were significantly reduced in the presence of MO. Only SRP + MO showed a significant reduction effect on the gene load of Pi. The reduction of PD significantly correlated with the gene load of Pi (r=0.26; P=0.042) but not of the other bacteria. Conclusion SRP and MO reduced the load of Pi in an interdependent pattern, which correlated with symptomatic improvements of CP. PMID:26676022

  6. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for treatment of acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, C M; Liu, C L; Lai, E C; Fan, S T; Wong, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study compared the results of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for treatment of acute cholecystitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although recent reports have suggested the use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, the complication and conversion rates remain high. No data are available on whether initial medical treatment can improve the results. METHOD: Among 497 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 52 (10.5%) had a clinical diagnosis of acute cholecystitis confirmed by ultrasonography. Twenty-seven of these patients had early surgery, that is, within 120 hours of admission, and 25 had interval cholecystectomy after initial medical treatment. RESULTS: The early group required modifications in operative technique more frequently (p < 0.001). The conversion rate (7.4%) and minor complication rate (22%) were comparable. Successful early laparoscopic cholecystectomy required a longer operative time (137.2 minutes vs. 98.0 minutes; p < 0.05) and postoperative hospital stay (4.6 days vs. 2.5 days; p < 0.005) but reduced the total hospital stay (6.4 days vs. 12.4 days; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis has no adverse effect on complication and conversion rates. Although it is technically demanding and time consuming, this procedure provides the economic advantage of a markedly reduced total hospital stay. PMID:8554416

  7. Eosinophilic Cystitis with Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001

  8. Training vs practice: A tale of opposition in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Purvi P; Daly, Shaun C; Velasco, Jose M

    2015-10-18

    Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common surgical diagnoses encountered by general surgeons. Despite its high incidence there remains a range of treatment of approaches. Current practices in biliary surgery vary as to timing, intraoperative utilization of biliary imaging, and management of bile duct stones despite growing evidence in the literature defining best practice. Management of patients with acute cholecystitis with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) results in better patient outcomes when compared with delayed surgical management techniques including antibiotic therapy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. Regardless of this data, many surgeons still prefer to utilize antibiotic therapy and complete an interval LC to manage acute cholecystitis. The use of intraoperative biliary imaging by cholangiogram or laparoscopic ultrasound has been demonstrated to facilitate the safe completion of cholecystectomy, minimizing the risk for inadvertent injury to surrounding structures, and lowering conversion rates, however it is rarely utilized. Choledocholithiasis used to be a diagnosis managed exclusively by surgeons but current practice favors referral to gastroenterologists for performance of preoperative endoscopic removal. Yet, there is evidence that intraoperative laparoscopic stone extraction is safe, feasible and may have added advantages. This review aims to highlight the differences between existing management of acute cholecystitis and evidence supported in the literature regarding best practice with the goal to change surgical practice to adopt these current recommendations. PMID:26483868

  9. Acalculous Acute Cholecystitis in Previously Healthy Children: General Overview and Analysis of Pediatric Infectious Cases

    PubMed Central

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Tresoldi, Matteo; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an inflammation of the gallbladder, which does not appear to be associated with the presence of gallstones. AAC is estimated to represent more than 50% of cases of acute cholecystitis in the pediatric population. Although this pathology was initially described in critically ill patients, actually most pediatric cases have been observed during several infectious diseases. Particularly, here we reviewed pediatric infectious acute acalculous cholecystitis and analyzed the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of bacterial and viral forms. PMID:26640715

  10. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis and Human Herpes Virus Type-6 Infection: First Case

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Ana Luísa; Branca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A three-year-old male child presented with erythematous maculopapular nonpruritic generalized rash, poor feeding, vomiting, and cramping generalized abdominal pain. He was previously healthy and there was no family history of immunologic or other diseases. On examination he was afebrile, hemodynamically stable, with painful palpation of the right upper quadrant and positive Murphy's sign. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, elevated aminotransferase activity, and features of cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound showed gallbladder wall thickening of 8 mm with a positive sonographic Murphy's sign, without gallstones or pericholecystic fluid. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis (AAC) was diagnosed. Tests for underlying infectious causes were negative except positive blood specimen for Human Herpes Virus Type-6 (HHV-6) by polymerase chain reaction. With supportive therapy the child became progressively less symptomatic with gradual improvement. The child was discharged on the sixth day, asymptomatic and with improved analytic values. Two months later he had IgM negative and IgG positive antibodies (1/160) for HHV-6, which confirmed the diagnosis of previous infection. In a six-month follow-up period he remains asymptomatic. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of AAC associated with HHV-6 infection. PMID:27200203

  11. A rare case of listeriosis, acute cholecystitis and multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Thais O.; Alothman, Sara; Depaz, Hector; Ramcharan, Alexius

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is an aerobic, motile, intracellular gram-positive bacterium. Most invasive systemic infections caused by LM are commonly seen in patients at both extremes of age, during pregnancy or in immunocompromised hosts. Common clinical manifestations of LM infection in immunocompromised adults are bacteremia, infections of central nervous system, such as meningitis, and self-limiting febrile gastroenteritis. Focal infections of listeria are rare, especially cholecystitis, with only few cases reported in the last 33 years. A 62-year-old man presented with multiple myeloma, cholecystitis and LM bacteremia. Due to prompt surgical treatment and antibiotics (amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and gentamycin), this high-risk patient recovered without any complications. PMID:27170703

  12. A rare case of listeriosis, acute cholecystitis and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Thais O; Alothman, Sara; Depaz, Hector; Ramcharan, Alexius

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is an aerobic, motile, intracellular gram-positive bacterium. Most invasive systemic infections caused by LM are commonly seen in patients at both extremes of age, during pregnancy or in immunocompromised hosts. Common clinical manifestations of LM infection in immunocompromised adults are bacteremia, infections of central nervous system, such as meningitis, and self-limiting febrile gastroenteritis. Focal infections of listeria are rare, especially cholecystitis, with only few cases reported in the last 33 years. A 62-year-old man presented with multiple myeloma, cholecystitis and LM bacteremia. Due to prompt surgical treatment and antibiotics (amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and gentamycin), this high-risk patient recovered without any complications. PMID:27170703

  13. Congenital bilobed gallbladder with phrygian cap presenting as calculus cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Kannan, N S; Kannan, Usha; Babu, C P Ganesh

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of congenital bilobed gall bladder is 1 in 3000 to 4000. A Phrygian cap is a congenital abnormality of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. Preferred mode of diagnosis for Phrygian cap is cholescintigraphy and multi phase MRI, as Ultrasonography and CT are not always conclusive. The estimated prevalence of gallstone disease in India has been reported as 2% to 29%. A case of bilobed gall bladder with Phrygian cap in both the lobes and pigment gallstone in one of the lobes presenting as calculus cholecystitis is reported for its rarity and difficulty in arriving at correct preoperaive diagnosis. PMID:25302235

  14. Congenital Bilobed Gallbladder with Phrygian Cap Presenting as Calculus Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Usha; Babu, C.P. Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of congenital bilobed gall bladder is 1 in 3000 to 4000. A Phrygian cap is a congenital abnormality of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. Preferred mode of diagnosis for Phrygian cap is cholescintigraphy and multi phase MRI, as Ultrasonography and CT are not always conclusive. The estimated prevalence of gallstone disease in India has been reported as 2% to 29%. A case of bilobed gall bladder with Phrygian cap in both the lobes and pigment gallstone in one of the lobes presenting as calculus cholecystitis is reported for its rarity and difficulty in arriving at correct preoperaive diagnosis PMID:25302235

  15. Acalculous Cholecystitis Due to Histoplasma capsulatum in a Patient With HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zabarsky, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Although acalculous cholecystitis typically occurs in critically ill individuals, it has been described in patients with HIV infection. Recognition of AIDS-related acalculous cholecystitis is important for gastroenterologists to provide optimal therapy, since many different opportunistic pathogens may be involved. Histoplasma capsulatum causes a wide spectrum of infectious sequelae, including disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with HIV infection, but biliary tract involvement has been described infrequently. We present a case of acalculous cholecystitis caused by H. capsulatum in a patient with HIV infection. PMID:26203453

  16. Chemical ablation of the gallbladder using alcohol in cholecystitis after palliative biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sang-Pil; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Chang-Kyun; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Hong-Soo; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2009-04-28

    Chemical ablation of the gallbladder is effective in patients at high risk of complications after surgery. Percutaneous gallbladder drainage is an effective treatment for cholecystitis; however, when the drain tube cannot be removed because of recurrent symptoms, retaining it can cause problems. An 82-year-old woman presented with cholecystitis and cholangitis caused by biliary stent occlusion and suspected tumor invasion of the cystic duct. We present successful chemical ablation of the gallbladder using pure alcohol, through a percutaneous gallbladder drainage tube, in a patient who developed intractable cholecystitis with obstruction of the cystic duct after receiving a biliary stent. Our results suggest that chemical ablation therapy is an effective alternative to surgical therapy for intractable cholecystitis. PMID:19399941

  17. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Malignant Cystic Duct Obstruction: Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro; Aburano, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Sanada, Taku; Kosaka, Shotaro; Toya, Daisyu; Matsui, Osamu

    2008-07-15

    We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 and 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.

  18. A Case Report of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis and Acute Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Beyazal Polat, Hatice; Beyazal Çeliker, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi are a rare condition. A 24-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain, nausea, fever, headache, urinary burning, and bloody urine. Based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluations, the patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for two weeks. After the treatment, the patient's clinical and laboratory findings improved. Acute acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella Typhi concomitant with acute hemorrhagic cystitis is very rare and might be difficult to diagnose. Infectious agents such as Salmonella Typhi should be considered when acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis are detected in adult patients with no underlying diseases. PMID:25161668

  19. Endoscopic Management of Acute Cholecystitis and Cholangitis Caused by Limy Bile

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Heon; Choi, Hyun Jong; Kim, Hyung Ki; Cho, Young Deok; Lee, Moon Sung; Shim, Chan Sup

    2009-01-01

    Limy bile is a relatively rare condition in which a radiopaque material is visible in the gallbladder, extending rarely into the bile duct, on plain radiography. Acute cholangitis or cholecystitis caused by limy bile is a very rare condition. There are no definite treatment guidelines for limy bile, but in most cases with cholangitis or cholecystitis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been the preferred treatment. We report a case of limy bile with biliary symptoms that was treated only with an endoscopic procedure. PMID:20431775

  20. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426

  1. Ascaris cholecystitis and cholangitis: an experience in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Lwin, M; Tint, K S

    1994-08-01

    Twenty-seven cases of ascaris cholecystitis and cholangitis were managed in a surgical unit of a general hospital in Yangon, Myanmar, from January 1989 to March 1990. Nineteen women and eight men with a mean age of 42 years were studied. Main clinical manifestations were right hypochondrial pain, fever, chills, rigors, nausea, vomiting and jaundice. Diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasonograms in all cases. Laparotomy was performed in all cases because of failure to respond to initial conservative treatment. Live and dead ascarids were found in the gall bladder and biliary ductal system. Cholecystectomy, bile duct exploration, worm extraction and T-tube drainage were done in all cases. There were no deaths. Two patients developed minor wound sepsis. During the follow-up period ranging from 3 to 12 months, there was no recurrence of symptoms in all patients. All patients were given antihelminthics before discharge and three weeks later. PMID:7807458

  2. Laparoscopic resection of symptomatic gastric diverticula.

    PubMed

    Zelisko, Andrea; Rodriguez, John; El-Hayek, Kevin; Kroh, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Gastric diverticula are rare and usually asymptomatic. This report, however, describes two examples of symptomatic gastric diverticula successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Both patients were male and in their sixth decade of life. One patient was relatively healthy with no past medical history, whereas the other patient had chronic pain issues and at presentation was also undergoing evaluation for hyperaldosteronism. The patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, and change in bowel function. In both cases, a gastric diverticulum was identified by CT scan, and precise anatomic position was determined by upper endoscopy. After discussion with the treating teams, including a gastroenterologist and surgeon, surgical treatment and resection was elected. Successful laparoscopic removal was accomplished in both patients, and they were discharged home after tolerating liquid diets. Both patients reported resolution of their abdominal symptoms at follow-up. PMID:24680154

  3. Capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteremia presenting with acute cholecystitis after a dog bite.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Hiroaki; Kozuki, Tomohiro; Kamei, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is part of normal gingival flora of dogs and cats. The organism can cause septicemia, meningitis, and endocarditis in humans after contact with dogs or cats. In spite of the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in C. canimorsus infection patients, specific gastrointestinal disease or clinical images have not been reported. We report a case of C. canimorsus bacteremia presenting with acute cholecystitis in elderly woman. She suffered from general fatigue and right upper abdominal pain. She had leukocytosis and abnormal liver function tests. She showed abnormal findings of the gallbladder by abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography. She was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis without gallstones and was administered with antibiotics. C. canimorsus was isolated from blood cultures. A history of an insignificant wound secondary to a dog bite was elicited. She recovered completely with antibiotic treatment. This case revealed that C. canimorsus bacteremia can be presented with acute cholecystitis, suggesting that C. canimorsus could cause cholecystitis. And this cholecystitis can be treated with antibiotics without operation. Physicians seeing patients with acute cholecysitis should ask questions regarding animal contact. PMID:25445385

  4. Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholecystitis presenting as gallbladder cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kodai; Ito, Hideto; Katsube, Toshio; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Ota, Emi; Mita, Kazuhito; Asakawa, Hideki; Hayashi, Takashi; Fujino, Keiichi; Okamoto, Sigeru

    2015-12-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease is a systemic inflammatory syndrome, and an understanding of its characteristics is currently evolving. IgG4-related cholecystitis is a manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease in the gallbladder. This case report describes the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings in a young male patient who presented with a synchronous mass in the gallbladder. Serum levels of IgG4 and the IgG4/IgG ratio were normal, and there was no associated autoimmune pancreatitis. Therefore, establishing a preoperative diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis was very difficult, and a differential diagnosis of gallbladder cancer infiltrating the liver was suggested. Postoperative histopathological examination established a diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis definitively. A preoperative diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis, although possible, would have been highly challenging in this case. It is difficult to establish whether surgical intervention is necessary in IgG4-related cholecystitis. Because malignant tumors are frequently suspected with this clinical presentation, surgical intervention should be undertaken only after due deliberation. PMID:26943444

  5. Old man gallbladder syndrome: Gangrenous cholecystitis in the unsuspected patient population

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Teena; Schiowitz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute cholecystitis is a common surgical condition, but not many are aware of the serious complication of gangrenous cholecystitis (GC). Presence of GC increases patients’ postoperative complications, morbidity and mortality. Predictive factors for GC include age >45, male gender, white blood cell count >13,000/mm3 and ultrasound findings of a negative Murphy’s sign. Case presentation (1) GW, 83 male with dull right upper quadrant pain and a negative Murphy’s sign with further imaging showing a thickened septated gallbladder suggestive of GC. Patient’s surgery was difficult and he received a cholecystostomy tube for drainage. (2) PH, 75 male with minimal right upper quadrant pain, equivocal ultrasound with a negative Murphy’s sign and computer tomography (CT) showing acute cholecystitis. Patient was taken to the operating room for cholecystectomy, with pathology consistent with gangrenous cholecystitis. Discussion Multiple laboratory findings and imaging patterns have been found to be highly predictive of GC. Along with age and WBC, thickened gallbladder wall and lack of mucosal enhancement have been predictive of GC. On physical examination, lack of Murphy’s sign secondary to denervation from gangrenous changes also increases the index of suspicion for GC. Conclusion GC is a serious complication of acute cholecystitis with increased morbidity and mortality. There should be a high index of suspicion for GC if the above unique physical and laboratory findings are present. PMID:25917175

  6. Deficiencies of Circulating Mucosal-associated Invariant T Cells and Natural Killer T Cells in Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells are known to play crucial roles in a variety of diseases, including autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and cancers. However, little is known about the roles of these invariant T cells in acute cholecystitis. The purposes of this study were to examine the levels of MAIT cells and NKT cells in patients with acute cholecystitis and to investigate potential relationships between clinical parameters and these cell levels. Thirty patients with pathologically proven acute cholecystitis and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Disease grades were classified according to the revised Tokyo guidelines (TG13) for the severity assessment for acute cholecystitis. Levels of MAIT and NKT cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT and NKT cell numbers were significantly lower in acute cholecystitis patients than in healthy controls, and these deficiencies in MAIT cells and NKT cell numbers were associated with aging in acute cholecystitis patients. Notably, a reduction in NKT cell numbers was found to be associated with severe TG13 grade, death, and high blood urea nitrogen levels. The study shows numerical deficiencies of circulating MAIT and NKT cells and age-related decline of these invariant T cells. In addition, NKT cell deficiency was associated with acute cholecystitis severity and outcome. These findings provide an information regarding the monitoring of these changes in circulating MAIT and NKT cell numbers during the course of acute cholecystitis and predicting prognosis. PMID:25931792

  7. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging cervids. An abnormal isoform of a prion protein (PrP-CWD) has been associated with CWD in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and this prion protein can be detected with i...

  8. Morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.; Lowry, P.; Nguyen, M.; Pollack, M.

    1986-12-01

    Cholescintigraphy is a sensitive procedure for diagnosing or excluding acute cholecystitis. However, when rapid diagnosis is critical, the requirement for delayed images (4 hr or more after injection) to minimize the false-positive rate diminishes its utility. We prospectively evaluated 40 cholescintigraphic examinations that did not visualize the gallbladder 1 hr after injection of 99mTc diisopropyliminodiacetic acid. These examinations were then augmented by administration of IV morphine, followed by an additional 30 min of imaging. After the morphine, 18 of these examinations demonstrated visualization of the gallbladder; none subsequently required surgical exploration. Of the remaining 22, who demonstrated persistent nonvisualization of the gallbladder post-morphine, 11 were explored surgically and found to be abnormal. The 11 others were treated medically. Low-dose morphine administered when the gallbladder fails to visualize after 1 hr is a useful adjunct to conventional cholescintigraphy because it reduces the time required to obtain a diagnostic result and decreases the number of false-positive results.

  9. Update on bedside ultrasound (US) diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (AC).

    PubMed

    Zenobii, Maria Francesca; Accogli, Esterita; Domanico, Andrea; Arienti, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) represents a principal cause of morbidity worldwide and is one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization due to gastroenteric tract diseases. AC should be suspected in presence of clinical signs and of gallstones on an imaging study. Upper abdominal US represents the first diagnostic imaging step in the case of suspected AC. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast (IV) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast and technetium hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (Tc-HIDA) can be employed to exclude complications. US examination should be performed with right subcostal oblique, with longitudinal and intercostal scans. Normal gallbladder US findings and AC major and minor US signs are described. Polyps, sludge and gallbladder wall thickening represent the more frequent pitfalls and they must be differentiated from stones, duodenal artifacts and many other non-inflammatory conditions that cause wall thickening, respectively. By means of bedside ultrasound, the finding of gallstones in combination with acute pain, when the clinician presses the gallbladder with the US probe (the sonographic Murphy's sign), has a 92.2 % positive predictive value for AC. In our preliminary experience, bedside US-performed by echoscopy (ES) and/or point-of-care US (POCUS) demonstrated good reliability in detecting signs of AC, and was always integrated with physical examination and performed by a skilled operator. PMID:26537391

  10. Acute intermittent porphyria caused by novel mutation in HMBS gene, misdiagnosed as cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Majid; Saleh, Neam; Alenazi, Helal; Baffoe-Bonnie, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant neurovisceral inherited disorder due to a defect in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Misdiagnosis of the porphyrias is not uncommon. Case report We present a case of a 26-year-old female with suspected acute cholecystitis, mental status changes, and seizures. Biochemical and molecular investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AIP by findings of elevated urinary porphobilinogen, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and total porphyrins. DNA molecular testing showed a novel heterozygous mutation (c. 760delC p.L254X) in the exon11 of the HMBS gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a misdiagnosis of AIP presenting with acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Clinicians are alerted to consider the possibility of AIP in an adult presenting with an acute abdomen, features of cholecystitis, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. PMID:25419136

  11. A prognostic index of unsuccessful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, L E; Mellander, S; Rudström, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the accuracy of using preoperative data for the prediction of conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy in patients operated on for acute calculous cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was scheduled in eighty-nine of 184 consecutive patients with acute calculous cholecystitis who underwent urgent or early cholecystectomy without bile duct exploration in our department between 1991 and 1998. The correlation between 11 preoperative clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic variables, and the rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy was studied. Among the 11 variables tested, age and leukocyte count were independent factors of predictive significance. These two factors were used for constructing an additive prognostic index for conversion to open cholecystectomy. Thus, three groups of patients could be identified having a 10%, 30-70% or over 88% risk of conversion. Logistic regression analysis permits accurate preoperative identification of unsuccessful laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis. PMID:12678543

  12. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment. PMID:26538847

  13. Symptomatic treatment of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Adam, Octavian R; Jankovic, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive heredoneurodegenerative disease manifested by chorea and other hyperkinetic (dystonia, myoclonus, tics) and hypokinetic (parkinsonism) movement disorders. In addition, a variety of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms, along with cognitive decline, contribute significantly to the patient's disability. Because there are no effective neuroprotective therapies that delay the progression of the disease, symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone of medical management. Several classes of medications have been used to ameliorate the various symptoms of HD, including typical and atypical neuroleptics, dopamine depleters, antidepressants, antiglutamatergic drugs, GABA agonists, antiepileptic medications, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and botulinum toxin. Recently, surgical approaches including pallidotomy, deep brain stimulation, and fetal cell transplants have been used for the symptomatic treatment of HD. The selected therapy must be customized to the needs of each patient, minimizing the potential adverse effects. The primary aim of this article is to review the role of the different therapies, both available and investigational, for the treatment of the motor, psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms of HD, and to examine their impact on the patient's functionality and quality of life. PMID:18394562

  14. A controlled trial of metoclopramide in symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R W; Ippoliti, A F; Cooney, C; Sturdevant, R A

    1977-02-17

    Since metoclopramide increases lower-esophageal-sphincter pressure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux, we compared the effects of metoclopramide, 10 mg four times daily, with those of placebo on symptoms in 31 patients with chronic heartburn. Eighteen patients completed a random-order, double-blind crossover study of two consecutive eight-week periods. The final 13 patients crossed over only if their symptoms were not substantially improved after the first eight weeks. Response of low-esophageal-sphincter pressure to metoclopramide did not correlate significantly with symptomatic improvement. After the metoclopramide treatment period, mean basal pressure was unchanged from values before study. In both treatment periods, metoclopramide-treated patients had significantly more symptomatic improvement than the control group (P less than 0.05). PMID:319356

  15. Acute cholecystitis associated with infection of Enterobacteriaceae from gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Yan, Q; Luo, F; Shang, D; Wu, D; Zhang, H; Shang, X; Kang, X; Abdo, M; Liu, B; Ma, Y; Xin, Y

    2015-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is one of the most common surgical diseases. Bacterial infection accounts for 50% to 85% of the disease's onset. Since there is a close relationship between the biliary system and the gut, the aims of this study were to characterize and determine the influence of gut microbiota on AC, to detect the pathogenic microorganism in the biliary system, and to explore the relationship between the gut and bile microbiota of patients with AC. A total of 185 713 high-quality sequence reads were generated from the faecal samples of 15 patients and 13 healthy controls by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Patients' samples were significantly enriched in Akkermansia, Enterobacter and Escherichia/Shigella group. The healthy controls, however, showed significant enrichment of Clostridiales, Coprococcus, Coprobacillaceae, Paraprevotella, Turicibacter and TM7-3 in their faecal samples. Escherichia coli was the main biliary pathogenic microorganism, among others such as Klebsiella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae in the bile of the patients. Additionally, the amount of bile endotoxin significantly correlated with the number of Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli. Our data indicate that Enterobacteriaceae might play essential role in the pathogenesis and/or progress of AC. This was verified in an in vivo model using a pathogenic E. coli isolated from one of the patients in guinea pigs and observed marked gallbladder inflammation and morphologic changes. This study thus provides insight which could be useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AC and related diseases by controlling the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to alleviate the infection. PMID:26025761

  16. Schwanniomyces etchellsii: an unusual cause of fungemia in a patient with cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Relich, Ryan F; Schmitt, Bryan H; Koehlinger, Jeremy; Wiederhold, Nathan P; May, Meghan

    2016-03-01

    Schwanniomyces species are largely unrecognized as being pathogenic, and a paucity of published reports exist regarding their role as infectious agents. Here, for the first time, we describe a case of human infection caused by Schwanniomyces etchellsii in a patient with cholecystitis. PMID:26707066

  17. Early Percutaneous Cholecystostomy in Severe Acute Cholecystitis Reduces the Complication Rate and Duration of Hospital Stay

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chung-Kai; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Chan, Che-Chang; Perng, Chin-Lin; Chen, Chun-Ku; Fang, Wen-Liang; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The optimal timing of percutaneous cholecystostomy for severe acute cholecystitis is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of percutaneous cholecystostomy and its relationship to clinical outcomes in patients with inoperable acute severe cholecystitis. From 2008 to 2010, 209 consecutive patients who were admitted to our hospital due to acute cholecystitis and were treated by percutaneous cholecystostomy were retrospectively reviewed. The time periods from symptom onset to when percutaneous cholecystostomy was performed and when patients were discharged were recorded. In the 209 patients, the median time period between symptom onset and percutaneous cholecystostomy was 23?hours (range, 395?hours). The early intervention group (?24?hours, n?=?109) had a significantly lower procedure-related bleeding rate (0.0% vs 5.0%, P?=?0.018) and shorter hospital stay (15.8??12.9 vs 21.0??17.5 days) as compared with the late intervention group (>24?hours, n?=?100). Delayed percutaneous cholecystostomy was a significant independent factor for a longer hospital stay (odds ratio 3.03, P?=?0.001). In inoperable patients with acute severe cholecystitis, early percutaneous cholecystostomy reduced hospital stay and procedure-related bleeding without increasing the mortality rate. PMID:26166097

  18. Oerskovia turbata and Myroides species: rare isolates from a case of acalculus cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Padmini, S B; Govindan, V K; Appalaraju, B

    2007-07-01

    Here we report a case of acalculus cholecystitis, which presented with features of obstructive jaundice of one-week duration. The patient underwent cholecystectomy and bile grew a mixed culture of Oerskovia turbata and Myroides spp. Being a rare isolate, characteristic features of the former are described in this report. The patient recovered without any complication. PMID:17901658

  19. First Report of Acute Cholecystitis with Sepsis Caused by Cellulomonas denverensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Sawamura, Haruki; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Inoue, Rina; Iwasa, Junpei; Ito, Hiroyasu; Murakami, Nobuo; Ezaki, Takayuki; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Cellulomonas denverensis is a small and thin gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that was proposed as a new species in 2005. Here we report a female case of acute cholecystitis and sepsis in which C. denverensis was determined to be causative. PMID:19656981

  20. Management of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients: contemporary role for cholecystostomy and subsequent cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Morse, Bryan C; Smith, J Brandon; Lawdahl, Richard B; Roettger, Richard H

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients carries a high mortality rate. Although decompression and drainage of the gallbladder through a cholecystostomy tube may be used as a temporary treatment of acute cholecystitis in this population, there is still some debate about the management of the tube and the subsequent need for a cholecystectomy. This series evaluates the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients who underwent the insertion of cholecystostomy tubes for the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis. This is a retrospective review of critically ill patients admitted to the hospital intensive care unit who were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and underwent a cholecystostomy tube as a temporary treatment for the disease. Patients were identified through the Greenville Hospital System electronic medical records coding database. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, diagnoses, imaging, complications, and outcomes. From January 2002 through June 2008, 50 patients were identified for the study. The mean age was 72 +/- 11 years, and the majority (66%) were men. The following comorbidities were found: severe cardiovascular disease (40 patients), respiratory failure (30 patients), and multisystem organ dysfunction (30 patients). The mean intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) was 16 +/- 9 days, and the mean hospital LOS was 28 +/- 27 days. At 30 days, the morbidity associated with the cholecystostomy tube itself was 4 per cent, but overall in-hospital morbidity and mortality rates were 62 and 50 per cent, respectively. Of the 25 patients who survived longer than 30 days, 12 retained their cholecystostomy tubes until they underwent cholecystectomy (four open, seven laparoscopic). All of the remaining 13 patients had their cholecystostomy tubes removed, and eight developed recurrent cholecystitis. Of these patients with recurrent of cholecystitis, five had cholecystectomy or repeat cholecystostomy, but the remaining three patients died. Although this is a small patient population, these data suggest that, in critically ill patients, cholecystostomy tubes should remain in place until the patient is deemed medically suitable to undergo cholecystectomy. Removal of the cholecystostomy tube without subsequent cholecystectomy is associated with a high incidence of recurrent cholecystitis and devastating consequences. PMID:20698375

  1. Predicting Symptomatic Distress in Emergency Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Daniel S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies predictors of symptomatic distress in emergency services personnel exposed to traumatic critical instances. Evaluated predictors included exposure, social support, and psychological traits. Replicated analyses showed that levels of symptomatic distress were positively related to the degree of exposure to the critical incident. Level of…

  2. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD. PMID:26185123

  3. A symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cyst -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Hee; Kim, Jin Mo

    2012-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts are formed by the arachnoid membrane of the nerve root at the lumbosacral level. Most of these cysts are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for other causes of chronic lower back pain. This type of cyst requires a differential diagnosis to distinguish it from other causes of radiating pain and neurological symptoms. In the present case, a symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cyst was found, and pain relief was achieved by non-surgical treatment. A lumbosacral perineural cyst was identified from a differential diagnosis of a lumbar disc disorder that presented as radiating pain and neurological symptoms. PMID:22679550

  4. Management of symptomatic carotid disease in 2014.

    PubMed

    Litsky, Jason; Stilp, Erik; Njoh, Roland; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Extracranial carotid artery stenosis accounts for up to 12 % of stroke, the third leading cause of death in industrialized nations. Carotid stenoses leading to transient or permanent neurologic or retinal symptoms within the preceding 6 months are deemed symptomatic and require prompt noninvasive evaluation and treatment. Preventive medical therapy is standard for symptomatic carotid stenosis and continues to evolve. Landmark trials have proven carotid endarterectomy (CEA) superior to medical therapy for stroke prevention in symptomatic lesions. Modern investigations have proven carotid artery stenting (CAS) non-inferior to CEA, and the strength of the combined data has led to a class I recommendation for CEA or CAS in patients with high grade symptomatic carotid stenosis, provided the risk of perioperative events is acceptable. Evidence-based modern management of symptomatic carotid stenosis is reviewed here. PMID:24464307

  5. Outcomes of contemporary management of gangrenous and non-gangrenous acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Niumsawatt, Vachara; Sethu, Arun; Fink, Michael A; Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Starkey, Graham; Jones, Robert M; Christophi, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) is considered a more severe form of acute cholecystitis. The risk factors associated with this condition and its impact on morbidity and mortality compared with those of non-gangrenous acute cholecystitis (NGAC) are poorly defined and based largely on findings from older studies. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed acute cholecystitis treated in specialized units in a tertiary hospital between 2005 and 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Data were reviewed retrospectively and patients with GC were compared with those with NGAC. Results: A total of 184 patients with NGAC and 106 with GC were identified. The risk factors associated with GC included older age (69 years vs. 57 years; P = 0.001), diabetes (19% vs. 10%; P = 0.049), temperature of >38 °C (36% vs. 16%; P < 0.001), tachycardia (31% vs. 15%; P = 0.002), detection of muscle rigidity on examination (27% vs. 12%; P = 0.01) and greater elevations in white cell count (WCC) (13.4 × 109/l vs. 10.7 × 109/l; P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (94 mg/l vs. 17 mg/l; P = 0.001), bilirubin (19 µmol/l vs. 17 µmol/l; P = 0.029), urea (5.3 mmol/l vs. 4.7 mmol/l; P = 0.016) and creatinine (82 µmol/l vs. 74 µmol/l; P = 0.001). The time from admission to operation in days was greater in the GC group (median = 1 day, range: 0–14 days vs. median = 1 day, range: 0–10 days; P = 0.029). There was no overall difference in complication rates between the GC and NGAC groups (22% vs. 14%; P = 0.102). There was a lower incidence of common bile duct stones in the GC group (5% vs. 13%; P = 0.017). Gangrenous cholecystitis was associated with increased mortality (4% vs. 0%; P = 0.017), but this was not an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Gangrenous cholecystitis has certain clinical features and associated laboratory findings that may help to differentiate it from NGAC. It is not associated with an overall increase in complications when treated in a specialized unit. PMID:21762298

  6. Symptomatic cardiac amyloidosis in an American family

    SciTech Connect

    Ruder, M.A.; Alpert, M.A.; Sanfelippo, J.F.; Dix, J.D.; Whiting, R.B.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes an American family with a high incidence of symptomatic cardiac amyloidosis among four siblings, and explores the role of echocardiography and technetium pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the detection of this infiltrative cardiomyopathy within the involved family.

  7. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis: a comparison of sonography, scintigraphy, and CT

    SciTech Connect

    Mirvis, S.E.; Vainright, J.R.; Nelson, A.W.; Johnston, G.S.; Shorr, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Whitley, N.O.

    1986-12-01

    The clinical and laboratory diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is difficult, and the reliability of various diagnostic imaging techniques has not been established. The results of several imaging procedures performed over a 6-year period on 56 patients with clinically suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis were evaluated retrospectively. Sonography and CT were both highly sensitive (92% and 100%, respectively) and specific (96% and 100%, respectively). Hepatobiliary scintigraphy was compromised by frequent false-positives; the result was a specificity of only 38%. Percutaneous bile aspiration was insufficiently sensitive (33%) for diagnosis. Sonography was as sensitive as hepatobiliary scintigraphy and was more specific in establishing the diagnosis. Because sonography is relatively inexpensive and can be performed at the bedside, it should be regarded as a satisfactory screening procedure. However, CT is a good alternative in an easily transported patient when other intraabdominal disease is suspected.

  8. Retroperitoneal abscess and acute acalculous cholecystitis after iatrogenic colon injury: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chengwei; Wang, Yuxu; Hu, Sanyuan; Du, Futian; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis has a high mortality rate due to the difficulties in early diagnosis and high rate of complications like empyema, gangrene and perforation. We report a case of 20-year-old male with acute severe pancreatitis, acute renal failure and acute peripancreatic fluid collection who was transferred to our department after blood filtration treatment in ICU. After percutaneous catheter drainage for 20 hours, the patient got a high fever. Computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal colon injury. In this case, percutaneous catheter drainage was performed again and the pus cavity was flushed regularly, after which the patient’s state gradually improved. Unpredictably, septic shock appeared on the 51st day. Repeated computed tomography revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis and abscess formation. After percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder catheterization and drainage, the patient got better gradually. Three months later the retroperitoneal catheter was removed. Four months later, ultrasound examination showed normal gallbladder and the catheter was removed. PMID:26131252

  9. Symptomatic pericardial cyst: a case series.

    PubMed

    Najib, Mohammad Q; Chaliki, Hari P; Raizada, Amol; Ganji, Jhansi L; Panse, Prasad M; Click, Roger L

    2011-11-01

    Pericardial cysts are most commonly located at the cardiophrenic angle or, rarely, in the posterior or anterior superior mediastinum. The majority of pericardial cysts are asymptomatic and are found incidentally. Symptomatic pericardial cysts present with dyspnoea, chest pain, or persistent cough. We describe four patients with symptomatic pericardial cysts who were treated with either echocardiographically guided percutaneous aspiration or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, or both; thoracotomy; or conservative therapy. PMID:21900299

  10. [Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].

    PubMed

    Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery. PMID:19143297

  11. Concurrent presentation of appendicitis and acute cholecystitis: diagnosis of rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jamish; Tan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented with a 2-day history of central abdominal pain migrating to the right upper and lower abdomen. On examination she was normothermic but tachycardic. Inflammatory markers were noted to be elevated with a white cell count of 18.5×10(9)/L and C reactive protein of 265 mg/L. A CT scan revealed dual pathology of appendicitis and acute cholecystitis, which was confirmed intraoperatively and histologically. PMID:26396122

  12. Q Fever with transient antiphospholipid antibodies associated with cholecystitis and splenic infarction.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, James P; Gray, Paul E A; Palasanthiran, Pam; Snelling, Thomas L

    2013-04-01

    We describe a case of Q fever associated with the transient presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in a 9-year-old boy presenting with acalculous cholecystitis and splenic infarction. Antiphospholipid antibodies are commonly associated with acute Q fever in adults but have previously been thought to be of little clinical significance. Recent data suggest that antiphospholipid antibodies may be responsible for certain clinical manifestations of acute Q fever. PMID:23271442

  13. Surgical management of acute cholecystitis. Results of a nation-wide survey among Spanish surgeons.

    PubMed

    Badia, Josep M; Nve, Esther; Jimeno, Jaime; Guirao, Xavier; Figueras, Joan; Arias-Díaz, Javier

    2014-10-01

    There is a wide variability in the management of acute cholecystitis. A survey among the members of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) analyzed the preferences of Spanish surgeons for its surgical management. The majority of the 771 responders didn't declare any subspecialty (41.6%), 21% were HPB surgeons, followed by colorectal and upper-GI specialities. Early cholecystectomy during the first admission is the preferred method of management of 92.3% of surgeons, but only 42.7% succeed in adopting this practice. The most frequent reasons for changing their preferred practice were: Patients not fit for surgery (43.6%) and lack of availability of emergency operating room (35.2%). A total of 88.9% perform surgery laparoscopically. The majority of AEC surgeons advise index admission cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, although only half of them succeed in its actual implementation. There is room for improvement in the management of acute cholecystitis in Spanish hospitals. PMID:24857607

  14. DICROCOELIUM DENDRITICUM INFECTION IN A PATIENT WITH CHRONIC SCHISTOSOMIASIS HAEMATOBIUM.

    PubMed

    Ella, Osama H Abd; Mohammad, Abdallah E

    2015-12-01

    Infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum in humans is seldom to be reported in Egypt. This liver fluke, which commonly infects ruminants, has a complex life cycle with two intermediate hosts; the land snail and the ant. Human infection occurs by accidental ingestion of the second intermediate host. The present reported a patient suffered from recurrent acute chole-cystitis with chronic urinary schistosomiasis whose Kato stool examination showed Dicroceolium dendriticum eggs. He was successfully treated with Mirazid. PMID:26939241

  15. [From symptomatic stability to functional recovery in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and unipolar depression].

    PubMed

    Wikinski, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    This work summarizes the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the chronic course of schizophrenia and unipolar depresion. It is aimed to answer three questions: does it cure these diseases? Does it exert any significant effect on the symptomatic presentation of the disorders? Which is its action on the social dysfunction provoked by schizophrenia or depression? A conceptual analysis of available bibliography was performed. It could be concluded that antypsychotics improve the symptomatic course of schizophrenia, although their efficacy is limited, and that these drugs does not act on the social dysfunction provoked by the disease. With respect to depression, it could be concluded that a significant proportion of patients remain symptomatic despite receiveng adequate treatments. No data about efficacy of pharmacotherapy on the dysfunction resultant from unipolar depression is available. PMID:20038986

  16. Another Report of Acalculous Cholecystitis in a Greek Patient with Infectious Mononucleosis: A Matter of Luck or Genetic Predisposition?

    PubMed

    Koufakis, Theocharis; Gabranis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We here report a case of a young, male patient who presented with jaundice and was diagnosed with acalculous cholecystitis during the course of a primary Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. The coexistence of cholestatic hepatitis and acalculous cholecystitis in patients with infectious mononucleosis is extremely uncommon and only few cases can be found in the literature. Moreover, almost one-fourth of the total reports of this rare entity are coming from Greece. Whether this is a result of physicians' high index of suspicion due to previous reports or a consequence of genetic predisposition is an issue that deserves further investigation in the future. More studies are required in order to clarify the pathophysiological and genetic backgrounds that connect acalculous cholecystitis and EBV infection. PMID:26885417

  17. Failure to Perform Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis in Elderly Patients is Associated with Increased Morbidity, Mortality, and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Riall, Taylor S; Zhang, Dong; Townsend, Courtney M; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S

    2010-01-01

    Background Cholecystectomy during initial hospitalization is the current recommended therapy for acute cholecystitis. The rate of cholecystectomy and subsequent healthcare trajectory in elderly patients with acute cholecystitis has not been evaluated. Study Design We used 5% national Medicare sample claims data from 1996–2005 to identify a cohort of patients ≥66 requiring urgent/emergent admission for acute cholecystitis. We evaluated cholecystectomy rates on initial hospitalization, the factors independently predicting receipt of cholecystectomy, the factors predicting further gallstone-related complications, and 2-year survival in the cholecystectomy and no cholecystectomy group in univariate and multivariate models. Results 29,818 Medicare beneficiaries were urgently/emergently admitted for acute cholecystitis from 1996–2005. The mean age was 77.7±7.3 years. 89% of patients were white and 58% were female. 25% of patients did not undergo cholecystectomy during the index admission. Lack of definitive therapy was associated with a 27% subsequent cholecystectomy rate and a 38% gallstone-related readmission rate over in the two years after discharge, while the readmission rate was only 4% in patients undergoing cholecystectomy (P<0.0001). No cholecystectomy on initial hospitalization was associated with worse 2-year survival (HR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.47 – 1.65) even after controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities. Readmissions lead to an additional $7,000 in Medicare payments per readmission. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that 25% of Medicare beneficiaries cholecystectomy was not performed on index admission, leading to readmissions in 38% of surviving patients. For patients requiring readmission, the number of open procedures was increased, and the additional Medicare payments were $7,000 per admission. Cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in elderly patients should be performed during initial hospitalization to prevent recurrent episodes of cholecystitis, multiple readmissions, higher readmission rates, and increased costs. PMID:20421027

  18. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. PMID:25246500

  19. Henoch-Schönlein purpura complicated by acalculous cholecystitis and intussusception, and following recurrence with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Güler, Ekrem; Çetinkaya, Ahmet; Karakaya, Ali Erdal; Göksügür, Yalçın; Katı, Ömer; Güler, Ahmet Gökhan; Davutoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common childhood systemic vasculitis. Gastro-intestinal involvement occurs in two-thirds of patients. The characteristic skin lesions generally precede abdominal symptoms or present concurrently. A 7-year-old boy presented with intussusception and acalculous cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy. Two weeks later he was re-admitted with features typical of HSP which responded to corticosteroids. Eleven months later he presented with abdominal pain and recurrence of HSP and, at laparotomy, there was acute appendicitis. This is the first case of a child presenting with HSP complicated by acalculous cholecystitis. PMID:27077617

  20. Chilaiditi Sign on 99mTc-Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scan Mimicking Bile Leak in Acute Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Suzanne; Dadparvar, Simin

    2016-06-01

    Chilaiditi sign is the incidental radiologic finding of intestinal interposition between the liver and diaphragm, whereas Chilaiditi syndrome describes the presence of accompanying clinical symptoms including abdominal pain, constipation, vomiting, and respiratory distress. We describe a case of radiotracer accumulation over the liver dome on Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scan performed on a 72-year-old man with acute cholecystitis mimicking a bile leak. However, chest radiograph and CT revealed intestinal hepatodiaphragmatic interposition. This case illustrates the importance of being familiar with the scintigraphic appearance of the Chilaiditi sign and correlating abnormal nuclear medicine scan findings with other available radiologic modalities. PMID:26859214

  1. A Case Report of Dengue Virus Infection and Acalculous Cholecystitis in a Pregnant Returning Traveler

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, William R.; Hitti, Jane; Casper, Corey

    2007-01-01

    Dengue viral infections present a significant risk during pregnancy to both mother and fetus. A young woman at 13 weeks’ gestation presented with fevers and abdominal pain following a diarrheal illness after returning from Puerto Rico. Over the course of 5 days, she developed nausea, petechiae, severe thrombocytopenia, and acalculous cholecystitis. After a serologic diagnosis of acute infection with Dengue virus, she was provided supportive care. An uncomplicated pregnancy led to delivery of a healthy infant at 40 weeks gestation. Travel during pregnancy to dengue-endemic areas poses a risk to both mother and fetus. Pregnancies complicated by dengue infection require close monitoring for potential maternal and fetal complications. PMID:17574149

  2. Bubaline Cholecyst Derived Extracellular Matrix for Reconstruction of Full Thickness Skin Wounds in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Poonam; Sharma, A. K.; Kumar, Naveen; Vellachi, Remya; Mathew, Dayamon D.; Dubey, Prasoon; Singh, Kiranjeet; Shrivastava, Sonal; Shrivastava, Sameer; Maiti, S. K.; Hasan, Anwarul; Singh, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    An acellular cholecyst derived extracellular matrix (b-CEM) of bubaline origin was prepared using anionic biological detergent. Healing potential of b-CEM was compared with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS) and open wound (C) in full thickness skin wounds in rats. Thirty-six clinically healthy adult Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were randomly divided into three equal groups. Under general anesthesia, a full thickness skin wound (20 × 20 mm2) was created on the dorsum of each rat. The defect in group I was kept as open wound and was taken as control. In group II, the defect was repaired with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS). In group III, the defect was repaired with cholecyst derived extracellular matrix of bovine origin (b-CEM). Planimetry, wound contracture, and immunological and histological observations were carried out to evaluate healing process. Significantly (P < 0.05) increased wound contraction was observed in b-CEM (III) as compared to control (I) and b-CS (II) on day 21. Histologically, improved epithelization, neovascularization, fibroplasia, and best arranged collagen fibers were observed in b-CEM (III) as early as on postimplantation day 21. These findings indicate that b-CEM have potential for biomedical applications for full thickness skin wound repair in rats. PMID:27127678

  3. Biomaterial properties of cholecyst-derived scaffold recovered by a non-detergent/enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu V; Vineetha, Vadavanath P; Revi, Deepa; Muhamed, Jaseer; Rajan, Akhila

    2014-10-01

    Isolation procedures for the recovery of extracellular matrices (ECMs) from animal organs/tissues that are useful in regenerative medicine involve multiple sequential steps/stages including collection of the source organ at slaughter, their transportation to laboratory, decellularization, decontamination, stabilization, and sterilization. Most of these steps require extensive use of chemicals/reagents/enzymes which may also adversely affect the quality of the scaffold. With an effort to minimize the use of chemicals/reagents/enzymes, while extracting biomaterial-grade ECM from porcine cholecyst (gall bladder), we performed preisolation ex situ incubation of the organ in a stabilizing agent that also caused in situ crosslinking of tissue-components and delaminated the collagen-rich ECM from the tissue-layer beneath the mucosa. The physical, chemical, and biological properties of the isolated scaffolds were similar to that of a commercially available porcine small intestinal submucosa. The cholecyst-derived scaffold not only satisfied preclinical safety-test procedures such as cytotoxicity, local response, and endotoxin load but also showed the potential to promote healing of full-thickness skin wound in a rabbit model. The procedure was also suitable for isolating scaffolds from other hollow organs such as jejunum and urinary bladder. It was concluded that enzyme/detergent treatment may be an avoidable step while isolating biomaterial-grade scaffolds from hollow organs. PMID:24596163

  4. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a Lebanese girl with primary Epstein-Barr viral infection.

    PubMed

    Majdalani, Marianne; Milad, Nadine; Sahli, Zeyad; Rizk, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) constitutes 5-10% of all cases of cholecystitis in adults, and is even less common in children. The recent literature has described an association between primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AAC, however, it still remains an uncommon presentation of the infection. Most authors advise that the management of AAC in patients with primary EBV infection should be supportive, since the use of antibiotics does not seem to alter the severity or prognosis of the illness. Furthermore, surgical intervention has not been described as necessary or indicated in the management of uncomplicated AAC associated with EBV infection. We report a case of a 16-year-old Lebanese girl with AAC associated with primary EBV infection. She presented to the emergency department, with high-grade fever, fatigue, vomiting and abdominal pain. Liver enzymes were elevated with a cholestatic pattern, and imaging confirmed the diagnosis of AAC. She was admitted to the regular floor, and initial management was conservative. Owing to persistence of fever, antibiotics were initiated on day 3 of admission. She had a smooth clinical course and was discharged home after a total of 9 days, with no complications. PMID:27090538

  5. Tight junction proteins in gallbladder epithelium: different expression in acute acalculous and calculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Jouko J; Karttunen, Tuomo; Koivukangas, Vesa; Laurila, Päivi A; Syrjälä, Hannu; Saarnio, Juha; Soini, Ylermi; Ala-Kokko, Tero I

    2007-06-01

    There is a paucity of information of tight junction (TJ) proteins in gallbladder epithelium, and disturbances in the structure of these proteins may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) and acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC). Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of TJ proteins claudin-1, -2, -3, and -4, occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and E-cadherin in 9 normal gallbladders, 30 gallbladders with AAC, and 21 gallbladders with ACC. The number of positive epithelial and endothelial cells and the intensity of the immunoreaction were determined. Membrane-bound and cytoplasmic immunoreactivities were separately assessed. We found that TJ proteins were uniformly expressed in normal gallbladder epithelium, with the exception of claudin-2, which was present in less than half of the cells. In AAC, expression of cytoplasmic occludin and claudin-1 were decreased, as compared with normal gallbladder. In ACC, expression of claudin-2 was increased, and expression of claudin-1, -3, and -4, occludin, and ZO-1 were decreased, as compared with normal gallbladder or AAC. We conclude that there are significant differences in expression of TJ proteins in AAC and ACC, supporting the idea that AAC represents a manifestation of systemic inflammatory disease, whereas ACC is a local inflammatory and often infectious disease. PMID:17283368

  6. Laparoscopic management of a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with calculus cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Loizides, Sofronis; Ali, Asad; Newton, Richard; Singh, Krishna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery is very rare. In the majority of cases it has been reported as a post-operative complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, however it has also been associated with the presence of acute cholecystitis or pancreatitis. When these pseudoaneurysms rupture they can lead to intraperitoneal bleeding, haemobilia and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Radiological as well as open surgical approaches have been described for control of this rare pathology. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the laparoscopic surgical management of an incidental, unruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient presenting with acute cholecystitis. DISCUSSION Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare entity and as such there is no consensus on the clinical management of this condition. A variety of treatment strategies have been reported in the literature including radiological selective embolisation and coiling, open cholecystectomy with ligation of the aneurysm, or a two-step approach involving radiological management of the pseudoaneurysm followed by an elective cholecystectomy. CONCLUSION In this report we have demonstrated that laparoscopic management of a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible and safe. This avoids multiple invasive procedures and decreases morbidity associated with open surgery. PMID:26291047

  7. Acute acalculous cholecystitis, a rare complication of Epstein-Barr virus primary infection: report of two cases and review.

    PubMed

    Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Suy, Florence; Pouvaret, Anne; Pillet, Sylvie; Tarantino, Enrico; Bouchet, Dorothée; Fresard, Anne; Cazorla, Céline; Guglielminotti, Claire; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    We described two cases of acalculous cholecystitis (AAC), due to EBV primary infection in two young Caucasian women and we reviewed other reported cases. In contrast with AAC of other etiologies, antibiotics and surgery are not useful in the management of AAC secondary to EBV. PMID:25049206

  8. Choledochal cyst complicated by acute cholecystitis and bypass obstruction: diagnostic role of Tc-99m-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Gold, M.; Goldstein, R.D.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    An unusual case of malignant degeneration of a choledochal cyst is presented. The presence of acute cholecystitis with the cystic duct originating from the cyst as well as the subsequent obstruction of the cyst-jejunal surgical anastomosis was readily detected with Tc-99m-dimethyl-iminodiacetic (Tc-99m-HIDA) cholescintigraphy.

  9. [Symptomatic management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)].

    PubMed

    Czaplinski, A; Schweikert, K; Strobel, W; Steck, A J; Weber, M

    2006-02-22

    Although disease-specific treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is still unsatisfactory, a number of advances have been made in the symptomatic therapy of ALS patients within the last decade. Current data suggest that active and aggressive multidisciplinary management of ALS patients improve their quality of life and prolong their survival. Patient and caregiver communications and decisions are increasingly recognized to be a relevant part of this management. A wide range of supportive and palliative measures, in particular the widely use of symptomatic drugs for pseudobulbar affect, sialorrhea, and sleep disorders is available to relieve patients symptomatology. In addition, patients quality of life has been profoundly improved by the introduction of enteral nutrition and non-invasive ventilation. PMID:16523990

  10. Management of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianqiang; Sun, Yongdong; Huang, Xin; Luan, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been no consensus on the optimal treatment of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Most previous reports concerning the management methods were either sporadic case reports or a series of limited cases. This study is to further optimize the management for patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts by analyzing the outcomes of a cohort of patients who were treated with different strategies. Methods and Findings We reviewed the outcomes of 15 patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts who were managed by three different modalities from 1998 through 2010. Six patients underwent microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication. Seven patients underwent a modified surgical procedure, during which the cerebrospinal fluid leak aperture was located and repaired. Two patients were treated with medication and physical therapy. Outcomes of the patients were assessed by following up (13 months to 10 years). All of the six patients treated with microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication experienced complete or substantial relief of their preoperative symptoms. However, the symptoms of one patient reappeared eight months after the operation. Another patient experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six of the seven patients treated with the modified surgical operation experienced complete or substantial resolution of their preoperative symptoms, with only one patient who experienced temporary worsening of his preoperative urine incontinence, which disappeared gradually one month later. No new postoperative neurological deficits, no cerebrospinal fluid leaks and no recurrence were observed in the seven patients. The symptoms of the two patients treated with conservative measures aggravated with time. Conclusions Microsurgical operation should be a treatment consideration in patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Furthermore, the surgical procedure with partial cyst removal and aperture repair for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage seemed to be more simple and effective. PMID:22768183

  11. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  12. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Hydrodissection of a Symptomatic Sural Neuroma.

    PubMed

    Fader, Ryan R; Mitchell, Justin J; Chadayammuri, Vivek P; Hill, John; Wolcott, Michelle L

    2015-11-01

    Symptomatic neuromas of the sural nerve are a rare but significant cause of pain and debilitation in athletes. Presentation is usually in the form of chronic pain and dysesthesias or paresthesias of the lateral foot and ankle. Treatment traditionally ranges from conservative measures, such as removing all external compressive forces, to administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin B6, tricyclic antidepressants, antiepileptics, or topical anesthetics. This article reports a case of sural nerve entrapment in a 34-year-old male triathlete with a history of recurrent training-induced right-sided gastrocnemius strains. The patient presented with numbness in the right lateral foot and ankle that had persisted for 3 months, after he was treated unsuccessfully with extensive nonoperative measures, including anti-inflammatory drugs, activity modification, and a dedicated physical therapy program of stretching and strengthening. Orthopedic assessment showed worsening pain with forced passive dorsiflexion and manual pressure applied over the distal aspect of the gastrocnemius. Plain radiographs showed normal findings, but in-office ultrasound imaging showed evidence of sural nerve entrapment with edema and neuromatous scar formation in the absence of gastrocnemius or soleus pathology. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided hydrodissection of the sural nerve at the area of symptomatic neuroma and neural edema was performed the same day. The patient had complete relief of symptoms and full return to the preinjury level of participation in competitive sports. This case report shows that hydrodissection, when performed by an experienced physician, can be an effective, minimally invasive technique for neurolysis in the setting of sural nerve entrapment, resulting in improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:26558670

  13. Symptomatic narcolepsy, cataplexy and hypersomnia, and their implications in the hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Seiji; Kanbayashi, Takashi

    2005-08-01

    Human narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder affecting 1:2000 individuals. The disease is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and other abnormal manifestations of REM sleep, such as sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations. Recently, it was discovered that the pathophysiology of (idiopathic) narcolepsy-cataplexy is linked to hypocretin ligand deficiency in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as the positivity of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR2/DQ6 (DQB1*0602). The symptoms of narcolepsy can also occur during the course of other neurological conditions (i.e. symptomatic narcolepsy). We define symptomatic narcolepsy as those cases that meet the International Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy Criteria, and which are also associated with a significant underlying neurological disorder that accounts for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and temporal associations. To date, we have counted 116 symptomatic cases of narcolepsy reported in literature. As, several authors previously reported, inherited disorders (n=38), tumors (n=33), and head trauma (n=19) are the three most frequent causes for symptomatic narcolepsy. Of the 116 cases, 10 are associated with multiple sclerosis, one case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and relatively rare cases were reported with vascular disorders (n=6), encephalitis (n=4) and degeneration (n=1), and hererodegenerative disorder (three cases in a family). EDS without cataplexy or any REM sleep abnormalities is also often associated with these neurological conditions, and defined as symptomatic cases of EDS. Although it is difficult to rule out the comorbidity of idiopathic narcolepsy in some cases, review of the literature reveals numerous unquestionable cases of symptomatic narcolepsy. These include cases with HLA negative and/or late onset, and cases in which the occurrences of the narcoleptic symptoms are parallel with the rise and fall of the causative disease. A review of these cases (especially those with brain tumors), illustrates a clear picture that the hypothalamus is most often involved. Several cases of symptomatic cataplexy (without EDS) were also reported and in contrast, these cases appear to be often associated with non-hypothalamic structures. CSF hypocretin-1 measurement were also carried out in a limited number of symptomatic cases of narcolepsy/EDS, including narcolepsy/EDS associated with tumors (n=5), head trauma (n=3), vascular disorders (n=5), encephalopathies (n=3), degeneration (n=30), demyelinating disorder (n=7), genetic/congenital disorders (n=11) and others (n=2). Reduced CSF hypocretin-1 levels were seen in most symptomatic narcolepsy cases of EDS with various etiologies and EDS in these cases is sometimes reversible with an improvement of the causative neurological disorder and an improvement of the hypocretin status. It is also noted that some symptomatic EDS cases (with Parkinson diseases and the thalamic infarction) appeared, but they are not linked with hypocretin ligand deficiency. In contrast to idiopathic narcolepsy cases, an occurrence of cataplexy is not tightly associated with hypocretin ligand deficiency in symptomatic cases. Since CSF hypocretin measures are still experimental, cases with sleep abnormalities/cataplexy are habitually selected for CSF hypocretin measures. Therefore, it is still not known whether all or a large majority of cases with low CSF hypocretin-1 levels with CNS interventions, exhibit EDS/cataplexy. It appears that further studies of the involvement of the hypocretin system in symptomatic narcolepsy and EDS are helpful to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms for the occurrence of EDS and cataplexy. PMID:16006155

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Symptomatic Carpal Bossing

    PubMed Central

    Radmer, Sebastian; Fresow, Robert; Tabibzada, Arash Mehdi; Kamusella, Peter; Scheer, Fabian; Andresen, Reimer

    2015-01-01

    Context Carpal bossing is an osseous formation at the dorsal portion of the quadrangular joint, which rarely becomes symptomatic. However, in some patients it causes pain, restricted mobility and can lead to complications like tendon rupture, inflammatory and degenerative joint disease. Aim In this article, we present our experiences with this rare disorder in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings. Settings Design This is a multicenter and interdisciplinary observation made by orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists in the years 2010 to 2015. Retrospective observational study. The follow up period was 2 years. Materials and Methods In the observed time period, eight patients were diagnosed with symptomatic carpal bossing. Symptoms were pain at palmar flexion and limited mobility of the wrist in combination with a palpable protuberance over the quadrangular joint. All patients underwent X-ray, CT and MRI examinations. A conservative treatment strategy was initiated for 6 weeks in all patients, followed by a wedge resection when symptoms were persisting and disabling. Results After the conservative treatment schedule, five patients were asymptomatic. Three patients had persisting pain and were thus recommended for surgery. In the postoperative course, two patients were asymptomatic. One patient developed a type 1 complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the first postoperative year, which was successfully treated with pain-adapted physiotherapy, pharmacotherapy with analgesics and calcitonin, and a triple CT-guided thoracic sympathetic nerve blockade. Conclusion Carpal bossing is a mostly asymptomatic entity, which in our experience gets symptomatic due to direct trauma or repetitive stress, especially in competitive racket sports players. It can be diagnosed by thorough clinical examination and multimodal diagnostic imaging. Conservative treatment comprises an excellent prognosis, however surgery, either wedge resection or arthrodesis, must be considered if the response is not positive after 6 weeks. PMID:26557578

  15. Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  16. MRI of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    PubMed

    Araki, Y; Tsukaguchi, I; Ishida, T; Ootani, M; Yamamoto, T; Tomoda, K; Mitomo, M

    1992-01-01

    Sacral perineural cyst is a relatively rare condition. To our knowledge, reports of MR findings associated with sacral perineural cyst have been limited to only six cases. We present for the first time high field MR findings in a case of sacral perineural cyst. The cyst appeared as a cystic lesion in the sacral spinal canal and had intermediate signal intensity on T1W images and high signal intensity on T2*W images compared with CSF. Slight erosion remodeling of the sacrum was also seen anteriorly. Our case was symptomatic and present with radiculopathy (sciatic pain). Surgical treatment was done to result in dramatic improvement of the sciatic pain. PMID:1337620

  17. Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  18. Emphysematous Cholecystitis in 24-Year-old Male Without Predisposing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gunbey, Hediye Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Emphysematous cholecystitis (EC) is a life threatening condition characterized by gangrene of the gallbladder due to an infection with gas-forming organisms. It is more common in elderly men and has been associated with systemic disease, especially diabetes and vascular disease. Computed tomography is the most important and accurate imaging modality for the diagnosis of EC. EC should be thought of when the radiographic presence of gas is detected within the gallbladder wall or lumen. Emergency surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment for the gas-forming organism should be initiated after the diagnosis of the EC. Here, we present the imaging and pathologic findings of a 24-year-old male with EC without any predisposing factors, successfully treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:26393182

  19. [Evaluation of clinical characteristics and morphological state of gallbladder in patients with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Shcherbynina, M B; Zakrevs'ka, O V; Korolenko, H S; Lymar, L I

    2007-01-01

    There were studied the peculiarities of the state of patients with xantogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) using clinical and instrumental diagnostics performed in preoperative period as well as morphological state of the wall of removed gall-bladders. It was established that the prevalence of XGC among patients after cholecystectomy because of biliary calculosis is 0,93%. The frequency of XGC in women is three times higher than in men. There is prevalence of patients older than 50 years. The clinical period of XGC in men is twice shorter than among women and a polimorbid pathology is more often found in men than in women. XGC has no specific clinical signs. Morphologically the xantogranulomes are the combination of xanthom cells, lymphocytes and plasmocytes. To detail this process it is necessary to determine subpopulations of T- lymphocytes presented in the xantogranulome. PMID:18416161

  20. Intravascular Hemolysis and Septicemia due to Clostridium perfringens Emphysematous Cholecystitis and Hepatic Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Justin; Bland, Lacie; Noble, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Context. Clostridium perfringens septicemia is often associated with translocation from the gastrointestinal or gastrourinary tract and occurs in patients who have malignancy or are immunocompromised. Clostridium perfringens septicemia is usually fatal without early identification, source control, and antibiotics. Case. We present a case of a 65-year-old female with Clostridium perfringens septicemia secondary to emphysematous cholecystitis, with progression to hepatic abscesses. Conclusion. Septicemia secondary to Clostridium perfringens is generally fatal if not detected early. Source control with surgery or percutaneous drainage and early antibiotic therapy is imperative. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may reduce mortality. Clinicians caring for patients with sepsis and intravascular hemolysis must have Clostridium perfringens septicemia on their differential diagnosis with a low threshold for starting antibiotics and pursuing source of infection. PMID:26229537

  1. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis by Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Maria; Couto, Cristiana; Coelho, Maria D.; Laranjeira, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare complication of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection, with only a few cases reported among pediatric population. This clinical condition is frequently associated with a favorable outcome and, usually, a surgical intervention is not required. We report a 16-year-old girl who presented with AAC following primary EBV infection. The diagnosis of AAC was documented by clinical and ultrasonographic examination, whereas EBV infection was confirmed serologically. A conservative treatment was performed, with a careful monitoring and serial ultrasonographic examinations, which led to the clinical improvement of the patient. Pediatricians should be aware of the possible association between EBV and AAC, in order to offer the patients an appropriate management strategy. PMID:26753086

  2. Acute acalculous cholecystitis immediately after gastric operation: Case report and literatures review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Lin; Li, He; Wang, Xue-Fei; Shen, Kun-Tang; Shen, Zhen-Bin; Sun, Yi-Hong; Qin, Xin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare complication of gastric surgery. The most commonly accepted concepts regarding its pathogenesis are bile stasis, sepsis and ischemia, but it has not been well described how to identify and manage this disease in the early stage. We report three cases of AAC in elderly patients immediately after gastric surgery, which were treated with three different strategies. One patient died 42 d after emergency cholecystectomy, and the other two finally recovered through timely cholecystostomy and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage, respectively. These cases informed us of the value of early diagnosis and proper treatment for perioperative AAC after gastric surgery. We further reviewed reported cases of AAC immediately after gastric operation, which may expand our knowledge of this disease. PMID:25132787

  3. Granular cell tumor of the common hepatic duct presenting as cholangiocarcinoma and acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Bilanović, D; Boricić, I; Zdravković, D; Randjelović, T; Stanisavljević, N; Toković, B

    2008-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCT) are rare benign tumors. Less than 1% of GCTs involve the extrahepatic biliary tree. Most researches favour a Schwann cell origin. Patient, caucasion, female, 31-year-old presented with 4 month history of painless jaundice and pruritus. US and CT revealed dilatation of intrahepatic biliary tree and surgery was performed. Firm tumor mass was found above the conjunction of cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD) that caused obstruction and gallblader empyema. The patient underwent radical surgical procedure because Klatskin tumor was clinically suspected. Patohystology and immunohistochemistry confirmed granular cell tumor. Eight years after surgery the patient is wellbeing without symptoms. To our knowledge 69 cases of GCT of the extrahepatic biliary tree have been reported and none of the acute acalculous cholecystitis case acompanied by GCT of CHD. Granular cell tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Wide resection offers the best chance for cure. PMID:19245149

  4. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation pattern discriminates cholecystitis from gallbladder cancer patients in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Kagohara, Luciane Tsukamoto; Schussel, Juliana L; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini; Lebron, Cynthia; Brait, Mariana; Maldonado, Leonel; Valle, Blanca L; Pirini, Francesca; Jahuira, Martha; Lopez, Jaime; Letelier, Pablo; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Pandey, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Aditi; Sidransky, David; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in a cohort from Chile. Material & methods DNA methylation was analyzed through an ELISA-based technique and quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Results Global DNA Methylation Index (p = 0.02) and promoter methylation of SSBP2 (p = 0.01) and ESR1 (p = 0.05) were significantly different in GBC when compared with cholecystitis. Receiver curve operator analysis revealed promoter methylation of APC, CDKN2A, ESR1, PGP9.5 and SSBP2, together with the Global DNA Methylation Index, had 71% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 0.97 area under the curve and a positive predictive value of 90%. Conclusion Global and gene-specific DNA methylation may be useful biomarkers for GBC clinical assessment. PMID:25066711

  5. Is early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis preferable to delayed surgery?: Best evidence topic (BET).

    PubMed

    Skouras, Christos; Jarral, Omar; Deshpande, Rahul; Zografos, George; Habib, Nagy; Zacharakis, Emmanouil

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) in patients presenting with a short history of acute cholecystitis provides better post-operative outcomes than a delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC). A total of 92 papers were found using the reported searches of which 10 represented the best evidence; 3 meta-analyses, 4 randomized control trials, 1 prospective controlled study and 2 retrospective cohort studies were included. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results were tabulated. No significant difference in complication or conversion rates were shown between the ELC and the DLC group, in the meta-analyses of Gurusamy et al, Lau et al and Siddiqui et al. The ELC group had a decreased hospital stay whereas the DLC group presented a considerable risk for subsequent emergency surgery during the interval period, with a high rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy. All three meta-analyses were based on the randomized control trials of Lo et al, Lai et al, Kolla et al and Johansson et al; the results of each study are summarized. We conclude that there is strong evidence that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis offers an advantage in the length of hospital stay without increasing the morbidity or mortality. The operating time in ELC can be longer, however the incidence of serious complications (i.e. common bile duct injury), is comparable to the DLC group. Larger randomized studies are required before solid conclusions are reached. PMID:22525382

  6. Symptomatic Epilepsies due to Cerebrovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dakaj, Nazim; Shatri, Nexhat; Isaku, Enver; Zeqiraj, Kamber

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebro-vascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of symptomatic epilepsies. This study aims to investigate: a) Frequency of epilepsy in patients with CVD; b) Correlation of epilepsy with the type of CVD (ischemic and hemorrhage) and with age. Methodology: It is analyzed medical documentation of 816 hospitalized patients with CVD in the clinic of Neurology in University Clinical Center (UCC) during the period January - December 2010. The study included data on patients presenting with epileptic seizures after CVD, and those with previously diagnosed epilepsy, are not included in the study. The diagnosis of CVD, are established in clinical neurological examination and the brain imaging (computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging). The diagnosis of epilepsy is established by the criteria of ILAE (International League against Epilepsy) 1983, and epileptic seizures are classified according to the ILAE classification, of 1981. Results: Out of 816 patients with CVD, 692 were with ischemic stroke and 124 with hemorrhage. From 816 patients, epileptic seizures had 81 (10%), of which 9 patients had been diagnosed with epilepsy earlier and they are not included in the study. From 72 (99%) patients with seizures after CVD 25 (33%) have been with ischemia, whereas 47 (67%) with hemorrhage. Conclusion: CVD present fairly frequent cause of symptomatic epilepsies among patients treated in the clinic of Neurology at UCC (about 10%). The biggest number of patients with epilepsy after CVD was with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:25685086

  7. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  8. Acute cholecystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... SJ. Treatment of gallstone disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and ... DQH, Afdhal NH. Gallstone disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and ...

  9. [Use of essentiale with cholagogue in fatty liver complicated by cholecystitis for lowering the lithogenic properties of bile].

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, Ia M; Suchkova, E V; Khokhlacheva, N A

    2002-01-01

    The group of 50 patients with the fatty hepatosis and an accompanying cholecystitis in the age from 22 till 60 years were examined alongside by clinical and some modern laboratory ultrasonic, biochemical researches. In portions "B" and "C" of the bile the level of cholic acids and cholesterol were investigated with the subsequent account of the cholate-cholesterol coefficient. It was shown that in the most of the patients with fatty hepatosis and an accompanying cholecystitis observes infringement of physical and chemical bile properties what correspond to 1st stage of the disease. The use of Essentiale with Cholagogue in the complex therapy at the pathology of hepato-biliary system renders the expressed therapeutic effect. Thus, alongside with the positive dynamic of clinical disease symptoms the bile lithogenic features are lowering. PMID:12353386

  10. Symptomatic Therapy and Rehabilitation in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and a major cause of chronic neurological disability in young adults. Primary progressive MS (PPMS) constitutes about 10% of cases, and is characterized by a steady decline in function with no acute attacks. The rate of deterioration from disease onset is more rapid than relapsing remitting and secondary progressive MS types. Multiple system involvement at onset and rapid early progression have a worse prognosis. PPMS can cause significant disability and impact on quality of life. Recent studies are biased in favour of relapsing remitting patients as treatment is now available for them and they are more likely to be seen at MS clinics. Since prognosis for PPMS is worse than other types of MS, the focus of rehabilitation is on managing disability and enhancing participation, and application of a “neuropalliative” approach as the disease progresses. This chapter presents the symptomatic treatment and rehabilitation for persons with MS, including PPMS. A multidisciplinary approach optimizes the intermediate and long-term medical, psychological and social outcomes in this population. Restoration and maintenance of functional independence and societal reintegration, and issues relating to quality of life are addressed in rehabilitation processes. PMID:22013521

  11. Symptomatic flexible flatfoot in adults: subtalar arthroereisis

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Fırat; Doğar, Fatih; Gençer, Kürşat; Koyuncu, Şemmi; Vatansever, Fatih; Duygulu, Fuat; Altay, Taşkın

    2015-01-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a common deformity in pediatric and adult populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the functional and radiographic results of subtalar arthroereisis in adult patients with symptomatic flexible flatfoot. We included 26 feet in 16 patients who underwent subtalar arthroereisis for symptomatic flexible flatfoot. Radiographic examination included calcaneal inclination angle, lateral talocalcaneal angle, Meary’s angle, anteroposterior talonavicular angle, and Kite’s angle. The clinical assessment was based on the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scale and a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean follow-up was 15.1±4.7 months. The mean preoperative AOFAS score was 53±6.6, while the mean AOFAS score at the last follow-up visit was 75±11.2 (P<0.05). The mean visual analog scale score was 6.9±0.6 preoperatively and 4.1±1.4 at the last follow-up visit (P<0.05). The mean preoperative and postoperative values measured were 13.4°±3.3° and 14.6°±2.7° for calcaneal inclination angles (P<0.05); 35.7°±6.9° and 33.2°±5.3° for lateral talocalcaneal angles (P>0.05); 8°±5.3° and 3.3±3 for Meary’s angles (P<0.05); 5.6°±3.5° and 2.6°±1.5° for anteroposterior talonavicular angles (P<0.05); and 23.7°±6.1° and 17.7°±5° for Kite’s angles, respectively (P<0.05). Implants were removed in three feet (11.5%). Subtalar arthroereisis is a minimally invasive procedure that can be used in the surgical treatment of adults with symptomatic flexible flatfoot. This procedure provided radiological and functional recovery in our series of patients. PMID:26527876

  12. Eradication of Blastocystis hominis prevents the development of symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rajič, Borko; Arapović, Jurica; Raguž, Kazimir; Bošković, Mladen; Babić, Senaida Marina; Maslać, Suzana

    2015-07-01

    In this case report we describe a 49 year-old man who presented with chronic urticaria, angioedema and soft stool consistency. During diagnostic examinations Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found even though the patient never had clear symptoms of this disease. Blastocystis hominis was isolated through a stool microbiologic examination, implicating that this parasite can cause the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. After two-weeks treatment with metronidazole the Blastocystis hominis was eradicated, then urticaria and angioedema disappeared. During the four years of follow-up, the patient presented without any symptoms, whereas thyroid hormones were normalized and anti-thyroid antibodies declined. For the first time in the literature we show that eradication of Blastocystis hominis can prevent the development of both symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. PMID:26230132

  13. Protocol for extended antibiotic therapy after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis (Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial, CHART)

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Pablo; Campana, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, Agustín; Goransky, Jeremías; Glinka, Juan; Giunta, Diego; Barcan, Laura; Alvarez, Fernando; Mazza, Oscar; Sánchez Claria, Rodrigo; Palavecino, Martin; Arbues, Guillermo; Ardiles, Victoria; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Pekolj, Juan; de Santibañes, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute calculous cholecystitis represents one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment in mild and moderate forms, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery remains undefined. The aim of the randomised controlled Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial (CHART) is therefore to assess if there are benefits in the use of postoperative antibiotics in patients with mild or moderate acute cholecystitis in whom a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed. Methods and analysis A single-centre, double-blind, randomised trial. After screening for eligibility and informed consent, 300 patients admitted for acute calculus cholecystitis will be randomised into two groups of treatment, either receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or placebo for 5 consecutive days. Postoperative evaluation will take place during the first 30 days. Postoperative infectious complications are the primary end point. Secondary end points are length of hospital stay, readmissions, need of reintervention (percutaneous or surgical reinterventions) and overall mortality. The results of this trial will provide strong evidence to either support or abandon the use of antibiotics after surgery, impacting directly in the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics, the emergence of bacterial resistance and treatment costs. Ethics and dissemination This study and informed consent sheets have been approved by the Research Projects Evaluating Committee (CEPI) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (protocol N° 2111). Results The results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number NCT02057679. PMID:26582405

  14. A MODEL OF SYMPTOMATIC INFANTILE SPASMS SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, Morris H.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Chudomelova, Lenka; Raffo, Emmanuel; Betancourth, David; Mosh, Solomon L.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms are characterized by age-specific expression of epileptic spasms, hypsarrhythmia and often result in significant cognitive impairment. Other epilepsies or autism often ensue especially in symptomatic IS (SIS). Cortical or subcortical damage, including white matter, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SIS. To generate a model of SIS, we recreated this pathology by injecting rats with lipopolysaccharide and doxorubicin intracerebrally at postnatal day (P) 3 and with p-chlorophenylalanine intraperitoneally at P5. Spasms occurred between P413 and were associated with ictal EEG correlates, interictal EEG abnormalities and neurodevelopmental decline. After P9 other seizures, deficits in learning and memory, and autistic-like behaviors (indifference to other rats, increased grooming) were observed. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) did not affect spasms. Vigabatrin transiently suppressed spasms at P5. This new model of SIS will be useful to study the neurobiology and treatment of SIS, including those that are refractory to ACTH. PMID:19945533

  15. [Cannabinoids for symptomatic therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Husseini, L; Leussink, V I; Warnke, C; Hartung, H-P; Kieseier, B C

    2012-06-01

    Spasticity represents a common troublesome symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment of spasticity remains difficult, which has prompted some patients to self-medicate with and perceive benefits from cannabis. Advances in the understanding of cannabinoid biology support these anecdotal observations. Various clinical reports as well as randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have now demonstrated clinical efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of spasticity in MS patients. Sativex is a 1:1 mix of delta-9-tetrahydocannabinol and cannabidiol extracted from cloned Cannabis sativa chemovars, which recently received a label for treating MS-related spasticity in Germany. The present article reviews the current understanding of cannabinoid biology and the value of cannabinoids as a symptomatic treatment option in MS. PMID:22080198

  16. Microsurgical technique of symptomatic intracavernous aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Fu; Hsu, Sanford P C; Chen, Min-Hsiung; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2015-07-01

    Symptomatic intracavernous aneurysm is rare. Cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus are subjected to the mass effect of an expanding aneurysm. Microsurgical clipping is the treatment of choice to relieve compressive cranial neuropathy. In this video, the authors present a case of intracavernous aneurysm causing diplopia, ptosis, and facial numbness. The patient was operated on via a pretemporal transclinoid-transcavernous approach. The aneurysm was completely obliterated through direct clipping. There were no new-onset neurologic deficits and complications after the operation. Complete recovery of the diplopia, ptosis, and facial numbness was observed at the 6-month postoperative follow up. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/4w5QUoNIAQM. PMID:26132609

  17. Symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery plaque

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Majid M; Khan, Mohsin K; DeMarco, J Kevin; Majid, Arshad; Shamoun, Fadi; Abela, George S

    2011-01-01

    Carotid atherosclerotic plaques represent both stable and unstable atheromatous lesions. Atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture owing to their intrinsic composition such as a large lipid core, thin fibrous cap and intraplaque hemorrhage are associated with subsequent thromboembolic ischemic events. At least 15–20% of all ischemic strokes are attributable to carotid artery atherosclerosis. Characterization of plaques may enhance the understanding of natural history and ultimately the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. MRI of carotid plaque and embolic signals during transcranial Doppler have identified features beyond luminal stenosis that are predictive of future transient ischemic attacks and stroke. The value of specific therapies to prevent stroke in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe carotid artery stenosis are the subject of current research and analysis of recently published clinical trials that are discussed in this article. PMID:21985544

  18. Ponticulus Posticus on the Posterior Arch of Atlas, Prevalence Analysis in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients of Gulbarga Population

    PubMed Central

    Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Baba, Irfan A.; Najmudin, Mohammad; Ghali, Sreenivas Rao; Kalmath, Bhuvaneshwari; G., Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and morphological features of Ponticulus Posticus (PP) in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients of Gulbarga population, to substantiate whether ponticulus posticus was the possible cause of chronic tension-type headaches and migraine. Material and Methods: Five hundred patients were investigated with digital lateral cephalograms for the presence and type of ponticulus posticus. All the patients in whom ponticulus posticus was present in either partial or complete form were further studied for symptoms like chronic tension type headache, orofacial pain or diagnosed migraine. Results: Among the sample of 500 cases, partial ponticulus posticus was found in 302 patients (60%) (Males 48% and Females 52%). Complete variant was found in 40 cases (8%) (Males 65% and females 35% both, who were in the age group of 16-45 years), with a mean age of 28 years and SD 27.76 ±10.74. In partial PP, 42 patients (14%) were found to be symptomatic. In complete form, 32 patients (78%) were found to be symptomatic. Symptoms were mainly in the form of migraine or chronic type of headache. Conclusion: According to our study, partial form of PP was found to be more prevalent as compared to complete form in Gulbarga population and complete form of ponticulus posticus can be considered as possible cause for chronic tension type headache, orofacial pain and migraine. PMID:24551723

  19. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE. PMID:26414478

  20. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders Following Symptomatic Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Wen, Chun-Hsien; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Lu, Ti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Menopausal transition is highly symptomatic in at least 20% of women. A higher prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, has been shown in women with symptomatic menopausal transition. However, a clear correlation between symptomatic menopausal transition and psychiatric disorders has not been established. We explored the association between symptomatic menopausal transition and subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia as well as bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We investigated women who were diagnosed with symptomatic menopausal transition by an obstetrician-gynecologist according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort comprised age-matched women without symptomatic menopausal transition. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios of subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders were evaluated in both cohorts, based on the diagnoses of psychiatrists. The symptomatic menopausal transition and control cohorts each consisted of 19,028 women. The incidences of bipolar disorders (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–2.80), depressive disorders (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.93–2.45), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.84–2.41), and sleep disorders (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73–2.34) were higher among the symptomatic menopausal transition women than in the comparison cohort. After stratifying for follow-up duration, the incidence of newly diagnosed bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders following a diagnosis of symptomatic menopausal transition remained significantly increased in the longer follow-up groups (1–5 and ≥ 5 years). Symptomatic menopausal transition might increase the risk of subsequent newly onset bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26871843

  1. Acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by Hepatitis C: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Ahmed; Osman, Medhet; Bonnet, Gerard; Ghamri, Nafiz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is rarely encountered in clinical practice and has a high morbidity and mortality. AAC caused by viral hepatitis, with hepatitis A, B and EBV infections are rare, but well documented in the literature. Hepatitis C virus has not been reported as cause of AAC. This case report documents the first case of AAC associated with Acute Hepatitis C. Presenting concerns We present a 40 years old female with abdominal pain. She has a history of previous HCV infection. Her liver function tests were markedly deranged with elevated inflammatory markers. USS scan showed rather a very unusual appearance of an inflamed gallbladder with no gallstones and associated acute hepatitis, confirmed by an abdominal CT scan. HCV RNA PCR confirms flair up of the virus. The patient was managed conservatively in the hospital with follow up USS scan and Liver function tests showed complete recovery. Follow up HCV RNA PCR also returned to an undetectable level. The patient recovered completely with no adverse outcomes. Conclusion This case report is to the first to document the association between acute HCV and AAC. Despite being uncommon in western countries, viral hepatitis should be suspected as a causative agent of AAC, particularly when there is abnormal liver function test and no biliary obstruction. PMID:26722714

  2. Sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging and real-time ultrasonography in the detection of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Ripley, S.D.; Bree, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    To determine the sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging (HBI) and strict- and liberal-criteria real-time ultrasonography (RTUS), the authors retrospectively analyzed 100 cases of pathologically proved acute cholecystitis (AC). A positive HBI was one in which there was nonvisualization of the gallbladder up to four hours after the administration of technetium 99m-disofenin. In the absence of hypoalbuminemia, cirrhosis, or ascites, pathognomonic RTUS findings (strict criteria) for AC were wall edema and/or pericholecystic fluid. Findings indicative of AC (liberal criteria) included the demonstration of stones, a thick gallbladder wall, nonshadowing echoes, or the ultrasonographic Murphy's sign. Of the 100 cases of AC, 91 were calculous, and nine were acalculous. Four of 100 patients had associated choledocholithiasis. The sensitivities in detecting calculous AC were as follows: HBI, 97%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 86%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 24%. The sensitivities in detecting acalculous AC were as follows: HBI, 100%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 89%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 44%.

  3. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  4. Phenotypic Characteristics of PD-1 and CTLA-4 Expression in Symptomatic Acute Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung; Kim, Chang Wook; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jang, Jeong Won; Yoon, Seung Kew; Lee, Chang Don

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The immunoregulatory molecules programmed death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) are associated with the dysfunction of antiviral effector T-cells, which leads to T-cell exhaustion and persistent viral infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B. Little is known about the role of PD-1 and CTLA-4 in patients with symptomatic acute hepatitis A (AHA). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from seven patients with AHA and from six patients with nonviral acute toxic hepatitis (ATH) during the symptomatic and convalescent phases of the respective diseases; five healthy subjects acted as controls. The expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T-cells was measured by flow cytometry. Results PD-1 and CTLA-4 expression during the symptomatic phase was significantly higher in the T-cells of AHA patients than in those of ATH patients or healthy controls (PD-1: 18.3% vs 3.7% vs 1.6%, respectively, p<0.05; CTLA-4: 23.5% vs 6.1% vs 5.9%, respectively, p<0.05). The levels of both molecules decreased dramatically during the convalescent phase of AHA, whereas a similar pattern was not seen in ATH. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with a viral-protective effect of PD-1 and CTLA-4 as inhibitory molecules that suppress cytotoxic T-cells and thereby prevent the destruction of virus-infected hepatocytes in AHA. PMID:26347518

  5. Thoracoscopic Resection of a Symptomatic, Congenital Rib Synostosis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Zachary E; Vokic, Noreen C; Shrager, Joseph B

    2016-04-01

    We describe a rare case of a 20-year-old man with a 1½-year history of a symptomatic congenital bridging rib synostosis. A minimally invasive surgical solution was provided, with resolution of symptoms. PMID:27000588

  6. Symptomatic Pericardial Effusion After Chemoradiation Therapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Junichi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Ohashi, Toshio; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Hanada, Takashi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Yuko; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated clinical and treatment-related factors as predictors of symptomatic pericardial effusion in esophageal cancer patients after concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 214 consecutive primary esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy between 2001 and 2010 in our institute. Pericardial effusion was detected on follow-up computed tomography. Symptomatic effusion was defined as effusion ≥grade 3 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 criteria. Percent volume irradiated with 5 to 65 Gy (V5-V65) and mean dose to the pericardium were evaluated employing dose-volume histograms. To evaluate dosimetry for patients treated with two-dimensional planning in the earlier period (2001-2005), computed tomography data at diagnosis were transferred to a treatment planning system to reconstruct three-dimensional plans without modification. Optimal dosimetric thresholds for symptomatic pericardial effusion were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curves. Associating clinical and treatment-related risk factors for symptomatic pericardial effusion were detected by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median follow-up was 29 (range, 6-121) months for eligible 167 patients. Symptomatic pericardial effusion was observed in 14 (8.4%) patients. Dosimetric analyses revealed average values of V30 to V45 for the pericardium and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those with asymptomatic pericardial effusion (P<.05). Pericardial V5 to V55 and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those without pericardial effusion (P<.001). Mean pericardial doses of 36.5 Gy and V45 of 58% were selected as optimal cutoff values for predicting symptomatic pericardial effusion. Multivariate analysis identified mean pericardial dose as the strongest risk factor for symptomatic pericardial effusion. Conclusions: Dose-volume thresholds for the pericardium facilitate predicting symptomatic pericardial effusion. Mean pericardial dose was selected based not only on the optimal dose-volume threshold but also on the most significant risk factor for symptomatic pericardial effusion.

  7. Symptomatic Infundibulopelvic Dysgenesis in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, David; Jumper, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Infundibulopelvic dysgenesis is a rare condition characterized by congenital malformation of the pelvicalyceal system. We present the case of an 18-year-old boy with chronic intermittent right flank pain and cystic dilation with parenchymal thinning on ultrasonography. The left kidney was normal. The patient denied dysuria, constipation, and history of UTIs or renal calculi. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelogram showed marked stenosis of the right pelvicalyceal system and anatomy unfavorable to stenting. The patient's symptoms were unresponsive to conservative management. Reconstruction of the right collecting system was unsuccessful and a simple nephrectomy was performed, which led to complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:25949844

  8. Impact of a dedicated emergency surgical unit on early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, S; Walsh, U; Qurashi, K; Liasis, L; Watfah, J; Sen, M; Gould, S

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Emergency general surgery (EGS) accounts for 50% of the surgical workload, and yet outcomes are variable and poorly recorded. The management of acute cholecystitis (AC) at a dedicated emergency surgical unit (ESU) was assessed as a performance target for EGS. Methods The outcomes for AC admissions were compared one year before and after inception of the ESU. The impact on cost and compliance with national guidance recommending early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) within seven days of diagnosis was assessed. Results The overall ELC rate increased from 26% for the 126 patients admitted in the pre-ESU period to 45% for the 152 patients admitted in the post-ESU period (p=0.001). With those unsuitable for ELC excluded, the ELC rate increased from 34% to 82% (p<0.001). The proportion of patients precluded from ELC for avoidable reasons, particularly owing to 'surgeon preference/skill', was reduced from 69% to 18% (p<0.001). The mean total length of stay (LOS) and postoperative LOS fell by 1.7 days (from 8.3 to 6.6 days, p=0.040) and 2 days (from 5.6 to 3.6 days, p=0.020) respectively. The higher ELC rate and the reduction in LOS produced additional tariff income (£111,930) and estimated savings in bed day (£90,440) and readmission (£27,252) costs. Conclusions A dedicated ESU incorporating national recommendations for EGS improves alignment of best practice with best evidence and can also result in financial rewards for a busy district general hospital. PMID:26673047

  9. Percutaneous Fibrin Gel Injection under C-Arm Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Minimally Invasive Choice for Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Qiu, QuanHe; Hao, Jie; Zhang, XiaoJun; Shui, Wei; Hu, ZhenMing

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are a common cause of chronic pain. Surgery is one choice for symptom relief but has a high risk of cyst recurrence and complications. As a simple and safe method to manage symptomatic sacral perineural cysts, C-arm fluoroscopy-guided fibrin gel injection may represent a new minimally invasive alternative. To evaluate the efficacy of this new method, we conducted a retrospective study of 42 patients. Methods and Findings From June 2009 to August 2012, a total of 42 patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts underwent C-arm fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous fibrin gel injection therapy. Patient outcomes in terms of improvements in pain and neurologic function were evaluated during a follow-up period of 13–39 months. The preoperative and postoperative pain severity were assessed according to a 10-cm visual analog pain scale, and imaging changes were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. We also assessed postoperative complications. Most patients experienced benefit from the procedure: twenty-five patients (59.5%) reported excellent recovery, eleven (26.2%) reported good recovery, three (7.1%) reported fair recovery, and three (7.1%) reported poor recovery. The overall effectiveness rate (excellent and good recoveries) was 85.7%. No serious postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion Percutaneous fibrin gel injection under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance could be a simple, safe and effective treatment option for symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. PMID:25706639

  10. Symptomatic Recovery in Miller Fisher Syndrome Parallels Vestibular–Perceptual and not Vestibular–Ocular Reflex Function

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Barry M.; Masaoutis, Panos; Green, David A.; Plant, Gordon T.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.

    2011-01-01

    Unpleasant visual symptoms including oscillopsia and dizziness may occur when there is unexpected motion of the visual world across the subject's retina (“retinal slip”) as in an acute spontaneous nystagmus or on head movement with an acute ophthalmoplegia. In contrast, subjects with chronic ocular dysmotility, e.g., congenital nystagmus or chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, are typically symptom free. The adaptive processes that render chronic patients asymptomatic are obscure but may include a suppression of oscillopsia perception as well as an increased tolerance to perceived oscillopsia. Such chronic asymptomatic patients display an attenuation of vestibular-mediated angular velocity perception, implying a possible contributory role in the adaptive process. In order to assess causality between symptoms, signs (i.e., eye movements), and vestibular–perceptual function, we prospectively assessed symptom ratings and ocular-motor and perceptual vestibular function, in a patient with acute but transient ophthalmoplegia due to Miller Fisher Syndrome (as a model of visuo-vestibular adaptation). The data show that perceptual measures of vestibular function display a significant attenuation as compared to ocular-motor measures during the acute, symptomatic period. Perhaps significantly, both symptomatic recovery and normalization of vestibular–perceptual function were delayed and then occurred in a parallel fashion. This is the first report showing that symptomatic recovery of visuo-vestibular symptoms is better paralleled by vestibular–perceptual testing than vestibular–ocular reflex (VOR) measures. The findings may have implications for the understanding of patients with chronic vestibular symptoms where VOR testing is often unhelpful. PMID:21350734

  11. Epidemiology of Acute Symptomatic Seizures among Adult Medical Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Nwani, Paul Osemeke; Nwosu, Maduaburochukwu Cosmas; Nwosu, Monica Nonyelum

    2016-01-01

    Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic seizures as the first presenting event. There were 94 cases of acute symptomatic seizures accounting for 5.2% (95% CI: 4.17–6.23) of the 1,802 medical admissions during the period under review. There were 49 (52.1%) males and 45 (47.9%) females aged between 18 years and 84 years. The etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures were infections in 36.2% (n = 34) of cases, stroke in 29.8% (n = 28), metabolic in 12.8% (n = 12), toxic in 10.6% (n = 10), and other causes in 10.6% (n = 10). Infective causes were more among those below fifty years while stroke was more in those aged fifty years and above. CNS infections and stroke were the prominent causes of acute symptomatic seizures. This is an evidence of the “double tragedy” facing developing countries, the unresolved threat of infectious diseases on one hand and the increasing impact of noncommunicable diseases on the other one. PMID:26904280

  12. Polarization-phase diagnostics of latent course of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Marchuk, Yu. F.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2011-09-01

    The principles of optical model of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The three optical levels - isotropic, liquid-crystal and solid-crystal have been proposed. It has been introduced and proposed the scenarios of phase distribution formation in the boundary field of laser radiation, transformed by bile layers. The experimental scheme of direct measurement of coordinate phase distributions has been presented. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation and fractal parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  13. Polarization-correlation diagnostics and differentiation of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, Yu F.; Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, I. O.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2011-09-01

    The principles of optical modeling of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The main types of polycrystalline structures are detailed. It has been proposed and founded the scenarios of formation of bile microscopic images polarization structure in coherent radiation. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of intensity of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  14. Polarization-phase diagnostics of latent course of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Marchuk, Yu. F.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of optical model of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The three optical levels - isotropic, liquid-crystal and solid-crystal have been proposed. It has been introduced and proposed the scenarios of phase distribution formation in the boundary field of laser radiation, transformed by bile layers. The experimental scheme of direct measurement of coordinate phase distributions has been presented. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation and fractal parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  15. Polarization-correlation diagnostics and differentiation of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, Yu F.; Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, I. O.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of optical modeling of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The main types of polycrystalline structures are detailed. It has been proposed and founded the scenarios of formation of bile microscopic images polarization structure in coherent radiation. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of intensity of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  16. [Antidiarrheal drugs for chronic diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Vohmann, B; Hoffmann, J C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic diarrhea can be caused by multiple disease entities. Basic diagnostic tests are required in order to administer specific therapies whenever possible. If no specific treatment can be used, a symptomatic management should be initiated in order to prevent massive electrolyte- and water losses. Substances that can be used are loperamide, cholestyramine, bulking agents, probiotics, anticholinergic agents and in severe cases opioids. If used properly these agents can be prescribed longterm with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24163167

  17. Cholecystostomy as Bridge to Surgery and as Definitive Treatment or Acute Cholecystectomy in Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Popowicz, Agnieszka; Lundell, Lars; Gerber, Peter; Gustafsson, Ulf; Pieniowski, Emil; Sinabulya, Helen; Sjödahl, Krister; Tsekrekos, Andrianos; Sandblom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) has increasingly been used as bridge to surgery as well as sole treatment for patients with acute cholecystitis (AC). The aim of the study was to assess the outcome after PC compared to acute cholecystectomy in patients with AC. Methods. A review of medical records was performed on all patients residing in Stockholm County treated for AC in the years 2003 and 2008. Results. In 2003 and 2008 altogether 799 and 833 patients were admitted for AC. The number of patients treated with PC was 21/799 (2.6%) in 2003 and 50/833 (6.0%) in 2008. The complication rate (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 2) was 4/71 (5.6%) after PC and 135/736 (18.3%) after acute cholecystectomy. Mean (standard deviation) hospital stay was 11.4 (10.5) days for patients treated with PC and 5.1 (4.3) days for patients undergoing acute cholecystectomy. After adjusting for age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, and degree of cholecystitis, the hospital stay was significantly longer for patients treated with PC than for those undergoing acute cholecystectomy (P < 0.001) but the risk for intervention-related complications was found to be significantly lower (P = 0.001) in the PC group. Conclusion. PC can be performed with few serious complications, albeit with a longer hospital stay. PMID:26839538

  18. Comparison of Clinical Safety and Outcomes of Early versus Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min-Wei; Gu, Xiao-Dong; Xiang, Jian-Bin; Chen, Zong-You

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare the clinical safety and outcomes of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Methods. Pertinent studies were selected from the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases, references from published articles, and reviews. Seven randomized controlled trials (early laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy) were selected. Conventional meta-analysis according to Cochrane Collaboration was used for the pooling of the results. Results. Seven trials with 1106 patients were included. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of bile duct injury (Peto odds ratio 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 4.72); P = 0.54) or conversion to open cholecystectomy (risk ratio 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.20); P = 0.50). The total hospital stay was shorter by 4 days for early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (mean difference −4.12 (95% confidence interval −5.22 to −3.03) days; P < 0.00001). Conclusion. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy during acute cholecystitis is safe and shortens the total hospital stay. PMID:25133217

  19. Chronic Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  20. Profiling the clinical presentation of diagnostic characteristics of a sample of symptomatic TMD patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients might present a number of concurrent clinical diagnoses that may be clustered according to their similarity. Profiling patients’ clinical presentations can be useful for better understanding the behavior of TMD and for providing appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to simultaneously classify symptomatic patients diagnosed with a variety of subtypes of TMD into homogenous groups based on their clinical presentation and occurrence of comorbidities. Methods Clinical records of 357 consecutive TMD patients seeking treatment in a private specialized clinic were included in the study sample. Patients presenting multiple subtypes of TMD diagnosed simultaneously were categorized according to the AAOP criteria. Descriptive statistics and two-step cluster analysis were used to characterize the clinical presentation of these patients based on the primary and secondary clinical diagnoses. Results The most common diagnoses were localized masticatory muscle pain (n = 125) and disc displacement without reduction (n = 104). Comorbidity was identified in 288 patients. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 100% of cases, generating an initial 6-cluster solution and a final 4-cluster solution. The interpretation of within-group ranking of the importance of variables in the clustering solutions resulted in the following characterization of clusters: chronic facial pain (n = 36), acute muscle pain (n = 125), acute articular pain (n = 75) and chronic articular impairment (n = 121). Conclusion Subgroups of acute and chronic TMD patients seeking treatment can be identified using clustering methods to provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of TMD when multiple diagnosis are present. Classifying patients into identifiable symptomatic profiles would help clinicians to estimate how common a disorder is within a population of TMD patients and understand the probability of certain pattern of clinical complaints. PMID:22857609

  1. Relative efficacy of pimecrolimus cream and triamcinolone acetonide paste in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Arunkumar, Shantala; Kalappanavar, Anupama N; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Kalappa, Shakuntala G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common, chronic inflammatory condition that frequently presents with symptoms of pain and burning sensation. It is generally a very unrelenting disorder despite several kinds of treatment. Only symptomatic OLP requires treatment, and it remains a challenging predicament. Efforts are made in a sustained manner for searching for novel therapies for symptomatic OLP. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the efficacy of treatment with topical pimecrolimus cream 1% with that of triamcinolone acetonide oral paste 0.1% in subjects with symptomatic OLP. Materials and Methods: A prospective, parallel-group, randomized, active control clinical study was conducted among 30 symptomatic OLP subjects (20 females and 10 males, with 15 patients in each treatment group) treated with topical pimecrolimus 1% cream and triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% oral paste four times daily for two consecutive months and treatment-free follow-up was performed for 2 months. Pain or burning sensation, mean clinical score and presence of erythematous areas were assessed. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon's Rank test and the Mann Whitney test. Results: Subjects in both the groups showed significant improvement in symptom scores; however, the overall treatment response was higher in the pimecrolimus group compared with the triamcinolone acetonide group. On intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the reduction in burning sensation (P = 0.18) and erythematous area (P = 0.07), but there was a statistically highly significant improvement in reduction of clinical scoring (P < 0.01%). Following the termination of the treatment, sustained remission of symptoms and long-lasting therapeutic effects was detected in 93.3% of the patients treated with pimecrolimus. Interpretation and Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream showed better therapeutic response compared with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% oral paste in subjects with symptomatic OLP. PMID:25767355

  2. Bacteriology of Symptomatic Adenoids in Children

    PubMed Central

    Rajeshwary, Aroor; Rai, Sheethal; Somayaji, Gangadhara; Pai, Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with adenoid hypertrophy have been shown to harbor pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx despite antibiotics. Removal of the adenoid is associated with a reduction in the bacterial count. Aims: The study was done to determine the bacteriology of the adenoid tissue in chronic adenotonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy, and determine the antibiotic sensitivity of potential pathogens. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted on 100 patients aged between three and twelve years who underwent adenotonsillectomy/adenoidectomy. After adenoidectomy, the specimen along with the swab taken from the surface of the adenoid was sent for microbiological examination. After 48 and 96 hours, the microbial growth was identified and the antibiotic-sensitivity pattern of the isolate was studied. Results: Aerobic organisms grew in 93% of the specimens and anaerobic organisms in 68%, whereas 7% had no growth. The surface was predominated by commensals and the pathogens were mainly found in the core. The predominant pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species. The organisms were resistant to penicillin but showed sensitivity to co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin. Co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin should be considered as the first line of medical treatment for adenotonsillar diseases. Conclusions: Infection is the main cause of adenoid hypertrophy. Amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate and ciprofloxacin should be considered as the drugs of choice for all adenotonsillar diseases. Early and prompt treatment of adenoid hypertrophy with appropriate antibiotics will avoid unnecessary exposure to repeated antimicrobial therapy, thereby maintaining the beneficial effects of the normal adenoid flora. PMID:23641372

  3. Management of Chronic Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Grahame, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Effective treatment of chronic urticaria depends on identification of the etiologic factor, if possible, and its subsequent elimination, although symptoms may be suppressed by appropriate medication. The investigation of the patient who presents with chronic urticaria is discussed, with emphasis on the need for a detailed history, meticulous physical examination (including a search for occult infection) and full routine hematologic, biochemical and radiologic monitoring. The author discusses the use of intradermal skin tests, scratch tests for inhalants and the need for skin biopsy and gastro-intestinal tract screening. Dietary treatments reviewed include the elimination diet and the elemental diet, which is used in combination with gradual re-introduction of foods. Symptomatic treatments, including antihistamines, the newer H1-histamine receptor antagonists, used with tricyclic antidepressants and with combination therapy, and systemic corticosteroid therapy are also discussed. PMID:21263827

  4. Efficacy of beta-blocker therapy in symptomatic athletes with exercise-induced intra-ventricular gradients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upright exercise stress echocardiography (SE) induces significant intraventricular gradient (IVG) and systolic anterior motion (SAM) in a large proportion of symptomatic athletes, who may therefore benefit from a negative inotropic therapy. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of chronic oral β blocker therapy on the occurrence of exercise-induced IVG and mitral valve SAM, in symptomatic athletes. Methods We enrolled 35 symptomatic athletes (age = 23 ± 11 years) with IVG (>30 mmHg) during SE off therapy. All repeated SE on chronic oral beta-blocker therapy (atenolol up to 50 mg, bisoprolol up to 10 mg, or metoprolol up to 100 mg daily according to physician-driven choice). Results On therapy, there was during SE a reduction in IVG (35 off vs 17 on beta blocker, p < 0.01), decrease of IVG (102 ± 34 mmHg off vs 69 ± 24 mmHg on beta blocker, p < 0.01), peak heart rate (178 ± 15 bpm off vs 157 ± 9 bpm on beta blocker), SAM (24 off vs 9 on beta blocker, p < 0.001), symptoms during SE (17 off vs 2 on beta blocker p < 0.001), ST segment depression (13 off vs 2 on beta blocker, p < 0.001). Conclusions In athletes with positive screening on medical evaluation for sports practice and IVG on exertion, treatment with oral beta blockers improved symptoms in the large majority of patients. Symptomatic benefit was mirrored by objective evidence of improvement of echocardiographic signs of obstruction (IVG and SAM) and reduction of ischemia-like electrocardiographic changes. PMID:20813061

  5. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  6. Symptomatic hepatitis secondary to disseminated coccidioidomycosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Kuprian, Mikhail; Schofield, Christina; Bennett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A young man from California presented with acute onset of cough, fevers, night sweats and pruritus with dark urine. Laboratory studies were notable for moderate transaminitis with elevated bilirubin and eosinophilia. Hepatitis panel, HIV screen and heterophile antibodies were negative. CT scan showed multiple bilateral focal opacities with hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with no ductal dilation or gallbladder stones. The patient had positive coccidioidomycosis serologies and he was started on fluconazole with resolution of symptoms and improvement in transaminitis over the next month. This article highlights a rare manifestation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with symptomatic hepatitis. Although an increasingly prevalent infection found in southwest USA, dissemination is rare in immunocompetent hosts. Postmortem studies suggest hepatic involvement is common in disseminated infection. However symptomatic hepatitis is rare, with only three cases of symptomatic hepatitis found in the literature. PMID:24810445

  7. Norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals: cytokines and viral shedding.

    PubMed

    Newman, K L; Moe, C L; Kirby, A E; Flanders, W D; Parkos, C A; Leon, J S

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis world-wide. NoV infections are often asymptomatic, although individuals still shed large amounts of NoV in their stool. Understanding the differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals would help in elucidating mechanisms of NoV pathogenesis. Our goal was to compare the serum cytokine responses and faecal viral RNA titres of asymptomatic and symptomatic NoV-infected individuals. We tested serum samples from infected subjects (n = 26; 19 symptomatic, seven asymptomatic) from two human challenge studies of GI.1 NoV for 16 cytokines. Samples from prechallenge and days 1-4 post-challenge were tested for these cytokines. Cytokine levels were compared to stool NoV RNA titres quantified previously by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). While both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups had similar patterns of cytokine responses, the symptomatic group generally exhibited a greater elevation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines and IL-8 post-challenge compared to the asymptomatic group (all P < 0·01). Daily viral RNA titre was associated positively with daily IL-6 concentration and negatively with daily IL-12p40 concentration (all P < 0·05). Symptoms were not associated significantly with daily viral RNA titre, duration of viral shedding or cumulative shedding. Symptomatic individuals, compared to asymptomatic, have greater immune system activation, as measured by serum cytokines, but they do not have greater viral burden, as measured by titre and shedding, suggesting that symptoms may be immune-mediated in NoV infection. PMID:26822517

  8. Bleomycin Sclerotherapy for Severe Symptomatic and Persistent Pelvic Lymphocele

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Costa, Antónia; Mota, Raquel; Paiva, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pelvic lymphoceles are frequently described as a complication of pelvic lymphadenectomy performed for surgical staging of gynaecologic malignancies. Case Report. A 72-year-old woman presented with severe symptomatic and refractory lymphocele associated with persistent lower limb lymphedema and recurrent erysipelas. After four CT fluoroscopy scan guided percutaneous catheter drainages, the lymphocele complicated with infection finally resolved with two sessions of bleomycin sclerotherapy. Conclusion. Symptomatic persistent lymphoceles require treatment and nowadays the first option is interventional radiologic procedures. Bleomycin is a safe and effective sclerosing agent and therefore should be regarded as a first-line treatment choice. PMID:25105040

  9. A childhood case of symptomatic essential and psychogenic palatal tremor.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Giannella, Giustina; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Fanizzi, Piero; Toto, Maddalena; Margari, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Palatal tremor is a rare movement disorder characterized by rhythmic contractions of the soft palate. It is most often symptomatic, secondary to brainstem or cerebellar disease and, in rarer cases, is categorized as essential in the absence of documented brain lesions. There have also been reports in the literature of cases of palatal tremor described as psychogenic because they were associated with psychological or psychiatric disorders. We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy with palatal tremor presenting clinical features of symptomatic essential and psychogenic palatal tremor, thus suggesting a neuropsychopathological continuum between the different forms of disease. PMID:21573084

  10. A childhood case of symptomatic essential and psychogenic palatal tremor

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Giannella, Giustina; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Fanizzi, Piero; Toto, Maddalena; Margari, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Palatal tremor is a rare movement disorder characterized by rhythmic contractions of the soft palate. It is most often symptomatic, secondary to brainstem or cerebellar disease and, in rarer cases, is categorized as essential in the absence of documented brain lesions. There have also been reports in the literature of cases of palatal tremor described as psychogenic because they were associated with psychological or psychiatric disorders. We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy with palatal tremor presenting clinical features of symptomatic essential and psychogenic palatal tremor, thus suggesting a neuropsychopathological continuum between the different forms of disease. PMID:21573084

  11. Bleomycin sclerotherapy for severe symptomatic and persistent pelvic lymphocele.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Costa, Antónia; Mota, Raquel; Paiva, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pelvic lymphoceles are frequently described as a complication of pelvic lymphadenectomy performed for surgical staging of gynaecologic malignancies. Case Report. A 72-year-old woman presented with severe symptomatic and refractory lymphocele associated with persistent lower limb lymphedema and recurrent erysipelas. After four CT fluoroscopy scan guided percutaneous catheter drainages, the lymphocele complicated with infection finally resolved with two sessions of bleomycin sclerotherapy. Conclusion. Symptomatic persistent lymphoceles require treatment and nowadays the first option is interventional radiologic procedures. Bleomycin is a safe and effective sclerosing agent and therefore should be regarded as a first-line treatment choice. PMID:25105040

  12. Responses to novelty and vulnerability to cocaine addiction: contribution of a multi-symptomatic animal model.

    PubMed

    Belin, David; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed striking associations between several distinct behavioral/personality traits and drug addiction, with a large emphasis on the sensation-seeking trait and the associated impulsive dimension of personality. However, in human studies, it is difficult to identify whether personality/behavioral traits actually contribute to increased vulnerability to drug addiction or reflect psychobiological adaptations to chronic drug exposure. Here we show how animal models, including the first multi-symptomatic model of addiction in the rat, have contributed to a better understanding of the relationships between different subdimensions of the sensation-seeking trait and different stages of the development of cocaine addiction, from vulnerability to initiation of cocaine self-administration to the transition to compulsive drug intake. We argue that sensation seeking predicts vulnerability to use cocaine, whereas novelty seeking, akin to high impulsivity, predicts instead vulnerability to shift from controlled to compulsive cocaine use, that is, addiction. PMID:23125204

  13. Responses to Novelty and Vulnerability to Cocaine Addiction: Contribution of a Multi-Symptomatic Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Belin, David; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed striking associations between several distinct behavioral/personality traits and drug addiction, with a large emphasis on the sensation-seeking trait and the associated impulsive dimension of personality. However, in human studies, it is difficult to identify whether personality/behavioral traits actually contribute to increased vulnerability to drug addiction or reflect psychobiological adaptations to chronic drug exposure. Here we show how animal models, including the first multi-symptomatic model of addiction in the rat, have contributed to a better understanding of the relationships between different subdimensions of the sensation-seeking trait and different stages of the development of cocaine addiction, from vulnerability to initiation of cocaine self-administration to the transition to compulsive drug intake. We argue that sensation seeking predicts vulnerability to use cocaine, whereas novelty seeking, akin to high impulsivity, predicts instead vulnerability to shift from controlled to compulsive cocaine use, that is, addiction. PMID:23125204

  14. Dural diverticulum with a symptomatic cerebrospinal fluid leak.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Nicholas; Williamson, Clinton; Williamson, Natalie; Fortes, Manuel; Tjauw, Iwan; Vij, Vikas; Trojan, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    A case report of a 63-year-old female patient with a cervical spinal dural diverticulum and intracranial hypotension secondary to a symptomatic CSF leak after minor trauma. The patient responded well after the cervical approach epidural blood patch procedure. PMID:26973722

  15. Dural diverticulum with a symptomatic cerebrospinal fluid leak

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Nicholas; Williamson, Clinton; Williamson, Natalie; Fortes, Manuel; Tjauw, Iwan; Vij, Vikas; Trojan, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    A case report of a 63-year-old female patient with a cervical spinal dural diverticulum and intracranial hypotension secondary to a symptomatic CSF leak after minor trauma. The patient responded well after the cervical approach epidural blood patch procedure. PMID:26973722

  16. Unexpected Symptomatic Pneumonitis Following Breast Tangent Radiation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jessica L; Long, Karen; Ploquin, Nicolas; Olivotto, Ivo A

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) following radiation therapy (RT) to the breast alone is very uncommon. We report a case of an 80-year-old female who presented with fatigue, exertional dyspnea, fever, and cough 11.5 weeks following adjuvant breast RT with tangent fields alone. Imaging was consistent with RP, and she responded to a tapering course of steroids. PMID:26623218

  17. Symptomatic brain involvement as the initial manifestation of neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju-Hong; Waters, Patrick; Vincent, Angela; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Sujin; Lee, Dong Kyoo; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Byoung Joon

    2013-07-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that predominantly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord; however, symptomatic brain involvement is not rare and is sometimes an initial manifestation in NMO. In this study, we investigated the characteristic features of patients with NMO with symptomatic brain involvement as the initial manifestation of disease (NMO(brain)) compared with patients with NMO who presented initially with optic neuritis or myelitis (NMO(ON/myelitis)). We retrospectively reviewed 27 consecutive Korean patients with NMO with aquaporin-4 antibodies. Patients with NMO(brain) (n=9) initially presented with intractable hiccup/nausea/vomiting and/or encephalopathy at a younger age than the patients with NMO(ON/myelitis) (n=18) (p<0.01). During the disease course, the patients with NMO(brain) continued to show more frequent symptomatic involvement of the brain than the 18 patients with NMO(ON/myelitis) (p<0.05). At the final visit, the mean age was also significantly lower in patients with NMO(brain) than in patients with NMO(ON/myelitis) (p<0.01); however, the Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, used to evaluate disease progression, were not different between the two groups. Our study suggests that patients with NMO who present initially with symptomatic brain involvement may have earlier disease onset and become disabled at a younger age compared to patients with typical NMO. Additional large scale prospective studies are warranted. PMID:23673142

  18. [Chronic pyelonephritis in polycystic kidney].

    PubMed

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Monov, A

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of chronic pyelonephritis are studied in 37 patients out of a total of 53 patients with proved renal polycystosis. A group of 71 patients with chronic pyelonephritis selected at random are used as a control group. The frequency of chronic pyelonephritis among the patients with renal polycystosis is 69.8%. The difference between the mean age of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and the patients with renal polycystosis without chronic pyelonephritis is 8.6 years. A significant difference is established between these two groups of patients concerning the frequency of symptomatic hypertension--89.2% for the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and 45% for the patients with uncomplicated renal polycystosis. A similar difference is established also for the renal failure--respectively 64.9% and 37.5%. The frequency of hypertension and chronic renal failure is lower in the control group of patients. 59% of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis have significant bacteriuria, E. coli and Proteus being the most frequently isolated bacteria but Pseudomonas shows the highest drug resistance. The isolated bacteria are most sensitive to nitroxoline and aminoglycoside antibiotics. PMID:2773465

  19. The ROKS Nomogram for Predicting a Second Symptomatic Stone Episode

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Li, Xujian; Melton, L. Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E.; Bergstralh, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. PMID:25104803

  20. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. PMID:25104803

  1. Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations.

    PubMed

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Sellin, Mats; Monsen, Tor; Widerström, Micael; Gurram, Bharath Kumar; Berggren, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p < 0.0001) in the patients (88%) compared to a control group (13%). Corynebacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. were significantly more frequently identified in the control group. The PFGE analysis of S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation. PMID:26852671

  2. How frequent is chronic lumbar arachnoiditis following intrathecal Myodil?

    PubMed

    Hughes, D G; Isherwood, I

    1992-09-01

    Chronic lumbar arachnoiditis has numerous causes, including the introduction of contrast media into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The oily contrast medium Myodil (iophendylate) is often cited but the true incidence of symptomatic lumbar arachnoiditis due solely to the presence of Myodil is unknown. A retrospective review of 98 patients in whom Myodil was introduced by ventriculography or cisternography, i.e. remote from the lumbar spine, revealed no cases of chronic lumbar arachnoiditis. All patients were monitored closely for periods ranging from 1 to 28 years. We conclude that, in these circumstances, it is rare for Myodil to produce symptomatic arachnoiditis. PMID:1393409

  3. Episode of Familial Mediterranean Fever-Related Peritonitis in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy Followed by Acute Cholecystitis: Dilemmas and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, Christophoros; Anthimidis, Georgios; Varsamis, Nikolaos; Makedou, Fotini; Georgakoudi, Eleni; Efthimiadis, Christophoros

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis after Familial Mediterranean Fever-related peritonitis Symptoms: Acute abdomen • fever Medication: Colchicine Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and adhesiolysis in the second trimester of pregnancy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in pregnant patients is one of the greatest challenges for the clinician. Occurrence of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) paroxysm of peritonitis and acute cholecystitis during pregnancy is a unique clinical entity that leads to serious diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Armenian patient at 16 weeks’ gestational age with a history of FMF, who was admitted twice within 1 month with acute abdomen. The first episode was attributed to FMF and successfully treated conservatively with colchicine. The second episode was diagnosed as acute cholecystitis and led to emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lysis of peritoneal adhesions from previous FMF attacks. The patient presented an uneventful postoperative clinical course and had a normal delivery of a healthy infant at the 39th week of gestation. Conclusions: Pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be evaluated with open mind. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report of the coexistence of 2 different causes of acute abdomen during pregnancy. Meticulous history and thorough physical, laboratory, and radiologic examination are the keys to reach a correct diagnosis. Treatment of pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be individualized. Administration of colchicine should be continued during conception, pregnancy, and lactation in patients with FMF history. Laparoscopic intervention in pregnant patients with surgical abdomen such as acute cholecystitis is the optimal method of treatment. PMID:26907752

  4. [Comparative analysis of application of highly intensive laser irradiation and electrocoagulation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed for destructive forms of an acute calculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Nichitayio, M Yu; Bazyak, A M; Klochan, V V; Grusha, P K; Goman, A V

    2015-02-01

    Comparative analysis of results of the laser diode (the wave length 940 nm) and elec- trocoagulation application while performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was con- ducted. For an acute calculous cholecystitis 52 patients were operated, in whom instead of electrocoagulation the laser was applied, provide for reduction of thermal impact on tissues, the complications absence, reduction of the patients stationary treatment duration postoperatively from (5.2 ± 1.2) to (4.9 ± 0.6) days. PMID:25985692

  5. Symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with an altered gut metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Fredrik H.; Fåk, Frida; Nookaew, Intawat; Tremaroli, Valentina; Fagerberg, Björn; Petranovic, Dina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have implicated the gut microbiota as a contributor of metabolic diseases through the modulation of host metabolism and inflammation. Atherosclerosis is associated with lipid accumulation and inflammation in the arterial wall, and bacteria have been suggested as a causative agent of this disease. Here we use shotgun sequencing of the gut metagenome to demonstrate that the genus Collinsella was enriched in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis, defined as stenotic atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery leading to cerebrovascular events, whereas Roseburia and Eubacterium were enriched in healthy controls. Further characterization of the functional capacity of the metagenomes revealed that patient gut metagenomes were enriched in genes encoding peptidoglycan synthesis and depleted in phytoene dehydrogenase; patients also had reduced serum levels of β-carotene. Our findings suggest that the gut metagenome is associated with the inflammatory status of the host and patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis harbor characteristic changes in the gut metagenome. PMID:23212374

  6. Does myodil introduced for ventriculography lead to symptomatic lumbar arachnoiditis?

    PubMed

    Hill, C A; Hunter, J V; Moseley, I F; Kendall, B E

    1992-12-01

    Although there is a substantial body of evidence implicating Myodil or Pantopaque as a cause of lumbar arachnoiditis, assessment of the clinically based evidence is complicated by the additional potentially causative factors present in a high proportion of cases. These include pre-existing spinal pathology, traumatic lumbar puncture and surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to attempt to ascertain whether Myodil introduced via ventricular catheter was associated with subsequent development of symptomatic lumbar arachnoiditis. In 222 patients in whom clinical records were reviewed there was no excess of back pain following ventriculography compared to the general population. Myodil ventriculography does not appear to be a major cause of symptomatic lumbar arachnoiditis. Several unavoidable problems with the methodology of this study are discussed. PMID:1286419

  7. Multinuclide digital subtraction imaging in symptomatic prostnetic joints

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, N.; Hattner, R.S.; Ruarke, W.C.; Helms, C.A.; Genant, H.K.; Murray, W.R.

    1985-06-01

    One hundred eleven patients with symptomatic prosthetic joints (86 hips, 23 knees, and two shoulders) were evaluated for prosthetic loosening and infection by combined technetium-99m-MDP/gallium-67 digital subtraction imaging. Clinical correlation was based on the assessment of loosening and bacterial cultures obtained at the time of surgery in 54 patients, joint aspiration cultures obtained in 37 patients, and long-term clinical follow-up for greater than 1.5 years in an additional 15 patients. Results revealed an 80-90% predictive value of a positive test for loosening, and a 95% predictive value of a negative test for infection. However, because of the low sensitivities and specificities observed, this approach to the evaluation of symptomatic prosthetic joints does not seem cost effective.

  8. Systematic review of the surgical treatment for symptomatic os acromiale

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Griesser, Michael J.; Jones, Grant L.

    2011-01-01

    The optimal surgical treatment for symptomatic os acromiale that has failed nonoperative management is unclear in the literature. We conducted a systematic review of multiple medical databases for level I–IV evidence. Both radiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (118 subjects, 125 shoulders). One hundred and fifteen subjects were treated surgically (122 shoulders). The mean age of the subjects was 49±11 years. The mean preoperative duration of symptoms was 12±8.6 months. Mesoacromiale was the most common type treated (94%). Internal fixation was the most common surgical technique used (60%), followed by excision (27%) and acromioplasty (13%). Rotator cuff repair was the most common concurrent surgical technique (performed in 59% of the surgically treated shoulders), followed by distal clavicle excision (25%). All surgical techniques resulted in improvement in clinical outcomes. Surgical management of symptomatic os acromiale that has failed nonoperative measures may predictably lead to improved outcomes. PMID:21660192

  9. [Diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic hydronephrosis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Jane Angel; Graumann, Ole; Toft, Anja; Henriques, Carsten Ulrik; Walter, Steen

    2015-09-14

    Hydronephrosis in pregnancy is common in the second and third trimester. Only a few cases are symptomatic, caused by a ureteric stone or by the pregnancy itself. The clinical dilemma is when to treat and when not to treat. We propose a multidisciplinary management based on renal ultrasonography to verify hydronephrosis and renography to diagnose obstructive hydronephrosis. Obstruction with a high intra-renal pressure must be treated to avoid kidney dysfunction. Patients with pyonephrosis need immediate treatment. PMID:26376416

  10. Surgical treatment of symptomatic and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tonev, A; Dimitrov, S; Shkvarla, L; Zahariev, T; Nachev, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased volume of patients undergoing selective reconstruction on the occasion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in the last decades, the number of patients with rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA) is not significantly decreased. RAAA is catastrophic and life-threatening condition. It remains a challenge to every practitioner. To optimize the surgical practice we studied the literature for the treatment of symptomatic and rupture aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. PMID:24151748

  11. Systemic vasculitis with bilateral perirenal haemorrhage in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Aslangul-Castier, E.; Papo, T.; Amoura, Z.; Baud, O.; Leblond, V.; Charlotte, F.; Bricaire, F.; Degos, L.; Piette, J.

    2000-01-01

    The cases of two patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with periarteritis nodosa-like, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody negative, systemic vasculitis, are reported.
  A 61 year old man was admitted with fever, diffuse myalgia, and abdominal pain. Blood and bone marrow examination showed chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Vasculitis of the gall bladder was responsible for acalculous cholecystitis. A massive spontaneous bilateral perirenal haemorrhage occurred. A 73 year old woman with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia had been followed up for one year when unexplained fever occurred. Two months after the onset of fever, sudden abdominal pain was ascribed to spontaneous bilateral renal haematoma related to bilateral renal arterial aneurysms. Neuromuscular biopsy showed non-necrotising periarteriolar inflammation.
  To our knowledge, systemic vasculitis has never been reported in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. In our two cases a non-random association is suggested because (a) chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome, (b) spontaneous bilateral perirenal haematoma is not a usual feature of periarteritis nodosa.

 PMID:10784523

  12. Ginsenoside Re Attenuates Neuroinflammation in a Symptomatic ALS Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mudan; Yang, Eun Jin

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons, which cause paralysis and respiratory dysfunction. There is currently no permanently effective drug for patients with ALS. Ginsenoside Re (G-Re), one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has pharmacological activities that affect a number of targets. To investigate the effects of G-Re on neuroinflammation, we used G-Re (2.5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/g) at the Joksamni acupressure point (ST36) once every other day for one week. To evaluate G-Re function in symptomatic human-superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1[Formula: see text] transgenic mice, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed with the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. Here, we report that G-Re exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation in a murine model of ALS. G-Re treatment reduced the loss of motor neurons and active-microglia-related expression of Iba-1 in the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In addition, compared with age-matched hSOD1(G93A) mice, G-Re-treated hSOD1(G93A) mice showed a significant reduction in expression of pro-inflammatory proteins such as CD14 and TNF-[Formula: see text] protein related to TLR4 signaling pathway. G-Re administration also led to a decrease in cell death-related phospho-p38 protein levels, and had an antioxidative effect by reducing HO1 expression. Together, our data suggest that G-Re could have potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects on ALS by inhibiting the TLR4 pathway. PMID:27080948

  13. Symptomatic Post-Discectomy Pseudocyst after Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of symptomatic postdiscectomy pseudocyst (PP) after endoscopic discectomy and to compare the results of surgical and conservative management of them. Methods Initial study participants were 1,503 cases (1,406 patients) receiving endoscopic lumbar discectomy by 23-member board of neurosurgeons from March 2003 to October 2008. All patients' postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were evaluated. On the postoperative MRI, cystic lesion of T2W high and T1W low at discectomy site was regarded as PP. Reviews of medical records and radiological findings were done. The PP patients were divided into two groups, surgical and conservative management by treatment modality after PP detection. We compared the results of the two groups using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for low back pain (LBP), VAS for leg pain (LP) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results Among 1,503 cases of all male soldiers, the MRIs showed that pseudocysts formed in 15 patients, about 1.0% of the initial cases. The mean postoperative interval from surgery to PP detection was 53.7 days. Interlaminar approach was correlated with PP formation compared with transforaminal approach (p=0.001). The mean VAS for LBP and LP in the surgical group improved from 6.5 and 4.8 to 2.0 and 2.3, respectively. The mean VAS for LBP and LP in the conservative group improved from 4.4 and 4.4 to 3.9 and 2.3, respectively. There was no difference in treatment outcome between surgical and conservative management of symptomatic PP. Conclusion Although this study was done in limited environment, symptomatic PP was detected at two months' postoperative period in about 1% of cases. Interlaminar approach seems to be more related with PP compared with transforaminal approach. PMID:21494360

  14. Treatment of symptomatic macromastia in a breast unit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from symptomatic macromastia are usually underserved, as they have to put up with very long waiting lists and are usually selected under restrictive criteria. The Oncoplastic Breast Surgery subspeciality requires a cross-specialty training, which is difficult, in particular, for trainees who have a background in general surgery, and not easily available. The introduction of reduction mammaplasty into a Breast Cancer Unit as treatment for symptomatic macromastia could have a synergic effect, making the scarce therapeutic offer at present available to these patients, who are usually treated in Plastic Departments, somewhat larger, and accelerating the uptake of oncoplastic training as a whole and, specifically, the oncoplastic breast conserving procedures based on the reduction mammaplasty techniques such as displacement conservative techniques and onco-therapeutic mammaplasty. This is a retrospective study analyzing the outcome of reduction mammaplasty for symptomatic macromastia in our Breast Cancer Unit. Methods A cohort study of 56 patients who underwent bilateral reduction mammaplasty at our Breast Unit between 2005 and 2009 were evaluated; morbidity and patient satisfaction were considered as end points. Data were collected by reviewing medical records and interviewing patients. Results Eight patients (14.28%) presented complications in the early postoperative period, two of them being reoperated on. The physical symptoms disappeared or significantly improved in 88% of patients and the degree of satisfaction with the care process and with the overall outcome were really high. Conclusion Our experience of the introduction of reduction mammaplasty in our Breast Cancer Unit has given good results, enabling us to learn the use of different reduction mammaplasty techniques using several pedicles which made it posssible to perform oncoplastic breast conserving surgery. In our opinion, this management policy could bring clear advantages both to patients (large-breasted and those with a breast cancer) and surgeons. PMID:21040550

  15. When to suspect lactose intolerance. Symptomatic, ethnic, and laboratory clues.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Minocha, A

    1998-09-01

    Lactose intolerance is widespread, with adult-type hypolactasia being the predominant cause of lactose malabsorption. Daily ingestion of less than 240 mL of milk is well tolerated by most lactose-intolerant adults. Some persons with normal lactase activity may become symptomatic on consumption of products containing lactose. Lactose maldigestion may coexist in adults with irritable bowel syndrome and in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Management consists primarily of dietary changes. People who avoid dairy products should receive calcium supplementation and should be advised to read ingredient labels carefully. Several lactase replacement products are available, but their efficacy varies. PMID:9742907

  16. Chronic idiopathic effusive pericarditis in a patient with 'cor pulmonale'.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L; Hagios, P

    2003-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic pericarditis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is estimated to occur in 3.5% of primary pericardial disease. It is possible that many of these cases are secondary to unrecognised viral infections. The natural history is variable and treatment should be individualised, although chronic colchicines administration may hold promise as a newer therapeutic modality in symptomatic recurrent pericarditis. This case presentation illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties that may arise in such patients. PMID:12621541

  17. Variable Food-Specific IgG Antibody Levels in Healthy and Symptomatic Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liu-Xin; Li, Hong; Sun, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Hong-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Wang, Qi-Bin; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background The presence of food-specific IgG antibodies in human serum may be useful for diagnosis of adverse food reactions. However, the clinical utility of tesing for such antibodies remains very controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels and population distribution of food-specific IgGs and their association with chronic symptoms in a large-scale Chinese population. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 21305 adult participants from different regions of China had 14 type of food-specific serum IgG antibodies that were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Amongthese, 5,394 participants were randomly chosen to complete follow-up questionnaire surveys on their dietary characteristics and chronic symptoms. The concentrations of food-specific IgGs against 14 foods ranged from a median (interquartile range) of 7.3 (3.8, 12.6) U/mL of pork-specfic IgG to 42.3 (28.8, 60.2) U/mL of crab-specific IgG. The concentration of food-specific IgGs was closely related to gender; after adjustment for region and age, women had higher concentrations of food-specific IgGs against all of the 14 foods except chicken (regression coefficient (95% CI): 0.01 (−0.003, 0.023); P = 0.129) and corn (0.002 (−0.013, 0.016); P = 0.825). Similar results were also found in the relationship of geographic region to the food-specific IgG concentrations for the 14 foods. Chronic symptoms were negatively associated with the concentrations of a few food-specific IgGs, and were positively associated with the concentrations of other food-specific IgGs. Conclusions The levels of food-specific IgGs were variable both in healthy and in symptomatic Chinese adults. These findings raise awareness that demographic factors, the type of food and specific chronic symptoms should be considered before food elimination treatment based on IgG testing in patients with chronic symptoms is used in clinical practice. PMID:23301096

  18. Histopathological Analysis of Salmonella Chronic Carriage in the Mouse Hepatopancreatobiliary System

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Gunn, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis. PMID:24349565

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schnarr, J; Smaill, F

    2008-10-01

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. A history of previous urinary tract infections and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for bacteriuria in pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common aetiologic agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and quantitative culture is the gold standard for diagnosis. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been shown to reduce the rate of pyelonephritis in pregnancy and therefore screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has become a standard of obstetrical care. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies limits the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Debate exists in the literature as to whether treated pyelonephritis is associated with adverse fetal outcomes. There is no clear consensus in the literature on antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for infection. With increasing antibiotic resistance, consideration of local resistance rates is necessary when choosing therapy. PMID:18826482

  20. Symptomatic fructose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gourcerol, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Ducrotté, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fructose can trigger or worsen symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic fructose malabsorption in IBS patients and to test whether the patient's characteristics can help to detect a fructose malabsorption. Materials and methods Ninety Rome III IBS patients (predominant diarrhoea (IBS-D): 31%, predominant constipation (IBS-C): 18%, mixed type (IBS-M): 51%) were included prospectively. After exclusion of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by a glucose breath test, fructose malabsorption was assessed by a five-hour breath test, with symptom monitoring, after a 25 g load of fructose. An increase of more than 20 ppm of hydrogen (H2) or methane (CH4) levels in the exhaled air led to the diagnosis of malabsorption. Results Fructose test was abnormal in 20/90 patients among whom only 35% were intolerant, with a simultaneous rise of H2/CH4 levels and the onset of abdominal discomfort or diarrhoea. IBS characteristics were not predictive even if young (p = 0.031) and male IBS patients (p = 0.029) were at higher risk of malabsorption. At variance, 18 additional patients experienced intestinal symptoms during the test despite normal fructose absorption. Discussion After a 25 g fructose load, symptomatic fructose malabsorption and intolerance without malabsorption were detected in 22% and 28% of IBS patients respectively. PMID:24918018

  1. A Symptomatic Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Yoshinori; Yuguchi, Takamichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (EAC) is a rare, usually asymptomatic condition of unknown origin, which typically involves the lower thoracic spine. We report a case of posttraumatic symptomatic EAC with lumbar disc herniation. A 22-year-old man experienced back pain and sciatica after a traffic accident. Neurological examination revealed a right L5 radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic lesion at the L3 to L5 level and an L4-5 disc herniation; computed tomography myelography showed that the right L5 root was sandwiched between the cyst and the herniation. A dural defect was identified during surgery. The cyst was excised completely and the defect was repaired. A herniation was excised beside the dural sac. Histology showed that the cyst wall consisted of collagen and meningothelial cells. Postoperatively the symptoms resolved. Lumbar spinal EACs are rare; such cysts may arise from a congenital dural crack and grow gradually. The 6 cases of symptomatic lumbar EAC reported in the literature were not associated with disc herniation or trauma. In this case, the comorbid disc herniation was involved in symptom progression. Although many EACs are asymptomatic, comorbid spinal disorders such as disc herniation or trauma can result in symptom progression. PMID:25861499

  2. Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

  3. Endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage versus gallbladder stenting before cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis and a high suspicion of choledocholithiasis: a prospective randomised preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Jae; Yoo, Byung Moo; Kim, Jin Hong; Hwang, Jae Chul; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Lim, Sun Gyo; Kim, Ji Hun; Shin, Sung Jae; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lee, Kee Myung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Wook Hwan; Cho, Sung Won

    2016-04-01

    Objective Endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage using a nasocystic tube or plastic stent has been attempted as an alternative to percutaneous drainage for patients with acute cholecystitis who are not candidates for urgent cholecystectomy. We aimed to assess the efficacy of single-step endoscopic drainage of the common bile duct and gallbladder, and to evaluate which endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage method is ideal as a bridge before elective cholecystectomy. Materials and methods From July 2011 to December 2014, 35 patients with acute moderate-to-severe cholecystitis and a suspicion of choledocholithiasis were randomly assigned to the endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage (ENGBD) (n = 17) or endoscopic gallbladder stenting (EGBS) (n = 18) group. Results Bile duct clearance was performed successfully in all cases. No significant differences were found between the ENGBD and EGBS groups in the technical success rates [82.4% (14/17) vs. 88.9% (16/18), p = 0.658] and clinical success rates [by intention-to-treat analysis: 70.6% (12/17) vs. 83.3% (15/18), p = 0.443; by per protocol analysis of technically feasible cases: 85.7% (12/14) vs. 93.8% (15/16), p = 0.586]. Three ENGBD patients and two EGBS patients experienced adverse events (p = 0.658). No significant differences were found in operation time or rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy. Conclusions Single-step endoscopic transpapillary drainage of the common bile duct and gallbladder seems to be an acceptable therapeutic modality in patients with acute cholecystitis and a suspicion of choledocholithiasis. There were no significant differences in the technical and clinical outcomes between ENGBD and EGBS as a bridge before cholecystectomy. PMID:26595503

  4. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  5. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  6. The Effect of Haemodialysis Access Types on Cardiac Performance and Morbidities in Patients with Symptomatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Min-Kai; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chan, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about whether the arteriovenous type haemodialysis access affects cardiac function and whether it is still advantageous to the uremic patient with symptomatic heart disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective comparative study. Patients with heart disease and end-stage renal disease that had a new chronic access created between January 2007 and December 2008 and met the inclusion criteria were assessed. The endpoint was major adverse event (MAE)-free survivals of arteriovenous access (AVA) and tunneled cuffed double-lumen central venous catheter (CVC) groups. Whether accesses worsened heart failure was also evaluated. Results There were 43 CVC patients and 60 AVA patients. The median follow-up time from access creation was 27.6 months (IQR 34.7, 10.9~45.6). Although CVC patients were older than AVA patients (median age 78.0, IQR 14.0 vs. 67.5, IQR 16.0, respectively, p = .009), they manifested non-inferior MAE-free survival (mean 17.1, 95% CI 10.3~24.0 vs. 12.9, 95% CI 8.5~17.4 months in CVC and AVA patients, respectively, p = .290). During follow-up, more patients in the AVA group than in the CVC group deteriorated in heart failure status (35 of 57 vs. 10 of 42, respectively, odds ratio 5.1, p < .001). Preoperative-postoperative pairwise comparison of echocardiographic scans revealed an increased number of abnormal findings in the AVA group (Z = 3.91, p < .001), but not in the CVC group. Conclusions In patients with both symptomatic heart disease and end stage renal disease (ESRD), CVC patients showed non-inferior MAE-free survival in comparison to those in the AVA group. AV type access could deteriorate heart failure. Accordingly, uremic patients with symptomatic heart disease are not ideal candidates for AV type access creation. PMID:26848850

  7. Surgical Intervention for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is Correlated With Expression of the AP-1 Transcription Factor Network

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Tsai, Opal; Clark, Peter E.; Miller, Nicole L.; Fowke, Jay H.; Hameed, Omar; Hayward, Simon W.; Strand, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately one-third of patients fail medical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) requiring surgical intervention. Our purpose was to establish a molecular characterization for patients undergoing surgical intervention for LUTS to address therapeutic deficiencies. METHODS Clinical, molecular, and histopathological profiles were analyzed in 26 patients undergoing surgery for severe LUTS. Incidental transitional zone nodules were isolated from 37 patients with mild symptoms undergoing radical prostatectomy. Clinical parameters including age, prostate volume, medication, prostate specific antigen, symptom score, body mass index, and incidence of diabetes were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustments for potential confounding variables was used to examine associations between patient clinical characteristics and molecular targets identified through molecular profiling. RESULTS Compared to incidental BPH, progressive symptomatic BPH was associated with increased expression of the activating protein-1 transcription factor/chemokine network. As expected, inverse correlations were drawn between androgen receptor levels and age, as well as between 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) treatment and tissue prostate specific antigen levels; however, a novel association was also drawn between 5ARI treatment and increased c-FOS expression. CONCLUSIONS This study provides molecular evidence that a network of pro-inflammatory activating protein-1 transcription factors and associated chemokines are highly enriched in symptomatic prostate disease, a profile that molecularly categorizes with many other chronic autoimmune diseases. Because 5ARI treatment was associated with increased c-FOS expression, future studies should explore whether increased activating protein-1 proteins are causal factors in the development of symptomatic prostate disease, inflammation or resistance to traditional hormonal therapy. PMID:24500928

  8. The effect of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ infection on the proteomic profiles and nutritional status of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive citrus disease which threatens citrus production worldwide and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is an associated causal agent of the disease. To better understand the physiological and molecular processes involved in host responses to Las, 2-DE and mass spectrometry analyses, as well as ICP spectroscopy analysis were employed to elucidate the global protein expression profiles and nutrient concentrations in leaves of Las-infected grapefruit plants at pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stages for HLB. Results This study identified 123 protein spots out of 191 spots that showed significant changes in the leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection and all identified spots matched to 69 unique proteins/peptides. A down-regulation of 56 proteins including those associated with photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and metabolism was correlated with significant reductions in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu in leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection, particularly in symptomatic plants. Oxygen-evolving enhancer (OEE) proteins, a PSI 9 kDa protein, and a Btf3-like protein were among a small group of proteins that were down-regulated in both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants in response to Las infection. Furthermore, a Las-mediated up-regulation of 13 grapefruit proteins was detected, which included Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, chitinases, lectin-related proteins, miraculin-like proteins, peroxiredoxins and a CAP 160 protein. Interestingly, a Las-mediated up-regulation of granule-bound starch synthase was correlated with an increase in the K concentrations of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants. Conclusions This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the interrelationships between protein expression and nutritional status of Las-infected pre-symptomatic or symptomatic grapefruit plants and sheds light on the physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with HLB disease development. PMID:23578104

  9. Sensitization, pathologic, and imaging findings comparing symptomatic and quiescent failed renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Feld, Rick I; Colombe, Beth W; Farber, John L; Herman, Jay H; Gulati, Rakesh; Maley, Warren R; Frank, Adam M

    2014-12-01

    Late allograft failure (LAF) is a common cause of end stage renal disease. These patients face interrelated challenges regarding immunosuppression management, risk of graft intolerance syndrome (GIS), and sensitization. This retrospective study analyzes sensitization, pathology, imaging, and transfusion requirements in 33 LAFs presenting either with GIS (22) or grafts remaining quiescent (11). All patients underwent immunosuppression weaning to discontinuation at LAF. Profound increases in sensitization were noted for all groups and occurred in the GIS group prior to transplant nephrectomy (TxN). Patients with GIS experienced a major upswing in sensitization at, or before the time of their symptomatic presentation. For both GIS and quiescent grafts, sensitization appeared to be closely linked to immunosuppression withdrawal. Most transfusion naïve patients became highly sensitized. Fourteen patients in the GIS group underwent TxN which revealed grade II acute cellular rejection or worse, with grade 3 chronic active T-cell-mediated rejection. Blinded comparisons of computed tomography scan of GIS group revealed swollen allografts with fluid collections compared with the quiescent allografts (QAs), which were shrunken and atrophic. The renal volume on imaging and weight of explants nearly matched. Future studies should focus on interventions to avoid sensitization and GIS. PMID:25297845

  10. Peritraumatic and Trait Dissociation Differentiate Police Officers With Resilient Versus Symptomatic Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Madan, Anita; Neylan, Thomas C.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that stress reactions to potentially traumatic events do not represent a unified phenomenon. Instead, individuals tend to cluster into prototypical response patterns over time including chronic symptoms, recovery, and resilience. We examined heterogeneity in a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom course in a sample of 178 active-duty police officers following exposure to a life-threatening event using latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM). This analysis revealed 3 discrete PTSD symptom trajectories: resilient (88%), distressedimproving (10%), and distressedworsening (2%). We further examined whether trait and peritraumatic dissociation distinguished these symptom trajectories. Findings indicate that trait and peritraumatic dissociation differentiated the resilient from the distressedimproving trajectory (trait, p < .05; peritraumatic, p < .001), but only peritraumatic dissociation differentiated the resilient from the distressedworsening trajectory (p < .001). It is essential to explore heterogeneity in symptom course and its predictors among active-duty police officers, a repeatedly exposed group. These findings suggest that police officers may be a highly resilient group overall. Furthermore, though there is abundant evidence that dissociation has a positive linear relationship with PTSD symptoms, this study demonstrates that degree of dissociation can distinguish between resilient and symptomatic groups of individuals. PMID:21898602

  11. Giardia in symptomatic dogs and cats in Europe--results of a European study.

    PubMed

    Epe, C; Rehkter, G; Schnieder, T; Lorentzen, L; Kreienbrock, L

    2010-10-11

    The percentage of Giardia infection in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs presenting to clinics was examined across Europe using the IDEXX SNAP Giardia Test (IDEXX Laboratories). Veterinary practices were asked to identify diarrheic and/or vomiting dogs and cats and to use the test on fecal samples from these animals. A selection for "asymptomatic" testing was also available on the data collection sheet for testing that occurred outside the target "symptomatic" population. Results from 8685 dogs and 4214 cats were submitted during the sampling period from 2005 to 2006. Analysis of the data showed 24.78% of the samples positive for Giardia among tested dogs and 20.3% among tested cats. The younger the dog or the cat, the higher the risk of being positive, peaking in the category below 6 months. The main clinical symptom, diarrhoea, also showed a higher risk of being positive, OR's of acute diarrhoea were almost double of those of the category "asymptomatic" for dogs or cats, the same range was calculated for chronic diarrhoea. Differences in participating countries were also seen. The risk of being positive was half or less in UK, Spain, Netherlands, Italy compared to Germany, and only in Belgium it showed to be higher. The results of this study show that Giardia is a common enteric agent among dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs in Europe. PMID:20637546

  12. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  13. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Learn more. Doctors ...

  14. Chronic Hiccups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rare Disease Day More Search for News on Rare Diseases Search Go Advanced News Search About GARD About ... GARD Home Diseases Chronic hiccups Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Chronic hiccups ...

  15. Repetitive surgery for recurrent symptomatic endometriosis: what to do?

    PubMed

    Vercellini, Paolo; Barbara, Giussy; Abbiati, Annalisa; Somigliana, Edgardo; Viganò, Paola; Fedele, Luigi

    2009-09-01

    In spite of the increasing number of operative laparoscopies performed for endometriosis associated pelvic pain, postoperative symptomatic recurrences are very common. Reoperation is often considered the best treatment option, but the extent and duration of the effect of second-line surgery is still unclear. The best available evidence has been reviewed in order to define the results of repetitive conservative surgery, the effects of pelvic denervating procedures and postoperative medical treatments, as well as the long-term outcome of definitive surgery. Because of the paucity of published data, estimating the real risk of symptomatic recurrence and need for reoperation after repetitive conservative surgery for endometriosis is very difficult. Based on the limited information available, the long-term outcome appears suboptimal, with a cumulative probability of pain recurrence between 20% and 40%, and of a further surgical procedure between 15% and 20%. These figures are probably an underestimate related to drawbacks in study design, exclusions of dropouts, and publication bias and should be considered with caution. Systematic complementary performance of denervating procedures in addition to reoperation cannot be recommended, as only a few symptomatic patients complain of predominantly midline, hypo-gastric pain. The outcome of hysterectomy for endometriosis-associated pain at medium-term follow-up seems quite satisfactory. Nevertheless, about 15% of patients had persistent symptoms, and 3-5% experienced worsening of pain. Concomitant bilateral oophorectomy reduced the risk of reoperation due to recurrent pelvic pain by six times. However, at least one gonad should be preserved in young women, especially in those with objections to the use of oestrogen-progestogens. Medical treatment appears to have limited and inconsistent effects when used for only a few months after conservative procedures. Data on the benefit of prolonged drug regimens with oral contraceptives or progestogen are lacking. The risk of recurrence of endometriosis during hormone replacement therapy seems marginal if combined preparations or tibolone are used and oestrogen-only treatments are avoided. The opportune surgical solution in women with recurrent symptoms after previous conservative procedures for endometriosis should be based on the desire for conception as well as on psychological characteristics. Studies on surgical management of recurrent rectovaginal endometriosis are warranted, due to the peculiar technical difficulties as well as the high risk of complications associated with this challenging disease form. PMID:19482404

  16. Comparative local immunogenic potential of scaffolds prepared from porcine cholecyst, jejunum, and urinary bladder in rat subcutaneous model.

    PubMed

    Muhamed, Jaseer; Revi, Deepa; Rajan, Akhila; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu V

    2015-08-01

    Extracellular matrices isolated from several mammalian organs/tissues have found several clinical uses as xenografts or implants. However, they may cause complications because of adverse immunologic reactions. Scaffolds that promote favorable graft-acceptance reaction are preferred for fabricating xenografts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenic potential of a porcine cholecyst-derived scaffold (CDS), prepared by a non-detergent/enzymatic method, in comparison with jejunum and urinary bladder-derived scaffolds in a rat subcutaneous model. Key graft-rejection/acceptance reaction was evaluated at the site of implantation by studying the occurrence and/or function of immunocompetent cells in the tissue reaction. There was differential occurrence of M1-macrophage, M2-macrophage, T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells, and mast cells in the tissue reaction and the CDS attracted few cells compared with other scaffolds. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for evaluating mRNA of functional markers like inducible nitric oxide synthase (M1 macrophage), arginase 1 (M2 macrophage), interferon gamma (TH1 lymphocytes), and interlukin-4 (TH2 lymphocytes) suggested that the CDS, compared with the scaffolds prepared from small intestine and urinary bladder, elicited M2 macrophage and TH2 lymphocyte polarization that are congenial graft-acceptance reactions. The results indicated that CDS has less immunogenic potential compared with the scaffolds prepared from jejunum and urinary bladder when used as subcutaneous graft in rats. It was concluded that CDS is a promising animal-derived xenograft for biomedical application. PMID:25370716

  17. The role of cumulative physical work load in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis – a case-control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Andreas; Bolm-Audorff, Ulrich; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Elsner, Gine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the dose-response relationship between cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting as well as to lifting and carrying of loads and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a population-based case-control study. Methods In five orthopedic clinics and five practices we recruited 295 male patients aged 25 to 70 with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis associated with chronic complaints. A total of 327 male control subjects were recruited. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. To calculate cumulative exposure, the self-reported duration of kneeling and squatting as well as the duration of lifting and carrying of loads were summed up over the entire working life. Results The results of our study support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. For a cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting > 10.800 hours, the risk of having radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis as measured by the odds ratio (adjusted for age, region, weight, jogging/athletics, and lifting or carrying of loads) is 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–5.0) compared to unexposed subjects. Lifting and carrying of loads is significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis independent of kneeling or similar activities. Conclusion As the knee osteoarthritis risk is strongly elevated in occupations that involve both kneeling/squatting and heavy lifting/carrying, preventive efforts should particularly focus on these "high-risk occupations". PMID:18625053

  18. Systemic inflammation and immune response after laparotomy vs laparoscopy in patients with acute cholecystitis, complicated by peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Sista, Federico; Schietroma, Mario; Santis, Giuseppe De; Mattei, Antonella; Cecilia, Emanuela Marina; Piccione, Federica; Leardi, Sergio; Carlei, Francesco; Amicucci, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate acute cholecystitis, complicated by peritonitis, acute phase response and immunological status in patients treated by laparoscopic or open approach. METHODS: From January 2002 to May 2012, we conducted a prospective randomized study on 45 consecutive patients (27 women, 18 men; mean age 58 years). These subjects were taken from a total of 681 patients who were hospitalised presenting similar preoperative findings: acute upper abdominal pain with tenderness, involuntary guarding under the right hypochondrium and/or in the flank; fever higher than 38 °C, leukocytosis greater than 10 × 109/L or both, and ultrasonographic evidence of calculous cholecystitis possibly complicated by peritonitis. These patients had undergone cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis, complicated by bile peritonitis. Randomly, 23 patients were assigned to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), and 22 patients to open cholecystectomy (OC). Blood samples were collected from all patients before operation and at days 1, 3 and 6 after surgery. Serum bacteraemia, endotoxaemia, white blood cells (WBCs), WBC subpopulations, human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), neutrophil elastase, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min, at 4, 6, 12, 24 h, and then daily (8 A.M.) until post-op day 6. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in the severity of peritoneal contamination as indicated by the viable bacterial count (open group = 90% of positive cultures vs laparoscopic group = 87%) and endotoxin level (open group = 33.21 ± 6.32 pg/mL vs laparoscopic group = 35.02 ± 7.23 pg/mL). Four subjects in the OC group (18.1%) and 1 subject (4.3%) in the LC group (P < 0.05) developed intra-abdominal abscess. Severe leukocytosis (range 15.8-19.6/mL) was observed only after OC but not after LC, mostly due to an increase in neutrophils (days 1 and 3, P < 0.05). This value returned to the normal range within 3-4 d after LC and 5-7 d after OC. Other WBC types and lymphocyte subpopulations showed no significant variation. On the first day after surgery, a statistically significant difference was observed in HLA-DR expression between LC (13.0 ± 5.2) and OC (6.0 ± 4.2) (P < 0.05). A statistically significant change in plasma elastase concentration was recorded post-operatively at days 1, 3, and 6 in patients from the OC group when compared to the LC group (P < 0.05). In the OC group, the serum levels of IL-1 and IL-6 began to increase considerably from the first to the sixth hour after surgery. In the LC group, the increase of serum IL-1 and IL-6 levels was delayed and the peak values were notably lower than those in the OC group. Significant differences between the groups, for these two cytokines, were observed from the second to the twenty-fourth hour (P < 0.05) after surgery. The mean values of serum CRP in the LC group on post-operative days (1 and 3) were also lower than those in the OC group (P < 0.05). Systemic concentration of endotoxin was higher in the OC group at all intra-operative sampling times, but reached significance only when the gallbladder was removed (OC group = 36.81 ± 6.4 ρg/mL vs LC group = 16.74 ± 4.1 ρg/mL, P < 0.05). One hour after surgery, microbiological analysis of blood cultures detected 7 different bacterial species after laparotomy, and 4 species after laparoscopy (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: OC increased the incidence of bacteraemia, endotoxaemia and systemic inflammation compared with LC and caused lower transient immunological defense, leading to enhanced sepsis in the patients examined. PMID:23717743

  19. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Chronic Pain Information Page Synonym(s): Pain - Chronic Condensed from Pain: ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Chronic Pain? While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered ...

  20. Particulated articular cartilage for symptomatic chondral defects of the knee.

    PubMed

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Cole, Brian J; Farr, Jack

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of focal cartilage defects in the knee remains a challenging clinical problem. One relatively new unique treatment option is particulated articular cartilage, which includes autograft and off-the-shelf allogeneic juvenile grafts. The use of particulated cartilage has the advantage of being a single-stage procedure. In the case of autograft, it is cost efficient, while in the juvenile allograft form, it may have increased proliferative and restorative potentials. Laboratory and clinical data are limited for particulated cartilage grafts; however, there are promising histologic and clinical outcomes. This review provides a summary of the indications, surgical technique, and most up-to-date research on particulated cartilage for the repair of symptomatic chondral defects in the knee. PMID:26371073

  1. Symptomatic Early Congenital Syphilis: A Common but Forgotten Disease.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Usman; Yaqoob, Usman; Bibi, Nazia; Bari, Attia

    2015-10-01

    Congenital syphilis is a severe, disabling infection often with grave consequences seen in infants. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to the unborn infant through the placenta. Congenital syphilis can involve any organ system and present with various symptoms. However, early diagnosis of congenital syphilis is difficult because more than half of the affected infants are asymptomatic, and the signs in symptomatic infants may be subtle and nonspecific. The continuing prevalence of this disease reveals the failure of control measures established for its prevention. Here we report a case of a one-month infant who presented with skin rash. The report stresses upon the importance of implementing the World Health Organization's recommendation that all pregnant women should be screened for syphilis in the first antenatal visit in the first trimester and again in the late pregnancy. PMID:26522203

  2. Chronic Chagas disease: from basics to laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Haberland, Annekathrin; Saravia, Silvia Gilka Munoz; Wallukat, Gerd; Ziebig, Reinhard; Schimke, Ingolf

    2013-02-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America and has huge potential to become a worldwide problem, due to increasing migration, and international tourism, as well as infectant transfer by blood contact and transfusion, intrauterine transfer, and organ transplantation. Nearly 30% of chronically-infected patients become symptomatic, often with a latency of 10-30 years, developing life-threatening complications. Of those, nearly 90% develop Chagas heart disease, while the others manifest gastrointestinal disease and neuronal disorders. Besides interrupting the infection cycle and chemo therapeutic infectant elimination, starting therapy early in symptomatic patients is important for counteracting the disease. This would be essentially supported by optimized patient management, involving risk assessment, early diagnosis and monitoring of the disease and its treatment. From economic and logistic viewpoints, the tools of laboratory medicine should be especially able to guarantee this. After summarizing the basics of chronic Chagas disease, such as the epidemiological data, the pathogenetic mechanisms thought to drive symptomatic Chagas disease and also treatment options, we present tools of laboratory medicine that address patient diagnosis, risk assessment for becoming symptomatic and guidance, focusing on autoantibody estimation for risk assessment and heart marker measurement for patient guidance. In addition, increases in levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers in chronic Chagas disease are discussed. PMID:23045386

  3. Incidence of Symptomatic Vertebral Fractures in Patients After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Hierholzer, Johannes Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Baumann, Clemens; Slotosch, Christine; Schulz, Rudolf

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of secondary symptomatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) in patients previously treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty (VTP). Three hundred sixteen patients with 486 treated VCFs were included in the study according to the inclusion criteria. Patients were kept in regular follow-up using a standardized questionairre before, 1 day, 7 days, 6 months, and 1 year after, and, further on, on a yearly basis after VTP. The incidence of secondary symptomatic VCF was calculated, and anatomical distribution with respect to previous fractures characterized. Mean follow-up was 8 months (6-56 months) after VTP. Fifty-two of 316 (16.4 %) patients (45 female, 7 male) returned for treatment of 69 secondary VCFs adjacent to (35/69; 51%) or distant from (34/69; 49%) previously treated levels. Adjacent secondary VCF occurred significantly more often compared to distant secondary VCF. Of the total 69 secondary VCFs, 35 of 69 occurred below and 27 of 69 above pretreated VCFs. Of the 65 sandwich levels generated, in 7 of 65 (11%) secondary VCFs were observed. Secondary VCF below pretreated VCF occurred significantly earlier in time compared to VCF above and compared to sandwich body fractures. No major complication occurred during initial or follow-up intervention. We conclude that secondary VCFs do occur in individuals after VTP but the rate found in our study remains below the level expected from epidemiologic studies. Adjacent fractures occur more often and follow the cluster distribution of VCF as expected from the natural history of the underlying osteoporosis. No increased rate of secondary VCF after VTP was observed in this retrospective analysis. In accordance with the pertinent literature, short-term and also midterm clinical results are encouraging and provide further support for the usefulness and the low complication rate of this procedure as an adjunct to the spectrum of pain management in patients with severe midline back pain due to osteoporotic spine fractures.

  4. Norovirus Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Food Handlers in Japan▿

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Takeda, Naokazu; Hansman, Grant S.

    2007-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the world. At present, norovirus genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII/4), strains are the most prevalent in many countries. In this study we investigated 55 outbreaks and 35 sporadic cases of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis in food handlers in food-catering settings between 10 November 2005 and 9 December 2006 in Japan. Stool specimens were collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals and were examined for norovirus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR; the results were then confirmed by sequence analysis. Norovirus was detected in 449 of 2,376 (19%) specimens. Four genogroup I (GI) genotypes and 12 GII genotypes, including one new GII genotype, were detected. The GII/4 sequences were predominant, accounting for 19 of 55 (35%) outbreaks and 16 of 35 (46%) sporadic cases. Our results also showed that a large number of asymptomatic food handlers were infected with norovirus GII/4 strains. Norovirus GII had a slightly higher mean viral load (1 log unit higher) than norovirus GI, i.e., 3.81 × 108 versus 2.79 × 107 copies/g of stool. Among norovirus GI strains, GI/4 had the highest mean viral load, whereas among GII strains, GII/4 had the highest mean viral load (2.02 × 108 and 7.96 × 109 copies/g of stool, respectively). Importantly, we found that asymptomatic individuals had mean viral loads similar to those of symptomatic individuals, which may account for the increased number of infections and the predominance of an asymptomatic transmission route. PMID:17928420

  5. Sialyllactose ameliorates myopathic phenotypes in symptomatic GNE myopathy model mice

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Takahiro; Malicdan, May Christine V.; Cho, Anna; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Nonaka, Ikuya; Mine, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Nishino, Ichizo

    2014-01-01

    Patients with GNE myopathy, a progressive and debilitating disease caused by a genetic defect in sialic acid biosynthesis, rely on supportive care and eventually become wheelchair-bound. To elucidate whether GNE myopathy is treatable at a progressive stage of the disease, we examined the efficacy of sialic acid supplementation on symptomatic old GNE myopathy mice that have ongoing, active muscle degeneration. We examined the therapeutic effect of a less metabolized sialic acid compound (6’-sialyllactose) or free sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) by oral, continuous administration to 50-week-old GNE myopathy mice for 30 weeks. To evaluate effects on their motor performance in living mice, spontaneous locomotion activity on a running wheel was measured chronologically at 50, 65, 72 and 80 weeks of age. The size, force production, and pathology of isolated gastrocnemius muscle were analysed at the end point. Sialic acid level in skeletal muscle was also measured. Spontaneous locomotion activity was recovered in 6’-sialyllactose-treated mice, while NeuAc-treated mice slowed the disease progression. Treatment with 6’-sialyllactose led to marked restoration of hyposialylation in muscle and consequently to robust improvement in the muscle size, contractile parameters, and pathology as compared to NeuAc. This is due to the fact that 6’-sialyllactose is longer working as it is further metabolized to free sialic acid after initial absorption. 6’-sialyllactose ameliorated muscle atrophy and degeneration in symptomatic GNE myopathy mice. Our results provide evidence that GNE myopathy can be treated even at a progressive stage and 6’-sialyllactose has more remarkable advantage than free sialic acid, providing a conceptual proof for clinical use in patients. PMID:25062695

  6. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Caroline; Montani, David; Savale, Laurent; Sitbon, Olivier; Parent, Florence; Seferian, Andrei; Bulifon, Sophie; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Dartevelle, Philippe; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Grald; Jas, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by the persistence of thromboembolic obstructing the pulmonary arteries as an organized tissue and the presence of a variable small vessel arteriopathy. The consequence is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in progressive right heart failure. CTEPH is classified as group IV pulmonary hypertension according to the WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension. CTEPH is defined as precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure?25mmHg with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure?15mmHg) associated with mismatched perfusion defects on ventilation-perfusion lung scan and signs of chronic thromboembolic disease on computed tomography pulmonary angiogram and/or conventional pulmonary angiography, in a patient who received at least 3 months of therapeutic anticoagulation. CTEPH as a direct consequence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare, and a significant number of CTEPH cases develop in the absence of history of PE. Thus, CTEPH should be considered in any patient with unexplained PH. Splenectomy, chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, indwelling catheters and cardiac pacemakers have been identified as associated conditions increasing the risk of CTEPH. Ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q) is the best test available for establishing the thromboembolic nature of PH. When CTEPH is suspected, patients should be referred to expert centres where pulmonary angiography, right heart catheterization and high-resolution CT scan will be performed to confirm the diagnosis and to assess the operability. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) remains the gold standard treatment for CTEPH when organized thrombi involve the main, lobar or segmental arteries. This operation should only be performed by experienced surgeons in specialized centres. For inoperable patients, current ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension recommend the use of riociguat and say that off-label use of drugs approved for PAH and pulmonary angioplasty may be considered in expert centres. PMID:26585271

  7. EUS-guided cholecystoduodenostomy for acute cholecystitis with an anti-stent migration and anti-food impaction system; a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Wataru; Ogura, Takeshi; Sano, Tatsushi; Onda, Saori; Okuda, Atsushi; Masuda, Daisuke; Imoto, Akira; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Fukunishi, Shinya; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gall bladder drainage (EUS-GBD) has been reported using a self-expandable metallic stent. To prevent stent migration and food flowing into the common bile duct through the cystic duct, we perform a novel EUS-guided cholecystoduodenostomy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of EUS-guided cholecystoduodenostomy with an anti-stent migration and anti-food impaction system. Methods: A total of 16 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided cholecystoduodenostomy for acute cholecystitis were included in this study. Results: Technical and clinical success was obtained in all patients. The median procedure time was 26.9 min (range 19–42 min). Median follow-up time was 181.5 days (range 18–604 days), and in this time, recurrence of acute cholecystitis was not seen in all patients. Adverse events such as stent migration and cholangitis were not seen in any patients, although pneumoperitoneum was seen in one patient. Conclusion: Our technique may be favorable and effective for the prevention of adverse events on EUS-GBD. PMID:26770264

  8. Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Acute Cholecystitis after Successful Percutaneous Cholecystostomy Treatment and the Risk Factors for Recurrence: A Decade Experience at a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Justin Cheng-Ta; Lien, Wan-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Liu, Kao-Lang; Wu, Yao-Ming; Chen, Shyr-Chyr

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous cholecystostomy tube (PCT) has been effectively used for the treatment of acute cholecystitis (AC) for patients unsuitable for early cholecystectomy. This retrospective study investigated the recurrence rate after successful PCT treatment and factors associated with recurrence. Methods We reviewed patients treated with PCT for AC from October 2004 through December 2013. Patients with successful PCT treatment were those who were free from persistent PCT drainage. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis sequentially to identify factors associated with each outcome. Results The study included 184 patients (mean age: 70.1 years). The average duration for parenteral antibiotics was 14.4 days and 20.0 days for PCT drainage. The one-year recurrence rate was 9.2% (17/184) with most recurrences occurring within two months (6.5%, 12/184) of the procedure. Complicated cholecystitis (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44–15.70; P = 0.01) and PCT drainage duration >32 days (OR: 4.92; 95% CI: 1.03–23.53; P = 0.05) positively correlated with one-year recurrence; parenteral antibiotics duration >10 days (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05–0.68; P = 0.01) was inversely associated with one-year recurrence. Conclusions The recurrence rate was low for patients after successful PCT treatment. Predictors for recurrence included the severity of initial AC and subsequently provided treatments. PMID:26821150

  9. Recurrence Risk after a First Remote Symptomatic Unprovoked Seizure in Childhood: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Lizana, J.; Aguirre-Rodriguez, J.; Aguilera-Lopez, P.; Cassinello-Garcia, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess recurrence risk after a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure in childhood. All consecutive patients younger than 14 years with a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure who were seen at our hospital between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study and prospectively followed. Only two patients received…

  10. Symptomatic Epidural Fluid Collection Following Cranioplasty after Decompressive Craniectomy for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Se Ho; Wang, Ui Seok; Ha, Sang Woo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Symptomatic epidural fluid collection (EFC) arising as a complication of cranioplasty is underestimated and poorly described. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for development of symptomatic EFC after cranioplasty following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods From January 2010 to December 2014, 82 cranioplasties following decompressive hemicraniectomy for TBI were performed by a single surgeon. Of these 82 patients, 17 were excluded from this study due to complications including postoperative hematoma, hydrocephalus, or infection. Sixty-five patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they had developed symptomatic EFC: 13 patients required an evacuation operation due to symptomatic EFC after cranioplasty (Group I), and 52 obtained good outcome without development of symptomatic EFC (Group II). We compared the 2 groups to identify the risk factors for symptomatic EFC according to sex, age, initial diagnosis, timing of cranioplasty, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during cranioplasty, size of bone flap, and bone material. Results A large bone flap and CSF leakage during cranioplasty were identified as the statistically significant risk factors (p<0.05) for development of symptomatic EFC. In Group I, 11 patients were treated successfully with 5 L catheter drainage, but 2 patients showed recurrent EFC, eventually necessitating bone flap removal. Conclusion A larger skull defect and intraoperative CSF leakage are proposed to be the significant risk factors for development of symptomatic EFC. Careful attention to avoid CSF leakage during cranioplasty is needed to minimize the occurrence of EFC, especially in cases featuring a large cranial defect. PMID:27182495

  11. Differential impact of sickle cell trait on symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eunha; Feng, Zhilan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Individuals who carry the sickle cell trait (S-gene) have a greatly reduced risk of experiencing symptomatic malaria infections. However, previous studies suggest that the sickle cell trait does not protect against acquiring asymptomatic malaria infections, although the proportion of symptomatic infections is up to 50% in areas where malaria is endemic. To examine the differential impact of the sickle cell trait on symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria, we developed a mathematical model of malaria transmission that incorporates the evolutionary dynamics of S-gene frequency. Our model indicates that the fitness of sickle cell trait is likely to increase with the proportion of symptomatic malaria infections. Our model also shows that control efforts aimed at diminishing the burden of symptomatic malaria are not likely to eradicate malaria in endemic areas, due to the increase in the relative prevalence of asymptomatic infection, the reservoir of malaria. Furthermore, when the prevalence of symptomatic malaria is reduced, both the fitness and frequency of the S-gene may decrease. In turn, a decreased frequency of the S-gene may eventually increase the overall prevalence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria. Therefore, the control of symptomatic malaria might result in evolutionary repercussions, despite short-term epidemiological benefits. PMID:23311426

  12. [Hypomotor dysfunction of gallbladder: connection between clinical symptomatic and psychovegetative state].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, I D; Panina, N A; Kukushkin, M L

    2011-01-01

    Article presents data on connection between disorders of psychovegetative state and clinical symptomatic in the patients with hypomotor dysfunction of gallbladder. Participation of disorders of psychovegetative state in the development clinical symptomatic of hypomotor dysfunction of gallbladde was confirmed. PMID:21916197

  13. [Holistic therapy of chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, C; Ertl, G; Angermann, C E

    2014-06-01

    The rising prevalence and increasing disease-related costs render chronic heart failure a rapidly growing socioeconomic challenge. The concerted action of guideline-adjusted therapy and holistic patient care is essential to achieve improvements in mortality, morbidity, functional status and quality of life of patients with symptomatic heart failure. Holistic care strategies comprise consideration of comorbidities and individual needs, lifestyle recommendations and multidisciplinary management programs for high-risk symptomatic patients in addition to basic medication and surgical therapies. For optimal patient care and coaching, seamless interaction is required between in-hospital treatment and outpatient facilities. Moreover, the palliative needs of heart failure patients need to be considered, a topic that is currently not receiving enough attention. PMID:24806269

  14. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    EINSTEIN–PE Investigators; Büller HR; Prins MH; Lensin AW; Decousus H; Jacobson BF; Minar E; Chlumsky J; Verhamme P; Wells P; Agnelli G; Cohen A; Berkowitz SD; Bounameaux H; Davidson BL; Misselwitz F; Gallus AS; Raskob GE; Schellong S; Segers A

    2012-04-05

    BACKGROUND: A fixed-dose regimen of rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, has been shown to be as effective as standard anticoagulant therapy for the treatment of deep-vein thrombosis, without the need for laboratory monitoring. This approach may also simplify the treatment of pulmonary embolism.METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, event-driven, noninferiority trial involving 4832 patients who had acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism with or without deep-vein thrombosis, we compared rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily) with standard therapy with enoxaparin followed by an adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist for 3, 6, or 12 months. The primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism. The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding.RESULTS: Rivaroxaban was noninferior to standard therapy (noninferiority margin, 2.0; P=0.003) for the primary efficacy outcome, with 50 events in the rivaroxaban group (2.1%) versus 44 events in the standard-therapy group (1.8%) (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.68). The principal safety outcome occurred in 10.3% of patients in the rivaroxaban group and 11.4% of those in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.07; P=0.23). Major bleeding was observed in 26 patients (1.1%) in the rivaroxaban group and 52 patients (2.2%) in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.79; P=0.003). Rates of other adverse events were similar in the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: A fixed-dose regimen of rivaroxaban alone was noninferior to standard therapy for the initial and long-term treatment of pulmonary embolism and had a potentially improved benefit-risk profile. (Funded by Bayer HealthCare and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; EINSTEIN-PE ClinicalTrials.gov number, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00439777 target=new>NCT00439777.).

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome: a mild disorder; purely symptomatic treatment.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    (1) Patients frequently complain of occasional bowel movement disorders, associated with abdominal pain or discomfort, but they are rarely due to an underlying organ involvement. Even when patients have recurrent symptoms, serious disorders are no more frequent in these patients than in the general population, unless other manifestations, anaemia, or an inflammatory syndrome is also present; (2) There is currently no way of radically modifying the natural course of recurrent irritable bowel syndrome; (3) The effects of antispasmodics on abdominal pain have been tested in about 20 randomised controlled trials. Pinaverium and peppermint essential oil have the best-documented efficacy and only moderate adverse effects. Antispasmodics with marked atropinic effects do not have a favourable risk-benefit balance; (4) Tricylic antidepressants seem to have only modest analgesic effects in this setting. In contrast, their adverse effects are frequent and they have somewhat negative risk-benefit balances. Nor has the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) been demonstrated; (5) Alosetron and tegaserod carry a risk of potentially life-threatening adverse effects and therefore have negative risk-benefit balances; (6) Seeds of plants such as psyllium and ispaghul, as well as raw apples and pears, have a limited impact on constipation and pain. Osmotic laxatives are effective on constipation. Symptomatic treatments for constipation can sometimes aggravate abdominal discomfort; (7) Loperamide has been poorly assessed in patients with recurrent irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea. It modestly slows bowel movement but does not relieve pain or abdominal discomfort; (8) Dietary measures have not been tested in comparative trials. Some patients are convinced that certain foods provoke a recurrence of irritable bowel syndrome, but restrictive diets carry a risk of nutritional deficiencies; (9) Various techniques intended to control emotional and psychological disturbances have been proposed, including relaxation, biofeedback, hypnosis, and psychotherapy. The results of clinical trials are not convincing; (10) Oral products containing live bacteria, designed to change the equilibrium of intestinal flora, have been tested in 13 placebo-controlled trials, with inconsistent results. A few cases of septicaemia have been reported; (11) The six available trials of acupuncture (versus sham acupuncture) showed no more than a placebo effect; (12) In practice, patients who have recurrent irritable bowel syndrome but with no other signs of a condition warranting specific treatment should be reassured as to the harmless nature of their disorder if a careful physical examination and basic laboratory tests are negative. The only available treatments have purely symptomatic effects and only limited efficacy. It is best to avoid using all treatments and additional diagnostic investigations that carry a risk of disproportionate adverse effects. PMID:19585728

  16. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders Following Symptomatic Menopausal Transition: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Wen, Chun-Hsien; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Lu, Ti

    2016-02-01

    Menopausal transition is highly symptomatic in at least 20% of women. A higher prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, has been shown in women with symptomatic menopausal transition. However, a clear correlation between symptomatic menopausal transition and psychiatric disorders has not been established.We explored the association between symptomatic menopausal transition and subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia as well as bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders.We investigated women who were diagnosed with symptomatic menopausal transition by an obstetrician-gynecologist according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort comprised age-matched women without symptomatic menopausal transition. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios of subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders were evaluated in both cohorts, based on the diagnoses of psychiatrists.The symptomatic menopausal transition and control cohorts each consisted of 19,028 women. The incidences of bipolar disorders (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-2.80), depressive disorders (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.93-2.45), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.84-2.41), and sleep disorders (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.34) were higher among the symptomatic menopausal transition women than in the comparison cohort. After stratifying for follow-up duration, the incidence of newly diagnosed bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders following a diagnosis of symptomatic menopausal transition remained significantly increased in the longer follow-up groups (1-5 and ≥ 5 years).Symptomatic menopausal transition might increase the risk of subsequent newly onset bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26871843

  17. Chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  18. Symptomatic parieto-occipital epilepsy as sequela of perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Oguni, Hirokazu; Sugama, Michiko; Osawa, Makiko

    2008-05-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in term infants has been well-documented as a cause of selective brain damage over the parasagittal brain regions in cases of partial asphyxia. We describe 10 patients (7 boys, 3 girls) who developed normally after perinatal asphyxia, and who later experienced parieto-occipital epilepsy. We retrospectively reviewed medical records, electroencephalograms, and neuroimaging findings. All patients had a history of perinatal asphyxia requiring intensive care. Subsequent developmental milestones were apparently normal. Seizures started at ages ranging from 10 to 168 months (mean, 72 months). The seizures comprised complex partial seizures with visual symptomatology in 5 cases, complex partial seizures without visual symptomatology in 4 cases, and focal motor seizures with secondary generalization in the remaining case. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated localized parieto-occipital lesions in 9 cases, and normal findings in the remaining one. Electroencephalograms revealed predominantly occipital foci in 8. In all patients, the epileptogenic foci involved either unilateral or bilateral parieto-occipital regions. Intelligence quotients and visuospatial cognitive functions were impaired in 7 patients. Seizures were finally controlled in only 4 patients. Symptomatic parieto-occipital epilepsy caused by mild perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is sometimes pharmaco-resistant and accompanied by mild cognitive and visuospatial impairments. PMID:18410851

  19. Symptomatic and essential palatal tremor. 3. Abnormal motor learning.

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, G; Toro, C; Valls-Solé, J; Hallett, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Palatal tremor is divided into symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT) and essential palatal tremor (EPT) on the basis of clinical features. The inferior olive seems to be abnormal in SPT, but not EPT. Because the inferior olive is likely to be involved in several types of motor learning, it is hypothesised that motor learning would be abnormal in patients with SPT, but not those with EPT. METHODS--In six patients with SPT and four patients with EPT, two motor learning paradigms were studied--the classical conditioning of an acoustically elicited eyeblink with electrical supraorbital nerve shock and a test of adaptation of ballistic arm movements to a change of the gain. RESULTS--Classical conditioning was impaired unilaterally or bilaterally in the patients with SPT, depending on whether they had unilateral or bilateral abnormalities of the inferior olives, except for the two least affected patients. All but one of the patients with EPT had normal conditioning. On the adaptation test of arm movements, most of the patients with SPT had impaired learning of the arm contralateral to the hypertrophied inferior olive, regardless of whether the abnormality was unilateral or bilateral, but all patients with EPT had normal results. CONCLUSIONS--In SPT pseudohypertrophy of the inferior olive leads to defective cerebellar function, whereas in EPT the inferior olive functions normally. Images PMID:8778256

  20. Unusual symptomatic inclusion cysts in a newborn: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental lamina cysts are cysts that occur as white or pink small nodules, often multiple, approximately 1 to 3mm in diameter. They are typically located on the midpalatine raphe and less frequently on the maxillary and mandibular alveolar mucosa; in the latter case these can be appear to be neonatal teeth. On microscopic examination, these lesions show a stratified squamous epithelium (two to three cell layers); it is possible to find protein, keratin and/or exfoliated epithelial cells in the lumen of the lesions. Neonatal cysts usually show no particular symptoms. They are associated with an excellent prognosis because they regress spontaneously within a few weeks and are not associated to any complications. However, if pain, bleeding or other symptoms occur, a surgical excision is required. Case presentation In this paper, we present an anomalous case of symptomatic dental lamina cyst which affected a 60-day-old male Caucasian newborn. The surgical treatment was elective in this case and 6-month follow-ups were mandatory. Conclusions We can underline the successful predictability of the surgical approach; however, we consider that the treatment choice should take place in the light of medical history and clinical considerations, and always be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Further studies and reviews in this field should be performed in order to suggest guidelines for clinicians, although these cases are rare. PMID:25241967

  1. Symptomatic foramen of Magendie arachnoid cyst in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system and arise in virtually all locations where the arachnoid membrane exists. Posterior fossa ACs are considered to develop in the posterior aspect of the rhombencephalic roof plate and do not communicate freely with the fourth ventricle or perimedullary subarachnoid space. Although posterior fossa ACs have been reported a number of times, ACs arising from the foramen of Magendie are very rare. Case Description: We report here on a 76-year-old female who presented with progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed a large AC in the foramen of Magendie that was compressing the inferior vermis and medial aspects of the cerebellar hemisphere without causing hydrocephalus. Neurological examination revealed cerebellar ataxia without Romberg's sign. A nearly total excision of the cyst was safely performed via a median suboccipital approach. The patient's postoperative course was excellent and her neurological recovery was remarkable. Conclusion: Most cases of ACs located in the foramen of Magendie are reported in children, and it is extremely rare to observe such ACs in the elderly. In fact, to our knowledge, a symptomatic foramen Magendie AC has never been reported previously in an elderly person. Our results indicate that proper surgical intervention can yield highly positive outcomes in such cases. PMID:25657860

  2. A symptomatic giant hepatic hemangioma treated with hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Uetama, Toshifumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hirakata, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Seiji; Matsutani, Takeshi; Matsushita, Akira; Sasajima, Koji; Uchida, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    We describe a patient with symptomatic giant hepatic hemangioma treated with hepatectomy. A 53-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal distension and appetite loss. The medical history included multiple hepatic hemangiomas that had been detected 2 years earlier but were left untreated. Initial laboratory tests revealed pancytopenia and mild coagulopathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a giant hemangioma, 27 cm in diameter, in the enlarged right lobe of the liver. The inferior vena cava was compressed by tumor without thrombus in the infrahepatic vena cava. The portal venous phase of supramesenteric arteriography revealed compression of the portal vein. There were several hemangiomas in the left lobe. Gastric outlet obstruction due to giant hepatic hemangioma in the right lobe was diagnosed. Laparotomy was performed, and a markedly enlarged liver was detected. Right hepatectomy was performed with an anterior approach. The liver-hanging maneuver could not be performed because of tumor compression of the inferior vena cava. Right hepatectomy was performed with intermittent clamping (Pringle maneuver). Hepatic hemangiomas of the left lobe were not resected because the remnant liver would be reduced. The weight of the resected specimen was 2,100 g. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the presence of benign hepatic hemangiomas. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient's appetite improved. The patient was discharged 8 days after the operation. Abdominal distension decreased and laboratory data improved after the operation. Computed tomography revealed hypertrophy of the left lobe of the liver after the operation. PMID:21389646

  3. Risk stratification of patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, David; Lobo, Jose Luis; Barrios, Deisy; Prandoni, Paolo; Yusen, Roger D

    2016-02-01

    Patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) who present with arterial hypotension or shock have a high risk of death (high-risk PE), and treatment guidelines recommend strong consideration of thrombolysis in this setting. For normotensive patients diagnosed with PE, risk stratification should aim to differentiate the group of patients deemed as having a low risk for early complications (all-cause mortality, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and major bleeding) (low-risk PE) from the group of patients at higher risk for PE-related complications (intermediate-high risk PE), so low-risk patients could undergo consideration of early outpatient treatment of PE and intermediate-high risk patients would undergo close observation and consideration of thrombolysis. Clinicians should also use risk stratification and eligibility criteria to identify a third group of patients that should not undergo escalated or home therapy (intermediate-low risk PE). Such patients should initiate standard therapy of PE while in the hospital. Clinical models [e.g., Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), simplified PESI (sPESI)] may accurately identify those at low risk of dying shortly after the diagnosis of PE. For identification of intermediate-high risk patients with acute PE, studies have validated predictive models that use a combination of clinical, laboratory and imaging variables. PMID:26768476

  4. Oral valganciclovir treatment in newborns with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G; Garofoli, F; Villani, P; Tizzoni, M; Angelini, M; Cusato, M; Bollani, L; De Silvestri, A; Regazzi, M; Stronati, M

    2009-12-01

    This study was performed to assess oral valganciclovir V-GCV (GCV pro-drug), 15 mg/kg bid for 6 weeks to 13 neonates with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV). We monitored plasma levels of GCV within 30 days of therapy: C(trough), and C(2h) (before and the 2 hours after administration), we performed viral assessment in plasma and urine and tolerability at baseline, and every fortnight. Pharmacokinetics showed GCV stable and effective plasma concentrations: mean C(trough) = 0.51 +/- 0.3 and C(2h) : 3.81 +/- 1.37 microg/ml. No significant variability was seen neither intra-patient nor inter-patients. One newborn discontinued therapy because of thrombocytopenia, another finished with a neutrophils count of 1,000/microl. At the end of therapy 6 out of 12 and 8 out of 12 newborns were negative for CMV in urine and plasma. The 4 newborns positive for CMV DNA showed a 90% reduction of pre-therapy values. Clinically, the 4 patients reporting hepatic disease and the 3 with thrombocytopenia recovered after 6 weeks of therapy. Eight newborns suffered from SNHL; at the 6-month follow-up no patients had worsened, 2 had improved, and no deterioration was reported in 3 newborns with chorioretinitis scarring. The paucity of adverse events, and the effectiveness and stability of drug plasma concentrations are the important findings of our study. PMID:19763643

  5. Subtype analysis of Blastocystis isolates from symptomatic patients in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Souppart, Laetitia; Moussa, Hanaa; Cian, Amandine; Sanciu, Giovanna; Poirier, Philippe; El Alaoui, Hicham; Delbac, Frederic; Boorom, Kenneth; Delhaes, Laurence; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Blastocystis sp. has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact in public health. To improve our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this human-emerging parasite, we determined the Blastocystis subtypes (STs) and their relative frequency in Egyptian patients living in or in the vicinity of Cairo and presenting gastrointestinal symptoms. We obtained a total of 20 stool samples identified as positive for Blastocystis by microscopic examination of smears. Genotyping using partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene analysis identified a total of 21 Blastocystis isolates corresponding to 19 single infections and one mixed infection (ST1 and ST3). Three STs were identified: ST3 was the most common ST in the present Egyptian population (61.90%) followed by ST1 (19.05%) and ST2 (19.05%). Together with previous studies carried out in different areas in Egypt, a total of five STs (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, and ST6) have been found in symptomatic patients. These data were compared to those available in the literature, and we underlined variations observed in the number and relative proportions of STs between and within countries. On the whole, it seemed that Blastocystis infection is likely not associated with specific STs even if some STs are predominant in the epidemiologic studies, but rather with a conjunction of factors in the course of infection including environmental risk and parasite and host factors. PMID:19953268

  6. Cysteine proteinase 30 in clinical isolates of T. vaginalis from symptomatic and asymptomatic infected women.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manisha; Dubey, M L; Gupta, Indu; Bhatti, Gurjeet; Malla, Nancy

    2007-08-01

    A cysteine proteinase of 30 kDa (CP30) of Trichomonas vaginalis, is known to play a role in cytoadherence of the parasite to host cells. However, the CP30 activity in clinical isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients has not been analyzed. In the present study, CP30 was detected in 20 fresh and long-term culture maintained T. vaginalis isolates each from symptomatic and asymptomatic women by substrate gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Though CP30 was detected in all the fresh isolates from 20 symptomatic and 20 asymptomatic women, the intensity of CP30 band was significantly higher in isolates from symptomatic as compared to asymptomatic women indicating higher expression in former. CP30 was found in all the 20 long-term cultured isolates from symptomatic whereas only in 70% of asymptomatic women indicating that CP30 expression is a more stable characteristic of symptomatic isolates. The isolates from symptomatic women, demonstrated significantly higher cytoadherence to VECs as compared to asymptomatic women. In both the types of isolates, this cytoadherence was inhibited significantly by CP30 specific hyperimmune serum. These results confirm that CP30 is an important virulence factor of T. vaginalis and has an important role in cytoadherence to VECs and thus has a role in pathogenesis of trichomoniasis. PMID:17420015

  7. Hemoglobin Targets and Blood Transfusions in Hemodialysis Patients without Symptomatic Cardiac Disease Receiving Erythropoietin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert N.; Curtis, Bryan M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Optimal hemoglobin targets for chronic kidney disease patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents remain controversial. The effects of different hemoglobin targets on blood transfusion requirements have not been well characterized, despite their relevance to clinical decision-making. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Five hundred ninety-six incident hemodialysis patients without symptomatic cardiac disease were randomly assigned to hemoglobin targets of 9.5 to 11.5 g/dl or 13.5 to 14.5 g/dl for 96 wk using epoetin alfa as primary therapy and changes in left ventricular structure as the primary outcome (previously reported). Patients were masked to treatment assignment. Blood transfusion data were prospectively collected at 4-wk intervals. Results: The mean age and prior duration of dialysis therapy of the study population were 50.8 and 0.8 yr, respectively. Previously reported mortality was similar in low and high-target subjects, at 4.7 (95% confidence interval 3.0, 7.3) and 3.1 (1.8, 5.4) per hundred patient years, respectively. Transfusion rates were 0.66 (0.59, 0.74) units of blood per year in low and 0.26 (0.22, 0.32) in high-target subjects (P < 0.0001). Hemoglobin level at transfusion (7.7 [7.5, 7.9]) versus 8.1 [7.6, 8.5] g/dl) were similar with both groups. High hemoglobin target was a significant predictor of time to first transfusion independent of baseline associations (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval = 0.26 − 0.67). Conclusions: In hemodialysis patients with comparatively low mortality risks, normal hemoglobin targets may reduce the need for transfusions. PMID:18922988

  8. Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-09-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

  9. Two Cases of Symptomatic Perineural Cysts (Tarlov Cysts) in One Family: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed. PMID:19096672

  10. A Review of Symptomatic Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: Bertolotti's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jancuska, Jeffrey M.; Spivak, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are increasingly recognized as a common anatomical variant associated with altered patterns of degenerative spine changes. This review will focus on the clinical significance of LSTV, disruptions in normal spine biomechanics, imaging techniques, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods A Pubmed search using the specific key words “LSTV,” “lumbosacral transitional vertebrae,” and “Bertolotti's Syndrome” was performed. The resulting group of manuscripts from our search was evaluated. Results LSTV are associated with alterations in biomechanics and anatomy of spinal and paraspinal structures, which have important implications on surgical approaches and techniques. LSTV are often inaccurately detected and classified on standard AP radiographs and MRI. The use of whole-spine images as well as geometric relationships between the sacrum and lumbar vertebra increase accuracy. Uncertainty regarding the cause, clinical significance, and treatment of LSTV persists. Some authors suggest an association between LSTV types II and IV and low back pain. Pseudoarticulation between the transverse process and the sacrum creates a “false joint” susceptible to arthritic changes and osteophyte formation potentially leading to nerve root entrapment. The diagnosis of symptomatic LSTV is considered with appropriate patient history, imaging studies, and diagnostic injections. A positive radionuclide study along with a positive effect from a local injection helps distinguish the transitional vertebra as a significant pain source. Surgical resection is reserved for a subgroup of LSTV patients who fail conservative treatment and whose pain is definitively attributed to the anomalous pseudoarticulation. Conclusions Due to the common finding of low back pain and the wide prevalence of LSTV in the general population, it is essential to differentiate between symptoms originating from an anomalous psuedoarticulation from other potential sources of low back pain. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up time would better demonstrate the effectiveness of surgical resection and help guide treatment. PMID:26484005

  11. Clinical Characteristics of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Dissection. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Sharma, Priti; Robinson, Karen A.; Arnan, Martinson; Tsui, Megan; Ladha, Karim; Newman-Toker, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is an important cause of stroke in the young. It can present nonspecifically and may be misdiagnosed with adverse consequences. We assessed the frequency of head/neck pain, other neurological symptoms, and cerebrovascular events in symptomatic VAD. Methods We conducted a systematic review of observational studies, searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) for English-language manuscripts with >5 subjects with clinical or radiological features of VAD. Two independent reviewers selected studies for inclusion; a third adjudicated differences. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and clinical data were abstracted. Pooled proportions were calculated. Results Of 3996 citations, we screened 511manuscripts and selected 75 studies describing 1,972 VAD patients. The most common symptoms were dizziness/vertigo (58%), headache (51%) and neck pain (46%). Stroke was common (63%), especially with extracranial dissections (66% vs. 32%, p<0.0001), while TIA (14%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (10%) were uncommon. SAH was seen only with intracranial dissections (57% vs. 0%, p=0.003). Fewer than half of the patients had obvious trauma, and only 7.9% had a known connective tissue disease. Outcome was good (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-1) in 67% and poor (mRS 5-6) in 10%. Conclusion VAD is associated with nonspecific symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, headache, or neck pain. Ischemic stroke is the most common reported cerebrovascular complication. VAD should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with dizziness or craniocervical pain, even in the absence of other risk factors. Future studies should compare clinical findings as predictors in well-defined, undifferentiated populations of clinical VAD suspects. PMID:22931728

  12. Pre-symptomatic diagnosis and treatment of filovirus diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Ward, Michael D.; Cazares, Lisa H.; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses are virulent human pathogens which cause severe illness with high case fatality rates and for which there are no available FDA-approved vaccines or therapeutics. Diagnostic tools including antibody- and molecular-based assays, mass spectrometry, and next-generation sequencing are continually under development. Assays using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have become the mainstay for the detection of filoviruses in outbreak settings. In many cases, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR allows for the detection of filoviruses to be carried out with minimal manipulation and equipment and can provide results in less than 2 h. In cases of novel, highly diverse filoviruses, random-primed pyrosequencing approaches have proved useful. Ideally, diagnostic tests would allow for diagnosis of filovirus infection as early as possible after infection, either before symptoms begin, in the event of a known exposure or epidemiologic outbreak, or post-symptomatically. If tests could provide an early definitive diagnosis, then this information may be used to inform the choice of possible therapeutics. Several exciting new candidate therapeutics have been described recently; molecules that have therapeutic activity when administered to animal models of infection several days post-exposure, once signs of disease have begun. The latest data for candidate nucleoside analogs, small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, phosphorodiamidate (PMO) molecules, as well as antibody and blood-product therapeutics and therapeutic vaccines are discussed. For filovirus researchers and government agencies interested in making treatments available for a nation’s defense as well as its general public, having the right diagnostic tools to identify filovirus infections, as well as a panel of available therapeutics for treatment when needed, is a high priority. Additional research in both areas is required for ultimate success, but significant progress is being made to reach these goals. PMID:25750638

  13. Treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis among adult women using oral nitroimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Chunge, C N; Kangethe, S; Pamba, H O; Owate, J

    1992-07-01

    Successful treatment of infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is difficult because of many confounding factors such as poor abstinence from sex during chemotherapy, lack of standardised chemotherapy, difficulties in understanding transmission patterns and low detection rates among infected individuals. The purpose of this study was to establish the present efficacy of the available drugs at their recommended single or double dosages for Kenya. Adult symptomatic females (age 17-39 years) with positive High Vaginal Swabs but without pregnancy were recruited into the study; and asked to swallow one of the following medicine: nimorazole 2G (Naxogin Farmitalia Carlo Erba, Italy), nimorazole 4G in two equally divided doses 24 hours apart (2GBD), nimorazole 3G, tinidazole 2G (Fasigyn, Pfizer Ltd) and ornidazole 1.5G (Tiberal, Roche, Switzerland). All patients were reviewed 48 hours after the drugs administration and 24 hours after the last dose for the group which received nimorazole 2GBD. 153 patients were recruited into the study. 121 came for follow up out of which 49 were dropped from the study for involvement in sexual intercourse leaving only 72 for the final analysis. Clinical cure was 100% for the group receiving nimorazole 2GBD and nimorazole 3G. Parasitological cure was highest for the group on nimorazole 2GBD (100%) and lowest for the group on tinidazole (50%). Instruction to avoid sex during treatment were withheld from patients. This made it easier during the follow up to pick out and drop from the study those who had had sexual contact. PMID:1396198

  14. Clinical & radiological evaluation of atherosclerotic changes in carotid & coronary arteries in asymptomatic & clinically symptomatic individuals as a tool for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Prasad, T.N.; Ananthalakshmi, S.; Karthik, G.A.; Cherian, George; Dayananda, Yaligar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: An increase in prevalence of atherosclerosis has been noted worldwide with reports of higher incidence of atherosclerotic vascular changes in Asian Indians. There is a need to measure vascular atherosclerotic changes and provide objective parameter to predict cardiac and cerebrovascular adverse events. Atherosclerotic changes in carotids and coronaries are generally accepted as an association. We attempted in this study to relate intimal-luminal changes in carotid arteries to luminal changes in coronary arteries. Our study presents results of high resolution ultra sonographic (HRUS) evaluation of intimal-medial-thickness (IMT) in carotid with luminal changes in coronaries on multidetector-CT (MDCT) in clinically asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Methods: In this prospective study, HRUS examination of the carotid bifurcation was performed in 151 individuals to measure IMT in asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. Assessments of coronary arteries of the same group of patients were evaluated by MDCT within a week interval. IMT changes were associated with age, sex, predisposing factors, calcium burden of coronaries and structural atherosclerotic changes in coronary arteries. Results: A linear association of IMT was observed with increasing age. IMT of 0.5-0.69 mm was noted in 50 per cent of patients between 51-56 yr with higher number of symptomatic patients in this group. Linear increases in coronary vascular changes were noted with increasing IMT thickness. Changes were more prevalent in diabetic, hypertensive, treadmill test (TMT) positive and clinically symptomatic patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Age-related progression of atherosclerosis was evident in internal carotid arteries. Significant association was observed in the IMT thickness of right common carotid (RCC) and coronary disease in symptomatic group; whereas IMT of left common carotid and internal carotid arteries did not show any association. RCC IMT between 0.5-0.7mm showed maximal association with significant symptomatic narrowing of coronary arteries. Patients with IMT beyond 0.7mm had no association with symptoms. PMID:27121517

  15. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma manifesting as cholecystitis: report of an Asian variant showing gain of chromosome 18 with concurrent deletion of chromosome 6q.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Fukano, Hana; Hossen, Md Amir; Hoshi, Shoji; Takeuchi, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL), which involves the lumen of small vessels, is a rare variant of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Herein, we present a case of IVLBCL manifesting as cholecystitis in a 77-year-old Japanese man. He presented with fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed tenderness of the right upper quadrant. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein levels were elevated. Computed tomography revealed gallbladder thickening and pericholecystic fluid collection; these observations were consistent with the diagnosis of cholecystitis. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels were highly elevated, and gallium scintigraphy revealed an abnormal accumulation in the spleen, implying lymphoma. Consequently, G-banding analysis of the patient's bone marrow aspirates revealed the presence of different abnormal clones, including those with gain of chromosome 18 and deletion of chromosome 6q. As cholecystectomy was necessary, a concurrent splenectomy was performed to diagnose the disease definitively. Histopathologically, atypical large lymphoid cells were observed to be localized in the vasculature in both the spleen and gallbladder; the atypical cells expressed high levels of CD20, CD5, and CD10, immunohistochemically. These findings were consistent with IVLBCL. The patient underwent post-operative treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone. However, a pancreatic fistula developed during chemotherapy, causing left pleural effusion and peritoneal effusion; the patient developed sepsis from multidrug-resistant microorganisms, and subsequently died of multi-organ failure 6 months after the diagnosis. No obvious recurrence of the tumor was found during autopsy. We discuss the characteristic karyotype and immunohistochemical status observed in this case. PMID:25550870

  16. Symptomatic Triple-Region Spinal Stenosis Treated with Simultaneous Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Joseph C.; Raudenbush, Brandon L.; Molinari, Christine; Molinari, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objectives Symptomatic triple-region spinal stenosis (TRSS), defined as spinal stenosis in three different regions of the spine, is extremely rare. To our knowledge, treatment with simultaneous decompressive surgery is not described in the literature. We report a case of a patient with TRSS who was treated successfully with simultaneous decompressive surgery in three separate regions of the spine. Methods A 50-year-old man presented with combined progressive cervical and thoracic myelopathy along with severe lumbar spinal claudication and radiculopathy. He underwent simultaneous decompressive surgery in all three regions of his spine and concomitant instrumented fusion in the cervical and thoracic regions. Results Estimated blood loss for the procedure was 600 mL total (250 mL cervical, 250 mL thoracic, 100 mL lumbar) and operative time was ∼3.5 hours. No changes were noted on intraoperative monitoring. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation on postoperative day (POD) 7 and discharged home on POD 11. At 6-month follow-up, his gait and motor function was improved and returned to normal in all extremities. He remains partially disabled due to chronic back pain. Conclusions This report is the first of symptomatic TRSS treated with simultaneous surgery in three different regions of the spine. Simultaneous triple region stenosis surgery appears to be an effective treatment option for this rare condition, but may be associated with prolonged hospital stay after surgery. PMID:26682102

  17. Symptomatic Triple-Region Spinal Stenosis Treated with Simultaneous Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Joseph C; Raudenbush, Brandon L; Molinari, Christine; Molinari, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Case report. Objectives Symptomatic triple-region spinal stenosis (TRSS), defined as spinal stenosis in three different regions of the spine, is extremely rare. To our knowledge, treatment with simultaneous decompressive surgery is not described in the literature. We report a case of a patient with TRSS who was treated successfully with simultaneous decompressive surgery in three separate regions of the spine. Methods A 50-year-old man presented with combined progressive cervical and thoracic myelopathy along with severe lumbar spinal claudication and radiculopathy. He underwent simultaneous decompressive surgery in all three regions of his spine and concomitant instrumented fusion in the cervical and thoracic regions. Results Estimated blood loss for the procedure was 600 mL total (250 mL cervical, 250 mL thoracic, 100 mL lumbar) and operative time was ∼3.5 hours. No changes were noted on intraoperative monitoring. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation on postoperative day (POD) 7 and discharged home on POD 11. At 6-month follow-up, his gait and motor function was improved and returned to normal in all extremities. He remains partially disabled due to chronic back pain. Conclusions This report is the first of symptomatic TRSS treated with simultaneous surgery in three different regions of the spine. Simultaneous triple region stenosis surgery appears to be an effective treatment option for this rare condition, but may be associated with prolonged hospital stay after surgery. PMID:26682102

  18. Epicardial Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator In A Child With Symptomatic Bugada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moltedo, Jose M; Abello, Mauricio; Gustavo, Sivori; Javier, Celada; Delucis, Pablo Garcia

    2011-01-01

    An 18 month old 14 kg male with symptomatic Brugada syndrome underwent placement of an epicardial automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator using a single coil transvenous lead sutured to the anterolateral aspect of the left ventricle. PMID:21760684

  19. Laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic simple renal cyst using conventional monopolar device.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Altug; Aydin, Omur; Balci, Melih; Aslan, Yilmaz; Atan, Ali

    2011-02-01

    In our study, we assessed the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic simple renal cysts using conventional monopolar device. Long-term symptomatic and radiological results of 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic renal symptomatic simple cyst decortication, which was performed by conventional monopolar device, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 49.7 years. There were nine male and six female patients. Their presenting symptoms were lumber pain in 93% (n=14), and hypertension in 7% (n=1). The mean operating time was 64.6 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 2.2 days. After a mean follow up of 12.08 months, the radiological and symptomatic successes were 100% and 86.6%, respectively. Laparoscopic renal cyst decortication using conventional monopolar device represents an effective and safe treatment option in the management of renal cyst without any need for more expensive energy sources. PMID:21354520

  20. Chronic Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include sarcoidosis and certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

  1. Endoscopic therapy in chronic pancreatitis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Seicean, Andrada; Vultur, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy in chronic pancreatitis (CP) aims to provide pain relief and to treat local complications, by using the decompression of the pancreatic duct and the drainage of pseudocysts and biliary strictures, respectively. This is the reason for using it as first-line therapy for painful uncomplicated CP. The clinical response has to be evaluated at 6–8 weeks, when surgery may be chosen. This article reviews the main possibilities of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) therapies. Endotherapy for pancreatic ductal stones uses ultrasound wave lithotripsy and sometimes additional stone extractions. The treatment of pancreatic duct strictures consists of a single large stenting for 1 year. If the stricture persists, simultaneous multiple stents are applied. In case of unsuccessful ERCP, the EUS-guided drainage of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) or a rendezvous technique can solve the ductal strictures. EUS-guided celiac plexus block has limited efficiency in CP. The drainage of symptomatic or complicated pancreatic pseudocysts can be performed transpapillarily or transgastrically/transduodenally, preferably by EUS guidance. When the biliary stricture is symptomatic or progressive, multiple plastic stents are indicated. In conclusion, as in many fields of symptomatic treatment, endoscopy remains the first choice, either by using ERCP or EUS-guided procedures, after consideration of a multidisciplinary team with endoscopists, surgeons, and radiologists. However, what is crucial is establishing the right timing for surgery. PMID:25565876

  2. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.

  3. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophagesmore » with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.« less

  4. Prolonged Shedding of Human Parechovirus in Feces of Young Children after Symptomatic Infection.

    PubMed

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Benschop, Kimberley S M; Bouma-de Jongh, Saskia; Wolthers, Katja C; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-05-01

    After symptomatic human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in infants, the duration of (mostly asymptomatic) shedding in feces was 2-24 weeks (median 58 days). HPeV cycle threshold value could neither differentiate between symptomatic disease and asymptomatic shedding nor between severe and mild disease as high cycle threshold values (indicating low viral loads) were observed in HPeV3-infected children with severe disease. PMID:26862672

  5. The Nature of Iron Deposits Differs between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. The abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin. PMID:26606178

  6. Long-term incidence of symptomatic urolithiasis post-bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Nicholas; Scheffler, Patrick; Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Court, Olivier; Christou, Nicolas V.; Andersen, Ross E.; Andonian, Sero

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The risk of urolithiasis post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is higher when compared to the general population. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is routinely prescribed to these patients, yet compliance with these supplements is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of symptomatic de novo urolithiasis post-RYGB and compliance with calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods: A standardized telephone questionnaire was administered to patients who underwent RYGB between 1996 and 2011. Personal and medical histories were obtained with emphasis on episodes of symptomatic urolithiasis and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Results: The response rate was 48% with 478 patients completing the telephone questionnaire. After a mean follow-up of 7.0 years (range: 115), the incidence of post-RYGB symptomatic urolithiasis was 7.3%, while the rate of de novo symptomatic urolithiasis was 5%. The overall median time to present with symptomatic urolithiasis was 3.1 years, with 3.3 years for de novo stone-formers, and 2.0 years for recurrent stone-formers (p = 0.38). In de novo stone-formers, 33% presented with symptomatic urolithiasis 4 to 14 years postoperatively. Compliance with calcium and vitamin D supplementation was 56% and 51%, respectively. Conclusions: Despite recall bias and lack of confirmatory imaging studies, a high postoperative incidence of symptomatic urolithiasis was found in a large sample of post-RYGB patients. A third of patients with de novo stones, presented with symptomatic urolithiasis 4 to 14 years postoperatively. Compliance with postoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation was poor and needs improvement. PMID:25408808

  7. [Remote results of surgical management of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Karimov, Sh I; Sunnatov, R D; Irnazarov, A A; Muminov, R T; Iulbarisov, A A; Akhmatov, A M; Alidzhanov, Kh K

    2014-01-01

    The work was aimed at studying the remote results of reconstructive operations performed on brachiocephalic arteries in a total of 1,483 patients presenting with chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. The findings obtained from our experience confirmed that carotid endarterectomy up to now remains the gold standard of treatment for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients suffering from haemodynamically significant lesions of carotid arteries, requiring, however, timely performance and consequent active follow up of the patients involved. PMID:25490365

  8. Chronic prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for chronic bacterial prostatitis? What are the effects of treatments for chronic abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, allopurinol, alpha-blockers, biofeedback, local injections of antimicrobial drugs, mepartricin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral antimicrobial drugs, pentosan polysulfate, prostatic massage, quercetin, radical prostatectomy, sitz baths, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, and transurethral resection. PMID:19450305

  9. Chronic prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for chronic bacterial prostatitis? What are the effects of treatments for chronic abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 33 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, allopurinol, alpha-blockers, biofeedback, local injections of antimicrobial drugs, mepartricin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral antimicrobial drugs, pentosan polysulfate, prostatic massage, quercetin, radical prostatectomy, sitz baths, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, and transurethral resection. PMID:21736764

  10. Interventions for chronic blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Matsumura, Sueko; Hatef, Elham; Akpek, Esen K

    2012-01-01

    Background Blepharitis, an inflammatory condition associated with itchiness, redness, flaking, and crusting of the eyelids, is a common eye condition that affects both children and adults. It is common in all ethnic groups and across all ages. Although infrequent, blepharitis can lead to permanent alterations to the eyelid margin or vision loss from superficial keratopathy (abnormality of the cornea), corneal neovascularization, and ulceration. Most importantly, blepharitis frequently causes significant ocular symptoms such as burning sensation, irritation, tearing, and red eyes as well as visual problems such as photophobia and blurred vision. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but suspected to be multifactorial, including chronic low-grade infections of the ocular surface with bacteria, infestations with certain parasites such as demodex, and inflammatory skin conditions such as atopy and seborrhea. Blepharitis can be categorized in several different ways. First, categorization is based on the length of disease process: acute or chronic blepharitis. Second, categorization is based on the anatomical location of disease: anterior, or front of the eye (e.g. staphylococcal and seborrheic blepharitis), and posterior, or back of the eye (e.g. meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)). This review focuses on chronic blepharitis and stratifies anterior and posterior blepharitis. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of chronic blepharitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 February 2012. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (CCTs) in which participants were adults aged 16 years or older and clinically diagnosed with chronic blepharitis. We also included trials where participants with chronic blepharitis were a subset of the participants included in the study and data were reported separately for these participants. Interventions within the scope of this review included medical treatment and lid hygiene measures. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed search results, reviewed full-text copies for eligibility, examined risk of bias, and extracted data. Data were meta-analyzed for studies comparing similar interventions and reporting comparable outcomes with the same timing. Otherwise, results for included studies were summarized in the text. Main results There were 34 studies (2169 participants with blepharitis) included in this review: 20 studies (14 RCTs and 6 CCTs) included 1661 participants with anterior or mixed blepharitis and 14 studies (12 RCTs and 2 CCTs) included 508 participants with posterior blepharitis (MGD). Due to the heterogeneity of study characteristics among the included studies, with respect to follow-up periods and types of interventions, comparisons, and condition of participants, our ability to perform meta-analyses was limited. Topical antibiotics were shown to provide some symptomatic relief and were effective in eradicating bacteria from the eyelid margin for anterior blepharitis. Lid hygiene may provide symptomatic relief for anterior and posterior blepharitis. The effectiveness of other treatments for blepharitis, such as topical steroids and oral antibiotics, were inconclusive. Authors’ conclusions Despite identifying 34 trials related to treatments for blepharitis, there is no strong evidence for any of the treatments in terms of curing chronic blepharitis. Commercial products are marketed to consumers and prescribed to patients without substantial evidence of effectiveness. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of such treatments. Any RCT designed for this purpose should separate participants by type of condition (e.g. staphylococcal blepharitis or MGD) in order to minimize imbalances between groups (type I errors) and to achieve statistical power for analyses (prevent type II errors). Medical interventions and commercial products should be compared with conventional lid hygiene measures, such as warm compresses and eyelid margin washing, to determine effectiveness, as well as head-to-head to show comparative effectiveness between treatments. Outcomes of interest should be patient-centered and measured using validated questionnaires or scales. It is important that participants be followed long-term, at least one year, to assess chronic outcomes properly. PMID:22592706

  11. Peak CSF Velocities in Patients with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Chiari I Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K.D.; Haughton, V.M.; Hetzel, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE PCMR is used to evaluate the Chiari I malformation. We compared quantitative PCMR in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with Chiari I. MATERIALS AND METHODS PCMR image data in an axial section near the foramen magnum in a consecutive series of patients with Chiari I malformations were evaluated. Patients were classified as symptomatic for a Chiari I if they had apnea spells and/or exertional headaches and as asymptomatic if they had symptoms not considered specific for a Chiari I malformation. The PCMR CSF flow study was obtained with the same protocol for all patients and with the neck in neutral, flexed, and extended positions. Images were inspected for CSF flow jets and synchronous bidirectional flow. Peak CSF flow velocities were calculated with commercial software. Differences between the 2 groups were tested with mixed-effects ANOVA and Wilcoxon rank sum or Fisher exact probability tests with significance set at the .05 level. RESULTS Twenty-six patients with Chiari I were classified as symptomatic, and 24, as asymptomatic. Abnormal flow jets tended to occur more often in the symptomatic than in the asymptomatic patients (P = .054). Peak CSF velocities ranged from 2 to 20 cm/s in the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups and did not differ significantly between the 2 groups or with neck position. CONCLUSIONS Peak CSF flow velocities near the foramen magnum did not differentiate symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with Chiari I. PMID:20884747

  12. Unilateral total hip replacement patients with symptomatic leg length inequality have abnormal hip biomechanics during walking

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junyan; McWilliams, Anthony B.; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Stone, Martin H.; Redmond, Anthony C.; Stewart, Todd D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptomatic leg length inequality accounts for 8.7% of total hip replacement related claims made against the UK National Health Service Litigation authority. It has not been established whether symptomatic leg length inequality patients following total hip replacement have abnormal hip kinetics during gait. Methods Hip kinetics in 15 unilateral total hip replacement patients with symptomatic leg length inequality during gait was determined through multibody dynamics and compared to 15 native hip healthy controls and 15 ‘successful’ asymptomatic unilateral total hip replacement patients. Finding More significant differences from normal were found in symptomatic leg length inequality patients than in asymptomatic total hip replacement patients. The leg length inequality patients had altered functions defined by lower gait velocity, reduced stride length, reduced ground reaction force, decreased hip range of motion, reduced hip moment and less dynamic hip force with a 24% lower heel-strike peak, 66% higher mid-stance trough and 37% lower toe-off peak. Greater asymmetry in hip contact force was also observed in leg length inequality patients. Interpretation These gait adaptions may affect the function of the implant and other healthy joints in symptomatic leg length inequality patients. This study provides important information for the musculoskeletal function and rehabilitation of symptomatic leg length inequality patients. PMID:25900447

  13. Acute health effects of PM10 pollution on symptomatic and asymptomatic children

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.A. 3d.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed the association between daily changes in respiratory health and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the winter of 1990-1991. During the study period, 24-h PM10 concentrations ranged from 7 to 251 micrograms/m3. Participants included symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of fifth- and sixth-grade students. Relatively small but statistically significant (p less than 0.01) negative associations between peak expiratory flow (PEF) and PM10 were observed for both the symptomatic and asymptomatic samples. The association was strongest for the symptomatic children. Large associations between the incidence of respiratory symptoms, especially cough, and PM10 pollution were also observed for both samples. Again the association was strongest for the symptomatic sample. Immediate and delayed PM10 effects were observed. Respiratory symptoms and PEF changes were more closely associated with 5-day moving-average PM10 levels than with concurrent-day levels. These associations were also observed at PM10 levels below the 24-h standard of 150 micrograms/m3. This study indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic children may suffer acute health effects of respirable particulate pollution, with symptomatic children suffering the most.

  14. Widespread Hypermetabolism in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Episodes in Kleine-Levin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Bayard, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Comte, Frederic; Zanca, Michel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background No reliable biomarkers are identified in KLS. However, few functional neuroimaging studies suggested hypoactivity in thalamic and hypothalamic regions during symptomatic episodes. Here, we investigated relative changes in regional brain metabolism in Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) during symptomatic episodes and asymptomatic periods, as compared to healthy controls. Methods Four drug-free male patients with typical KLS and 15 healthy controls were included. 18-F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (PET) was obtained in baseline condition in all participants, and during symptomatic episodes in KLS patients. All participants were asked to remain fully awake during the whole PET procedure. Results Between state-comparisons in KLS disclosed higher metabolism in paracentral, precentral, and postcentral areas, supplementary motor area, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus and putamen during symptomatic episodes, and decreased metabolism in occipital and temporal gyri. As compared to healthy control subjects, KLS patients in the asymptomatic phase consistently exhibited significant hypermetabolism in a wide cortical network including frontal and temporal cortices, posterior cingulate and precuneus, with no detected hypometabolism. In symptomatic KLS episodes, hypermetabolism was additionally found in orbital frontal and supplementary motor areas, insula and inferior parietal areas, and right caudate nucleus, and hypometabolism in the middle occipital gyrus and inferior parietal areas. Conclusion Our results demonstrated significant hypermetabolism and few hypometabolism in specific but widespread brain regions in drug-free KLS patients at baseline and during symptomatic episodes, highlighting the behavioral state-dependent nature of changes in regional brain activity in KLS. PMID:24699677

  15. Event-related brain potential correlates of prospective memory in symptomatically remitted male patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoliang; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Weiyan; Zhou, Renlai; Xu, Peng; Lu, Shan; Sun, Li; Jiang, Zhongdong; Li, Huiju; Li, Yansong; Cui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform intended actions in the future. Although PM deficits are a prominent impairment in schizophrenia, little is still known about the nature of PM in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia. To address this issue, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 20 symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls during an event-based PM paradigm. Behavioral results showed that symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia performed poorly on the PM task compared with healthy controls. On the neural level, the N300, a component of the ERPs related to PM cue detection, was reliable across these two groups, suggesting a degree of functional recovery of processes supporting cue detection in patients with symptomatically remitted schizophrenia. By contrast, the amplitude of the prospective positivity, a component of the ERPs related to PM intention retrieval, was significantly attenuated in symptomatically remitted schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the amplitude of the prospective positivity and accuracy on the PM task was found in those patients, indicating that patients poor performance on this task may result from the failure to recover PM cue-induced intention from memory. These results provide evidence for the existence of altered PM processing in patients with symptomatically remitted schizophrenia, which is characterized by a selective deficit in retrospective component (intention retrieval) of PM. Therefore, these findings shed new light on the neurophysiological processes underlying PM in schizophrenia patients during clinical remission. PMID:26483650

  16. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  17. Reconstituted high-density lipoproteins acutely reduce soluble brain Aβ levels in symptomatic APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jérôme; Stukas, Sophie; Button, Emily; Cheng, Wai Hang; Lee, Michael; Fan, Jianjia; Wilkinson, Anna; Kulic, Iva; Wright, Samuel D; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-05-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest a protective role for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its major apolipoprotein (apo)A-I in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). HDL/apoA-I particles are produced by the liver and intestine and, in addition to removing excess cholesterol from the body, are increasingly recognized to have vasoprotective functions. Here we tested the ability of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) consisting of human apoA-I reconstituted with soy phosphatidylcholine for its ability to lower amyloid beta (Aβ) levels in symptomatic APP/PS1 mice, a well-characterized preclinical model of amyloidosis. Animals were treated intravenously either with four weekly doses (chronic study) or a single dose of 60mg/kg of rHDL (acute study). The major finding of our acute study is that soluble brain Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were significantly reduced within 24h of a single dose of rHDL. By contrast, no changes were observed in our chronic study with respect to soluble or deposited Aβ levels in animals assessed 7days after the final weekly dose of rHDL, suggesting that beneficial effects diminish as rHDL is cleared from the body. Further, rHDL-treated animals showed no change in amyloid burden, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ levels, neuroinflammation, or endothelial activation in the chronic study, suggesting that the pathology-modifying effects of rHDL may indeed be acute and may be specific to the soluble Aβ pool. That systemic administration of rHDL can acutely modify brain Aβ levels provides support for further investigation of the therapeutic potential of apoA-I-based agents for AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26454209

  18. Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation after surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm: clinical and haemostatic response to dalteparin.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D; Segal, H; Hunt, B J; Awad, R; Maddox, A

    2001-06-01

    A 77-year-old man developed chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) after surgical repair of a large infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Self-administered subcutaneous dalteparin therapy (5000 units o.d.) led to rapid relief of symptoms and sustained improvements in his platelet count and fibrinogen level; activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis appeared to be relatively unaffected. Long-term treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin can provide good symptomatic control of chronic DIC associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:11380454

  19. Symptomatic atypical femoral fractures are related to underlying hip geometry.

    PubMed

    Taormina, David P; Marcano, Alejandro I; Karia, Raj; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of bisphosphonates are well documented, but prolonged use has been associated with atypical femur fractures. Radiographic markers for fracture predisposition could potentially aid in safer medication use. In this case-control designed study, we compared hip radiographic parameters and the demographic characteristics of chronic bisphosphonate users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture with a group of chronic bisphosphonate users who did not sustain an atypical femur fracture and also a group who sustained an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Radiographic parameters included were neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip-axis length (HAL) and center-edge angle (CE). Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between radiographic measures and femur fracture. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis determined cut-off points for neck-shaft angle and risk of atypical femur fracture. Ultimately, pre-fracture radiographs of 53 bisphosphonate users who developed atypical fracture were compared with 43 asymptomatic chronic bisphosphonate users and 64 intertrochanteric fracture patients. Duration of bisphosphonate use did not statistically differ between users sustaining atypical fracture and those without fracture (7.9 [±3.5] vs. 7.7 [±3.3] years, p=0.7). Bisphosphonate users who fractured had acute/varus pre-fracture neck-shaft angles (p<0.001), shorter hip-axis length (p<0.01), and narrower center-edge angles (p<0.01). Regression analysis revealed associations between neck-shaft angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.81-0.97; p=0.01), center edge angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.80-0.99]; p=0.03), and BMI (OR=1.15 [95% CI=1.02-1.31; p=0.03) with fracture development. ROC curve analysis (AUC=0.67 [95% CI=0.56-0.79]) determined that a cut-off point for neck-shaft angle <128.3° yielded 69% sensitivity and 63% specificity for development of atypical femoral fracture. Ultimately, an acute/varus angle of the femoral neck, high BMI, and narrow center-edge angle were associated with development of atypical femur fracture in long-term bisphosphonate users. Patients on long-term bisphosphonates should be regularly radiographically evaluated in order to assess for potential risk of atypical fracture. PMID:24565751

  20. Symptomatic Peripheral Mycotic Aneurysms Due to Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    González, Isabel; Sarriá, Cristina; López, Javier; Vilacosta, Isidre; San Román, Alberto; Olmos, Carmen; Sáez, Carmen; Revilla, Ana; Hernández, Miguel; Caniego, Jose Luis; Fernández, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral mycotic aneurysms (PMAs) are a relatively rare but serious complication of infective endocarditis (IE). We conducted the current study to describe and compare the current epidemiologic, microbiologic, clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic characteristics of patients with symptomatic PMAs (SPMAs). A descriptive, comparative, retrospective observational study was performed in 3 tertiary hospitals, which are reference centers for cardiac surgery. From 922 definite IE episodes collected from 1996 to 2011, 18 patients (1.9%) had SPMAs. Because all SPMAs developed in left-sided IE, we performed a comparative study between 719 episodes of left-sided IE without SPMAs and 18 episodes with SPMAs. We found a higher frequency of intravenous drug abuse, native valve IE, intracranial bleeding, septic emboli, multiple embolisms, and IE diagnostic delay >30 days in patients with SPMAs than in patients without SPMAs. The causal microorganisms were gram-positive cocci (n =10), gram-negative bacilli (n = 2), gram-positive bacilli (n = 3), Bartonella henselae (n = 1), Candida albicans (n = 1), and negative culture (n = 1). The median IE diagnosis delay was 15 days (interquartile range [IQR], 13–33 d) in the case of high-virulence microorganisms versus 45 days (IQR, 30–240 d) in the case of low- to medium-virulence microorganisms. Twelve SPMAs were intracranial and 6 were extracranial. In 10 cases (8 intracranial and 2 extracranial), SPMAs were the initial presentation of IE; the remaining cases developed symptoms during or after finishing parenteral antibiotic treatment. The initial diagnosis of intracranial SPMAs was made by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging in 6 unruptured aneurysms and by angiography in 6 ruptured aneurysms. The initial test in extracranial SPMAs was Doppler ultrasonography in limbs, CT in liver, and coronary angiography in heart. Four (3 intracranial, 1 extracranial) of 7 (6 intracranial, 1 extracranial) patients treated only with antibiotics died. Surgical resection was performed in 7 (3 intracranial, 4 extracranial) and endovascular repair in 4 (3 intracranial, 1 extracranial) patients; all of them survived. In conclusion, we found that SPMAs were a rare complication of IE that developed only in left-sided IE, and especially in native valves. Intracranial hemorrhage, embolism, multiple embolisms, and diagnostic delay of IE were more common in patients with SPMAs. The microbiologic profile was diverse, but microorganisms of low-medium virulence were predominant, and had a greater delayed diagnosis of IE than those caused by microorganisms of high virulence. SPMAs were often the initial presentation of IE. The most common location of SPMAs was intracranial. Noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques were the initial imaging test in intracranial unruptured SPMAs and in most extracranial SPMAs. Surgical and endovascular treatments were safe and effective. Endovascular treatment could be the first line of treatment in selected cases. Mortality was high in those cases treated only with antibiotics. PMID:24378742

  1. Advanced Age and Disease Predict Lack of Symptomatic Improvement after Endovascular Iliac Treatment in Male Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Roland; Brownson, Kirstyn E.; Hall, Michael R.; Kuwahara, Go; Vasilas, Penny; Dardik, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endovascular angioplasty and stent placement is currently the most frequent treatment for iliac artery occlusive disease. However, despite a successful endovascular procedure, some patients do not experience symptomatic improvement and satisfaction with their care. This study seeks to identify patient-related factors associated with lack of symptomatic improvement after endovascular iliac artery treatment in male veterans. Methods: Retrospective review of patients treated with endovascular methods for iliac artery occlusive disease between January 2008 and July 2012 at VA Connecticut Healthcare System. Symptomatic improvement on the first post-operative visit was evaluated, with bilateral treatments counted separately. Results: Sixty-two patients had 91 iliac arteries treated with angioplasty and stent placement. Forty-seven (52 percent) legs had critical limb ischemia, and 77 (85 percent) had at least two-vessel distal runoff. Angiographic success was 100 percent. Patient-reported symptomatic improvement at the first post-operative visit was 55 percent (50/91). Lack of symptomatic improvement correlated with older age (OR 1.09 [1.03-1.17], p = 0.008), presence of critical limb ischemia (OR 3.03 [1.09-8.65], p = 0.034), and need for additional surgical intervention (OR 5.61 [1.65-17.36], p = 0.006). Survival, primary and secondary patency, and freedom from restenosis were comparable between patients who reported symptomatic improvement and those who did not. Conclusions: Despite angiographically successful revascularization, patients who are older or have critical limb ischemia who are treated with isolated endovascular iliac artery intervention are more likely to require additional interventions and less likely to experience symptomatic improvement. These patients may need more extensive infra-inguinal revascularization than isolated iliac angioplasty and stent placement, despite a preserved ankle-brachial index. Quality of life needs to be measured with formal instruments after iliac artery endovascular treatment, especially to determine long term outcomes. PMID:25745377

  2. Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Adalberto; de Diego, Alfredo; Domingo, Christian; Lamas, Adelaida; Gutierrez, Raimundo; Naberan, Karlos; Garrigues, Vicente; López Vime, Raquel

    2015-11-01

    Chronic cough (CC), or cough lasting more than 8 weeks, has attracted increased attention in recent years following advances that have changed opinions on the prevailing diagnostic and therapeutic triad in place since the 1970s. Suboptimal treatment results in two thirds of all cases, together with a new notion of CC as a peripheral and central hypersensitivity syndrome similar to chronic pain, have changed the approach to this common complaint in routine clinical practice. The peripheral receptors involved in CC are still a part of the diagnostic triad. However, both convergence of stimuli and central nervous system hypersensitivity are key factors in treatment success. PMID:26165783

  3. Current status of endotherapy for chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Ang, Tiing Leong; Maydeo, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is associated with varied morphological complications, including intraductal stones, main pancreatic ductal strictures, distal biliary strictures and pseudocysts. Endoscopic therapy provides a less invasive alternative to surgery. In addition, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy improves the success rate of endoscopic clearance of intraductal stones. However, recent data from randomised trials have shown better long-term outcomes with surgical drainage for obstructive pancreatic ductal disease. In patients with distal biliary strictures, stent insertion leads to good immediate drainage, but after stent removal, recurrent narrowing is common. Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has excellent outcome and should be accompanied by pancreatic ductal stenting when a ductal communication is evident. In those who remain symptomatic, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided coeliac plexus block may provide effective but short-term pain relief. In this review, we present the current evidence for the role of endotherapy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25630314

  4. Treatment of chronic, refractory cough with baclofen.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, P V; Rauf, K

    1998-01-01

    Chronic, nonproductive cough may result from enhanced sensitivity of the cough reflex. Often, this debilitating symptom is refractory to standard antitussive therapy. Baclofen, an agonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), has been shown, in animals, to have antitussive activity via a central mechanism. Recently, in normal subjects, we have demonstrated the ability of baclofen to inhibit capsaicin-induced cough, as well as cough due to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Herein, we describe two patients with chronic, refractory cough who obtained symptomatic improvement after a 14-day course of low-dose, oral baclofen, administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner. In addition, both subjects demonstrated significant increases in cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin after treatment with baclofen. PMID:9523374

  5. [Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia--clinical case].

    PubMed

    Todea, Doina; Florea, Mira; Herescu, Andreea; Roşca, Loredana

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a rare, heterogeneous group of respiratory diseases, characterized by eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrates, with or without peripheral blood eosinophilia. The hallmark of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a massive accumulation of eosinophils in the lungs, and an increased number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We present the case of a 58 years-old female patient who came to the Clinical Hospital of Pneumology "Leon Daniello" from Cluj Napoca, Romania, with the suspicion of a recurrent diffuse interstitial pneumonia, despite of a proper antibiotic and symptomatic treatment. After clinical and paraclinical investigations the patient was diagnosed with idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Corticosteroid treatment was started, with rapid improvement in both clinical and radiographic abnormalities. PMID:18822874

  6. An undiagnosed cause of chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Malvi, Ketan; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Hari, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tracheomalacia (TM) refers to loss of tracheal rigidity and resulting susceptibility to collapse. It is usually an incidental finding during investigations of other illness. The main symptoms are dyspnoea, cough, sputum production and hemoptysis. Most cases are considered as respiratory infection and are treated symptomatically. Acquired TM results from damage to trachea due to various conditions such as inflammation, chronic pressure, or medical/surgical procedures. The diagnosis is done by end-expiratory dynamic tracheal imaging, which demonstrates typical crescentric narrowing of trachea and reduced antero-posterior diameter <50% of normal. Management include conservative measures like cough suppressants or surgical measures like tracheoplasty, stenting or surgical repair. We are reporting a case of chronic cough, which was subsequently diagnosed as TM. PMID:26985425

  7. Current status of endotherapy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Ang, Tiing Leong; Maydeo, Amit

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is associated with varied morphological complications, including intraductal stones, main pancreatic ductal strictures, distal biliary strictures and pseudocysts. Endoscopic therapy provides a less invasive alternative to surgery. In addition, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy improves the success rate of endoscopic clearance of intraductal stones. However, recent data from randomised trials have shown better long-term outcomes with surgical drainage for obstructive pancreatic ductal disease. In patients with distal biliary strictures, stent insertion leads to good immediate drainage, but after stent removal, recurrent narrowing is common. Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has excellent outcome and should be accompanied by pancreatic ductal stenting when a ductal communication is evident. In those who remain symptomatic, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided coeliac plexus block may provide effective but short-term pain relief. In this review, we present the current evidence for the role of endotherapy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25630314

  8. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) polymorphism associated with symptomatic malaria: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In areas mesoendemic for malaria transmission, symptomatic individuals play a significant role as reservoirs for malaria infection. Understanding the pathogenesis of symptomatic malaria is important in devising tools for augmenting malaria control. In this study, the effect of TLR9 polymorphisms on susceptibility to symptomatic malaria was investigated among Ghanaian children. Methods Four hundred and twenty nine (429) healthy Ghanaian children, aged three to eleven years (3–11 years), were enrolled into a cohort study and actively followed up for symptomatic malaria for one year. Four TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) namely: rs187084 (C-1486 T), rs5743836(C-1237 T), rs352139 (G + 1174A) and rs352140 (G + 2848A) were genotyped by direct sequencing, and their attributable and relative risks for symptomatic malaria determined. TLR9 haplotypes were inferred using the PHASE software and analysed for the risk of symptomatic malaria. A luciferase assay was performed to investigate whether the TLR9 haplotypes influence TLR9 promoter activity. Results The rs352139 GG genotype showed a significantly increased relative risk of 4.8 for symptomatic malaria (P = 0.0024) and a higher mean parasitaemia (P = 0.04). Conversely, the rs352140 GG genotype showed a significantly reduced relative risk of 0.34 (P = 0.048). TLR9 haplotypes analyses showed that TTAG haplotype was significantly associated with reduced relative risk of 0.2 for symptomatic malaria (P = 4×10-6) and a lower mean parasitaemia (0.007), while CTGA haplotype had an increased relative risk of 3.3 (P = 0.005). Functional luciferase reporter gene expression assay revealed that the TTA haplotype had a significantly higher promoter activity than the CCG, CTG and TCG haplotypes. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate a significant association of TLR9 gene polymorphisms with symptomatic malaria among Ghanaian children in Dangme-West district. PMID:22594374

  9. Management of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Giger, Urs; Stanga, Zeno; DeLegge, Mark H

    2004-02-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disorder that results in permanent impairment of the glandular anatomy of the pancreas with or without functional abnormalities. The pathogenesis of CP is usually unclear, except in the case of alcohol-induced disease. The most common symptoms of CP are abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss often requiring recurring hospitalization. Over time, pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunction may develop as the disease progresses, and a variety of complications can occur. Among the possible complications are nutrient malabsorption and diabetes mellitus. The treatment of CP is difficult and challenging for every physician. Relieving pain is the first step in treating CP. This symptom needs to be controlled, often with narcotics, which can cause dependence. Diarrhea usually indicates the presence of steatorrhea, which is often treated with a high-calorie, high-protein, and low-fat diet to minimize symptoms of the underlying disease and to promote weight retention or gain. Pancreatic replacement therapy is used to combat maldigestion and malabsorption. Patients with diabetes may need insulin therapy for glycemic control. The use of parenteral nutrition for bowel rest is a standard approach in patients with symptomatic CP. The use of jejunal enteral feeding recently has been evaluated for efficacy in CP patients. The role of pancreatic endotherapy in the management of CP is evolving. Several reports have suggested that endoscopic therapy aimed at decompressing the obstructed pancreatic duct can be associated with pain relief in some patients. Surgery should be considered in patients who fail medical therapy. PMID:16215095

  10. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs. Incorporating bodily energy regulation into evolutionary medicine builds a framework to better understand pathophysiology of CIDs by considering that genes and networks used are positively selected if they serve acute, highly energy-consuming inflammation. It is predicted that genes that protect energy stores are positively selected (as immune memory). This could explain why energy-demanding inflammatory episodes like infectious diseases must be terminated within 3–8 weeks to be adaptive, and otherwise become maladaptive. Considering energy regulation as an evolved adaptive trait explains why many known sequelae of different CIDs must be uniform. These are, e.g. sickness behavior/fatigue/depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anorexia, malnutrition, muscle wasting—cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, alterations of steroid hormone axes, disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, hypertension, bone loss and hypercoagulability. Considering evolved energy trade-offs helps us to understand how an energy imbalance can lead to the disease sequelae of CIDs. In the future, clinicians must translate this knowledge into early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in CIDs. PMID:26817483

  11. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Amit; Bhattad, Sagar; Singh, Surjit

    2016-04-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is the most common symptomatic phagocytic defect. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding protein subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. CGD is characterized by a defective intracellular killing of phagocytosed organisms due to a defective oxidative burst in the neutrophils and macrophages. It is inherited in either X-linked recessive or autosomal recessive pattern. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus species are the most common organisms reported. Infections with Burkholderia, Serratia, and Nocardia warrant a screen for CGD. Suppurative lymphadenitis, cutaneous abscesses, pneumonia and diarrhea constitute the most common problems in children with CGD. A small percentage of children develop autoimmune manifestations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, colitis, autoimmune hepatitis) and warrant immunosuppression. X-linked carriers of CGD are at an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases. Nitroblue-tetrazolium dye reduction test and dihydro-rhodamine assay by flow cytometry are the screening tests for this disorder. While most children do well on long term antibiotic and antifungal prophylaxis, those with severe forms warrant hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The role of regular interferon-γ injections is debatable. Evidence for white cell transfusions is sparse, and gene therapy is under trial.This current review highlights various aspects and studies in CGD. X-linked form of CGD has been noted to carry a poorer prognosis compared to autosomal recessive variants. However, recent evidence suggests that outcome in CGD is determined by the amount of residual NADPH oxidase activity irrespective of mode of inheritance. PMID:26865172

  12. Lifetime risk and age of diagnosis of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in the US

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Weinstein, Alexander M.; Reichmann, William M.; Burbine, Sara A.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Daigle, Meghan E.; Rome, Benjamin N.; Chen, Stephanie P.; Hunter, David J.; Suter, Lisa G.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate incidence and lifetime risk of diagnosed symptomatic knee OA and age of diagnosis of knee OA based on self-reports in the US population. Methods We estimated incidence of diagnosed symptomatic knee OA in the US by combining data on age-, sex-, and obesity-specific prevalence from the 2007–2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with disease duration estimates derived from the Osteoarthritis Policy (OAPol) Model, a validated computer simulation model of knee OA. We used the OAPol Model to estimate the mean and median ages of diagnosis and lifetime risk. Results The estimated incidence of diagnosed symptomatic knee OA was highest among adults aged 55 to 64, ranging from 0.37% per year for non-obese males to 1.02% per year for obese females. The estimated median age of knee OA diagnosis was 55 years. The estimated lifetime risk was 13.83%, ranging from 9.60% for non-obese males to 23.87% in obese females. About 9.29% of the US population is diagnosed with symptomatic knee OA by age 60. Conclusion The diagnosis of symptomatic knee OA occurs relatively early in life suggesting that prevention programs should be offered relatively early in the life course. Further research is needed to understand the future burden of healthcare utilization resulting from earlier diagnosis of knee OA. PMID:23203864

  13. Comparison of symptomatic and prophylactic irradiation of brain metastases from oat cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, R.J.; Marks, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this analysis, the results of brain irradiation of 39 patients with symptomatic brain metastases from oat cell carcinoma of the lung were compared with the published results of patients whose brains were irradiated prophylactically. The goals were: to substantiate a clinical impression that patients with symptomatic brain metastases respond well to radiation and often experience no further neurologic deterioration until death; and to compare the outcomes of symptomatic and prophylactic radiation of the brain for oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Of 39 patients with proven brain metastases who received cranial irradiation, 25 achieved complete palliation and remained free of neurologic symptoms, 4/4 achieved complete palliation; for moderate symptoms, 12/15; and for severe symptoms, 9/20. A summary of 12 reports from the literature shows that for patients with oat cell carcinoma of the lung receiving prophylactic cranial irradiation, the incidence of brain metastases is 28/525, while for patients receiving no prophylactic therapy it is 51/223. When the results of symptomatic and prophylactic cranial irradiation were compared, it was found that symptomatic irradiation controls central nervous system disease, as well as prophylactic therapy, while eliminating the need for brain irradiation in three-fourths of the patients.

  14. Impact of the control of symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation on health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Guédon-Moreau, Laurence; Capucci, Alessandro; Denjoy, Isabelle; Morgan, Caroline Claire; Périer, Antoine; Leplège, Alain; Kacet, Salem

    2010-01-01

    Aims Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) consider the related symptoms disruptive to their quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the control of symptomatic paroxysmal AF (PAF) on QoL. Methods and results Patients with symptomatic PAF were treated for 48 weeks with open-label flecainide acetate controlled release (Flec CR). Quality of life was assessed by SF-36 and Atrial Fibrillation Severity Scale scores at baseline, Week 12 (W12), W24, and W48. Of the 229 treated patients, 217 were analysed for QoL (123 with controlled and 94 with uncontrolled symptomatic PAF at inclusion). The controlled group had a similar or better QoL (SF-36) at baseline compared with a reference population (significantly better for: physical functioning, bodily pain, and physical component). The uncontrolled group had an inferior QoL (significantly worse for: role physical, general health, vitality, role emotional, social functioning, mental health, and mental component). When treated with Flec CR, the controlled group baseline QoL scores were maintained and the uncontrolled group scores were improved to a level comparable to the controlled group scores. Safety findings reflect the known clinical safety profile of flecainide acetate. Conclusion In this study, patients with uncontrolled symptomatic PAF at baseline had an inferior QoL to those with controlled symptomatic PAF. Following treatment with controlled-release flecainide acetate, their QoL improved to a level comparable to controlled patients. PMID:20154349

  15. Chronic gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines. PMID:25901896

  16. Nasal eucoleosis in a symptomatic dog from Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Lepri, Elvio; Morganti, Giulia; Di Palma, Stefano; Mechelli, Luca; Moretti, Annabella; Traversa, Donato

    2013-07-01

    A dog with chronic muco-purulent nasal discharge, sneezing, reverse sneezing and impaired scenting ability was diagnosed as being affected by nasal eucoleosis based upon rhinoscopic evidence of Eucoleus boehmi in situ, identification of the adult parasites in nasal biopsies, and eggs in the faeces by light and scanning electron microscopy. The dog was successfully treated with a single administration of moxidectin. A second course of moxidectin was required for about 10 weeks after the first treatment, because clinical signs recurred due to a likely re-infection. This second administration, along with measures undertaken to prevent geo- and coprophagic pica, resolved the parasitism, as demonstrated by negative copromicroscopic and rhinoscopic examinations, and prevented reinfestation for the next 4 months. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this represents the first report describing a clinical case of nasal eucoleosis with a demonstration of the adult parasites in situ in a dog from Italy where, until recently, infestation of E. boehmi was only detected by a coprological examination. Veterinarians and parasitologists should be aware of the occurrence of canine infection with E. boehmi. They should include this parasite in the differential diagnoses for animals suffering from upper airway distress and look systematically for it during rhinoscopic and copromicroscopic examinations. PMID:23433985

  17. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  18. PET evaluation of cerebral blood flow reactivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, H.M.; Brass, L.; Rich, D.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use acetazolamide (AZ) enhanced O-15 water PET to evaluate cerebral perfusion reserve in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. We hypothesized that impaired vasoreactivity would be associated with symptomatic disease and a higher likelihood of future ischemic events. Twenty-two patients with significant (>75%) carotid artery occlusion underwent cerebral blood flow imaging at baseline and following AZ infusion. Paired O-15 data sets were coregistered and globally normalized. Regions of interest were drawn on baseline blood flow images and superimposed upon (AZ - baseline) difference images to derive a % change in regional blood flow after AZ administration. The results showed a significant difference in cerebral perfusion reserve between symptomatic (n=19) and asymptomatic (n=3) carotid artery disease.

  19. Amygdalar Atrophy in Symptomatic AD Based on Diffeomorphometry: The BIOCARD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Younes, Laurent; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Brown, Timothy; Trinh, Huong; Lee, David S.; Tward, Daniel; Mahon, Pamela; Mori, Susumu; Albert, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the diffeomorphometry of MRI derived structural markers for the amygdala, in subjects with symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using linear mixed-effects models we show differences between those with symptomatic AD and controls. Based on template centered population analysis, the distribution of statistically significant change is seen in both the volume and shape of the amygdala in subjects with symptomatic AD compared to controls. We find that high-dimensional vertex based markers are statistically more significantly discriminating (p<.00001) than lower-dimensional markers and volumes, consistent with comparable findings in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease. Using a high-field 7T atlas, significant atrophy was found to be centered in the basomedial and basolateral subregions, with no evidence of centromedial involvement. PMID:25444602

  20. Circulating levels of soluble MICB in infants with symptomatic primary dengue virus infections.

    PubMed

    Libraty, Daniel H; Zhang, Lei; Obcena, AnaMae; Brion, Job D; Capeding, Rosario Z

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans. A MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was previously associated with symptomatic dengue compared to non-dengue causes of acute febrile illnesses in infants. We measured circulating levels of soluble (s)MICB in the sera of infants with symptomatic primary dengue virus infections. We found that serum levels of sMICB increased between pre-infection and acute illness among infants with symptomatic primary dengue virus infections. The likelihood of being hospitalized with an acute primary DENV infection during infancy also tended to be higher with increasing acute illness sMICB levels. The elevation of sMICB during acute primary DENV infections in infants likely represents an immune evasion strategy and contributes to the severity of the acute illness. PMID:24869966

  1. NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Huanglongbing-Asymptomatic and -Symptomatic Citrus Trees.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Deisy dos Santos; Carlos, Eduardo Fermino; Gil, Márcia Cristina Soares de Souza; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2015-09-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most severe diseases that affects citrus trees worldwide and is associated with the yet uncultured bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp. To assess the metabolomic differences between HLB-asymptomatic and -symptomatic tissues, extracts from leaf and root samples taken from a uniform 6-year-old commercial orchard of Valencia trees were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics. The results show that the symptomatic trees had higher sucrose content in their leaves and no variation in their roots. In addition, proline betaine and malate were detected in smaller amounts in the HLB-affected symptomatic leaves. The changes in metabolic processes of the plant in response to HLB are corroborated by the relationship between the bacterial levels and the metabolic profiles. PMID:26285838

  2. Neutralizing antibody titers against dengue virus correlate with protection from symptomatic infection in a longitudinal cohort.

    PubMed

    Katzelnick, Leah C; Montoya, Magelda; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-19

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect ∼ 390 million people annually; up to 100 million infections are symptomatic, and 500,000 cases progress to severe disease. Exposure to a heterologous DENV serotype, the specific infecting DENV strains, and the interval of time between infections, as well as age, ethnicity, genetic polymorphisms, and comorbidities of the host, are all risk factors for severe dengue. In contrast, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are thought to provide long-lived protection against symptomatic infection and severe dengue. The objective of dengue vaccines is to provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes simultaneously. However, the association between homotypic and heterotypic NAb titers and protection against symptomatic infection remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the titer of preinfection cross-reactive NAbs correlates with reduced likelihood of symptomatic secondary infection in a longitudinal pediatric dengue cohort in Nicaragua. The protective effect of NAb titers on infection outcome remained significant when controlled for age, number of years between infections, and epidemic force, as well as with relaxed or more stringent criteria for defining inapparent DENV infections. Further, individuals with higher NAb titers immediately after primary infection had delayed symptomatic infections compared with those with lower titers. However, overall NAb titers increased modestly in magnitude and remained serotype cross-reactive in the years between infections, possibly due to reexposure. These findings establish that anti-DENV NAb titers correlate with reduced probability of symptomatic DENV infection and provide insights into longitudinal characteristics of antibody-mediated immunity to DENV in an endemic setting. PMID:26729879

  3. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...

  4. Low back pain - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  5. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  6. Employees with Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the ... develop COPD. But some people smoke for years and never get ...

  8. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  9. Symptomatic and asymptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: Molecular differentiation by using microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH. PMID:12032329

  10. Symptomatic central canal rupture heralding the presence of an asymptomatic conus dermoid.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Manish K; Sinha, Sumit; Sharma, Bhawani Shanker; Garg, Ajay

    2007-08-01

    Dermoid cysts represent a rare group of tumors manifesting predominantly in adulthood. Rupture of these tumors is well described with it being symptomatic more commonly intracranially as compared to central canal rupture of intraspinally located dermoid tumor which not only is uncommon, but also frequently asymptomatic. The authors report an unusual case of asymptomatic conus dermoid in a young male diagnosed when investigated for a symptomatic isolated central canal rupture. Fatty contents within the central canal may be a harbinger of an underlying dermoid tumor and a whole spine MRI should be performed in such cases to rule out this bizarre presentation. PMID:17502997

  11. Symptomatic and asymptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: Molecular differentiation by using microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2002-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH.

  12. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  13. Chronic urticaria.

    PubMed Central

    Burrall, B. A.; Halpern, G. M.; Huntley, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    Urticaria affects 15% to 20% of the population once or more during a lifetime. Chronic urticaria is a frequent recurrent eruption over a period greater than 6 weeks; the cause remains a mystery in more than 75% of cases. Urticaria and angioedema may be produced by immunologic or nonimmunologic means. Urticarial vasculitis, contact urticaria, mastocytosis, physical urticarias, dermatographism, cholinergic urticaria, localized heat urticaria, cold urticaria, aquagenic urticaria, and vibratory angioedema all require specific evaluation and treatment. Chronic idiopathic urticaria is usually controlled by antihistamines; depending on the circadian rhythm of the eruption, sedative or nonsedative antihistamines are prescribed. Some patients will require a combination of H1 and H2 antagonists, or even parenteral corticosteroids. PMID:1970697

  14. Chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Burrall, B A; Halpern, G M; Huntley, A C

    1990-03-01

    Urticaria affects 15% to 20% of the population once or more during a lifetime. Chronic urticaria is a frequent recurrent eruption over a period greater than 6 weeks; the cause remains a mystery in more than 75% of cases. Urticaria and angioedema may be produced by immunologic or nonimmunologic means. Urticarial vasculitis, contact urticaria, mastocytosis, physical urticarias, dermatographism, cholinergic urticaria, localized heat urticaria, cold urticaria, aquagenic urticaria, and vibratory angioedema all require specific evaluation and treatment. Chronic idiopathic urticaria is usually controlled by antihistamines; depending on the circadian rhythm of the eruption, sedative or nonsedative antihistamines are prescribed. Some patients will require a combination of H1 and H2 antagonists, or even parenteral corticosteroids. PMID:1970697

  15. Factor Analysis Influencing Postoperative Hospital Stay and Medical Costs for Patients with Definite, Suspected, or Unmatched Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaki, Aoi; Takahashi, Koji; Fujii, Takehiro; Kumamoto, Koji; Fujii, Koji; Matsumoto, Eiichi; Miyahara, Shigeki; Kusuta, Tsukasa; Azumi, Yoshinori; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify significant independent preoperative factors influencing postoperative hospital stay (PHS) and medical costs (MC) in 171 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases and had definite, suspected, or unmatched acute cholecystitis (AC) diagnosis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13). Methods. The 171 patients were classified according to the combination of diagnostic criteria including local signs of inflammation (A), systemic signs of inflammation (B), and imaging findings (C): A+ B+ C (definite diagnosis, n = 84), A+ B (suspected diagnosis, n = 25), (A or B) + C (n = 10), A (n = 41), and B (n = 11). Results. The A+ B + C and (A or B) + C groups had equivalent PHS and MC, suggesting that imaging findings were essential for AC diagnosis. PHS and MC were significantly increased in the order of severity grades based on TG13. Performance status (PS), white blood cell count, and severity grade were identified as preoperative factors influencing PHS by multivariate analysis, and significant independent preoperative factors influencing MC were age, PS, preoperative biliary drainage, hospital stay before surgery, albumin, and severity grade. Conclusion. PS and severity grade significantly influenced prolonged PHS and increased MC.

  16. Radiographic features of esophageal involvement in chronic graft-vs. -host disease

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, G.B.; Sullivan, K.M.; Plumley, T.F.

    1984-03-01

    Chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) is an important late complication of allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation. It resembles several naturally occurring autoimmune diseases and involves the skin, mouth, eyes, liver, and esophagus. The radiographic findings of 14 symptomatic patients with chronic GVHD involving the esophagus were reviewed and found to include webs, ringlike narrowings, and tapering strictures in the mid and upper esophagus. Esophagoscopy revealed characteristic desquamation in the 13 patients studied, but barium studies detected this lesion in only one patient. Knowledge of the site and characteristics of esophageal involvement with chronic GVHD assists the radiologic evaluation of this disorder.

  17. The presence of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus infection in Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection in the U.S. is reported for the first time. Using molecular methods, the evidence of infection of honey bees with CBPV has been detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic bees. While our seven year’s survey showed that the CBPV infect...

  18. Radiotherapy for Symptomatic Vertebral Hemangiomas: Results of a Multicenter Study and Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Heyd, Reinhard; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Rades, Dirk; Winkler, Cornelia; Eich, Hans T.; Bruns, Frank; Gosheger, Georg; Willich, Normann; Micke, Oliver

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: The current study analyzes the potential role of radiotherapy (RT) in symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (SVH). Methods and Materials: Seven cooperating German institutions collected clinical information, treatment plans, and outcome data for all patients with SVH referred for local RT. Results: From 1969 to 2008, a total of 84 patients with 96 symptomatic lesions were irradiated for SVH. The primary indication for radiotherapy was pain (97.6%), and 28.6% of patients had additional neurological symptoms. RT was performed at a median total dose of 34 Gy, with a median single dose of 2.0 Gy. After receiving a median follow-up of 68 months, the overall patient response rate was 90.5%. Complete symptom remission occurred in 61.9% of patients, 28.6% of patients had partial pain relief, and 9.5% of patients had no pain relief. In 26.2% of patients, radiological signs of reossification were observed in long-term follow-up but not significantly correlated with pain relief. Most importantly, total doses of >=34 Gy resulted in significantly greater symptomatic relief and control rate than total doses of <34 Gy. Conclusions: This study consists of the largest database of cases reported so far using RT for SVH. RT is easy, safe, and effective for pain relief treatment for SVH. Total doses of at least 34 Gy give the best symptomatic response.

  19. Laparoscopic fenestration of pancreatic serous cystadenoma: Minimally invasive approach for symptomatic benign disease

    PubMed Central

    Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Rasoaherinomenjanahary, Fanjandrainy; Sauvanet, Alain; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre; Rebours, Vinciane; Lévy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Serous cystadenoma (SC) is a benign pancreatic cystic tumor. Surgical resection is recommended for symptomatic forms, but laparoscopic fenestration of large symptomatic macrocystic SC was not yet described in the literature. In this study, 3 female patients underwent laparoscopic fenestration for macrocystic SC (12-14 cm). Diagnosis was established via magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasound, with intra-cystic dosage of tumors markers (ACE and CA19-9) in 2 patients. All patients were symptomatic and operated on 15-60 mo after diagnosis. Radiological evaluation showed constant cyst growth. Patients were informed about this new surgical modality that can avoid pancreatic resection. The mean operative time was 103 min (70-150 min) with one conversion. The post-operative course was marked by a grade A pancreatic fistula in one patient and was uneventful in the other two. The hospital stay was 3, 10, and 18 d, respectively. The diagnosis of macrocystic SC was histologically-confirmed in all cases. At the last follow-up (13-26 mo), all patients were symptom-free, and radiological evaluation showed complete disappearance of the cyst. Laparoscopic fenestration, as opposed to resection, should be considered for large symptomatic macrocystic SC, thereby avoiding pancreatic resection morbidity and mortality. PMID:26078583

  20. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Symptomatic Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Han, Wanda G H; Hodemaekers, Hennie M; Nagarajah, Bhawani; Poelen, Martien M C; Helm, Kina; Janssen, Riny; van Els, Ccile A C M

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis, caused by infection with the gram negative B. pertussis bacterium, is a serious respiratory illness that can last for months. While B. pertussis infection rates are estimated between 1-10% in the general population, notifications of symptomatic pertussis only comprise 0.01-0.1% indicating that most individuals clear B. pertussis infections without developing (severe) clinical symptoms. In this study we investigated whether genetic risk factors are involved in the development of symptomatic pertussis upon B. pertussis infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes, MBL2, IL17A, TNF?, VDR, and IL10 were genotyped in a unique Dutch cohort of symptomatic clinically confirmed (ex-)pertussis patients and in a Dutch population cohort. Of the seven investigated SNPs in five genes, a polymorphism in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (rs10735810) was associated with pertussis. The VDR major allele and its homozygous genotype were more present in the symptomatic pertussis patient cohort compared to the control population cohort. Interestingly, the VDR major allele correlated also with the duration of reported pertussis symptoms. Vitamin D3 (VD3) and VDR are important regulators of immune activation. Altogether, these findings suggest that polymorphisms in the VDR gene may affect immune activation and the clinical outcome of B. pertussis infection. PMID:26894582

  1. Use of the Crawford tube for symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Nyu-Xia; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Jin, Xiu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effectiveness of the Crawford tube in treating symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction. METHODS A protocol was adopted for the management of symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction. Patients who suffered symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction in both eyes were included in the study. One eye was treated with Crawford tube intubation and the other eye was treated with medication therapy. Degree of watering, patient satisfaction, and symptomatic improvement were carefully evaluated by one of the authors at the end of the follow-up period, after Crawford tube removal, to ascertain functional results. RESULTS Thirty-seven adult patients (37 eyes) underwent Crawford tube intubation for functional epiphora. The mean follow-up time after removal of the tube was 14.8±4.8mo. The procedure was an overall success in 28 eyes (75.7%), with symptoms improving significantly. Two eyes (5.4%) were relieved of indoor epiphora, two (5.4%) had minimal epiphora outdoors, but only with wind or cold, and five (13.5%) continued to experience tearing both indoors and outdoors. Thirty of the patients (81%) expressed satisfaction with the procedure. CONCLUSION Crawford tube insertion is an effective, safe, simple, and relatively noninvasive treatment strategy for functional lacrimal system obstruction. PMID:26949652

  2. Symptomatic Helicobacter pylori infection in young patients with severe neurologic impairment.

    PubMed

    Proujansky, R; Shaffer, S E; Vinton, N E; Bachrach, S J

    1994-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in five patients with profound neurologic impairment who were undergoing evaluation for gastrointestinal symptoms, and it was subsequently identified in 7 of 61 patients with symptoms whose condition was evaluated prospectively. Institutionalized patients were at greater risk of infection. Treatment of H. pylori infection resulted in symptomatic improvement for the majority of patients. PMID:7965428

  3. Bird's nest filter causing symptomatic hydronephrosis following transmural penetration of the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Stacey, C S; Manhire, A R; Rose, D H; Bishop, M C

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of symptomatic hydronephrosis caused by transcaval penetration of a Bird's Nest filter. Perforation of the wall of the inferior vena cava (IVC) following insertion of a caval filter is a well-recognized complication. Whilst two cases of hydronephrosis have been described with Greenfield filters, no case involving a Bird's Nest filter has been reported previously. PMID:15109231

  4. Bird's Nest Filter Causing Symptomatic Hydronephrosis Following Transmural Penetration of the Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, C.S. Manhire, A.R.; Rose, D.H.; Bishop, M.C.

    2004-01-15

    We report a case of symptomatic hydronephrosis caused by transcaval penetration of a Bird's Nest filter. Perforation of the wall of the inferior vena cava (IVC) following insertion of a caval filter is a well-recognized complication. Whilst two cases of hydronephrosis have been described with Greenfield filters, no case involving a Bird's Nest filter has been reported previously.

  5. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Justin J.; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J.; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region. PMID:26981926

  6. Coloured Filters Improve Exclusion of Perceptual Noise in Visually Symptomatic Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Nadia; Manahilov, Velitchko; Simpson, William

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of visually symptomatic dyslexics have found that their contrast thresholds for pattern discrimination are the same as non-dyslexics. However, when noise is added to the stimuli, contrast thresholds rise markedly in dyslexics compared with non-dyslexics. This result could be due to impaired noise exclusion in dyslexics. Some…

  7. Anaplasmataceae-Specific PCR for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Guidance for Symptomatic Neoehrlichiosis in Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Julia; Mitteregger, Dieter; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Ramharter, Michael; Burgmann, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia is increasingly being recognized worldwide as a tickborne pathogen. We report a case of symptomatic neoehrlichiosis in an immunocompetent Austria resident who had recently returned from travel in Tanzania. The use of Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR to determine the duration of antimicrobial therapy seems reasonable to avert recrudescence. PMID:26811875

  8. Anaplasmataceae-Specific PCR for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Guidance for Symptomatic Neoehrlichiosis in Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    Schwameis, Michael; Auer, Julia; Mitteregger, Dieter; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Ramharter, Michael; Burgmann, Heinz; Lagler, Heimo

    2016-02-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia is increasingly being recognized worldwide as a tickborne pathogen. We report a case of symptomatic neoehrlichiosis in an immunocompetent Austria resident who had recently returned from travel in Tanzania. The use of Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR to determine the duration of antimicrobial therapy seems reasonable to avert recrudescence. PMID:26811875

  9. Functional Compensation of Motor Function in Pre-Symptomatic Huntington's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloppel, Stefan; Draganski, Bogdan; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Weiller, Cornelius; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Involuntary choreiform movements are a clinical hallmark of Huntington's disease. Studies in clinically affected patients suggest a shift of motor activations to parietal cortices in response to progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we studied pre-symptomatic gene carriers to examine the compensatory mechanisms that underlie the phenomenon of…

  10. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Symptomatic Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wanda G. H.; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Nagarajah, Bhawani; Poelen, Martien M. C.; Helm, Kina; Janssen, Riny; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis, caused by infection with the gram negative B. pertussis bacterium, is a serious respiratory illness that can last for months. While B. pertussis infection rates are estimated between 1–10% in the general population, notifications of symptomatic pertussis only comprise 0.01–0.1% indicating that most individuals clear B. pertussis infections without developing (severe) clinical symptoms. In this study we investigated whether genetic risk factors are involved in the development of symptomatic pertussis upon B. pertussis infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes, MBL2, IL17A, TNFα, VDR, and IL10 were genotyped in a unique Dutch cohort of symptomatic clinically confirmed (ex-)pertussis patients and in a Dutch population cohort. Of the seven investigated SNPs in five genes, a polymorphism in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (rs10735810) was associated with pertussis. The VDR major allele and its homozygous genotype were more present in the symptomatic pertussis patient cohort compared to the control population cohort. Interestingly, the VDR major allele correlated also with the duration of reported pertussis symptoms. Vitamin D3 (VD3) and VDR are important regulators of immune activation. Altogether, these findings suggest that polymorphisms in the VDR gene may affect immune activation and the clinical outcome of B. pertussis infection. PMID:26894582

  11. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; O'Hagan, Justin J; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region. PMID:26981926

  12. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in symptomatic patients with syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Inverso, G; Brustowicz, K A; Katz, E; Padwa, B L

    2016-02-01

    The reported prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis (SCS) varies due to inconsistent definitions of OSA, lack of uniform diagnostic testing, and different mixes of syndromic diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of OSA in symptomatic patients with SCS, and to determine whether this differs by phenotypic diagnosis. A retrospective cohort study of children with SCS was conducted. The primary outcome was presence of OSA diagnosed by polysomnography. The prevalence of OSA was calculated and stratified by diagnosis to compare differences in prevalence and severity (mild, moderate, or severe). The prevalence of OSA in symptomatic patients was 74.2%. Patients with Apert syndrome had the highest prevalence (80.6%), followed by Pfeiffer, Crouzon with acanthosis nigricans, and Crouzon syndromes (72.7%, 66.7%, and 64.7%, respectively). Severe OSA was most common in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome (45.5%), while patients with Apert and Crouzon syndromes were more likely to have moderate OSA (29.0% and 23.5%, respectively). Given that 56.4% of patients with SCS are symptomatic and that 74.2% of these symptomatic patients have OSA, it is recommended that a screening level I polysomnography be part of the clinical care for all patients with SCS. PMID:26602951

  13. Treatment of a Symptomatic Forearm Muscle Herniation With a Mesh Graft

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Brett S.; Bruce, Jeremy; Robertson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Symptomatic muscle herniations are an unusual cause of upper extremity pain in the athlete that is rarely reported in the literature. Out of 18 reported cases of upper extremity herniations, only 3 were caused by strenuous exertion. This article describes a successful repair of a 21-year-old rock climber’s ventral forearm herniation with polypropylene mesh. PMID:23016006

  14. Splinting is effective for night-only symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Halac, Gulistan; Demir, Saliha; Yucel, Hulya; Niftaliyev, Elvin; Kocaman, Gulsen; Duruyen, Humeyra; Kendirli, Tansel; Asil, Talip

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve. Splinting is one of the most used conservative treatment methods for carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of splinting in carpal tunnel syndrome patients who were divided into two groups according to their level of symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 carpal tunnel syndrome patients were divided into 2 groups based on having symptoms only at night or during the day were included in this study. These two groups were compared at the end of a 3-months splinting therapy in terms of improvement of severity of symptoms, functional capacity, pain level, and electrophysiological findings. [Results] Pain levels of both groups were similar at baseline. After splinting, pain levels of night-only symptomatic patients were lower than those of sustained symptomatic ones. No differences were found in symptom severity, functional capacity, and the electrophysiological findings in either group after the splinting. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that splinting alone may be sufficient to decrease the pain for night-only symptomatic patients. Combined therapy methods may be needed for sustained symptomatic patients. PMID:25995540

  15. Functional Compensation of Motor Function in Pre-Symptomatic Huntington's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloppel, Stefan; Draganski, Bogdan; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Weiller, Cornelius; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Involuntary choreiform movements are a clinical hallmark of Huntington's disease. Studies in clinically affected patients suggest a shift of motor activations to parietal cortices in response to progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we studied pre-symptomatic gene carriers to examine the compensatory mechanisms that underlie the phenomenon of

  16. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence as a result of jugular bulb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Thénint, Marie-Aude; Barbier, Charlotte; Hitier, Martin; Patron, Vincent; Saleme, Suzana; Courthéoux, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A new endovascular treatment consisting of stent-assisted coil implantation is described for jugular bulb abnormalities causing symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence. Three patients presenting with vertigo associated with pulsatile tinnitus or hearing loss were treated. This technique cured the vertigo and pulsatile tinnitus in all patients and preserved normal cerebral venous drainage with no side effects. PMID:25442142

  17. Can angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect against symptomatic radiation pneumonitis?

    PubMed

    Wang, L W; Fu, X L; Clough, R; Sibley, G; Fan, M; Bentel, G C; Marks, L B; Anscher, M S

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors while receiving radiation therapy for lung cancer are protected from developing symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. The records of 213 eligible patients receiving thoracic irradiation for lung cancer with curative intent at Duke University Medical Center from 1994-1997 were reviewed. Of the 213 patients, 26 (12.2%) were on ACE inhibitors (usually for the management of hypertension) during radiotherapy (group 1); the remaining 187 patients (group 2) were not. Patients were irradiated, with fields shaped to protect normal tissues, with total doses of 50-80 Gy. After treatment, patients were generally followed every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months thereafter. Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis was scored according to modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (i.e., radiographic changes alone were not sufficient for the diagnosis of pneumonitis). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonitis between the two groups (P = 0.75). Fifteen percent of the patients on ACE inhibitors (group 1) developed symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury compared to 12% of the patients not receiving these drugs (group 2). Although patients in group 1 tended to develop pneumonitis slightly sooner than did patients in group 2, this difference also was not significant (P = 0. 8). Within the dose range prescribed for treating hypertension, ACE inhibitors do not appear to either decrease the incidence or delay the onset of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis among lung cancer patients receiving thoracic irradiation. PMID:10761000

  18. Symptomatic complete heart block leading to a diagnosis of Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puri, Aniket; Pradhan, Akshyaya; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Singh, Vikas; Sethi, Rishi; Narain, Varun S

    2012-01-01

    Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a rare syndrome characterized by the triad of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, pigmentary retinopathy and cardiac conduction system disturbances; it is a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with which usually presents before the patient reaches the age of 20. Here we present a case report of a patient with KSS who presented with symptomatic complete heart block. PMID:23102393

  19. Treatment failure in patients with chronic Blastocystis infection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Stark, Damien

    2014-02-01

    This article reports long-term infection and treatment failure in 18 symptomatic individuals infected with Blastocystis spp. Patients were initially treated with either metronidazole, iodoquinol or triple combination therapy consisting of nitazoxanide, furazolidone and secnidazole. Following treatment, resolution of clinical symptoms did not occur and follow-up testing revealed ongoing infection with the same subtype. Patients then underwent secondary treatment with a variety of antimicrobial agents but remained symptomatic with Blastocystis spp. still present in faeces. Sequencing of the SSU rDNA was completed on all isolates and four subtypes were identified in this group: ST1, ST3, ST4 and ST5. This study highlights the lack of efficacy of several commonly used antimicrobial regimens in the treatment of Blastocystis and the chronic nature of some infections. It also demonstrates the need for further research into treatment options for Blastocystis infection. PMID:24243286

  20. Therapeutic Alliance in Antidepressant Treatment: Cause or Effect of Symptomatic Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Roose, Steven P.; Barber, Jacques P.; Rutherford, Bret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that in psychotherapy alliance is a predictor of symptomatic change, even while accounting for the temporal precedence between alliance and symptoms. However, the extent to which alliance predicts outcomes in psychopharmacology is yet to be fully investigated considering the fact that alliance can be the result, rather than the cause, of symptomatic change. The current prospective study examined whether the alliance predicts outcomes in psychopharmacology, while controlling for previous symptomatic change throughout the course of treatment. Methods Data from a psychopharmacology randomized controlled trial for the treatment of adult major depression (N=42), including patients’ rating of the alliance with the physician, were analyzed. Multilevel models controlling for autoregressive lag of the dependent variable were used in all analyses to examine the effect of alliance on outcome. Results The effect of alliance on outcome, while controlling for prior symptomatic levels, was significant and restricted to the middle phase of treatment (week 4, p=0.005), when most of the reductions in symptoms were observed. Exploratory analyses of differences between placebo and medication conditions suggest that differences between patients in their average alliance levels predicted a greater reduction in symptoms in the placebo compared to the medication conditions (p=.008). The main limitation is the small cohort size. Conclusions Findings suggest an effect of alliance on outcome in psychopharmacology, which is not merely the result of previous symptomatic levels. This effect may be more robust in conditions that do not include active treatment (placebo), possibly serving as a compensatory effect. PMID:25832111

  1. Surgical Treatment for Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    The source of chronic pelvic pain may be reproductive organ, urological, musculoskeletal - neurological, gastrointestinal, or myofascial. A psychological component almost always is a factor, whether as an antecedent event or presenting as depression as result of the pain. Surgical interventions for chronic pelvic pain include: 1) resection or vaporization of vulvar/vestibular tissue for human papillion virus (HPV) induced or chronic vulvodynia/vestibulitis; 2) cervical dilation for cervix stenosis; 3) hysteroscopic resection for intracavitary or submucous myomas or intracavitary polyps; 4) myomectomy or myolysis for symptomatic intramural, subserosal or pedunculated myomas; 5) adhesiolysis for peritubular and periovarian adhesions, and enterolysis for bowel adhesions, adhesiolysis for all thick adhesions in areas of pain as well as thin ahesions affecting critical structures such as ovaries and tubes; 6) salpingectomy or neosalpingostomy for symptomatic hydrosalpinx; 7) ovarian treatment for symptomatic ovarian pain; 8) uterosacral nerve vaporization for dysmenorrhea; 9) presacral neurectomy for disabling central pain primarily of uterine but also of bladder origin; 10) resection of endometriosis from all surfaces including removal from bladder and bowel as well as from the rectovaginal septal space. Complete resection of all disease in a debulking operation is essential; 11) appendectomy for symptoms of chronic appendicitis, and chronic right lower quadrant pain; 12) uterine suspension for symptoms of collision dyspareunia, pelvic congestion, severe dysmenorrhea, cul-desac endometriosis; 13) repair of all hernia defects whether sciatic, inguinal, femoral, Spigelian, ventral or incisional; 14) hysterectomy if relief has not been achieved by organ-preserving surgery such as resection of all endometriosis and presacral neurectomy, or the central pain continues to be disabling. Before such a radical step is taken, MRI of the uterus to confirm presence of adenomyosis may be helpful; 15) trigger point injection therapy for myofascial pain and dysfunction in pelvic and abdominal muscles. With application of all currently available laparoscopic modalities, 80% of women with chronic pelvic pain will report a decrease of pain to tolerable levels, a significant average reduction which is maintained in 3-year follow-up. Individual factors contributing to pain cannot be determined, although the frequency of endometriosis dictates that its complete treatment be attempted. The beneficial effect of uterosacral nerve ablation may be as much due to treatment of occult endometriosis in the uterosacral ligaments as to transection of the nerve fibers themselves. The benefit of the presacral neurectomy appears to be definite but strictly limited to midline pain. Appendectomy, herniorraphy, and even hysterectomy are all appropriate therapies for patients with chronic pelvic pain. Even with all laparoscopic procedures employed, fully 20% of patients experience unsatisfactory results. In addition, these patients are often depressed. Whether the pain contributes to the depression or the depression to the pain is irrelevant to them. Selected referrals to an integrated pain center with psychologic assistance together with judicious prescription of antidepressant drugs will likely benefit both women who respond to surgical intervention and those who do not. A maximum surgical effort must be expended to resect all endometriosis, restore normal pelvic anatomy, resect nerve fibers, and treat surgically accessible disease. In addition, it is important to provide patients with chronic pelvic pain sufficient psychologic support to overcome the effects of the condition, and to assist them with underlying psychologic disorders. PMID:9876726

  2. Serum Cytokine of IL-10 and IL-12 in Chronic Liver Disease: The Immune and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    El-Emshaty, Hoda Mohamed; Nasif, Wesam Ahmad; Mohamed, Ibrahim Eldsoky

    2015-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential association of serum interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 with HCV infection in chronic liver disease and to evaluate their possible role as new biomarkers in HCC development. Material and Methods. Forty-one patients suffering from chronic liver disease (33 patients harbor HCV infection and 8 are HCV-negative patients) were enrolled in the present study and histopathologically diagnosed into 15 patients with HCC, 16 patients with LC, and 10 patients with liver histology compatible with precirrhotic hepatitis (PCH). Ten patients complaining of cholecystitis were included as nondisease control. Serum levels of IL-10 and IL-12 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. HCV-infected patients showed elevated expression of IL-10 and IL-12 compared to nondisease controls (P < 0.0001) but there is no significant difference with respect to their expression in HCV-negative patients. Serum IL-10 and IL-12 were elevated significantly with disease progression (P < 0.0001) and a positive correlation coefficient was detected between IL-10, IL-12 (r = 0.785, P < 0.0001), and transaminase values suggesting their possible role in chronic inflammation progression leading to HCC. Conclusion. IL-10 and IL-12 might be involved in chronic inflammation progression leading to HCC and their evaluation could be used as new biomarkers to reflect the degree of inflammation in HCC development. PMID:26783377

  3. Chronic Urticaria: Indian Context—Challenges and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sujoy; Maitra, Anirban; Hissaria, Pravin; Roy, Sitesh; Padukudru Anand, Mahesh; Nag, Nalin; Singh, Harpal

    2013-01-01

    Urticaria is a common condition that occurs in both children and adults. Most cases have no specific allergic trigger and the aetiology of urticaria remains idiopathic and occasionally spontaneous in nature. Inappropriate advice such as avoidance of foods (milk, egg, prawn, and brinjal) is common place in certain sections of India mostly by nonspecialists that should not be routinely recommended. It is important to look for physical urticarias such as pressure urticaria in chronic cases, which may be present either alone or in combination with other causes. Autoimmune causes for chronic urticaria have been found to play an important role in a significant proportion of patients. Long-acting nonsedating antihistamines at higher than the standard doses is safe and effective. Quality of life is affected adversely in patients with chronic symptomatic urticaria and some may require multidisciplinary management. PMID:24223585

  4. Chronic Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Johannes; Modi, Pradip

    1990-01-01

    Paranasal sinuses, which communicate with the nasal passages through the sinus ostia, are essentially sterile structures, sterility being maintained by a healthy epithelium with normal actively beating cilia. Irritants, including viruses and bacteria, are trapped in mucus and cilia to allow the clearance of sinuses through the natural ostia into the nasal cavity. Interference with this normal physiological function results in inflammation and infection within the sinus cavities. All of the sinuses are subjected to the same environmental as well as physiological stimuli; thus it is uncommon for a single sinus to be infected and for the others to remain entirely normal. Allergic and non-allergic vasomotor rhinitis should be differentiated from chronic bacterial rhinosinusitis. The understanding of these diseases cannot be separated from the physiological function of the sinus mucosa. PMID:21234027

  5. Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Disease and Decreased Risk of Cancer-Specific Mortality: A Prospective, Population-Based Study (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Benito-Len, Julin; Aleja, Jess Gonzlez de la; Martnez-Salio, Antonio; Louis, Elan D; Lichtman, Judith H; Bermejo-Pareja, Flix

    2015-08-01

    The few studies that have assessed the association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer have had conflicting results. In addition, these studies ascertained participants either from treatment settings (ie, service-based studies) or by using a records linkage system (ie, medical records of patients evaluated at clinics or hospitals) and, therefore, were prone to selection bias. Our purpose was to estimate the risk of cancer mortality in a large population-based sample of elderly people, comparing participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (atherosclerotic stroke and coronary disease) to their counterparts without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (ie, controls) in the same population.In this population-based, prospective study (Neurological Disorders of Central Spain, NEDICES), 5262 elderly community-dwelling participants with and without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease were identified and followed for a median of 12.1 years, after which the death certificates of those who died were reviewed.A total of 2701 (53.3%) of 5262 participants died, including 314 (68.6%) of 458 participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and 2387 (49.7%) of 4804 controls. Cancer mortality was reported significantly less often in those with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (15.6%) than in controls (25.6%) (P?symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (HR?=?0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.98, P?=?0.04) vs. those without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (reference group). In an adjusted Cox model, HR?=?0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.89; P?=?0.01.This population-based, prospective study suggests that there is an inverse association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer mortality. PMID:26266364

  6. [Nootropics and antioxidants in the complex therapy of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Savenkov, A A; Badalian, O L; Avakian, G N

    2013-01-01

    To study the possibility of application of nootropics and antioxidants in the complex antiepileptic therapy, we examined 75 patients with symptomatic focal posttraumatic epilepsy. A statistically significant reduction in the number of epileptic seizures, improvement of cognitive function and quality of life of the patients as well as a decrease in the severity of depression and epileptic changes in the EEG were identified. The potentiation of antiepileptic activity of basic drugs, normalization of brain's electrical activity and reduction in EEG epileptiform activity, in particular coherent indicators of slow-wave activity, were noted after treatment with the antioxidant mexidol. A trend towards the improvement of neuropsychological performance and quality of life was observed. There was a lack of seizure aggravation typical of many nootropic drugs. Thus, phenotropil and mexidol can be recommended for complex treatment of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy. PMID:23887448

  7. A Critical Protection Level Derived from Dengue Infection Mathematical Model Considering Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggriani, N.; Supriatna, A. K.; Soewono, E.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we formulate a model of dengue fever transmission by considering the presence of asymptomatic and symptomatic compartments. The model takes the form as a system of differential equations representing a host-vector SIR (Susceptible - Infective -Recovered) disease transmission. It is assumed that both host and vector populations are constant. It is also assumed that reinfection of recovered hosts by the disease is possible due to a wanning immunity in human body. We analyze the model to determine the qualitative behavior of the model solution and use the concept of effective basic reproduction number (fraktur Rp) as a control criteria of the disease transmission. The effect of mosquito biting protection (e.g. by using insect repellent) is also considered. We compute the long-term ratio of the asymptomatic and symptomatic classes and show a condition for which the iceberg phenomenon could appear.

  8. Simultaneous symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst and GH secreting pituitary adenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bader, Lucas J; Carter, Kawanaa D; Latchaw, Richard E; Ellis, William G; Wexler, Jason A; Watson, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    A case of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst and growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenoma is described. A patient presented with a visual field deficit and a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study demonstrated compression of the optic chiasm by a large suprasellar cyst and a small lesion in the sellar consistent with a microadenoma. Preoperative clinical evaluation revealed mild acromegalic features, glucose intolerance, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and carpel tunnel syndrome, and blood testing confirmed an elevated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). A modified transsphenoidal skull based approach was performed for selective transsphenoidal adenomectomy and decompression of the surprasellar cyst. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course with resolution of the visual field deficits and dysmenorrhea. Endocrine testing at two-month post procedure were normal. While there have been a small number of cases reported of concomitant pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, there is no report known to these authors of coexisting symptomatic lesions. PMID:15638297

  9. Cartilage Degeneration at Symptomatic Persistent Olecranon Physis in Adolescent Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Enishi, Tetsuya; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Elbow overuse injuries are common in adolescent baseball players, but symptomatic persistent olecranon physis is rare, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Purpose. To examine the histopathological and imaging findings of advanced persistent olecranon physis. Methods. The olecranon physes of 2 baseball pitchers, aged 14 and 15 years, were examined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical specimens were examined histologically. Results. T2-weighted MRI revealed alterations in the intrachondral signal intensity possibly related to collagen degeneration and increased free water content. Histological findings of specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin showed complete disorganization of the cartilage structure, hypocellularity, chondrocyte cluster formation, and moderately reduced staining. All these findings are hallmarks of osteoarthritis and are suggestive of cartilage degeneration. Conclusion. Growth plate degeneration was evident in advanced cases of symptomatic persistent olecranon physis. These findings contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25580304

  10. Cyclophosphamide-induced symptomatic hyponatremia, a rare but severe side effect: a case report.

    PubMed

    Elazzazy, Shereen; Mohamed, Asmaa Elhassan; Gulied, Amaal

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is commonly used in the treatment of malignant diseases. Symptomatic severe hyponatremia induced by low-dose cyclophosphamide is very uncommon worldwide. We report a case of severe symptomatic hyponatremia that developed in a female breast cancer patient following the first cycle of chemotherapy containing low-dose cyclophosphamide. Her laboratory test showed serum Na of 112 mmol/L. Her hyponatremia was initially treated with sodium bicarbonate. She completely recovered without neurological deficits after slow correction of the serum Na concentration. Although hyponatremia is a rare toxicity it should always be considered during the usage of cyclophosphamide, even if the dosage is low, especially with concurrent use of other medications that impair water excretion, like chlorthalidone. This report describes the first reported case of cyclophosphamide-induced hyponatremia in Qatar. PMID:25336968

  11. Diagnosis and perioperative management of ruptured AAA mimicking symptomatic groin hernia

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Holger Jan; Becker, Daniel; Rancic, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) can infrequently present as symptomatic groin hernia. This misleading form of presentation often leads to erroneous preoperative management resulting in poor survival. Case presentation Two patients with RAAA mimicking symptomatic groin hernia underwent different preoperative managements pointing out the importance of the principles of hypotensive haemostasis in the scope of this emergency scenario. Conclusion Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) remains the recommended diagnostic tool—for both safe diagnosis of the ruptured aneurysm and precise preoperative planning. Endovascular aortic repair of the RAAA—if feasible—is the treatment of choice. This rare form of RAAA manifestation should call physicians attention—especially in patients with known abdominal aortic aneurysms in their preceding medical history. PMID:26656148

  12. Discourses of the body in euthanasia: symptomatic, dependent, shameful and temporal.

    PubMed

    Street, A F; Kissane, D W

    2001-09-01

    This theoretical paper is derived from a discourse analysis of the textual material from a study of the seven deaths associated with legalised euthanasia in the Northern Territory, Australia. The textual analysis utilises evidence from interviews, letters written by people seeking euthanasia, medical reports, coroner's records and media reports concerning the social experiment of legalised euthanasia in Australia. The paper does not discuss the euthanasia debate. It argues that the body is a neglected concern in the debates and offers a construction of the discourses of the body as symptomatic, dependent, shameful and temporal. Medical discourses frame the body as symptomatic but these people were also concerned with the loss of autonomy associated with dependence, with shame connected with loss of bodily functions and the embodied experience of determining a 'time to die'. PMID:11882215

  13. Symptomatic Lymphocele Formation After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Garagozova, Nigar; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Beier, Anna; Köhler, Christhardt; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In early stage cervical cancer, nodal status is the most important prognostic factor, and execution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is currently an integral part of surgical therapy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been progressively incorporated with surgical therapy and could reduce morbidity. However, the current incidence of complications exclusively related to the procedure is unknown. We report on a 29-year-old woman affected by cervical cancer (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique Stage 1b1), who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in combination with radical vaginal trachelectomy, and who later developed a symptomatic pelvic lymphocele that required surgical therapy. Conservative procedures in the pelvic lymph nodes are not free of complications, especially with regard to the formation of symptomatic lymphoceles. This report brings to light an important discussion about the exact magnitude of the complications associated with the procedure. PMID:26260297

  14. Effect of indomethacin on the fetal ductus arteriosus during treatment of symptomatic polyhydramnios.

    PubMed

    Kirshon, B; Mari, G; Moise, K J; Wasserstrum, N

    1990-05-01

    Ten pregnancies with 13 fetuses complicated by symptomatic polyhydramnios were treated with indomethacin. A baseline fetal echocardiogram was obtained before therapy, repeated 24 hours after the initiation of indomethacin and then performed weekly provided that the ductus arteriosus remained patent. The mean duration of indomethacin therapy was 28.3 +/- 18.9 days. The starting dose in all patients was 25 mg orally every six hours. The ductus arteriosus was noted to constrict in four patients, with the development of tricuspid regurgitation in one. One of the constrictions occurred after 23 days of therapy. In one patient with constriction a reduction of the indomethacin dosage was not associated with constriction, while in the other three, constriction was still evident at a reduced dosage. All constrictions and the tricuspid regurgitation resolved in utero within 24 hours after discontinuation of the indomethacin. We recommend careful monitoring of the fetal ductus arteriosus when treating symptomatic polyhydramnios with indomethacin. PMID:2191133

  15. Choroid plexus papilloma in a dog surviving for 15 months after diagnosis with symptomatic therapy.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Teruo; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nishi, Atsuko; Shii, Hiroki; Nagayoshi, Takako; Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    A 4-year-old female French bulldog presented with a 6-month history of right-sided head tilt and acute onset ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large mass lesion at the cerebellomedullary pontine angle. The dog was able to stand and walk after beginning symptomatic therapy with prednisolone, acetazolamide and glycerin. Magnetic resonance imaging 10 months after the first examination indicated slight expansion of the tumor. The dog was able to walk with continuous symptomatic therapy for 15 months until death, although the head tilt persisted. On postmortem examination, the gross tumor was slightly larger than when seen on the second MRI scan and was histopathologically diagnosed as a choroid plexus papilloma. PMID:26321300

  16. Choroid plexus papilloma in a dog surviving for 15 months after diagnosis with symptomatic therapy

    PubMed Central

    ITOH, Teruo; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NISHI, Atsuko; SHII, Hiroki; NAGAYOSHI, Takako; SAKAMOTO, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A 4-year-old female French bulldog presented with a 6-month history of right-sided head tilt and acute onset ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large mass lesion at the cerebellomedullary pontine angle. The dog was able to stand and walk after beginning symptomatic therapy with prednisolone, acetazolamide and glycerin. Magnetic resonance imaging 10 months after the first examination indicated slight expansion of the tumor. The dog was able to walk with continuous symptomatic therapy for 15 months until death, although the head tilt persisted. On postmortem examination, the gross tumor was slightly larger than when seen on the second MRI scan and was histopathologically diagnosed as a choroid plexus papilloma. PMID:26321300

  17. Initial therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Eichhorst, Barbara; Cramer, Paula; Hallek, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Only chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with active or symptomatic disease or with advanced Binet or Rai stages require therapy. Prognostic risk factor profile and comorbidity burden are most relevant for the choice of treatment. For physically fit patients, chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab remains the current standard therapy. For unfit patients, treatment with an anti-CD20 antibody (obinutuzumab or rituximab or ofatumumab) plus milder chemotherapy (chlorambucil) may be applied. Patients with a del(17p) or TP53 mutation should be treated with the kinase inhibitors ibrutinib or a combination of idelalisib and rituximab. Clinical trials over the next several years will determine, whether kinase inhibitors, other small molecules, immunotherapeutics, or combinations thereof will further improve outcomes for patients with CLL. PMID:27040702

  18. Autonomic dysfunction in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Frith, James; Newton, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL) is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD). One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this. PMID:24367224

  19. Pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Montuschi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    None of the drugs currently available for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are able to reduce the progressive decline in lung function which is the hallmark of this disease. Smoking cessation is the only intervention that has proved effective. The current pharmacological treatment of COPD is symptomatic and is mainly based on bronchodilators, such as selective β2-adrenergic agonists (short- and long-acting), anticholinergics, theophylline, or a combination of these drugs. Glucocorticoids are not generally recommended for patients with stable mild to moderate COPD due to their lack of efficacy, side effects, and high costs. However, glucocorticoids are recommended for severe COPD and frequent exacerbations of COPD. New pharmacological strategies for COPD need to be developed because the current treatment is inadequate. PMID:18044097

  20. Immunodeficiency in chronic sinusitis: recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Whitney W; Peters, Anju T

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is estimated to affect over 35 million people. However, not all patients with the diagnosis respond to standard medical and surgical treatments. Although there are a variety of reasons a patient may be refractory to therapy, one possible etiology is the presence of an underlying immunodeficiency. This review will focus on the description, recognition, and treatment of several antibody deficiencies associated with CRS, including common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), selective IgA deficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, and specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The diagnosis of antibody deficiency in patients with CRS is important because of the large clinical implications it can have on sinus disease management. CVID is treated with immunoglobulin replacement, whereas SAD may be managed symptomatically and sometimes with prophylactic antibiotics and/or immunoglobulin replacement. PMID:25785751

  1. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Ramirez-Torres, Adela; Lacroix, Chrystelle; Breuil, Benjamin; Froment, Carine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G) protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV infection. This peptidomic classifier may therefore be used in clinical settings during pregnancy to improve prenatal counseling. PMID:26808779

  2. Living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear ‘bad days, bad nights’: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain. There is an absence of information about symptomatic rotator cuffs from the patients’ perspective; this limits the information clinicians can share with patients and the information that patients can access via sources such as the internet. This study describes the experiences of people with a symptomatic rotator cuff, their symptoms, the impact upon their daily lives and the coping strategies utilised by study participants. Methods An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used. 20 participants of the UKUFF trial (The United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Surgery Trial) agreed to participate in in-depth semi-structured interviews about their experiences about living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. Field notes, memos and a reflexive diary were used. Data was coded in accordance with interpretive phenomenological analysis. Peer review, code-recode audits and constant comparison of data, codes and categories occurred throughout. Results The majority of patients described intense pain and severely disturbed sleep. Limited movement and reduced muscle strength were described by some participants. The predominantly adverse impact that a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had upon activities of daily living, leisure activities and occupation was described. The emotional and financial impact and impact upon caring roles were detailed. Coping strategies included attempting to carry on as normally as possible, accepting their condition, using their other arm, using analgesics, aids and adaptions. Conclusions Clinicians need to appreciate and understand the intensity and shocking nature of pain that may be experienced by participants with known rotator cuff tears and understand the detrimental impact tears can have upon all areas of patient’s lives. Clinicians also need to be aware of the potential emotional impact caused by cuff tears and to ensure that patients needing help for conditions such as depression are speedily identified and provided with support, explanation and appropriate treatment. PMID:25008095

  3. Transurethral Unroofing of a Symptomatic Imperforate Cowper's Syringocele in an Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Catherine R.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Osterberg, E. Charles

    2016-01-01

    Cystic dilatation of bulbourethral gland ducts (Cowper's gland syringocele) is a rare abnormality. The condition has been described among pediatric populations, but it is uncommon in adults. It can be asymptomatic or present with obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. We report a case of a symptomatic imperforate Cowper's syringocele in a young patient that was successfully managed with transurethral unroofing of the cyst. PMID:27119039

  4. Symptomatic and Incidental Venous Thromboembolic Disease Are Both Associated with Mortality in Patients with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Shruti; Sidana, Surbhi; Elson, Paul; Khorana, Alok A.; McCrae, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is well established. The independent impact of VTE, both symptomatic and incidental, on survival in patients with prostate cancer is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of VTE of survival in prostate cancer. Methods Data regarding clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of 453 consecutive prostate cancer patients were collected. Fisher exact (categorical variables) and t-test (continuous variables) were utilized to test associations with VTE and mortality. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. A Cox regression model was used to model the mortality hazard ratio (HR). Results At diagnosis, 358 (83%) patients had early stage disease, 43 (10%) had locally advanced disease and 32 (7%) had metastatic disease. During the follow up period, 122 (27%) patients died and 41 (9%) developed VTE (33 deep vein thrombosis, 5 pulmonary embolism, and 3 patients with both DVT and PE). Twenty-five VTE events were symptomatic and 16 were incidentally diagnosed on CT scans obtained for other reasons. VTE was associated with increased mortality [HR 6.89 (4.2911.08), p<0.001] in a multivariable analysis adjusted for cancer stage, performance status, treatments and co-morbidities. There was no difference in survival between patients who had symptomatic and incidental VTE. Conclusion Venous thromboembolic disease, both symptomatic and incidental, is a predictor of poor survival in patients with prostate cancer, especially those with advanced disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation in this population. PMID:25126949

  5. Substance-P in symptomatic mediopatellar plica as a predictor of patellofemoral pain

    PubMed Central

    HE, RUI; YANG, LIU; CHEN, GUANGXING; GUO, LIN; PEI, YING

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression of a neuropeptide of symptomatic mediopatellar plica (MP) to prove that there was a significant correlation between the expression of substance-P (SP) in MP and patellofemoral pain. The specimens of synovial plica were obtained by knee arthroscopy. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to investigate the expression of SP, and compared the innervation density of SP among the three groups: Blank control (asymptomatic plica), positive control (symptomatic plica with other injuries) and experimental (symptomatic plica without other injuries) groups by the paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls test in 60 patients. The expression levels of SP nerve fibers in the superior plica were 24.60±26.17, 117.36±73.62 and 59.06±44.06 in the blank control, positive control and experimental groups, respectively. The density of nerve fibers in medial plica was 23.23±18.41 in the blank control group, 268.00±71.60 in the positive control group and 255.44±87.91 in the experimental group. The density of nerve fibers of MP was higher compared to that of the superior plica. The density was highest in the positive control group, and lowest in the blank control group in MP. There was a close correlation between the density of SP expression and the degree of patellofemoral pain. The SP expression intensity has an important role in the incidence of patellofemoral pain and is responsible for the pathogenesis of symptomatic MP. PMID:26870328

  6. Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains That Cause Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sam; Chapman, Toni A.; Zhang, Ren; Chin, James; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina

    2012-01-01

    The differences between Escherichia coli strains associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain to be properly determined. Here we examined the prevalence of plasmid types and bacteriocins, as well as genetic relatedness, in a defined collection of E. coli strains that cause UTIs. Comparative analysis identified a subgroup of strains with a high number of virulence genes (VGs) and microcins M/H47. We also identified associations between microcin genes, VGs, and specific plasmid types. PMID:22189125

  7. Quantification of asymptomatic kidney stone burden by computed tomography for predicting future symptomatic stone events

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Michael G.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Krambeck, Amy E.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Elsherbiny, Hisham; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Lieske, John C.; Rule, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find the optimal characterization of asymptomatic radiographic stone burden on computed tomographic (CT) scans. Methods A survey was sent to stone formers who underwent a CT scan while asymptomatic during a stone clinic evaluation. Symptomatic stone passage events after CT scan were detected by survey and medical record review. Radiographic stone burden was quantified by number of stones, largest stone diameter, automated total stone volume (TSV), and bilateral stones and then compared as predictors of stone events. Results There were 550 stone formers; 43% had a stone event a median 4.7 years after the CT scan. Stone burden by quartiles was 0–1, 2–3, 4–6, ≥7 for number of stones; 0–2, 3–4, 5–7, ≥8 mm for largest stone diameter; and 0–8, 9–78, 79–280, and ≥ 281 mm3 for TSV; 48% had bilateral stones. The hazard ratios (HRs) for symptomatic event was 1.30 (p<0.001) for the number of stones per quartile, 1.26 (p<0.001) for largest stone diameter per quartile, 1.38 (p<0.001) for TSV per quartile, and 1.80 (p<0.001) for bilateral stones. On multivariable analysis, only TSV was an independent predictor of symptomatic events (HR=1.35 per quartile, p=0.01). This risk of events with TSV was also independent of demographics, urine chemistries, and stone composition. Among the 53 patients with interim events between CT scans, a rapid increase in TSV between CT scans (>570 mm3/year) predicted subsequent events (HR=2.8, p=0.05). Conclusions Automated TSV is more predictive of symptomatic events than manual methods for quantifying stone burden on CT scan. PMID:25440821

  8. Symptomatic Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Causing Dysphagia: Case Report, Imaging, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kwang; Tharin, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical osteophytes are found in 20-30% of elderly patients. Rarely, severe osteophytes can cause dysphagia, dysphonia, and dyspnea. Here, we illustrate a case of severe dysphagia caused by a large post-traumatic osteophyte with oropharyngeal swallow study showing a significant mass effect on the pharynx and resolution following osteophytectomy. We also review the literature regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophytes. 

  9. Progesterone for Symptomatic Perimenopause Treatment – Progesterone politics, physiology and potential for perimenopause

    PubMed Central

    Prior, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Perimenopause, women’s normal midlife reproductive transition, is highly symptomatic for about 20% of women who are currently inaccurately counseled and inappropriately treated with oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy or hysterectomy. About 80% of perimenopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms (VMS), 25% have menorrhagia, and about 10% experience mastalgia. The majority of women describe varying intensities of sleep, coping or mood difficulties. Women are more symptomatic because common knowledge inaccurately says that estradiol (E2) levels are dropping/deficient. Evidence shows that with disturbed brain-ovary feedbacks, E2 levels average 26% higher and soar erratically – some women describe feeling pregnant! Also, ovulation and progesterone (P4) levels become insufficient or absent. The most symptomatic women have higher E2 and lower P4 levels. Because P4 and E2 complement/counterbalance each other’s tissue effects, oral micronized P4 (OMP4 300 mg at bedtime) is a physiological therapy for treatment-seeking, symptomatic perimenopausal women. Given cyclically (cycle d 14-27, or 14 on/off) in menstruating midlife women, OMP4 decreases cyclic VMS, improves sleep and premenstrual mastalgia. Menorrhagia is treated with ibuprofen 200mg/6h plus OMP4 cycle d 4-28. For insulin resistance, metformin plus cyclic or daily OMP4 decreases insulin resistance and weight gain. Non-responsive migraines need daily OMP4 plus usual therapies. VMS and insomnia in late perimenopause respond to daily OMP4. In summary, OMP4 is a physiology-based therapy that improves sleep, treats VMS, does not increase breast proliferation or cancer risk, increases bone formation and has beneficial cardiovascular effects. A controlled trial is testing OMP4 for perimenopausal VMS – more evidence-based data are needed. PMID:24753856

  10. Efficacy of syndromic management measured as symptomatic improvement in females with vaginal discharge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vidyalaxmi; Shah, Maitri C.; Patel, Sangita V.; Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Zalavadiya, Dhara

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of a few shortcomings such as over diagnosis and over treatment, syndromic management is a recommended practice in India for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study tries to find out the efficacy of syndromic management measured as symptomatic improvement in females with vaginal discharge syndrome. Objective: The objective of the study is to find out the effectiveness of syndromic management in terms of symptomatic improvement among females with vaginal discharge syndrome. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in Gynecology Department of Tertiary Care Hospital including 180 symptomatic females having vaginal discharge syndrome. Demographic profile, presenting complaints, menstrual history, obstetric history, partner history, and contraceptive history were noted. This was followed by clinical examination and specimen collection for laboratory tests and blood tests to find out type of STI including viral STI such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Treatment was given according to syndromic management on the same day. All the participants were asked to come for follow-up after 15 days and their improvement in symptoms was noted as complete improvement, some improvement or no improvement on a five point scale. Results: 63.9% cases showed complete improvement, while 36.1% showed some improvement. None of the patients was without any improvement. Vaginal discharge syndrome was most common between 20 and 30 years (43.4%), and 67.8% of symptomatic females with vaginal discharge syndrome belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. HSV infection was the most common (15%) associated viral infection with vaginal discharge syndrome, while hepatitis B infection was the least common (0.5%). HIV was reactive in 2.8% cases only. Conclusion: Syndromic management was found to be effective in relieving symptoms in most of the cases of vaginal discharge syndrome.

  11. Genetic and clinical specificity of 26 symptomatic carriers for dystrophinopathies at pediatric age

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Sandra; Toutain, Annick; Toussaint, Aurélie; Raynaud, Martine; de Barace, Claire; Marcorelles, Pascale; Pasquier, Laurent; Blayau, Martine; Espil, Caroline; Parent, Philippe; Journel, Hubert; Lazaro, Leila; Andoni Urtizberea, Jon; Moerman, Alexandre; Faivre, Laurence; Eymard, Bruno; Maincent, Kim; Gherardi, Romain; Chaigne, Denys; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Leturcq, France; Chelly, Jamel; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis underlying the clinical variability in symptomatic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers are still to be precised. We report 26 cases of early symptomatic DMD carriers followed in the French neuromuscular network. Clinical presentation, muscular histological analysis and type of gene mutation, as well as X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) patterns using DNA extracted from peripheral blood or muscle are detailed. The initial symptoms were significant weakness (88%) or exercise intolerance (27%). Clinical severity varied from a Duchenne-like progression to a very mild Becker-like phenotype. Cardiac dysfunction was present in 19% of the cases. Cognitive impairment was worthy of notice, as 27% of the carriers are concerned. The muscular analysis was always contributive, revealing muscular dystrophy (83%), mosaic in immunostaining (81%) and dystrophin abnormalities in western blot analysis (84%). In all, 73% had exonic deletions or duplications and 27% had point mutations. XCI pattern was biased in 62% of the cases. In conclusion, we report the largest series of manifesting DMD carriers at pediatric age and show that exercise intolerance and cognitive impairment may reveal symptomatic DMD carriers. The complete histological and immunohistological study of the muscle is the key of the diagnosis leading to the dystrophin gene analysis. Our study shows also that cognitive impairment in symptomatic DMD carriers is associated with mutations in the distal part of the DMD gene. XCI study does not fully explain the mechanisms as well as the wide spectrum of clinical phenotype, though a clear correlation between the severity of the phenotype and inactivation bias was observed. PMID:23299919

  12. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  13. A case series of the management of symptomatic azole-resistant candida.

    PubMed

    Challenor, R; Pinsent, S; Ekanayaka, R

    2012-05-01

    Patients with symptomatic azole-resistant Candida albicans or non-albicans candida are difficult to manage. Treatment is largely anecdotal due to the relatively small number of patients. We present six case reports which highlight our own observation in clinical practice including four patients who were treated successfully with topical amphotericin B/flucytosine vaginal gel for 14 days (Stoke-on-Trent formula). PMID:22648899

  14. Symptomatic female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): genetic and clinical characterization.

    PubMed

    Giliberto, Florencia; Radic, Claudia Pamela; Luce, Leonela; Ferreiro, Verónica; de Brasi, Carlos; Szijan, Irene

    2014-01-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and is characterized by muscle degeneration and death. DMD affects males; females being asymptomatic carriers of mutations. However, some of them manifest symptoms due to a translocation between X chromosome and an autosome or to a heterozygous mutation leading to inactivation of most of their normal X chromosome. Six symptomatic female carriers and two asymptomatic were analyzed by: I) Segregation of STRs-(CA)n and MLPA assays to detect a hemizygous alteration, and II) X chromosome inactivation pattern to uncover the reason for symptoms in these females. The symptomatic females shared mild but progressive muscular weakness and increased serum creatin kinase (CK) levels. Levels of dystrophin protein were below normal or absent in many fibers. Segregation of STRs-(CA)n revealed hemizygous patterns in three patients, which were confirmed by MLPA. In addition, this analysis showed a duplication in another patient. X chromosome inactivation assay revealed a skewed X inactivation pattern in the symptomatic females and a random inactivation pattern in the asymptomatic ones. Our results support the hypothesis that the DMD phenotype in female carriers of a dystrophin mutation has a direct correlation with a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern. PMID:24135430

  15. Caffeine restriction has no role in the management of patients with symptomatic idiopathic ventricular premature beats.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, D. E.; Neilson, J. M.; Jarvie, D. R.; Boon, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of caffeine restriction in the management of patients with symptomatic idiopathic ventricular premature beats. DESIGN: A randomised, double blind, 6 week intervention trial incorporating dietary caffeine restriction, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. SETTING: Cardiac outpatient clinic. PATIENTS: 13 patients with symptomatic frequent idiopathic ventricular premature beats. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weekly measures of serum caffeine concentration, coffee consumption, visual analogue score of palpitations, and 24 hour ventricular premature beat frequency. RESULTS: The interventions achieved significant alterations in serum caffeine concentrations (P < 0.001) which correlated with coffee consumption (r = 0.70; P < 0.001). Visual analogue palpitation scores showed a small, but significant correlation with ventricular premature beat frequencies (r = 0.34; P = 0.003). However, there were no significant changes in palpitation scores or ventricular premature beat frequencies during the intervention weeks and no significant correlations were found between these variables and serum caffeine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine restriction has no role in the management of patients referred with symptomatic idiopathic ventricular premature beats. PMID:8983684

  16. Symptomatic Patients with Intraluminal Carotid Thrombus: Outcome with a Strategy of Initial Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Vellimana, Ananth K.; Kadkhodayan, Yasha; Rich, Keith M.; Cross, Dewitte T.; Moran, Christopher J.; Zazulia, Allyson R.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Chicoine, Michael R.; Dacey, Ralph G.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Zipfel, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimal treatment for patients with symptomatic intraluminal carotid thrombus (ICT) remains poorly defined. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to our institution between 2001 and 2011 with symptomatic ICT. Results Twenty-four patients (16 males, 8 females) with ICT presented with ischemic stroke (n=18) or TIA (n=6). All were treated initially with anticoagulation ± antiplatelet drugs. Eight of these patients had no or mild carotid stenosis on initial angiography and were treated with medical management alone. The remaining 16 patients had moderate or severe carotid stenosis on initial angiography. Of these, 10 underwent delayed revascularization (endarterectomy, n=8; angioplasty and stenting, n=2), 2 refused revascularization, and 4 were treated with medical therapy alone. One patient had multiple TIAs despite medical therapy and eventually underwent CEA; the remaining 23 patients had no TIAs. No patient suffered ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke while on anticoagulation, during the perioperative period or in long-term follow up; one patient died of an unrelated condition (mean follow-up = 16.4 months). Conclusion Our results suggest that initial anticoagulation of symptomatic ICT results in a low rate of recurrent ischemic events and that carotid revascularization, if indicated, can be safely performed in a delayed manner. PMID:23061393

  17. Symptomatic Abdominal Simple Cysts: Is Percutaneous Sclerotherapy with Hypertonic Saline and Bleomycin a Treatment Option?

    PubMed Central

    Souftas, V. D.; Kosmidou, M.; Karanikas, M.; Souftas, D.; Menexes, G.; Prassopoulos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple abdominal cysts, using hypertonic saline and bleomycin, as an alternative to surgery. Materials and Methods. This study involved fourteen consecutive patients (ten women, four men, mean age: 59.2 y) with nineteen symptomatic simple cysts (liver n = 14, kidney n = 3, and adrenal n = 2) treated percutaneously using a modified method. Initially CT-guided drainage was performed; the next day the integrity of the cyst/exclusion of extravasation or communications was evaluated under fluoroscopy, followed by two injections/reabsorptions of the same quantity of hypertonic NaCl 15% solution and three-time repetition of the same procedure with the addition of bleomycin. The catheter was then removed; the patients were hospitalized for 12 hours and underwent follow-ups on 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Cyst's volumes and the reduction rate (%) were calculated in each evaluation. Results. No pain or complications were noted. A significant cyst's volume reduction was documented over time (P < 0.001). On the 12th month 17 cysts disappeared and two displayed a 98.7% and 68.9% reduction, respectively. Conclusion. This percutaneous approach constitutes a very promising nonsurgical alternative for patients with symptomatic simple cyst, without complications under proper precautions, leading to eliminating the majority of cysts. PMID:25878660

  18. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available. PMID:24855131

  19. Diode laser turbinate reduction in the treatment of symptomatic inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Alexander, Arun; Saxena, Sunil Kumar; Santhosh, Krishnapriya

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of diode laser turbinate reduction procedure in treatment of symptomatic inferior turbinate hypertrophy (ITH) and to study the effect of it on mucociliary clearance of nose. This prospective study was carried out over 45 patients with symptomatic ITH refractory to medical management from July 2009 to March 2010 in Department of E.N.T, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India. Each symptom (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, sneezing, headache, hyposmia and snoring) was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). Mucociliary clearance was measured by saccharin transit time (STT). All patients underwent diode laser turbinate reduction (LTR) under local anesthesia. The patients were followed up at 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. During each follow up visit, symptoms were reassessed by VAS score. Difference between preoperative and postoperative VAS score was statistically significant. All patients had significant symptomatic improvement which started from 1 week postoperatively and persisted throughout the follow up period. Prolongation of STT following diode laser turbinate reduction was significant. SST returned back to preoperative value by the end of 6 months. Crusting and pain were the main postoperative complaints. Diode laser turbinate reduction is safe, minimally invasive and effective in relieving the symptoms associated with ITH and can be performed on a day care basis under local anaesthesia. Longer follow up is required to assess the development of late complications and recurrence of symptoms after LTR. PMID:24427675

  20. Self-reported sexual activity and condom use among symptomatic clients attending STD clinics.

    PubMed

    Irwin, D E; Thomas, J C; Spitters, C E; Leone, P A; Stratton, J D; Martin, D H; Zenilman, J M; Schwebke, J R; Hook, E W

    1999-05-01

    Patients seen at 10 public health sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Baltimore, MD; Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Durham, NC; New Orleans, LA; Raleigh, NC; and San Diego, CA, from August 1993 through June 1994 were asked to participate in a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual activity and condom use during the time between STD symptom onset and clinic attendance. Patients were asked to report sexual activity and condom use while STD symptoms were present. The sample of 3025 study participants was 75.3% African-American and 63.5% male, aged 18-73 years, of mean age 28.1 years. Sexual activity while experiencing STD symptoms was reported by 39.7% of 2508 symptomatic patients, of whom 17.2% reported always using a condom. Multivariate logistic regression found that factors associated with sexual activity while symptomatic include duration of symptoms for 7 or fewer days, being Black, and being male. In addition, such regression found that symptomatic patients who always used condoms were more likely to be aged 30 years or older, and to have at least a high school education. PMID:10333283

  1. Increase number of mitochondrion-like organelle in symptomatic Blastocystis subtype 3 due to metronidazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Raman, Kalyani; Kumar, Suresh; Chye, Tan Tian

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis sp., an intestinal organism is known to cause diarrhea with metronidazole regarded as the first line of treatment despite reports of its resistance. The conflicting reports of variation in drug treatment have been ascribed to subtype differences. The present study evaluated in vitro responses due to metronidazole on ST3 isolated from three symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Symptomatic isolates were obtained from clinical patients who showed symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal bloating. Asymptomatic isolates from a stool survey carried out in a rural area. These patients had no other pathogens other than Blastocystis. Ultrastructural studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed drug-treated ST3 from symptomatic patients were irregular and amoebic with surface showing high-convoluted folding when treated with metronidazole. These organisms had higher number of mitochondrion-like organelle (MLO) with prominent cristae. However, the drug-treated ST3 from asymptomatic persons remained spherical in shape. Asymptomatic ST3 showed increase in the size of its central body with the MLO located at the periphery. PMID:26481491

  2. Pulpotomy of Symptomatic Permanent Teeth with Carious Exposure Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Barngkgei, Imad Hassan; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Alboni, Roula Safouh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of pulpotomy treatment with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in symptomatic mature permanent teeth with carious exposure. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 27-54 years presented with 11 symptomatic permanent teeth (n=11). Each offending carious tooth was clinically and radiographically determined. We removed caries as conservatively as possible; however pulp exposure was inevitable. ProRoot MTA pulpotomy was performed on these teeth. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiographically for 24-42 months. Results Immediate relief of patients` symptoms occurred. Moreover, teeth responses to the electric pulp tester were within normal range on follow-up appointment and the radiographs did not reveal any abnormality/lesion in the periapical areas. Conclusion Pulpotomy using MTA could be a good alternative for root canal therapy (RCT) for managing symptomatic mature permanent teeth with carious exposure, however further large-scale multicenter clinical trials are highly encouraged to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:23717332

  3. Case Study: Symptomatic Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia in an Endurance Runner Despite Sodium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Myers, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is known to be a potential complication from overhydration during exercise, but there remains a general belief that sodium supplementation will prevent EAH. We present a case in which a runner with a prior history of EAH consulted a sports nutritionist who advised him to consume considerable supplemental sodium, which did not prevent him from developing symptomatic EAH during a subsequent long run. Emergency medical services were requested for this runner shortly after he finished a 17-hr, 72-km run and hike in Grand Canyon National Park during which he reported having consumed 9.2-10.6 L of water and >6,500 mg of sodium. First responders determined his serum sodium concentration with point-of-care testing was 122 mEq/L. His hyponatremia was documented to have improved from field treatment with an oral hypertonic solution of 800 mg of sodium in 200 ml of water, and it improved further after significant aquaresis despite in-hospital treatment with isotonic fluids (lactated Ringer's). He was discharged about 5 hr after admission in good condition. This case demonstrates that while oral sodium supplementation does not necessarily prevent symptomatic EAH associated with overhydration, early recognition and field management with oral hypertonic saline in combination with fluid restriction can be effective treatment for mild EAH. There continues to be a lack of universal understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate hospital management of EAH. PMID:26061675

  4. Local radiotherapy for palliation in multiple myeloma patients with symptomatic bone lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of symptomatic bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who received local radiotherapy (LRT). Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with 87 symptomatic bone lesions treated via LRT were analyzed. LRT was delivered at a median total dose of 21 Gy (range, 12 to 40 Gy) in a median of 7 fractions (range, 4 to 20 fractions). The clinical outcomes of LRT and the factors affecting treatment response were assessed. Results After a median follow-up time of 66.7 weeks, symptom relief was achieved for 85 of 87 lesions (97.7%). The median time to symptom relief was 7 days from the start of LRT (range, 1 to 67 days). The duration of in-field failure-free survival ranged from 1.1 to 450.9 weeks (median, 66.7 weeks). The radiation dose or use of previous and concurrent chemotherapy was not significantly associated with in-field failure for LRT (p = 0.354, 0.758, and 0.758, respectively). Conclusion Symptomatic bone lesions in patients with MM can be successfully treated with LRT. A higher radiation dose or the use of concurrent chemotherapy may not influence the in-field disease control. A relatively low radiation dose could achieve remission of symptoms in patients with MM. PMID:27104168

  5. Affective prosody perception in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hoertnagl, Christine M; Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Baumgartner, Susanne; Biedermann, Falko; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Hausmann, Armand; Kaufmann, Alexandra; Kemmler, Georg; Mühlbacher, Moritz; Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W; Hofer, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Affect perception has frequently been shown to be impaired in patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear whether these impairments exist during symptomatic remission and whether the two disorders differ from each other in this regard. Most previous studies have investigated facial affect recognition, but not the ability to decode mental states from emotional tone of voice, i.e. affective prosody perception (APP). Accordingly, the present study directly compared APP in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia or BD and healthy control subjects and investigated its relationship with residual symptomatology in patients. Patients with schizophrenia and BD showed comparable APP impairments despite being symptomatically remitted. In comparison to healthy control subjects, overall APP deficits were found in BD but not in schizophrenia patients. Both patient groups were particularly impaired in the identification of anger and confounded it with neutral prosody. In addition, schizophrenia patients frequently confused sadness with happiness, anger, or fright. There was an inverse association between the degree of residual positive symptoms and the ability to correctly recognize happiness in schizophrenia patients. Overall, these data indicate that impairments in APP represent an enduring deficit and a trait marker of both schizophrenia and BD and that the level of impairment is comparable between disorders. PMID:25096540

  6. Minimally Symptomatic Atrial Fibrillation Patients Derive Significant Symptom Relief Following Rate Control or Rhythm Control Therapy

    PubMed Central

    King, David Ryan; Mehta, Neil D.; Gehi, Anil K.; Pursell, Irion; Mounsey, Paul; Kumar, Prabhat; Bamimore, Ayo; Chung, Eugene H.

    2015-01-01

    Background It can be challenging to convince asymptomatic to minimally symptomatic patients to pursue treatment of their atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that once in sinus rhythm, asymptomatic to minimally symptomatic patients would realize they were compensating for moderate symptoms, and that we could quantify this via the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Severity of AF (CCS-SAF) score. Methods All patients in our study come from the Symptom Mitigation in Atrial Fibrillation (SMART) study. Upon enrollment all patients were assigned a CCS-SAF score. Patients receiving a CCS-SAF score of 0 or 1 that elected to pursue intervention were contacted by phone and asked about their symptoms post-intervention as compared to pre-intervention. Paired t-test was used for analysis. Results Out of 800 patients in the SMART study to date, 48 patients have qualified for our phone survey and presented for follow-up in our clinic. In our cohort, the revised pre-intervention CCS-SAF score was 1.69 ± 1.36 and the post-intervention CCS-SAF score was 0.52 ± 0.80. Thirty-seven patients reported symptom improvement; those who improved were on average 72.4% improved from baseline. Conclusions We conclude asymptomatic to minimally symptomatic AF patients benefit from therapy and should be offered intervention despite lack of symptoms. PMID:26251683

  7. Symptomatic improvement in uterine myomas after MRgFUS: 4 year follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Kaoru; Fukunishi, Hidenobu

    2011-09-01

    Objective: To assess the long-term improvement in symptoms after magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) for uterine myomas. Methods: Japanese women with symptomatic myomas underwent MRgFUS using the ExAblate 2000 system. The symptom severity score (SSS) was examined before and after the treatment at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months. Simultaneously, we asked the patients' satisfaction level regarding the overall change of subjective symptoms: symptom free, improved a great deal, improved to some extent, no change, or worsened. The myoma volumes were measured at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months after MRgFUS. Results: No severe adverse event occurred with any of the patients. The mean SSS value before treatment was 38.3±21.5 (n = 106), which diminished significantly during follow-up for 3-48 months after treatment. Patients' satisfaction level was favorable, although the response rate was low. Over 80% of the patients replied that their symptoms were improved to at least some extent, and over 50% of the patients replied that their symptoms were improved a great deal. This trend continued throughout this follow up period. The mean myoma volume was also decreased from the pretreatment volume in this follow up period. Conclusion: MRgFUS is an effective and safe method for treating symptomatic uterine myomas. Long-term symptomatic improvement is promising.

  8. Symptomatic Infratentorial Thrombosed Developmental Venous Anomaly: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Amuluru, Krishna; Al-Mufti, Fawaz; Hannaford, Stephen; Singh, Inder Paul; Prestigiacomo, Charles J.; Gandhi, Chirag D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are variations of normal transmedullary veins draining white and gray matter. In the vast majority of cases, DVAs are diagnosed incidentally and should be considered as benign entities. In extremely rare circumstances, DVAs may become symptomatic due to mechanical or flow-related etiologies. Thrombosis of the collector vein of a DVA is a rare type of a flow-related complication with only 29 cases reported in the literature, the majority of which are supratentorial. Infratentorial thrombosed DVAs are thus extremely rare and the few cases reported have typically caused symptoms due to venous ischemic infarctions. Summary We report a case of an infratentorial DVA with a thrombosed drainage vein in a patient with nonhemorrhagic, noninfarcted venous congestive edema, which was successfully treated with high-dose glucocorticoids and short-term anticoagulation. We review the pertinent venous anatomy of the posterior fossa as well as the literature of symptomatic infratentorial thrombosed DVAs. Key Message The presented case of an infratentorial thrombosed DVA with cerebellar and pontine venous congestive edema is extremely rare. A working knowledge of posterior fossa venous anatomy and possible pathomechanisms responsible for the rarely symptomatic lesion will aid in the timely and efficacious treatment of such lesions. PMID:27051409

  9. Neural stem cell transplantation benefits a monogenic neurometabolic disorder during the symptomatic phase of disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Sibson, Nicola R; Lowe, John P; Stuckey, Daniel J; Tester, Katie; Fu, Gerald; Newlin, Robbin M; Smith, David A; Snyder, Evan Y; Platt, Frances M

    2012-01-01

    Although we and others have demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) may impact such neurogenetic conditions as lysosomal storage diseases when transplanted at birth, it has remained unclear whether such interventions can impact well-established mid-stage disease, a situation often encountered clinically. Here we report that when NSCs were injected intracranially into the brain of adult symptomatic Sandhoff (Hexb?/?) mice, cells migrated far from the injection site and integrated into the host cytoarchitecture, restoring ?-hexosaminidase enzyme activity and promoting neuropathologic and behavioral improvement. Mouse lifespan increased, neurological function improved, and disease progression was slowed. These clinical benefits correlated with neuropathological correction at the cellular and molecular levels, reflecting the multiple potential beneficial actions of stem cells, including enzyme cross-correction, cell replacement, tropic support, and direct anti-inflammatory action. Pathotropism, i.e., migration and homing of NSCs to pathological sites, could be imaged in real time by magnetic resonance imaging. Differentially expressed chemokines might play a role in directing the migration of transplanted stem cells to sites of pathology. Because many of the beneficial actions of NSCs observed in newborn brains were recapitulated in adult brains to the benefit of Sandhoff recipients, NSC-based interventions may also be useful in symptomatic subjects with established disease, even in symptomatic patients. PMID:19591217

  10. Symptomatic vaginal candidiasis after pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Menday, A P

    2002-10-01

    The comparative incidence of symptomatic vaginal candidiasis associated with pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI was determined in two randomised, double-blind, clinical trials. Adverse events reported following general enquiry were reviewed. Presence of Candida vaginitis was based upon the specification as such by investigators, the presence of specific symptoms such as genital pruritus and/or the prescription of specific anti Candida therapy. The incidences of Candida vaginitis were as follows; Study 1 pivmecillinam 200 mg tid for 7 days 13 (4.6%), pivmecillinam 200 mg bid for 7 days 7 (2.4%), pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 6 (2.1%) and placebo 6 (2.1%), P=0.19. Study 2 pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 7 (1.5%), norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days 20 (4.3%), P=0.016. The incidence of Candida vaginitis in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI given 3 days treatment with pivmecillinam 400 mg bid is similar to that seen with placebo and is significantly less than the incidence with norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days. PMID:12385688

  11. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy of symptomatic incurable rectal cancer a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancers frequently cause pelvic morbidity including pain, bleeding and mass effect. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy is used to relieve these symptoms and delay local progression. There is no established optimal radiotherapy regimen and clinical practices vary. Our aim was to review the efficacy and toxicity of palliative pelvic radiotherapy of symptomatic rectal cancer and to evaluate different fractionation schedules, based on published literature. Material and methods. Systematic literature searches of Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were performed through 2011. Studies reporting symptomatic response or quality of life (QOL) after palliative radiotherapy for rectal or rectosigmoid cancer were eligible. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included, of which 23 were retrospective reviews. There were no patient-reported outcomes or QOL assessments. There were large variations in applied radiotherapy regimens. Pooled overall symptom response rate was 75% and positive responses were reported for pain (78%), bleeding and discharge (81%), mass effect (71%) and other pelvic symptoms (72%). Toxicity results were not evaluable. Conclusion. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy for symptomatic rectal cancer appears to provide relief of a variety of pelvic symptoms, although there is no documented optimal radiotherapy regimen in this context. There is inadequate evidence regarding onset, duration and degree of symptom palliation, QOL and associated toxicity with this treatment and prospective studies are therefore needed. PMID:24195692

  12. Primary repair of symptomatic neonates with tetralogy of Fallot with or without pulmonary atresia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ha; Kwak, Jae Gun; Lee, Cheul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, surgical outcomes of repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have improved. For patients with TOF older than 3 months, primary repair has been advocated regardless of symptoms. However, a surgical approach to symptomatic TOF in neonates or very young infants remains elusive. Traditionally, there have been two surgical options for these patients: primary repair versus an initial aortopulmonary shunt followed by repair. Early primary repair provides several advantages, including avoidance of shunt-related complications, early relief of hypoxia, promotion of normal lung development, avoidance of ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, and psychological comfort to the family. Because of advances in cardiopulmonary bypass techniques and accumulated experience in neonatal cardiac surgery, primary repair in neonates with TOF has been performed with excellent early outcomes (early mortality<5%), which may be superior to the outcomes of aortopulmonary shunting. A remaining question regarding surgical options is whether shunts can preserve the pulmonary valve annulus for TOF neonates with pulmonary stenosis. Symptomatic neonates and older infants have different anatomies of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstructions, which in neonates are nearly always caused by a hypoplastic pulmonary valve annulus instead of infundibular obstruction. Therefore, a shunt is less likely to preserve the pulmonary valve annulus than is primary repair. Primary repair of TOF can be performed safely in most symptomatic neonates. Patients who have had primary repair should be closely followed up to evaluate the RVOT pathology and right ventricular function. PMID:24578712

  13. CHRONIC URTICARIA

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Gupta, Vibhanshu; Amin, Syed Suhail; Tahseen, Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ‘idiopathic’ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented. PMID:22345759

  14. Higher Caspase-like activity in symptomatic isolates of Blastocystis spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biochemical evidence of a caspase-like execution pathway has been demonstrated in a variety of protozoan parasites, including Blastocystis spp. The distinct differences in the phenotypic characterization reported previously have prompted us to compare the rate of apoptosis in Blastocystis spp. isolated from individuals who were symptomatic and asymptomatic. In the current study, we analysed the caspase activation involved in PCD mediated by a cytotoxic drug, (metronidazole) in both symptomatic & asymptomatic isolates. Methods Apoptosis was induced in Blastocystis spp. by treating cultures of symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates of 3 sub-types namely 1, 3 and 5 with two different concentrations, 0.1 and 0.0001 mg/ml of metronidazole (with and without pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk). The experiment was repeated to assess the number of apoptotic cells in all the isolates of both conditions. Results Symptomatic isolates of subtype 3 (without pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk) showed high fluorescence intensity for active caspase-like proteases [0.0001 mg/ml, 88% (p < 0.001) at 0.1 mg/ml, 70% (p < 0.001)] at the 72nd hour in vitro culture in comparison with asymptomatic isolates [0.0001 mg/ml, 65%, at 0.1 mg/ml, 55%]. The number of apoptotic cells was higher [0.0001 mg/ml, 89% (p < 0.001) and at 0.1 mg/ml, 70% (p < 0.001)] at the 72nd hour of in vitro culture in comparison with asymptomatic isolates [0.0001 mg/ml, 66% (p < 0.001) and at 0.1 mg/ml, 45% (p < 0.01)]. Cells treated with metronidazole in the presence of zVAD.fmk showed less than 10% caspase activation. Conclusion The high number of symptomatic cells expressing active caspase-like proteases and becoming apoptotic compared to asymptomatic cells clearly demonstrates that the response to metronidazole treatment is isolate dependent. Hence this justifies the conflicting reports on the curative success rates when treated with this drug. The study has also created a need to identify apoptosis effectors in Blastocystis spp of different isolates especially as it was shown that apoptosis was sub-typed related. These findings can be exploited for the development of diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic drugs to enhance the effectiveness of the diagnosis and treatment of the patients infected with Blastocystis spp. PMID:24886677

  15. Transient lactose malabsorption in patients affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon.

    PubMed

    Tursi, Antonio; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Giorgetti, Gian Marco; Elisei, Walter

    2006-03-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) may be secondary to several small bowel diseases, and small intestinal overgrowth (SIBO) may be one of them. We looked for a correlation between symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon and LM and assessed whether this correlation may be related to SIBO. Ninety consecutive patients (pts; 39 males, 51 females; mean age, 67.2 years; range, 32-91 years) affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon were evaluated to assess orocecal transit time (OCTT), SIBO, and LM by lactulose and lactose H2 breath test (H2-BT) at entry and after 8 weeks of treatment. OCTT was delayed in 67 of 90 pts (74.44%). Fifty-three of 90 pts (58.88%) showed SIBO, and OCTT was normal in 23 of 90 pts (25.56%). LM was diagnosed in 59 of 90 pts (65.55%): 49 of 59 (71.74%) were simultaneously affected by SIBO and delayed OCTT (and thus 49 of 53 pts [92.45%] with delayed OCTT and SIBO were affected by LM); 3 of 59 pts (5.09%) showed only delayed OCTT; 7 of 59 pts (11.86%) did not show either SIBO or delayed OCTT. The association of LM and SIBO was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Seventy-nine of 86 pts (91.86%) showed normal OCTT, while OCTT remained prolonged but shorter in the remaining 7 pts (8.14%). SIBO was eradicated in all pts completing the study, while a new lactulose H2-BT showed persistence of SIBO in one pt with recurrence of symptomatic diverticular disease. Forty-seven of 59 pts (79.66%) had a normal lactose H2-BT (P < 0.002), while 12 of 59 pts (20.34%) showed persistence of LM. LM disappeared in 46 of 49 pts (93.88%) concurrently with normalization of OCTT and eradication of SIBO (P < 0.002); it also disappeared in 1 of 3 pts (33.33%) previously affected by delayed OCTT (without SIBO) and LM concurrently with normalization of OCTT. On the contrary, it persisted in all pts with normal OCTT and absence of SIBO. Moreover, it persisted also in the pt with recurrence of symptomatic diverticular disease and persistence of SIBO. In conclusion, most pts affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon showed LM, and in more than 70% of cases it disappeared after successful treatment of the colonic disease. PMID:16614952

  16. Treating symptomatic hyperprolactinemia in women with schizophrenia: presentation of the ongoing DAAMSEL clinical trial (Dopamine partial Agonist, Aripiprazole, for the Management of Symptomatic ELevated prolactin)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin elevations occur in people treated with antipsychotic medications and are often much higher in women than in men. Hyperprolactinemia is known to cause amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, galactorrhea and gynecomastia in females and is also associated with sexual dysfunction and bone loss. These side effects increase risk of antipsychotic nonadherence and suicide and pose significant problems in the long term management of women with schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we review the literature on prolactin; its physiology, plasma levels, side effects and strategies for treatment. We also present the rationale and protocol for an ongoing clinical trial to treat symptomatic hyperprolactinemia in premenopausal women with schizophrenia. More attention and focus are needed to address these significant side effects and help the field better personalize the treatment of women with schizophrenia. PMID:23968123

  17. Dentate gyrus network dysfunctions precede the symptomatic phase in a genetic mouse model of seizures

    PubMed Central

    Toader, Oana; Forte, Nicola; Orlando, Marta; Ferrea, Enrico; Raimondi, Andrea; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio; Medrihan, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal circuit disturbances that lead to hyperexcitability in the cortico-hippocampal network are one of the landmarks of temporal lobe epilepsy. The dentate gyrus (DG) network plays an important role in regulating the excitability of the entire hippocampus by filtering and integrating information received via the perforant path. Here, we investigated possible epileptogenic abnormalities in the function of the DG neuronal network in the Synapsin II (Syn II) knockout mouse (Syn II−/−), a genetic mouse model of epilepsy. Syn II is a presynaptic protein whose deletion in mice reproducibly leads to generalized seizures starting at the age of 2 months. We made use of a high-resolution microelectrode array (4096 electrodes) and patch-clamp recordings, and found that in acute hippocampal slices of young pre-symptomatic (3–6 week-old) Syn II−/− mice excitatory synaptic output of the mossy fibers is reduced. Moreover, we showed that the main excitatory neurons present in the polymorphic layer of the DG, hilar mossy cells, display a reduced excitability. We also provide evidence of a predominantly inhibitory regulatory output from mossy cells to granule cells, through feed-forward inhibition, and show that the excitatory-inhibitory ratio is increased in both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic Syn II−/− mice. These results support the key role of the hilar mossy neurons in maintaining the normal excitability of the hippocampal network and show that the late epileptic phenotype of the Syn II−/− mice is preceded by neuronal circuitry dysfunctions. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in the Syn II−/− mice and open the possibility for early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. PMID:24009558

  18. Laser Wavelength Dependence of Background Fluorescence in Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Synovial Fluid from Symptomatic Joints.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Li, Bolan; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Akkus, Anna; Singer, Nora G; Yeni, Yener N; Akkus, Ozan

    2013-08-01

    Gout is a disease process where the nucleation and growth of crystals in the synovial fluid of joints elicit painful arthritis-like symptoms. Raman spectroscopy is evolving as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying such crystals; however, attainment of sufficient Raman signal while overcoming the background fluorescence remains as a major challenge. The current study focused on assessing whether excitation in 532-700 nm range will provide greater signal intensity than the standard 785 nm while not being impeded by background fluorescence. We characterized the fluorescence spectra, absorption spectra and Raman spectra of synovial fluid from patients who presented "gout-like symptoms" (symptomatic) and controls (asymptomatic). A digestion and filtration method was developed to isolate crystals from synovial fluid while reducing the organic burden. Spectral profile and photobleaching dynamics during Raman spectroscopy were observed under an excitation wavelength range spanning 532 to 785 nm. Absorbance and fluorescence profiles indicated the digestion and filtration worked effectively to extract crystals from symptomatic synovial fluid without introducing additional fluorescence. Raman spectral analyses at 532 nm, 660 nm, 690 nm and 785 nm indicated that both asymptomatic and symptomatic samples had significant levels of fluorescence at excitation wavelengths below 700 nm, which either hindered the collection of Raman signal or necessitated prolonged durations of photobleaching. Raman-based diagnostics were more feasible at the longest excitation wavelength of 785 nm without employing photobleaching. This study further demonstrated that a near-infrared OEM based lower-cost Raman system at 785 nm excitation has sufficient sensitivity to identify crystals isolated from the synovial fluid. In conclusion, while lower excitation wavelengths provide greater signal, the fluorescence necessitates near-infrared wavelengths for Raman analysis of crystal species observed in synovial aspirates. PMID:24058259

  19. Arterial Wall Imaging in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis: Delayed Enhancement on MDCT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Su Min; Seo, Woo-Keun; Seol, Hae Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate progressive enhancement in the carotid arterial wall overlying plaque in the symptomatic side for patients with cerebrovascular symptoms until delayed phase using MDCTA. Materials and Methods Twenty-one patients (all men; ages, 49-82 years; mean, 67.8 ± 8.4 years) with recent stroke and severe extracranial carotid stenosis were retrospectively analyzed. Pre-, early- and delayed phase images of MDCTA were obtained, and Hounsfield units (HU) of carotid walls were measured. We also measured HU of the asymptomatic contralateral carotid arterial wall for comparison. Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to evaluate the differences between groups. Results The averaged HU of the carotid wall in the symptomatic side was higher on the delayed phase (65.8 ± 14.2 HU) compared to early arterial phase (54.2 ± 12.6 HU). The averaged HU difference of wall enhancement between pre-contrast and delayed phase (28.0 ± 14.8 HU) was significantly higher than the between pre-contrast and early arterial phase (16.4 ± 12.1 HU) with P < 0.05. In analysis of the contralateral asymptomatic side, the HU difference between pre-contrast and delayed phase (15.5 ± 12.0 HU) showed no significant higher value than between pre-contrast and early arterial phase (14.9 ± 10.9 HU). Conclusion The pronounced enhancement of the carotid wall in the delayed phase on MDCTA was demonstrated in symptomatic patients with severe internal carotid artery stenosis. In the future, we need more comparative studies to verify this finding as one of risk stratification. PMID:26958408

  20. The correlation between symptomatic fatigue to definite measures of gait in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kalron, Alon

    2016-02-01

    There is a general consensus relating to the multidimensional aspects of fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), however, the exact impact of this symptom on gait is not fully understood. Our primary aim was to examine the relationship between definite parameters of gait with self-reported symptomatic fatigue in PwMS according to their level of neurological impairment. Spatio-temporal parameters of gait were studied using an electronic walkway. The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) questionnaire, a patient-rated measure of walking ability was collected. The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) questionnaire was used to determine the level of symptomatic fatigue. One hundred and one PwMS (61 women) were included in the study analysis. Subjects were divided into mild and moderate neurological impaired groups. Fatigue was correlated with 5 (out of 14) spatiotemporal parameters. However, correlation scores were all <0.35, thus considered as weak correlations. In the mild group, the double support period was the only variable positively correlated to fatigue (Spearman's rho=0.28, P=0.05). In the moderate group, step and stride length were solely negatively correlated to fatigue (Spearman's rho=0.32, P=0.03). In contrast to the definite gait parameters, the MSWS-12 self-questionnaire was moderately positively correlated to the level of fatigue. Scores for the total, mild and moderate groups were 0.54, 0.57 and 0.51; P<0.01, respectively. The present results indicate that modifications in spatio-temporal parameters of gait are not closely related to symptomatic fatigue in PwMS. On the contrary, the self-reported MSWS-12 questionnaire is predisposed to level of fatigue in PwMS. PMID:27004654

  1. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P < 0.05). Similarly, comparisons using LIBSHUFF and heatmap analysis for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed differences between endophytic bacterial communities. These data are in agreement with the NMSD and ANOSIM analysis of DGGE profiles. Our results suggest that anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum. PMID:26090305

  2. Asymptomatic Stenosis in the Cervical and Thoracic Spines of Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Lyu, Ho Dong; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Studies on age-related degenerative changes causing concurrent stenoses in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines (triple stenosis) are rare in the literature. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the incidence of asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis, (2) the incidence of concurrent radiologic spinal stenosis in the cervical and thoracic spines, and (3) the radiologic features of cervical stenosis that might predict concurrent thoracic stenosis. Methods Whole-spine T2 sagittal magnetic resonance images of patients older than 80 and diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis between January 2003 and January 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. We included patients with asymptomatic spondylotic cervical and thoracic stenosis. We measured the anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral body, bony spinal canal, and spinal cord, along with the Pavlov ratio and anterior or posterior epidural stenosis at the level of the disk for each cervical and thoracic level. We compared the radiologic parameters between the subgroups of cervical stenosis with and without thoracic stenosis. Results Among the 460 patients with lumbar stenosis, 110 (23.9%) had concurrent radiologic cervical stenosis and 112 (24.3%) had concurrent radiologic thoracic stenosis. Fifty-six patients (12.1%) had combined radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in addition to their symptomatic lumbar stenosis (triple stenosis). Anterior epidural stenosis at C7–T1 was associated with a high prevalence of thoracic stenosis. Conclusions It appears that asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis is common in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. PMID:26430589

  3. Cost-Effective Treatment of Patients with Symptomatic Cholelithiasis and Possible Common Bile Duct Stones

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M; Rogers, Stanley J; Cello, John P; Brasel, Karen J; Inadomi, John M

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinicians must choose a treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis without knowing whether common bile duct (CBD) stones are present. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis and possible CBD stones. Study Design Our decision model included five treatment strategies: (1) laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) alone followed by expectant management, (2) preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by LC, (3) LC with intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) ± common bile duct exploration (CBDE), (4) LC followed by postoperative ERCP, and (5) LC with IOC ± postoperative ERCP. The rates of successful completion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic intervention, test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity), morbidity, and mortality for all procedures are from current literature. Hospitalization costs and lengths of stay are from the 2006 National CMS data. The probability of CBD stones was varied from 0% to 100% and the most cost-effective strategy was determined at each probability. Results Across the CBD stone probability range of 4% to 100%, LC with IOC ± ERCP was the most cost-effective. If the probability was 0%, LC alone was the most cost-effective. Our model was sensitive to one health input: specificity of IOC, and three costs: cost of hospitalization for LC with CBDE, cost of hospitalization for LC without CBDE, and cost of LC with IOC. Conclusions The most cost-effective treatment strategy for the majority of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is LC with routine IOC. If stones are detected, CBDE should be forgone and the patient referred for ERCP. PMID:21444220

  4. Clinical outcomes after decompressive laminectomy for symptomatic ossification of ligamentum flavum at the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Qian; Meng, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Jian; Qu, Dong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Xing; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Lu, Kai-Wu; Zheng, Shuai; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2016-06-01

    Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a rare disease that causes acquired thoracic spinal canal stenosis and thoracic myelopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes of symptomatic thoracic OLF treated using posterior decompressive laminectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 22 patients who underwent posterior decompressive laminectomy for symptomatic thoracic OLF. The surgical results were evaluated using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system and Hirabayashi recovery rate. The intensity of pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean duration of follow-up was 35.6months. The mean JOA score was significantly improved at final follow-up (9.18±standard deviation of 1.53 points [range, 6-11 points]) compared with before surgery (5.64±2.04 points [range, 3-9 points]) (P<0.001). The mean Hirabayashi recovery rate was 65.49% (range, 20-100%). Recovery outcomes were excellent in nine patients, good in eight patients, fair in four patients and unchanged in one patient. No patient was classified as deteriorated. The VAS scores were 2.82±3.08 before surgery and 0.59±1.05 at final follow-up (P=0.001). Surgical complications, which resolved after appropriate and prompt treatment, included dural tear in five patients, cerebrospinal fluid leakage in one patient, immediate postoperative neurologic deterioration in one patient, epidural hematoma in one patient, and wound infection in one patient. Our findings suggest that posterior decompressive laminectomy is an effective treatment for symptomatic thoracic OLF and provides satisfactory clinical improvement, but surgery for thoracic OLF is associated with a relatively high incidence of complications. PMID:26898582

  5. Differential evolution of peripheral cytokine levels in symptomatic and asymptomatic responses to experimental influenza virus challenge.

    PubMed

    McClain, M T; Henao, R; Williams, J; Nicholson, B; Veldman, T; Hudson, L; Tsalik, E L; Lambkin-Williams, R; Gilbert, A; Mann, A; Ginsburg, G S; Woods, C W

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to influenza virus triggers a complex cascade of events in the human host. In order to understand more clearly the evolution of this intricate response over time, human volunteers were inoculated with influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2), and then had serial peripheral blood samples drawn and tested for the presence of 25 major human cytokines. Nine of 17 (53%) inoculated subjects developed symptomatic influenza infection. Individuals who will go on to become symptomatic demonstrate increased circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-15, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and interferon (IFN) gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 as early as 12-29 h post-inoculation (during the presymptomatic phase), whereas challenged patients who remain asymptomatic do not. Overall, the immunological pathways of leucocyte recruitment, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signalling, innate anti-viral immunity and fever production are all over-represented in symptomatic individuals very early in disease, but are also dynamic and evolve continuously over time. Comparison with simultaneous peripheral blood genomics demonstrates that some inflammatory mediators (MCP-1, IP-10, IL-15) are being expressed actively in circulating cells, while others (IL-6, IL-8, IFN-? and IFN-?) are probable effectors produced locally at the site of infection. Interestingly, asymptomatic exposed subjects are not quiescent either immunologically or genomically, but instead exhibit early and persistent down-regulation of important inflammatory mediators in the periphery. The host inflammatory response to influenza infection is variable but robust, and evolves over time. These results offer critical insight into pathways driving influenza-related symptomatology and offer the potential to contribute to early detection and differentiation of infected hosts. PMID:26506932

  6. Long-term psychological consequences of symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Simon; Lewis, Rhian; Whithers, Jodie; Lewis, Sarah; Bennett, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychological consequences of experiencing symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Design Qualitative interview-based study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Setting Outpatients who attended an anticoagulation clinic in a district general hospital. Participants Patients attending an anticoagulation clinic following hospital admission for symptomatic PE were approached to participate. A total of 9 (4 women, 5 men) of 11 patients approached agreed to be interviewed. Participants were aged between 26 and 72 years and had previously experienced a PE between 9 and 60 months (median=26 months, mean=24 months). Intervention Audiotaped semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants experiences of having a PE and how it had affected their lives since. Data were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify emergent themes. Results Three major themes with associated subthemes were identified. Participants described having a PE as a life-changing experience comprising initial shock, followed by feeling of loss of self, life-changing decisions and behaviour modification. Features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were described with flashbacks, hypervigilance and intrusive thoughts being most prevalent. Participants identified several areas of support needed for such patients including easier access to support through information giving and emotional support. Conclusions Long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism go beyond the physical alone. Patients describe experiencing symptomatic PE to be a life-changing distressing event leading to behaviour modification and in some PTSD. It is likely that earlier psychological intervention may reduce such long-term sequelae. PMID:24694625

  7. A comparison of location of acute symptomatic vs. ‘silent’ small vessel lesions

    PubMed Central

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Maconick, Lucy C.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Wang, Xin; Wiseman, Stewart; Armitage, Paul A.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Makin, Stephen; Sudlow, Cathie L. M.; Dennis, Martin S.; Deary, Ian J.; Bastin, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute lacunar ischaemic stroke, white matter hyperintensities, and lacunes are all features of cerebral small vessel disease. It is unclear why some small vessel disease lesions present with acute stroke symptoms, whereas others typically do not. Aim To test if lesion location could be one reason why some small vessel disease lesions present with acute stroke, whereas others accumulate covertly. Methods We identified prospectively patients who presented with acute lacunar stroke symptoms with a recent small subcortical infarct confirmed on magnetic resonance diffusion imaging. We compared the distribution of the acute infarcts with that of white matter hyperintensity and lacunes using computational image mapping methods. Results In 188 patients, mean age 67 ± standard deviation 12 years, the lesions that presented with acute lacunar ischaemic stroke were located in or near the main motor and sensory tracts in (descending order): posterior limb of the internal capsule (probability density 0·2/mm3), centrum semiovale (probability density = 0·15/mm3), medial lentiform nucleus/lateral thalamus (probability density = 0·09/mm3), and pons (probability density = 0·02/mm3). Most lacunes were in the lentiform nucleus (probability density = 0·01–0·04/mm3) or external capsule (probability density = 0·05/mm3). Most white matter hyperintensities were in centrum semiovale (except for the area affected by the acute symptomatic infarcts), external capsules, basal ganglia, and brainstem, with little overlap with the acute symptomatic infarcts (analysis of variance, P < 0·01). Conclusions Lesions that present with acute lacunar ischaemic stroke symptoms may be more likely noticed by the patient through affecting the main motor and sensory tracts, whereas white matter hyperintensity and asymptomatic lacunes mainly affect other areas. Brain location could at least partly explain the symptomatic vs. covert development of small vessel disease. PMID:26120782

  8. The Angelchik prosthesis for gastro-oesophageal reflux: symptomatic and objective assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. M.; Temple, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with intractable gastro-oesophageal reflux were treated by insertion of the Angelchik antireflux prosthesis. Good symptomatic relief was achieved in over 80% of patients reviewed up to 28 months after operation and there was marked resolution of oesophagitis as seen on endoscopy. Oesophageal manometry and pH studies performed preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months after operation, showed a significant increase in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure with decreased acid reflux. Some technical problems were encountered, but the prosthesis is potentially a simple and effective means of controlling gastro-oesophageal reflux. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4051424

  9. Assessment and management of proximal and incomplete symptomatic obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system.

    PubMed

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Pakdel, Farzad; Kiavash, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Epiphora is a common complaint of patients who present to an Ophthalmology Clinic. In many cases, epiphora is due to an obstruction in the lacrimal drainage system. However, a subgroup of symptomatic patients with epiphora has a patent lacrimal drainage system. Such cases are usually termed 'functional obstruction' and / or 'stenosis of the lacrimal drainage system'. Various etiologies and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been described in literature, which implies the lack of a standardized approach. This article will review the evolving diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in literature, and in the end, propose a paradigm in approaching this group of patients. PMID:22346116

  10. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery), has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV). Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock), symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock) and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the recovery process. Genes orthologous to the C. annuum proteins involved in the pepper-PepGMV recovery response were identified in both Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum suggesting conservation of components of the viral recovery response in the Solanaceae. Conclusion These data provide a valuable source of information for improving our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms by which pepper leaves become symptomless following infection with geminiviruses. The identification of orthologs for the majority of genes differentially expressed in recovered tissues in two major solanaceous crop species provides the basis for future comparative analyses of the viral recovery process across related taxa. PMID:23185982

  11. Retinal Detachment and Symptomatic Hypercalcemia in a Patient with Sarcoidosis: Unusual Presentation of a Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Arushi; Cherian, Saira; Majumder, Shounak; Nakrani, Radhika; Kowlgi, Gurukripa N; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosisis amultisystemic granulomatous disease, potentially affecting any organ system of the body. Calcium metabolism disturbances occur in up to 20% of patients, of which hypercalciuria and asymptomatic hypercalcemia are most common. Ocular sarcoid typically presents with anterior chamber manifestations such as uveitis, iritis, and iridocyclitis, but can involve posterior chamber as well. We describe herein a unique presentation of sarcoidosis with retinal detachment and symptomatic hypercalcemia as its first manifestation. Prompt therapy with steroids is indicated in these cases, and an immediate ophthalmology referral cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26882785

  12. Therapy decisions for the symptomatic patient with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Mark C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer continues to kill approximately 30,000 men per year. Since 2010, five new therapeutic agents have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). With the increasing number of therapies available to clinicians, the most effective sequence in which to implement these treatments remains unknown. The presence or absence of symptoms (i.e., bony pain, visceral crisis) is a key parameter that informs the decision-making process regarding therapy. Treatment algorithms based on: 1) asymptomatic/minimal symptoms, 2) moderate symptoms or chemotherapy ineligible or 3) symptomatic disease need to be developed. PMID:25865849

  13. Assessment and Management of Proximal and Incomplete Symptomatic Obstruction of the Lacrimal Drainage System

    PubMed Central

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Pakdel, Farzad; Kiavash, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Epiphora is a common complaint of patients who present to an Ophthalmology Clinic. In many cases, epiphora is due to an obstruction in the lacrimal drainage system. However, a subgroup of symptomatic patients with epiphora has a patent lacrimal drainage system. Such cases are usually termed ‘functional obstruction’ and / or ‘stenosis of the lacrimal drainage system’. Various etiologies and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been described in literature, which implies the lack of a standardized approach. This article will review the evolving diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in literature, and in the end, propose a paradigm in approaching this group of patients. PMID:22346116

  14. The Management of the Symptomatic Patient With a Metal-on-Metal Hip Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kate; Phelan, Emma; Torreggiani, William C; Doody, Orla

    2016-02-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants have gained popularity due to their greater stability and reduction in implant failure compare to metal-on-polyethylene prostheses. However, as well as carrying general risks of hip implantation, risks specifically associated with MoM implants have been well documented in recent years. Conditions such as pseudotumours or aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions are specific to MoM hip implants. In this review we discuss the typical patient presentation, the investigations that should be performed, the typical findings on various imaging modalities, and the treatment options of symptomatic patients with MoM hip arthroplasties. PMID:26800622

  15. Symptomatic obstruction of the brachiocephalic and left subclavian arteries obscured by aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Peter W; Assi, Roland; Grecu, Loreta; Dardik, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery represents an uncommon cause of cerebrovascular insufficiency. We report a patient with combined brachiocephalic and left subclavian obstruction with clinical manifestations of lightheadedness, syncope, and left-sided weakness who remained misdiagnosed essentially because of symmetrical pressures in the upper extremities. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis failed to provide symptomatic relief. Eventual stenting of the brachiocephalic trunk resolved the patient's symptoms. Our report highlights the diagnostic challenges in this case of bilateral supraaortic vessel disease and shows that equal upper extremity pressures do not rule out brachiocephalic artery obstruction. PMID:24368183

  16. Sirtuin 1 and Aging Theory for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Conti, V.; Corbi, G.; Manzo, V.; Pelaia, G.; Filippelli, A.; Vatrella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory syndrome that represents an increasing health problem, especially in the elderly population. Drug therapies are symptomatic and inadequate to contrast disease progression and mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need to clarify the molecular mechanisms responsible for this condition in order to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Processes including oxidant/antioxidant, protease/antiprotease, and proliferative/antiproliferative balance and control of inflammatory response become dysfunctional during aging as well as in COPD. Recently it was suggested that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an antiaging molecule involved in the response to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, is implicated in both development and progression of COPD. The present review focuses on the involvement of SIRT1 in the regulation of redox state, inflammation, and premature senescence, all crucial characteristics of COPD phenotypes. Recent evidence corroborating the statement of the “aging theory for COPD” was also discussed. PMID:26236580

  17. Neopterin: a potential marker in chronic peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Anzaldi, Massimiliano; Fiore, Valerio; Candido, Saverio; Di Marco, Roberto; Mangano, Katia; Quattrocchi, Cinzia; Neri, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Neopterin is a marker of macrophage activation that has exhibited high plasma levels in atherosclerotic diseases including coronary heart disease and critical limb ischemia. The role of neopterin in chronic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, neopterin (?) serum concentrations were analyzed in asymptomatic (AsP) and symptomatic (SyP) patients with PAD as well as controls (C). In total 120 subjects, 40 AsP [ankle brachial index (ABI) ?0.90], 40 SyP (ABI ?0.90 plus pain in legs) and 40 controls (ABI >0.9) were enrolled. The results of the present study showed that neopterin plasma levels were statistically different among the groups. These findings demonstrated that activation of N?mediated monocyte?macrophage, was also observed in chronic PAD. PMID:23563241

  18. Glycopyrronium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Riario-Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Ridolo, Erminia; Riario-Sforza, Edoardo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-02-01

    Glycopyrronium bromide is a new long-acting muscarinic antagonist to be used once-daily, which is approved as a bronchodilator for the symptomatic maintenance treatment of adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Glycopyrronium bromide in chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease airWays trials, treatment with inhaled glycopyrronium bromide at 50 μg once daily achieved a significantly better lung function than placebo, as measured by the trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. The lung function improvement was maintained for up to 52 weeks. Other improved indexes were dyspnea scores, health status, exacerbation rates and time of exercise endurance. Studies comparing the efficacy of glycopyrronium versus tiotropium bromide found substantial equivalence of the two drugs. Glycopyrronium was generally well tolerated. These data add inhaled glycopyrronium bromide to the treatment of patients with moderate to severe COPD as an effective once-daily LAMA. PMID:25547422

  19. [Physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of severe chronic hypoxemia. Role of residential chronic oxygen therapy].

    PubMed

    Cáneva, J O; Rabec, C A; De Salvo, M C; Mazzei, J A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the etiological and pathophysiological aspects of chronic severe hypoxemia (CSH) and to determine the indications of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). Three hypothesis are presented and analyzed: 1) CSH is harmful to the economy; 2) LTOT is therefore useful; 3) LTOT is not toxic and does not imply major risks than the benefits that it offers. Changes are produced by prolonged exposure to low levels of O2 leading to a sustained increase in pulmonary artery pressure. Secondary pulmonary hypertension (SPH) due to chronic hypoxemia is much more subtle and less symptomatic than that produced by other pathologies. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the most common cause of CSH; these patients have a poor prognosis associated to the hypoxemia and its effects, being a PaO2 below 60 mmHg one of the most precise factors of mortality. Patients selection criteria for LTOT different sources for home oxygen therapy, methods of administration and finally an update of LTOT situation in our country and abroad are discussed. PMID:11563176

  20. Developing Molecular Signatures for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rimelen, Valérie; Civic, Natacha; Docquier, Mylène; Troussard, Xavier; Drénou, Bernard; Matthes, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal malignancy of mature B cells that displays a great clinical heterogeneity, with many patients having an indolent disease that will not require intervention for many years, while others present an aggressive and symptomatic leukemia requiring immediate treatment. Although there is no cure for CLL, the disease is treatable and current standard chemotherapy regimens have been shown to prolong survival. Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of CLL have led to the identification of numerous cellular and molecular markers with potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic significance. We have used the recently developed digital multiplexed gene-expression technique (DMGE) to analyze a cohort of 30 CLL patients for the presence of specific genes with known diagnostic and prognostic potential. Starting from a set of 290 genes we were able to develop a molecular signature, based on the analysis of 13 genes, which allows distinguishing CLL from normal peripheral blood and from normal B cells, and a second signature based on 24 genes, which distinguishes mutated from unmutated cases (LymphCLL Mut). A third classifier (LymphCLL Diag), based on a 44-gene signature, distinguished CLL cases from a series of other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (n = 51). While the methodology presented here has the potential to provide a "ready to use" classification tool in routine diagnostics and clinical trials, application to larger sample numbers are still needed and should provide further insights about its robustness and utility in clinical practice. PMID:26046539

  1. [Chronic fatigue syndrome: more than fatigue].

    PubMed

    Royes, Badía; Alvarez, Carballo; Lalinde, Sevillano; Vidal, Llinas; Martín, Alegre

    2010-12-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease recognized by all international medical organizations and WHO, and is classified under the code G93.3 of the International Classification of Diseases. Its prevalence is estimated around 2.54% being more common in women than in men (8/2) aged between 20 and 40 Is defined as a chronic new description characterized by the presence of subjective feeling of fatigue and exhaustion long disabling of more than 6 months duration that is not relieved by rest. It is a multisystem disorder that often presents a significant number of comorbid phenomena. Not known until specific tests to confirm the diagnosis, nor is there a cure to solve this health problem definitively The strongest evidence is based on the multidisciplinary approach for the symptomatic treatment of pain, sleep disorders, neurocognitive dysfunction, autonomic and control of depression and anxiety. The specific contribution of nursing to care for the person who lives and live with the SFC should be developed primarily in the field of health education and supportive care, support and assistance to help the patient and their relatives are an adaptive response to changes in health. PMID:21322184

  2. Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system

    PubMed Central

    Bruyère, Olivier; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D; Rizzoli, René; Cooper, Cyrus; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. Results Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. Conclusion In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. PMID:19087296

  3. Impact of Pre-Symptomatic Testing for Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fanos, Joanna H.; Gronka, Susan; Wuu, Joanne; Stanislaw, Christine; Andersen, Peter M.; Benatar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pre-fALS is a longitudinal study of individuals potentially at risk for developing familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Our goals were to: 1) explore participants’ decisions whether or not to learn results of pre-symptomatic testing; 2) understand the psychosocial impact of these decisions; 3) assess preferences for receiving results by telephone or in-person. Methods The sample for this sub-study comprised 20 participants drawn randomly from autosomal dominant mutant SOD1 (mtSOD1) families in the Pre-fALS study. Twenty participants completed a semi-structured phone interview; prominent themes were identified and rated. Results Fourteen participants chose to learn results; 6 had mtSOD1 and 8 had wtSOD1. Of the 6 who initially elected non-disclosure, 3 were reconsidering their decision. Regardless of the results and method of counseling, participants had adapted well, at least in the short-term. Conclusion We recommend: 1) those considering pre-symptomatic genetic testing should undergo professional counseling to help decide whether to learn results; 2) discussion should include the option of telephone genetic counseling for those without easy access to in-person counseling; 3) those who initially decline to learn results should be offered the opportunity to learn their mutation status as their decision evolves. PMID:21285887

  4. Randomised, double blind comparison of omeprazole and cimetidine in the treatment of symptomatic gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bate, C M; Wilkinson, S P; Bradby, G V; Bateson, M C; Hislop, W S; Crowe, J P; Willoughby, C P; Peers, E M; Richardson, P D

    1989-01-01

    In a randomised, double blind, parallel group study in patients with symptomatic gastric ulcer (94% greater than or equal to 5 mm diameter), 102 received omeprazole 20 mg om and 87 cimetidine 400 mg bd. After four weeks 73% and 58% (p less than 0.05) respectively had healed (eight weeks: 84% and 75%, ns). After four weeks, a greater proportion (81%) of omeprazole treated patients was symptom free than of those receiving cimetidine (60%; p less than 0.01). Over the first two weeks, patients receiving omeprazole had less day pain, less night pain and took fewer antacids than those receiving cimetidine (all p less than 0.05). The difference between omeprazole and cimetidine was not appreciably affected by age, smoking, size of the ulcer and trial centre. Tolerability was similar in the two treatment groups. In the treatment of symptomatic gastric ulcer, omeprazole relieves the symptoms more quickly than cimetidine and heals a greater proportion of ulcers within four weeks. PMID:2684802

  5. Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to siderosis causing symptomatic respiratory disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Liam M; Goddard, Martin; Mahadeva, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary siderosis secondary to the inhalation of iron compounds is a rare condition which, despite striking radiological and histopathological features, has not traditionally been associated with symptoms or functional impairment. Although not the first of its kind, we present an unusual case of pulmonary siderosis with symptomatic respiratory disease, most likely secondary to associated fibrosis. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of exertional breathlessness. He had worked as an engineer for 20 years where he did a significant amount of welding but always wore a face shield. Clinical, radiological and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary siderosis, with associated fibrosis, most likely related to his occupational welding history. Conclusion Our report illustrates that symptomatic respiratory disease due to mild peribronchiolar fibrosis can occur with pulmonary siderosis despite wearing a mask. Furthermore, it reinforces the need for all clinicians to compile a detailed occupational history in individuals presenting with breathlessness. PMID:18681950

  6. The laparoscopic management of symptomatic renal cysts: A single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Gadelmoula, Mohamed; KurKar, Adel; Shalaby, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To present our experience of treating symptomatic renal cysts by different techniques of laparoscopic decortication, as there are many treatment options for such cysts, each of them with advantages and drawbacks. Patients and methods Between January 2002 and December 2012, 51 patients underwent laparoscopic renal-cyst decortication; 15 of them had recurrent cysts after percutaneous aspiration. A retroperitoneal approach was adopted in 44 cases, transperitoneal in four and laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) cyst decortication in three (two of them had bilateral renal cyst decortications in the same session). All patients were diagnosed by ultrasonography and computed tomography to determine the Bosniak classification of the cyst. Pain and cyst recurrence were assessed during the follow-up. Results All procedures were completed successfully, with no major intraoperative complications. The mean (range) operative duration was 56 (35–125) min, affected by the site and number of cysts unroofed. All patients were symptom-free except one, who had a recurrent large cyst, anteriorly located, and who underwent open cyst decortication. Conclusions Laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic renal cysts should be the standard of care, especially after failed percutaneous aspiration or decortication. LESS cyst decortication is a promising technique, especially with bilateral pathology. It is feasible with conventional laparoscopic instruments and gives a better cosmetic outcome. PMID:26019944

  7. Population-based prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic astrovirus infection in rural Mayan infants.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Y; Cantwell, M; Old, M; Hill, D; Sanchez, M L; Logan, L; Millan-Velasco, F; Valdespino, J L; Sepulveda, J; Matsui, S

    1998-08-01

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic astrovirus infection was prospectively determined in a 3-year birth cohort of Mayan infants. Stool samples from 271 infants and 268 older siblings were tested for astrovirus, adenovirus 40/41, rotavirus and Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter species. Concurrent diarrhea, vomiting, fever, or anorexia were noted. Astrovirus was detected in 164 infants (61%) and 20 siblings (7%). Rotavirus (4%) and adenovirus 40/41 (13%) were isolated less frequently. Of all diarrheal episodes reported at a visit, 26% (78/305) were associated with astrovirus; 17% (78/452) of astrovirus infections were associated with diarrhea and 9% with other symptoms. Only diarrhea was associated with astrovirus infection (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .01). Of infants with astrovirus, 70% shed at multiple visits over a period of 2-17 weeks (median, 5). The point prevalence of astrovirus infection was significantly higher among infants than siblings (relative risk, 6.18; 95% CI, 3.93-9.72; P < .0001, chi2). Astrovirus was identified throughout the year, peaked in March and May, and decreased in September. In this population, astrovirus was the most common enteric pathogen isolated; symptomatic infection was prevalent among infants. PMID:9697712

  8. Symptomatic schwannoma of the abdominal wall: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    BALZAROTTI, RUBEN; RONDELLI, FABIO; BARIZZI, JESSICA; CARTOLARI, ROBERTO

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma is a rare, benign tumor that arises from the nerve sheath. This tumor usually involves the extremities, but can also be found in the head and neck, trunk, pelvis, retroperitoneum, mediastinum and gastrointestinal tract. In numerous cases, the tumors are asymptomatic and are identified incidentally on physical examination or imaging. Occasionally, schwannoma is symptomatic due to compression of surrounding large nerves. In the present study, a 57-year-old female presented to the surgical outpatient’s department due to a well-localized parietal pain in the left lower quadrant. The onset of the pain occurred three years prior to presentation, without apparent cause and in the absence of other symptoms. Ultrasound and a computed tomography scan revealed a small solid tumor in the anterior abdominal wall, which was dimensionally stable over time, but was not noted in a preliminary analysis by a radiologist. The lesion was surgically removed using an anterior surgical approach. Histopathology revealed the tumor to be benign schwannoma. The painful symptoms completely disappeared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of an abdominal wall benign schwannoma in the medical literature, and the first symptomatic case. PMID:25663862

  9. Is increased time to diagnosis and treatment in symptomatic cancer associated with poorer outcomes? Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neal, R D; Tharmanathan, P; France, B; Din, N U; Cotton, S; Fallon-Ferguson, J; Hamilton, W; Hendry, A; Hendry, M; Lewis, R; Macleod, U; Mitchell, E D; Pickett, M; Rai, T; Shaw, K; Stuart, N; Tørring, M L; Wilkinson, C; Williams, B; Williams, N; Emery, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether more timely cancer diagnosis brings favourable outcomes, with much of the previous evidence, in some cancers, being equivocal. We set out to determine whether there is an association between time to diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcomes, across all cancers for symptomatic presentations. Methods: Systematic review of the literature and narrative synthesis. Results: We included 177 articles reporting 209 studies. These studies varied in study design, the time intervals assessed and the outcomes reported. Study quality was variable, with a small number of higher-quality studies. Heterogeneity precluded definitive findings. The cancers with more reports of an association between shorter times to diagnosis and more favourable outcomes were breast, colorectal, head and neck, testicular and melanoma. Conclusions: This is the first review encompassing many cancer types, and we have demonstrated those cancers in which more evidence of an association between shorter times to diagnosis and more favourable outcomes exists, and where it is lacking. We believe that it is reasonable to assume that efforts to expedite the diagnosis of symptomatic cancer are likely to have benefits for patients in terms of improved survival, earlier-stage diagnosis and improved quality of life, although these benefits vary between cancers. PMID:25734382

  10. Symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cysts: A report of three cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayur; Velho, Vernon; Mally, Rahul; Khan, Shadma W.

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts (Tarlov's cysts) are nerve root cysts, which are usually asymptomatic and are detected incidentally on imaging. These cysts are rare with an incidence of 4.6%. We report three cases of Lumbosacral Tarlov's cysts, which presented with cauda equina syndrome and radicular pain syndrome. Two of our patients had symptoms of cauda equina syndrome, and one had acute sciatica. Complete excision of the cyst was achieved in two patients and marsupialization of the cyst was done in another patient due to its large size and dense adherence to the sacral nerve roots. All the patients were relieved of the radicular pain with no new neurological deficit following surgery. Symptomatic lumbosacral Tarlov's cyst is a rare lesion, and the presentation can be low back pain, cauda equina syndrome or sciatica. Therefore, this entity should be kept in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these symptoms. Complete Surgical excision of these symptomatic cysts is the treatment of choice to achieve a cure. PMID:26396612

  11. A case of symptomatic cervical perineural (Tarlov) cyst: clinical manifestation and management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keewon; Chun, Se Woong; Chung, Sun G

    2012-01-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are most often found in the sacral region and are rare in the cervical spine. Although they are usually asymptomatic, a small number of those at the lumbosacral level have been known to produce localized or radicular pain. Few reports are available on symptomatic perineural cysts in the cervical spine and it has not been discussed how they should be managed. We present here a case of cervical perineural cysts with persistent radicular pain where the pain was adequately managed with repetitive transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI). The patient had experienced intractable pain in the posterior neck and left upper extremity for more than 7 years. The nature of the pain was cramping and a tingling sensation, which was aggravated in the supine position. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a perineural cyst in the neural foramen of left C7 root. The patient underwent three repetitive TFESIs targeted at the root. Each injection provided incremental relief, which lasted more than 6 months. Follow-up image revealed shrinkage of the cyst. This case illustrates in detail the clinical manifestation of a rare symptomatic perineural cyst in the cervical region and to our knowledge is the first to report the beneficial effect of repetitive TFESI. PMID:21830055

  12. Symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cysts: A report of three cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayur; Velho, Vernon; Mally, Rahul; Khan, Shadma W

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts (Tarlov's cysts) are nerve root cysts, which are usually asymptomatic and are detected incidentally on imaging. These cysts are rare with an incidence of 4.6%. We report three cases of Lumbosacral Tarlov's cysts, which presented with cauda equina syndrome and radicular pain syndrome. Two of our patients had symptoms of cauda equina syndrome, and one had acute sciatica. Complete excision of the cyst was achieved in two patients and marsupialization of the cyst was done in another patient due to its large size and dense adherence to the sacral nerve roots. All the patients were relieved of the radicular pain with no new neurological deficit following surgery. Symptomatic lumbosacral Tarlov's cyst is a rare lesion, and the presentation can be low back pain, cauda equina syndrome or sciatica. Therefore, this entity should be kept in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these symptoms. Complete Surgical excision of these symptomatic cysts is the treatment of choice to achieve a cure. PMID:26396612

  13. Circulating microRNAs correlated with the level of coronary artery calcification in symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ling, Shukuan; Sun, Weijia; Liu, Tong; Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Zhao, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Jin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Zi; Song, Hailin; Li, Qi; Liu, Shujuan; Chai, Meng; Dai, Qinyi; He, Yi; Fan, Zhanming; Zhou, Yu Jie; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) co-related with the severity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), and testify whether the selected miRNAs could reflect the obstructive coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients. Patients with chest pain and moderated risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) were characterized with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) from cardiac computed tomography (CT). We analyzed plasma miRNA levels of clinical matched 11 CAC (CACS?>?100) and 6 non-CAC (CACS?=?0) subjects by microarray profile. Microarray analysis identified 34 differentially expressed miRNAs between CAC and non CAC groups. Eight miRNAs (miR-223, miR-3135b, miR-133a-3p, miR-2861, miR-134, miR-191-3p, miR-3679-5p, miR-1229 in CAC patients) were significantly increased in CAC plasma in an independent clinical matched cohort. Four miRNAs (miR-2861, 134, 1229 and 3135b) were correlated with the degree of CAC. Validation test in angiographic cohort showed that miR-134, miR-3135b and miR-2861 were significantly changed in patients with obstructive CAD . We identified three significantly upregulated circulating miRNAs (miR-134, miR-3135b and 2861) correlated with CAC while detected obstructive coronary disease in symptomatic patients. PMID:26537670

  14. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Human Astroviruses in Mexican Children with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mndez-Toss, Martha; Griffin, Dixie D.; Calva, Juan; Contreras, Juan F.; Puerto, Fernando I.; Mota, Felipe; Guiscafr, Hctor; Cedillo, Roberto; Muoz, Onofre; Herrera, Ismael; Lpez, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and type diversity of human astroviruses (HAstV) in children with symptomatic and asymptomatic infections were determined in five localities of Mexico. HAstV were detected in 4.6 (24 of 522) and 2.6% (11 of 428) of children with and without diarrhea, respectively. Genotyping of the detected strains showed that at least seven (types 1 to 4 and 6 to 8) of the eight known HAstV types circulated in Mexico between October 1994 and March 1995. HAstV types 1 and 3 were the most prevalent in children with diarrhea, although they were not found in all localities studied. HAstV type 8 was found in Mexico City, Monterrey, and Mrida; in the last it was as prevalent (40%) as type 1 viruses, indicating that this astrovirus type is more common than previously recognized. A correlation between the HAstV infecting type and the presence or absence of diarrheic symptoms was not observed. Enteric adenoviruses were also studied, and they were found to be present in 2.3 (12 of 522) and 1.4% (6 of 428) of symptomatic and asymptomatic children, respectively. PMID:14715746

  15. Overdiagnosing of femoroacetabular impingement: correlation between clinical presentation and computed tomography in symptomatic patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Canella, Richard Prazeres; Adam, Guilherme Pradi; de Castillo, Roberto André Ulhôa; Codonho, Daniel; Ganev, Gerson Gandhi; de Vicenzi, Luiz Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective To correlate the angles between the acetabulum and the proximal femur in symptomatic patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), using computed tomography (CT). Methods We retrospectively evaluated 103 hips from 103 patients, using multislice CT to measure the acetabular age, acetabular version (in its supraequatorial portion and in its middle third), femoral neck version, cervical-diaphyseal and alpha angles and the acetabular depth. For the statistical analysis, we used the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results There were inverse correlations between the following angles: (1) acetabular coverage versus alpha angle (p = 0.019); (2) acetabular version (supraequatorial) versus alpha angle (p = 0.049). For patients with femoral anteversion lower than 15 degrees: (1) acetabular version (supraequatorial) versus alpha angle (p = 0.026); (2) acetabular version (middle third) versus alpha angle (p = 0.02). For patients with acetabular version (supraequatorial) lower than 10 degrees: (1) acetabular version (supraequatorial) versus alpha angle (p = 0.004); (2) acetabular version (middle third) versus alpha angle (p = 0.009). Conclusion There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between the acetabular version and alpha angles (the smaller the acetabular anteversion angle was, the larger the alpha angle was) in symptomatic patients, thus supporting the hypothesis that FAI occurs when cam and pincer findings due to acetabular retroversion are seen simultaneously, and that the latter alone does not cause FAI, which leads to overdiagnosis in these cases. PMID:27069890

  16. Cytokine profiling for prediction of symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Justin P.; Broadwater, Gloria; Rabbani, Zahid; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Clough, Robert; Huang, Dale; Sempowski, Gregory A.; Dewhirst, Mark; Pizzo, Salvatore V.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Anscher, Mitchell S. . E-mail: anscher@radonc.duke.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze plasma cytokine profiles before the initiation of radiation therapy to define a cytokine phenotype that correlates with risk of developing symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury (SRILI). Methods and Materials: Symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury was evaluated in 55 patients (22 with SRILI and 33 without SRILI), according to modified National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria. These plasma samples were analyzed by the multiplex suspension bead array system (Bio-Rad Laboratories; Hercules, CA), which included the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-{gamma}, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1{beta}, tumor necrosis factor {alpha}, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Results: Significant differences in the median values of IL-8 were observed between patients with and without SRILI. Patients who did not develop SRILI had approximately fourfold elevated levels of IL-8 as compared with patients who did subsequently develop SRILI. Significant correlations were not found for any other cytokine in this study, including transforming growth factor {beta}1. Conclusions: Patients with lower levels of plasma IL-8 before radiation therapy might be at increased risk for developing SRILI. Further studies are necessary to determine whether IL-8 levels are predictive of SRILI in a prospective trial and whether this marker might be used to determine patient eligibility for dose escalation.

  17. Symptomatic Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee Treated With Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Dnyanesh; Petrera, Massimo; Karnatzikos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In vitro and in vivo studies have proven a pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic activity within cartilage with the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). This has piqued interest of sports physicians for its use in the treatment of early osteoarthritis (OA). The aim was to determine if the use of PEMFs in patients with early OA of the knee would lead to an improved clinical outcome. Study design: Prospective case series. Methods: Twenty-two patients aged between 30 and 60 years who underwent treatment with PEMFs (4-hour treatment per day, duration 45 days) were included. All patients presented with symptomatic early OA with grade 0-2 changes (Kellgren-Lawrence classification) at the pretreatment evaluation. Patients were evaluated before treatment, at 1- and 2-year follow-up using visual analogue scale for pain, International Knee Documentation Committee objective, Tegner, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores. Results: A significant improvement in all scores was observed at 1-year follow-up (P = 0.008). At 2-year follow-up, results deteriorated but were still superior to pretreatment levels (P = 0.02). No adverse reactions or side effects were seen. Conclusions: This study showed that the use of PEMFs in patients with symptomatic early OA of the knee led to significant improvement in symptoms, knee function, and activity at 1-year follow-up. There was a significant decline in all the scores at 2-year follow-up. PMID:26069687

  18. Level and Determinants of Knowledge of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis among Railway Workers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Menke, J. Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M.; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Background. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. Purpose. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Results. Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (±10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care. PMID:24701573

  19. Symptomatic phrenic nerve palsy after supraclavicular block in an obese man.

    PubMed

    Erickson, John M; Louis, Dean S; Naughton, Norah N

    2009-05-01

    Regional anesthesia has an expanding role in upper extremity surgery. Brachial plexus blocks offer several advantages including providing effective analgesia, reducing narcotic requirements, and facilitating ambulatory care surgery. Despite the popularity of nerve blocks, the surgeon must not forget the complications associated with regional anesthesia. This article describes a case of symptomatic phrenic nerve palsy after supraclavicular brachial plexus block in an obese man. A 46-year-old obese man underwent a left-sided supraclavicular block in preparation for decompression of Guyon's canal for ulnar mononeuropathy at the wrist. The patient experienced acute-onset dyspnea, chest discomfort, and anxiety, and physical examination demonstrated reduced breath sounds in the left hemithorax. Chest radiographs documented elevation of the left hemidiaphragm consistent with an iatrogenic phrenic nerve palsy. The patient was admitted for 23-hour observation and underwent an uncomplicated ulnar nerve decompression under Bier block anesthesia 1 week later. No long-term sequelae have been identified; however, there was a delay in surgical care, admission to the hospital, and transient pulmonary symptoms. We attribute this complication to significant abdominal obesity causing compromised pulmonary reserve and poor tolerance of transient hemidiaphragmatic paresis. In recent studies, waist circumference and abdominal height were inversely related to pulmonary function. We suspect that the incidence of symptomatic phrenic nerve palsy associated with brachial plexus blocks will increase as the prevalence of obesity increases in this country. PMID:19472948

  20. A novel technique of arthroscopic excision of a symptomatic os trigonum.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Shuji; Kita, Keisuke; Natsu-ume, Takashi; Hamada, Masayuki; Mae, Tatsuo; Shino, Konsei

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new arthroscopic excision technique for a symptomatic os trigonum. With the patient lying in a prone position, a posterolateral portal just lateral to the Achilles tendon, at the 5-mm level proximal to the tip of the fibula, is used for the arthroscope and an accessory posterolateral portal just posterior to the peroneal tendon at the same level is used for instruments. The synovial tissues are then debrided with a power shaver through the accessory posterolateral portal for better visualization. An elevator is used to release the fibrous tissue between the os trigonum and the talus. The os trigonum is completely excised with a grasper to visualize the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Radiographic control is helpful to check the position of the arthroscope if it happens to be inserted into the ankle joint as a result of the reduced subtalar joint space. Postoperatively, no immobilization is necessary, and full weight-bearing is allowed as tolerated. Three of us have performed 11 procedures with excellent results and no cases of complications. This arthroscopic excision technique for the symptomatic os trigonum is a safe and effective procedure. PMID:18182212

  1. Chronic illness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Boice, M M

    1998-01-01

    Adolescents experience numerous changes. Coping with a chronic illness adds yet another dimension to their lives. This paper reviews the literature on chronically ill adolescents, addressing social, biological, psychological, cognitive, and cultural issues. PMID:9886019

  2. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  3. Chronic granulomatous disease

    MedlinePlus

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and fungi. This ...

  4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    MedlinePlus

    CLL; Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL) ... Byrd JC, Flynn JM. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  5. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  6. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... chromosomes. There are 3 phases of CML: Chronic phase In the chronic phase, there are more white ... phase will eventually enter the accelerated phase. Accelerated phase In the accelerated phase of CML, there are ...

  7. Ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: an emerging definitive management strategy for symptomatic ureteral calculi in pregnancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, James D.; Girvan, Andrew R.; Beiko, Darren T.; Nott, Linda; Wollin, Timothy A.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Denstedt, John D.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: Symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy that does not respond to conservative measures has traditionally been managed with ureteral stent insertion or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy using state-of-the-art ureteroscopes represents an emerging strategy for definitive stone management in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to review the results of holmium laser lithotripsy in a cohort of patients who presented with symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at 2 tertiary stone centers from January 1996 to August 2001 to identify pregnant patients who were treated with ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for symptomatic urolithiasis or encrusted stents. Eight patients with a total of 10 symptomatic ureteral calculi and 2 encrusted ureteral stents were treated. Mean gestational age at presentation was 22 weeks. Mean stone size was 8.1 mm. Stones were located in the proximal ureter/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) (3), mid ureter (1), and distal ureter (6). Results: Complete stone fragmentation and/or removal of encrusted ureteral stents were achieved in all patients using the holmium:YAG laser. The overall procedural success rate was 91%. The overall stone-free rate was 89%. No obstetrical or urological complications were encountered. Conclusions: Ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy can be performed safely in all stages of pregnancy providing definitive management of symptomatic ureteral calculi. The procedure can be done with minimal or no fluoroscopy and avoids the undesirable features of stents or nephrostomy tubes.

  8. Association of host, agent and environment characteristics and the duration of incubation and symptomatic periods of norovirus gastroenteritis.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Devasia T; Lopman B; Leon J; Handel A

    2015-08-01

    We analysed the reported duration of incubation and symptomatic periods of norovirus for a dataset of 1022 outbreaks, 64 of which reported data on the average incubation period and 87 on the average symptomatic period. We found the mean and median incubation periods for norovirus to be 32·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 30·9-34·6] hours and 33·5 (95% CI 32·0-34·0) hours, respectively. For the symptomatic period we found the mean and median to be 44·2 (95% CI 38·9-50·7) hours and 43·0 (95% CI 36·0-48·0) hours, respectively. We further investigated how these average periods were associated with several reported host, agent and environmental characteristics. We did not find any strong, biologically meaningful associations between the duration of incubation or symptomatic periods and the reported host, pathogen and environmental characteristics. Overall, we found that the distributions of incubation and symptomatic periods for norovirus infections are fairly constant and showed little differences with regard to the host, pathogen and environmental characteristics we analysed.

  9. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Chronic Diarrhea in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea is loose, watery stools. Chronic, or long ...

  10. Transcatheter arterial embolization for unresectable symptomatic giant hepatic hemangiomas: single-center experience using a lipiodol-ethanol mixture*

    PubMed Central

    Szejnfeld, Denis; Nunes, Thiago Franchi; Fornazari, Vinicius Adami Vayego; de Matos, Carla Adriana Loureiro; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; D’Ippolito, Giuseppe; Silva, Ivonete Sandra de Souza e; Goldman, Suzan Menasce

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present article is aimed at reporting the author’s experience with transcatheter arterial embolization using a lipiodol-ethanol mixture in three cases of unresectable symptomatic giant hepatic hemangiomas. Materials and Methods The cases of three patients with giant unresectable symptomatic hepatic hemangiomas embolized in the period 2009–2010 were retrospectively reviewed. In all the cases, transarterial embolization was performed with an ethanol-lipiodol mixture. Results Symptoms regression and quality of life improvement were observed in all the cases. No complications were observed and all the patients were discharged within 12 hours after the procedure. Conclusion Transcatheter arterial embolization using ethanol mixed with lipiodol was a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic giant hepatic hemangiomas in this small series of patients. PMID:26185341

  11. Successful conservative management of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects presenting with cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kwee, Thomas C; Sonneveld, Heleen; Nix, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The dorsal patellar defect is a relatively rare entity that involves the superolateral quadrant of the patella. It is usually considered to represent a delayed ossification process, although its exact origin remains unclear. Because of its usually innocuous nature and clinical course, invasive interventions are generally deemed unnecessary, although curretage has been successfully performed on symptomatic cases. This case report presents a rather unusual case of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects with cartilage involvement and widespread surrounding bone marrow edema as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema should be considered part of the spectrum of associated MRI findings that can be encountered in this entity. Furthermore, the presented case shows that symptomatic dorsal patellar defects can be treated conservatively with success and that (decrease of) pain symptoms are likely related to (decrease of) bone marrow edema. PMID:26810333

  12. Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Campylobacter Infections Associated with Reduced Growth in Peruvian Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth; Pan, William; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Tilley, Drake; Gregory, Michael; Oberhelman, Richard; Burga, Rosa; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Kosek, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Although diarrheal illnesses are recognized as both a cause and effect of undernutrition, evidence for the effect of specific enteropathogens on early childhood growth remains limited. We estimated the effects of undernutrition as a risk factor for campylobacteriosis, as well as associations between symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections and growth. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from a prospective cohort of 442 children aged 0–72 months, the effect of nutritional status on the incidence of Campylobacter infection was estimated using uni- and multivariate Poisson models. Multivariate regression models were developed to evaluate the effect of Campylobacter infection on weight gain and linear growth. Overall, 8.3% of diarrheal episodes were associated with Campylobacter (crude incidence rate = 0.37 episodes/year) and 4.9% of quarterly asymptomatic samples were Campylobacter positive. In univariate models, the incidence of Campylobacter infection was marginally higher in stunted than non-stunted children (IRR 1.270, 95% CI (0.960, 1.681)(p = 0.095). When recent diarrheal burdens were included in the analysis, there was no difference in risk between stunted and unstunted children. Asymptomatic and symptomatic Campylobacter infections were associated with reduced weight gain over a three-month period (65.5 g (95% CI: −128.0, −3.0)(p = 0.040) and 43.9 g (95% CI:−87.6, −1.0)(p = 0.049) less weight gain, respectively). Symptomatic Campylobacter infections were only marginally associated with reduced linear growth over a nine month period (−0.059 cm per episode, 95% CI: −0.118, 0.001)(p = 0.054), however relatively severe episodes were associated with reduced linear growth (−0.169 cm/episode, 95% CI −0.310, −0.028)(p = 0.019). Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Campylobacter is not as benign as commonly assumed, and that there is evidence to support expanding the indications for antibiotic therapy in campylobacteriosis in children. PMID:23383356

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Transurethral Needle Ablation in symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bouza, Carmen; López, Teresa; Magro, Angeles; Navalpotro, Lourdes; Amate, José María

    2006-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) constitutes a major clinical problem. Minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of symptomatic BPH include Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA), but it is unclear what impact this technique has on the disease and its role among other currently available therapeutic options. The objective of this study is to ascertain the efficacy and safety of TUNA in the treatment of BPH. Methods Systematic review of the literature until January 2005 and meta-analysis of clinical studies assessing TUNA in symptomatic BPH. Studies were critically appraised. Estimates of effect were calculated according to the random-effects model. Results 35 studies (9 comparative, 26 non-comparative) were included. Although evidence was limited by methodological issues, the analysis of relevant outcomes indicates that while TUNA significantly improves BPH parameters with respect to baseline, it does not reach the same level of efficacy as TURP in respect to all subjective and objective variables. Further, its efficacy declines in the long-term with a rate of secondary-treatment significantly higher than of TURP [OR: 7.44 (2.47, 22.43)]. Conversely, TUNA seems to be a relatively safe technique and shows a lower rate of complications than TURP [OR:0.14 (0.05, 0.14)] with differences being particularly noteworthy in terms of postoperative bleeding and sexual disorders. Likewise, TUNA has fewer anesthetic requirements and generates a shorter hospital stay than TURP [WMD: -1.9 days (-2.75, -1.05)]. Scarce data and lack of replication of comparisons hinder the assessment of TUNA vs. other local therapies. No comparisons with medical treatment were found. Conclusion The body of evidence on which TUNA has been introduced into clinical practice is of only moderate-low quality. Available evidence suggest that TUNA is a relatively effective and safe technique that may eventually prove to have a role in selected patients with symptomatic BPH. TUNA significantly improves BPH parameters with respect to baseline values, but it does not reach the same level of efficacy and long-lasting success as TURP. On the other hand, TUNA seems to be superior to TURP in terms of associated morbidity, anesthetic requirements and length of hospital stay. With respect to the role of TUNA vis-à-vis other minimally invasive therapies, the results of this review indicate that there are insufficient data to define this with any degree of accuracy. Overall cost-effectiveness and the role of TUNA versus medical treatment need further evaluation. PMID:16790044

  14. Effect of Three Interventions on Contact Lens Comfort in Symptomatic Wearers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Navascues-Cornago, Maria; Morgan, Philip B.; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether carrying out various interventions part way through the day influences comfort in symptomatic daily disposable (DD) contact lens wearers. Methods A subject-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in thirty symptomatic soft lens wearers who wore their habitual DD contact lenses bilaterally for 12 h on two separate days. Five hours after lens application, one of the following three interventions or a control was performed on each eye: replacing the existing lens with a new lens; removing and reapplying the same lens; performing a ‘scleral swish’; and no action (control). Comfort scores were recorded using SMS text messages every hour following lens application using a 0 (causes pain) to 100 (excellent comfort) scale. Comfort scores before lens application, at 6 mins post-application, and at 6 mins post-intervention were also recorded. Results There was a significant reduction in comfort from pre-lens application to 6 mins post-application for all groups (all p<0.05). Comfort gradually decreased from 6 mins to 5 h after lens application for each group (p<0.0001) with no significant difference between groups over the 5-h period (p = 0.09). There was no significant difference in comfort 6 mins post-intervention for any group (all p>0.05). After the intervention, comfort continued to decline (p<0.0001) with slightly lower mean scores for the control group compared to the new lens group (p = 0.003). Change in comfort relative to pre-intervention (5 h) was similar for all groups (p = 0.81). There was no difference in comfort at 12 h between groups (p = 0.83). Conclusion This work has confirmed that comfort shows a continual and significant decline over a 12-h wearing period in symptomatic DD contact lens wearers. None of the interventions investigated had any significant impact on end-of-day comfort. These data suggest discomfort in lens wearers is more heavily influenced by changes to the ocular environment rather than to the lens itself. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN10419752 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN10419752 PMID:26267853

  15. Symptomatic Dengue Infection during Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Eleanor E.; Dallah, Fadi; Harville, Emily W.; Myers, Leann; Buekens, Pierre; Breart, Gerard; Carles, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that is common in many tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue infections can occur at any age and time in the lifespan, including during pregnancy. Few large scale studies have been conducted to determine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) and low birthweight (LBW) for infants born to women who had symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy. Methodology/Principal Findings This study is a retrospective cohort study using medical records from 1992–2010 from pregnant women who attended a public regional referral hospital in western French Guiana. Exposed pregnancies were those with laboratory confirmed cases of dengue fever during pregnancy. Each of the 86 exposed infants was matched to the three unexposed births that immediately followed them to form a stratum. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze these matched strata. Three groups were examined: all infants regardless of gestational age, only infants> = 17 weeks of gestational age and their strata, and only infants> = 22 weeks of age and their strata. Odds ratios were adjusted (aOR) for maternal age, maternal ethnicity, maternal gravidity, interpregnancy interval and maternal anemia. There was an increased risk of PTB among women with symptomatic dengue; (aOR all infants: 3.34 (1.13, 9.89), aOR 17 weeks: 1.89 (0.61, 5.87), aOR 22 weeks: 1.41 (0.39, 5.20)) but this risk was only statistically significant when all infants were examined (p value = 0.03). Adjusted results for LBW were similar, with an increased risk in the exposed group (aOR All infants: 2.23 (1.01, 4.90), aOR 17 weeks: 1.67 (0.71, 3.93), aOR 22 weeks: 1.43 (0.56, 3.70)) which was only statistically significant when all infants were examined (p value = 0.05). Conclusions/Significance Symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy may increase the risk of PTB and LBW for infants. More research is needed to confirm these results and to examine the role of dengue fever in miscarriage. PMID:25299383

  16. Estimating the Incidence of Symptomatic Rotavirus Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bilcke, Joke; Van Damme, Pierre; Van Ranst, Marc; Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Beutels, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background We conducted for the first time a systematic review, including a meta-analysis, of the incidence of symptomatic rotavirus (RV) infections, because (1) it was shown to be an influential factor in estimating the cost-effectiveness of RV vaccination, (2) multiple community-based studies assessed it prospectively, (3) previous studies indicated, inconclusively, it might be similar around the world. Methodology Pubmed (which includes Medline) was searched for surveys assessing prospectively symptomatic (diarrheal) episodes in a general population and situation, which also reported on the number of the episodes being tested RV+ and on the persons and the time period observed. A bias assessment tool was developed and used according to Cochrane guidelines by 4 researchers with different backgrounds. Heterogeneity was explored graphically and by comparing fits of study-homogenous ‘fixed effects’ and -heterogeneous ‘random effects’ models. Data were synthesized using these models. Sensitivity analysis for uncertainty regarding data abstraction, bias assessment and included studies was performed. Principal Findings Variability between the incidences obtained from 20 studies is unlikely to be due to study groups living in different environments (tropical versus temperate climate, slums versus middle-class suburban populations), nor due to the year the study was conducted (from 1967 to 2003). A random effects model was used to incorporate unexplained heterogeneity and resulted in a global incidence estimate of 0.31 [0.19; 0.50] symptomatic RV infections per personyear of observation for children below 2 years of age, and of 0.24 [0.17; 0.34] when excluding the extreme high value of 0.84 reported for Mayan Indians in Guatemala. Apart from the inclusion/exclusion of the latter study, results were robust. Conclusions/Significance Rather than assumptions based on an ad-hoc selection of one or two studies, these pooled estimates (together with the measure for variability between populations) should be used as an input in future cost-effectiveness analyses of RV vaccination. PMID:19557133

  17. Aggravated bone density decline following symptomatic osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    den Hoed, Marissa A.H.; Pluijm, Saskia M.F.; te Winkel, Mariël L.; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Fiocco, Martha; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Leeuw, Jan A.; Bruin, Marrie C.A.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Bresters, Dorien; Lequin, Maarten H.; Roos, Jan C.; Veerman, Anjo J.P.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis and decline of bone density are serious side effects during and after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is unknown whether osteonecrosis and low bone density occur together in the same patients, or whether these two osteogenic side-effects can mutually influence each other’s development. Bone density and the incidence of symptomatic osteonecrosis were prospectively assessed in a national cohort of 466 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4–18 years of age) who were treated according to the dexamethasone-based Dutch Child Oncology Group-ALL9 protocol. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMDLS) (n=466) and of the total body (BMDTB) (n=106) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone density was expressed as age- and gender-matched standard deviation scores. Thirty patients (6.4%) suffered from symptomatic osteonecrosis. At baseline, BMDLS and BMDTB did not differ between patients who did or did not develop osteonecrosis. At cessation of treatment, patients with osteonecrosis had lower mean BMDLS and BMDTB than patients without osteonecrosis (respectively, with osteonecrosis: −2.16 versus without osteonecrosis: −1.21, P<0.01 and with osteonecrosis: −1.73 versus without osteonecrosis: −0.57, P<0.01). Multivariate linear models showed that patients with osteonecrosis had steeper BMDLS and BMDTB declines during follow-up than patients without osteonecrosis (interaction group time, P<0.01 and P<0.01). We conclude that bone density status at the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia does not seem to influence the occurrence of symptomatic osteonecrosis. Bone density declines from the time that osteonecrosis is diagnosed; this suggests that the already existing decrease in bone density during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy is further aggravated by factors such as restriction of weight-bearing activities and destruction of bone architecture due to osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis can, therefore, be considered a risk factor for low bone density in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:26405155

  18. Calcium and Phosphorus Regulatory Hormones and Risk of Incident Symptomatic Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones may contribute to the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, there has been no prospective study to date of plasma hormone levels and risk of kidney stones. This study aimed to examine independent associations between plasma levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine and the subsequent risk of incident kidney stones. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study was a prospective, nested case-control study of men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of diagnosed nephrolithiasis at blood draw. During 12 years of follow-up, 356 men developed an incident symptomatic kidney stone. Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio (n=712 controls) and matched for age, race, and year, month, and time of day of blood collection. Results Baseline plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine were similar in cases and controls. Mean 1,25(OH)2D and median FGF23 levels were higher in cases than controls but differences were small and statistically nonsignificant (45.7 versus 44.2 pg/ml, P=0.07 for 1,25[OH]2D; 47.6 versus 45.1 pg/ml, P=0.08 for FGF23). However, after adjusting for body mass index, diet, plasma factors, and other covariates, the odds ratios of incident symptomatic kidney stones in the highest compared with lowest quartiles were 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 2.71; P for trend 0.01) for 1,25(OH)2D and 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 2.19; P for trend 0.03) for FGF23. There were no significant associations between other plasma factors and kidney stone risk. Conclusions Higher plasma 1,25(OH)2D, even in ranges considered normal, is independently associated with higher risk of symptomatic kidney stones. Although of borderline statistical significance, these findings also suggest that higher FGF23 may be associated with risk. PMID:25623233

  19. Recent updates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airways inflammation and progressive airflow limitation, is a common, preventable and treatable disease. Worldwide, COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor. This translational review of recent updates in COPD care for the primary care audience, includes recommendations from the 2015 Global Initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) report on diagnosis, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, prevalence of comorbidities, management of exacerbations and the asthma and COPD overlap syndrome, with a focus on the importance and benefit of physical activity and exercise in COPD patients. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity of COPD in individual patients. Management of exacerbations includes reducing the impact of the current exacerbation and preventing development of subsequent episodes. Healthcare professionals need to be alert to comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, anxiety/depression, lung cancer, infections and diabetes, which are common in COPD patients and can have a significant impact on HRQoL and prognosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended by a number of guidelines for all symptomatic COPD patients, regardless of severity, and involves exercise training, patient education, nutritional advice and psychosocial support. At all stages of COPD, regular physical activity and exercise can aid symptom control, improve HRQoL, reduce rates of hospitalization, and improve morbidity and respiratory mortality. Healthcare professionals play a pivotal role in improving HRQoL and health-related outcomes in COPD patients to meet their specific needs and in providing appropriate diagnosis, management and advice on smoking cessation. PMID:26560514

  20. Preventing chronic postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Reddi, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is common. Nerve injury and inflammation promote chronic pain, the risk of which is influenced by patient factors, including psychological characteristics. Interventional trials to prevent chronic postoperative pain have been underpowered with inadequate patient follow-up. Ketamine may reduce chronic postoperative pain, although the optimum treatment duration and dose for different operations have yet to be identified. The evidence for gabapentin and pregabalin is encouraging but weak; further work is needed before these drugs can be recommended for the prevention of chronic pain. Regional techniques reduce the rates of chronic pain after thoracotomy and breast cancer surgery. Nerve-sparing surgical techniques may be of benefit, although nerve injury is not necessary or sufficient for chronic pain to develop. PMID:26620149

  1. The active identification and management of chronic refractory breathlessness is a human right.

    PubMed

    Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P; Ko, Danielle N

    2014-04-01

    Chronic refractory breathlessness is defined as breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion that will persist chronically despite optimal treatment of the underlying cause(s). At any time, 1% of the population report a modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score of ≥ 3 chronically. Despite the prevalence, severity and chronicity of this symptom and an evidence base of affordable and safe interventions, chronic refractory breathlessness remains grossly undertreated. Many patients and clinicians accept the presence of the chronic refractory breathlessness as an inevitable part of an illness, with no thought of treating the symptom despite an evidence base for its safe treatment. Consensus statements from major respiratory clinician organisations now endorse such a clinical course. Failure to inquire about, assess and properly treat chronic refractory breathlessness with opioids as outlined in specialist clinical guidelines is now an unacceptable level of care ethically and is, arguably, a breach of people's human rights. Adequate pain control through access to pain relief is now accepted as a human right and, given its burden across the world, the symptomatic treatment of chronic refractory breathlessness should be seen in exactly the same way. PMID:24212892

  2. Interventional Treatment of a Symptomatic Neonatal Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    SciTech Connect

    Kretschmar, Oliver Knirsch, Walter; Bernet, Vera

    2008-03-15

    Percutaneous intervention is one treatment option for symptomatic hepatic hemangioma in infants. We report the case of a newborn (birth weight 4060 g) with a large hepatic cavernous hemangioma, which presented early with high cardiac output failure due to arteriovenous shunting and signs of incipient Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. We performed a successful superselective transcatheter coil embolization of three feeding arteries on the seventh day of life. Because of remaining diffuse very small arteries causing a relevant residual shunt, additional occlusion of the three main draining veins was necessary with three Amplatzer vascular plugs. Cardiac failure resolved immediately. Without any additional therapy the large venous cavities disappeared within the following months. The tumor continues to regress in size 8 months after the intervention.

  3. Venous Covered Stent: Successful Occlusion of a Symptomatic Internal Iliac Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, P.; McPherson, S.; Meaney, J.F.; Mavor, A.

    2002-08-15

    We report the placement of a covered stent within the internal iliac vein (IIV) to occlude a symptomatic iatrogenic internal iliac arteriovenous fistula following an abdominal aortic graft. Angiography revealed a direct communication between an internal iliac graft to artery anastomosis and the right IIV with rapid shunting into the inferior vena cava and a small associated pseudoaneurysm. Femoral, brachial or axillary arterial access was precluded. The fistula was successfully occluded by a stent-graft placed in the IIV. Arteriovenous fistula can be treated in a number of ways including covered stent placement on the arterial side. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time placement in a vein has been described. Where access is difficult or the procedure carries a high risk of complication, avenous covered stent may offer an alternative.

  4. A symptomatic Sylvian fissure lipoma in a post-traumatic patient

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Rakan Farouk; Bangash, Mohammad Hasan; Ahamed, Naushad Ali Basheer; Addas, Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Lipomatous extra-axial lesions in the Sylvian fissure are a rare entity. Their identification, however, is usually simple if a systematic radiological approach is adopted. The best line of management for these lesions is still a matter of controversy and fraught with complications. We present a case of a Sylvian fissure lipoma referred to our neurosurgery services with symptomatic seizures and in a post-traumatic patient. The radiological differentiating features of intracranial lipomas and intracranial dermoids have been discussed. The unusual location of the lesion, in combination with the history of seizures and the nature of presentation (trauma being a red-herring) make this case an interesting find. The lesion was managed conservatively with good outcomes at follow up, on anti-epileptic medications. PMID:24967029

  5. Corrective otoplasty for symptomatic prominent ears in U.S. soldiers.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Christopher J; Mardini, Samir

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate U.S. Army soldiers who presented to the plastic surgery service with the inability to properly wear a government-issued Kevlar field helmet because of their prominent ear deformity. Between September 2000 and April 2002, four patients with prominent ears and helical rim skin abrasions with breakdown attributable to abutment from their helmets underwent open otoplasty with conchal bowl resection via a posterior approach. Symptomatic relief and cosmetic improvement were obtained, with no incidence of complications or recurrence during the follow-up period, which ranged from 9 to 22 months. All patients were able to wear their Army-issued Kevlar helmets without difficulty after surgery. Otoplasty is an effective, reliable procedure that has now been performed to alleviate symptoms in an otherwise asymptomatic patient population. PMID:16578981

  6. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis: the role of cannabinoids in treating spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Leussink, Verena Isabell; Husseini, Leila; Warnke, Clemens; Broussalis, Erasmia; Hartung, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have spasticity, which has a marked impact on their quality of life. Anecdotal evidence suggests a beneficial effect of cannabis on spasticity as well as pain. Recently, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have confirmed the clinical efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of spasticity in patients with MS. Based on these data, nabiximols (Sativex), a 1:1 mix of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol extracted from cloned Cannabis sativa chemovars, received approval for treating MS-related spasticity in various countries around the globe. In this article we review the current understanding of cannabinoid biology and the value of cannabinoids as a symptomatic treatment option addressing spasticity in patients with MS. PMID:22973422

  7. Value of low-power lasers in the treatment of symptomatic spondilosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Moldoveanu, Vladimir; Rusca, Nicolae; Bruckner, Ion I.; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Ionescu, Elena; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1998-07-01

    Low power laser (LPL) use in the treatment of arthrosic rheumatism is well known. From a total number of 280 patients with symptomatic spondylosis we finally selected 66, with changes of the EEG color mapping. These investigation was done before and after treatment in order to obtain an objective method to appreciate these results. The patients were splitted in laser group (36 patients treated with HeNe and IR diode LPL) and control group (30 patients treated with placebo laser). The results indicate a significant improvement of the symptoms at 77% of the patients from laser group as compared with 33% favorable results at the placebo laser. The EEG mapping improved at 58% patients from laser group as compared with 20% at the control group.

  8. CASE REPORT Bilateral Paradoxically Symptomatic Luno-triquetral Coalition: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lotter, Oliver; Stahl, Stephane; Luz, Oliver; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: While bony luno-triquetral coalitions are known to be asymptomatic, fibro-cartilage unions can cause ulnar-sided wrist pain. The purpose of this case report is to present a paradox clinical constellation of bilateral luno-triquetral coalition. Furthermore, recommendations for proper diagnosis and treatment options will be discussed. Methods: The case of a 21-year-old female patient is reported, where a bony coalition of one side caused wrist pain and the contralateral fibro-cartilage bonding was asymptomatic. Results: Because of the stable bony coalition in the symptomatic wrist, we refused to undertake a luno-triquetral fusion and continued conservative treatment with the option of wrist denervation. Conclusions: Consequently, not only incomplete but also complete luno-triquetral coalitions can cause wrist pain. Unfortunately, no clear biomechanical explanation is available for this finding. PMID:20596547

  9. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tok, Chung Hong Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-02-15

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  10. Symptomatic thoracic arachnoid cyst with coexisting tick paralysis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kimberly A; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Ricks, Christian; Greene, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Tick paralysis is an uncommon phenomenon resulting from the release of a neurotoxin from the salivary glands of an engorged, gravid female tick about 5-7 days after attachment. The neurotoxin produces ascending weakness, mimicking other ascending paralytic processes. We present a case of a child presenting with weakness of the lower extremities and frequent falls who was found to have a compressive thoracic arachnoid cyst and a large distal syrinx. After surgical decompression, the patient made significant improvement in her leg strength, but quickly developed an ascending quadriparesis, followed by respiratory depression. Subsequent imaging and physical examination revealed an engorged tick embedded in her scalp. The tick was removed, and the patient made a rapid and complete clinical recovery. We present a unique case of concomitant tick paralysis and a symptomatic spinal intradural arachnoid cyst, and review the literature on tick paralysis. PMID:25531213

  11. Definition of Best Medical Treatment in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Veith, Frank J; Spence, J David

    2016-05-01

    Implementation of best medical treatment (BMT) is the cornerstone of the management of patients with either asymptomatic or symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. We review the literature to define the components of BMT. Smoking cessation, maintaining a healthy body weight, moderate exercise, and a Mediterranean diet are essential lifestyle measures. Moderate alcohol consumption may also be beneficial but recommending it to patients may be hazardous if they consume too much. The importance of lifestyle measures is largely underestimated by both physicians and patients. Blood pressure and diabetes control, antiplatelet agents, and lipid-lowering treatment with statins/ezetimibe comprise the pharmacological components of BMT. Initiation of an intensive regimen of BMT is a sine qua non for patients with carotid artery stenosis whether or not they are offered or undergo an invasive revascularization procedure. PMID:26721504

  12. Detection of Symptomatic Carotid Plaque Using Source Data from MR and CT Angiography: A Correlative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Baradaran, Hediyeh; Mtui, Edward E.; Kamel, Hooman; Pandya, Ankur; Giambrone, Ashley; Iadecola, Costantino; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid plaque MRI has been a useful method to characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elements. Recent investigations have suggested that source images from CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) can identify the simple high-risk features of symptom-producing carotid artery plaque. We studied the correlation and relative diagnostic accuracies of CTA and MRA source images in detecting symptomatic carotid artery plaque. Methods Subjects were eligible if they had carotid stenosis between 50 and 99% and had MRA and CTA exams performed within 10 days of one another. We measured the soft (non-calcified) plaque and hard (calcified) plaque thickness on CTA axial source images and intraplaque high-intensity signal (IHIS) on 3D-time-of-flight MRA source images in subjects. We assessed whether a correlation existed between increasing CTA soft plaque thicknesses and the presence of MRA IHIS using the Student's t-test. We calculated the differences in sensitivity and specificity measures of CTA and MRA source-imaging data with the occurrence of recent ipsilateral stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) as the reference standard. We also performed logistic regression analyses to evaluate the predictive strength of plaque showing both IHIS and increased CTA soft plaque thickness in predicting symptomatic disease status. Results Of 1994 screened patients, 48 arteries met the final inclusion criteria with MRA and CTA performed within 10 days of one another. The mean and median time between CTA and MRA exams were 2.0 days and 1 day, respectively. A total of 34 of 48 stenotic vessels (70.8%) were responsible for giving rise to ipsilateral stroke or TIA. CTA mean soft plaque thickness was significantly greater (4.47 vs. 2.30 mm, p < 0.0001) in patients with MRA-defined IHIS, while CTA hard plaque thickness was significantly greater (2.09 vs. 1.16 mm, p = 0.0134) in patients without MRA evidence of IHIS. CTA soft plaque thickness measurements were more sensitive than MRA IHIS (91.2 vs. 67.6%, p=0.011) in detecting symptomatic plaque, while differences in specificity were not significantly different (p = 0.1573). In the subset of patients with both IHIS on MRA and plaque thickness >2.4 mm on CTA, the odds ratio of detecting symptomatic plaque, corrected for stenosis severity, was 45.3 (p < 0.0005). Conclusions Unprocessed source images from CTA and MRA, which are routinely evaluated for clinical studies demonstrate the highly correlated presence of IHIS and increasing soft plaque thickness. In particular, plaque that shows high-risk features on both MRA and CTA are very strongly associated with symptom-producing carotid plaque. With further validation, such techniques are promising practical methods of extracting risk information from routine neck angiographic imaging. PMID:25721945

  13. What is the best initial therapy for a patient with symptomatic low-grade follicular lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Kahl, Brad S

    2012-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma is a diverse disease, both biologically and clinically. Patients may present with symptomatic or asymptomatic disease and with high or low tumor burden. Decisions to treat in the frontline are made based on histology, presence or absence of symptoms, disease burden, comorbidities, patient age, and patient preferences. As most patients with follicular lymphoma will eventually have a relapse, preservation of downstream treatment options also warrants consideration. One must be cognizant of toxicities and how these toxicities may influence later treatments. Given the number of variables, the decision making is often complex, and a certain amount of individualization is required. The goals of this review were to provide a framework for decision making and review the literature supporting the various options. PMID:23006941

  14. A symptomatic cyst of the ligamentum teres of the liver: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel E; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos; Markogiannakis, Haridimos; Papadima, Artemisia; Filis, Konstantinos; Kekis, Panagiotis; Katergiannakis, Vaggelogiannis; Manouras, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Cysts of the liver ligaments are extremely rare and cysts of the ligamentum teres of the liver have been sporadically reported in the literature during the last century. The present report describes a case of a symptomatic patient with a cyst of the ligamentum teres of the liver. The patient presented with right upper quadrant pain and indigestion during the last 2 years. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans revealed a water-density mass attached to the anterior abdominal wall, but definite diagnosis could not be reached. The cyst was completely excised during laparotomy. Cysts of the ligamentum teres of the liver, although infrequent, may produce clinical symptoms and require excision. Ultrasound and computed tomography scan preoperatively cannot rule out malignancy, thus exploratory laparotomy and total resection of these lesions are necessary. PMID:18506938

  15. Emergency placement of stent-graft for symptomatic acute carotid artery occlusion after endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jun Kyeung; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Sang Weon; Lee, Tae Hong

    2016-03-01

    A patient underwent a left-sided carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for an asymptomatic 80% carotid artery (CA) stenosis. There were no signs of intolerance during the carotid cross-clamping and an initially uneventful awakening was observed. However, in the third postoperative hour he experienced left amaurosis and dysarthria. An urgent MRI showed an occluded internal CA on the operated site without evidence of acute infarction. To recanalize the occluded internal CA and minimize leakage from the arteriotomy site, a self-expandable stent-graft was placed, covering the dissection and the distal atherosclerotic lesions. Complete recanalization of the left internal CA was achieved and the patient showed a dramatic improvement of his preoperative deficits. To our knowledge, this is the first case of stent-graft implantation for a symptomatic acute CA occlusion following CEA. Stent-graft placement should be considered as an alternative method of treatment for acute CA occlusion or dissection following CEA. PMID:25653229

  16. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

    PubMed Central

    MCH, Janssen; LAJ, Kluijtmans; S.B., Wortmann

    2014-01-01

    We report three adult sibs (one female, two males) with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A > G, c.1154C > T). These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members. PMID:26674492

  17. Eagle's syndrome: a case of symptomatic calcification of the stylohyoid ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Victor B

    2003-01-01

    A case of symptomatic calcification of the stylohyoid ligaments is described. The patient presented with head and neck pain, with the neck pain being reproduced by palpation of the styloid process through the tonsillar fossa. Calcification or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament is a frequent, often incidental finding on radiographs, however when the source of pain is from the styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligaments it is referred to as Eagle's syndrome. The symptoms may be confused with other causes of head and neck pain. This paper also discusses the pain patterns, clinical presentation, radiologic findings and treatment of Eagle's syndrome. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1BFigure 2AFigure 2BFigure 3Figure 4AFigure 4Bp27-a

  18. Vesicoscopic Treatment of Symptomatic Congenital Bladder Diverticula in Children: A 7-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Cavaiuolo, Silvia; Esposito, Maria; Pintozzi, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to report on the use of vesicoscopy in the treatment of symptomatic congenital bladder diverticula (CBD) in children. Material and Methods In this study, 16 males, aged 4 to 12 years (median age, 6.25 years), were treated for symptomatic CBD; 3 patients presented double diverticulum and 13 presented single diverticulum. The presenting symptoms were recurrent urinary tract infection, hematuria, lower abdominal pain, and voiding dysfunctions as urgency, frequency alone, or in association. A first midline 5-mm trocar was introduced for a 0-degree telescope at the dome of the bladder, and two left and right 3- or 5-mm trocars were inserted through the anterolateral wall. The bladder was then insufflated with carbon dioxide to 10 to 12 mm Hg pressure. The diverticula were inverted into the bladder and the mucosa around the neck was circumcised by using scissors and hook. The defect was sutured and the bladder was drained. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of third grade or higher was treated endoscopically. Results Mean operative time was 90 minutes for procedures. At 6-month follow-up, ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) showed the disappearance of the diverticulum in 15 out of the 16 patients. The patient, with huge double diverticulum and fourth grade right VUR, presented recurrence of a small left diverticulum. Patients with voiding disorders presented a gradual improvement of their urgency. VUR disappeared at VCUG in all patients. Conclusion Vesicoscopic diverticulectomy resulted a safe and effective procedure and can be considered a valid alternative to the open or laparoscopic procedures. In our opinion, routine use of vesicoscopy could become the gold standard for the treatment of CBD in children. PMID:25988747

  19. Comparison of BMSs with SES for Symptomatic Intracranial Disease of the Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Xuanye; Yin Qin; Xi Gangming; Zhu Wusheng; Xu Gelin; Zhang Renliang; Zhou Zhiming; Ma Minmin; Jin Guangfu; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-02-15

    This study was designed to compare the clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery stenosis treated with balloon-mounted stents (BMS) and self-expandable Wingspan system (SES). We reviewed the 69 consecutive stent placement procedures for symptomatic atherosclerotic stenosis ({>=}70) in M1 segment of middle cerebral artery in 67 patients in 3 years. According to the stent types, the patients were classed as BMS and SES groups. The demographic characteristics, conventional risk factors of ischemic stroke, degree of stenosis, periprocedural complications, stent types, and clinical and angiographic outcomes were analyzed. There were 39 patients in the BMS group and 28 patients in the SES group. The demographic characteristics, conventional risk factors, and periprocedural complications were similar but different in residual stenosis after stenting in both groups (5.9% {+-} 9.9% vs. 14.4% {+-} 14.6%; P = 0.01). For the overall cohort, the rate of stroke or death and restenosis was 10.9% (7/66) and 24.5% (14/57), respectively. The frequency of restenosis was higher in the SES group than in the BMS group (log-rank, P = 0.04; crude hazard ratio = 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-9.15; P = 0.049; and adjusted hazard ratio = 3.61; 95% CI, 1.06-12.27; P = 0.04); however, there was no difference in clinical outcomes (log-rank, P = 0.51; crude hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI, 0.36-7.61; P = 0.51; and adjusted hazard ratio = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.04-7.89; P = 0.69). The corrected degree of restenosis was higher in the SES than the BMS group. The prevalence of restenosis was higher in the SES than the BMS group, but the perioperative complications and follow-up clinical outcomes had no significant difference.

  20. CT-Guided Radioactive {sup 125}I Seed Implantation Therapy of Symptomatic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhongmin; Lu, Jian; Gong, Ju; Zhang, Liyun; Xu, Yingjia; Song, Shaoli; Chen, Kemin; Liu, Fenju; Gang, Huang

    2013-04-12

    PurposeThis study explored the clinical efficacy of CT-guided radioactive {sup 125}I seed implantation in treating patients with symptomatic retroperitoneal lymph node metastases.MethodsTwenty-five patients with pathologically confirmed malignant tumors received CT-guided radioactive {sup 125}I seed implantation to treat metastatic lymph nodes. The diameter of the metastatic lymph nodes ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Treatment planning system (TPS) was used to reconstruct the three-dimensional image of the tumor and then calculate the corresponding quantity and distribution of {sup 125}I seeds.ResultsFollow-up period for this group of patients was 2–30 months, and median time was 16 months. Symptoms of refractory pain were significantly resolved postimplantation (P < 0.05), and Karnofsky score rose dramatically (P < 0.05). Most patients reported pain relief 2–5 days after treatment. Follow-up imaging studies were performed 2 months later, which revealed CR in 7 patients, PR in 13 patients, SD in 3 patients, and PD in 2 patients. The overall effective rate (CR + PR) was 80 %. Median survival time was 25.5 months. Seven patients died of recurrent tumor; 16 patients died of multiorgan failure or other metastases. Two patients survived after 30 months follow-up. Two patients reported localized skin erythema 1 week postimplantation, which disappeared after topical treatment.ConclusionsCT-guided radioactive {sup 125}I seed implantation, which showed good palliative pain relief with acceptable short-term effects, has proved in our study to be a new, safe, effective, and relatively uncomplicated treatment option for symptomatic retroperitoneal metastatic lymph nodes.