Seventy-five patients with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant who were subsequently confirmed operatively and histologically to have acute or chronic cholecystitis underwent radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree, ultrasonography, and/or computerized tomography before operation. fifty-eight of the patients had acute cholecystitis and 17 had chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Analysis of our data indicates that ultrasonography is an accurate and better screening test than cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, but it is less accurate in the detection of acute cholecystitis. On the other hand, radionuclide imaging is highly sensitive and specific in the early diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but it is poor in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis unless the cystic duct is obstructed. CT scanning is more expensive than ultrasonography but may be extremely helpful in problematic cases such as the diagnosis of the cause in biliary obstruction or in imaging of the pancreas.
Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; McGahan, J.P.
After removal of the gallbladder, pain may persist in some patients. To study this condition, 124 patients from two randomized trials, including those with symptomatic noncomplicated gallbladder stones (n 90) and acute cholecystitis (n 34), were interviewed, while 139 patients (90%) excluded from both trials responded to a questionnaire 5 years after the operation. Thirty-four patients (27%) of those randomized
Morten Vetrhus; Tewelde Berhane; Odd Søreide; Karl Søndenaa
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder adenomyomatosis is an epithelial proliferation and hypertrophy of the muscularis mucosae of the gallbladder. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are a characteristic of this condition. The segmental adenomyomatosis has a higher risk of developing into gallbladder carcinoma, especially in the fundal region of elderly patients. We report the case of a patient affected by chronic calculous cholecystitis with diffuse adenomyomatosis associated
Isidoro Di Carlo; Adriana Toro; Elia Pulvirenti; Monica Zisa; Antonio Galia
We compared individual computed tomography (CT) and MRI findings in differentiating acute from chronic cholecystitis. Thirty-seven patients undergoing both studies before cholecystectomy were included. Two radiologists (R1/R2) independently assessed all cases. For detecting acute cholecystitis, MRI showed better sensitivity (R1) using gallbladder wall thickening, accuracy (R1) and sensitivity (R1) using gallstones, sensitivity (R1 and R2) and accuracy (R2) using gallbladder wall hyperemia, accuracy (R1 and R2) using gallbladder wall defect, and accuracy (R2) using adjacent liver hyperemia (P=.004-.063). MRI also showed better specificity (R2) using pericholecystic fat stranding (P=.016). Overall, several findings showed better sensitivity and/or accuracy for acute cholecystitis on MRI than CT. PMID:23541278
Kaura, Samantha H; Haghighi, Mohammad; Matza, Brent W; Hajdu, Cristina H; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B
After removal of the gallbladder, pain may persist in some patients. To study this condition, 124 patients from two randomized\\u000a trials, including those with symptomatic noncomplicated gallbladder stones (n = 90) and acute cholecystitis (n =34), were\\u000a interviewed, while 139 patients (90%) excluded from both trials responded to a questionnaire 5 years after the operation.\\u000a Thirty-four patients (27%) of those
Morten Vetrhus; Tewelde Berhane; Odd Søreide; Karl Søndenaa
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to share midterm results of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) as a first-line therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis. Methods: Fourteen chronic hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis underwent PC between March 2007 and May 2009 at our institute. On preoperative assessment, the patients were classified into the ASA score by the anesthesiology team. All patients were class IV because of severe underlying comorbidities. The patients were referred to interventional radiology unit for PC by consensus of the multidisciplinary team. Results: The PC was technically successful in all the patients without minor or major complications related to the procedure. Clinical symptoms in three patients who presented with sepsis and multiorgan failure did not resolve after PC, and these patients died following urgent surgery, including open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration. A new cholecystitis attack was detected in one patient in the acalculous group at the sixth month of the follow-up period. The mean catheterization time was 31.7 (range, 28-41) days. The mean follow-up time was 13.3 (range 4-21) months. Conclusions: The PC may come into consideration as a first-line treatment modality in the management of acute cholecystitis in poor surgical candidate chronic hemodialysis patients. This is the first report focusing on the midterm results of PC as a first-line therapy in hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis who could be operated on.
Gumus, Burcak, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Baskent University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Turkey)
Background Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%–20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of “Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis” remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. Methods Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups. Results Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p?=?0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p?=?0.005), gastric ulcer (p?=?0.042), duodenal ulcer (p?=?0.026) and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p?=?0.012), metaplasia (p?=?0.022) and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05). Conclusions Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS/RNS production but needs further investigation.
Wang, Jian-dong; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Wei; Quan, Zhi-wei
Symptomatic chronic proximal tibiofibular joint subluxation is a pathology which is difficult to diagnose and treat. Surgical treatment has not been well defined. A report of two patients successfully treated with an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior aspect of the proximal tibiofibular joint is presented. PMID:20127312
Horst, Patrick K; LaPrade, Robert F
Objective: To establish whether chronic alcoholism and alcohol consumption are risk factors for developing a first symptomatic epileptic seizure. Methods: Multicentre case-control study of 293 patients (160 men, 133 women) with a first seizure symptomatic (either acute or remote) of head trauma, stroke, or brain tumour, matched to 444 hospital controls for centre, sex, age (±5 years), and underlying pathology. Results: The risk of first seizure in alcoholics was no higher than in non-alcoholics for men (odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 3.2) or women (1.5, 0.1 to 54.4). The odds ratio (both sexes) was 1.2 (0.8 to 1.7) for an average intake of absolute alcohol of 1–25 g/day, 0.9 (0.5 to 1.5) for 26–50 g/day, 1.6 (0.8 to 3.0) for 51–100 g/day, and 1.4 (0.5 to 3.5) for >100 g/day. Conclusions: We found no evidence of an association between alcohol use or alcoholism and a first symptomatic seizure.
Leone, M; Tonini, C; Bogliun, G; Monaco, F; Mutani, R; Bottacchi, E; Gambaro, P; Rocci, E; Tassinari, T; Cavestro, C; Beghi, E
Background Metaplastic features of the gallbladder epithelium are considered to be the precursors of gallbladder cancer. Considering the possible role of chronic inflammatory changes in the development of these lesions and the rationale for performing an early prophylactic cholecystectomy, we performed a retrospective study to assess the prevalence of gallbladder metaplasia in patients who underwent cholecystectomy due to underlying cholelithiasis. Methods We reviewed the routine histopathology reports of 86 patients with chronic cholecystitis, who underwent elective cholecystectomy, to assess the prevalence of gallbladder metaplasia in the course of chronic cholecystitis. We further attempted to evaluate the existence of any correlations between the presence of the gallbladder metaplasia and the type of lithiasis, as well as the gallbladder wall thickness. Results The overall prevalence of metaplastic features in the resected specimens was 25.6%. Dysplastic changes were more frequent in gallbladder specimens with concurrent metaplasia. Moreover, in presence of metaplastic changes, we observed an increase of the average gallbladder wall thickness. Finally, metaplastic and dysplastic changes were associated with the presence of micro-lithiasis rather than macro-lithiasis. Conclusions Gallbladder metaplastic changes appear to be more frequent in cases of micro-lithiasis and seem to be associated with a chronic thickening of the gallbladder wall. Taking into account the usually sub-clinical course of this group of patients, when compared to patients with macro-lithiasis, further studies are needed to evaluate a possible role of prophylactic cholecystectomy in this population to prevent the long term evolution of these early changes to cancerous lesions.
Seretis, Charalampos; Lagoudianakis, Emmanouil; Gemenetzis, George; Seretis, Fotios; Pappas, Apostolos; Gourgiotis, Stavros
Gangrenous cholecystitis is an acute surgical emergency, which requires early cholecystectomy. Differentiation of patients with gangrenous cholecystitis from those with non-gangrenous cholecystitis can be difficult, both clinically and with imaging. Careful attention to the following sonographic signs suggests the presence of gangrenous cholecystitis decreased focal wall perfusion on Color Doppler, irregular gall bladder mucosal outline, gall bladder wall thickening with signs of de-lamination, gas within the gall bladder, absence of calculi, and large peri-cholecystic collections. Both sonogram with color flow imaging and contrast-enhanced Computed tomography are complementary investigations to establish this important diagnosis in critically ill patients. PMID:22416162
Acute cholecystitis can develop without gallstones in critically ill or injured patients. However, the development of acute\\u000a acalculous cholecystitis is not limited to surgical or injured patients, or even to the intensive care unit. Diabetes, malignant\\u000a disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, and shock or cardiac arrest have been associated\\u000a with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Children may also be
Philip S. Barie; Soumitra R. Eachempati
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (CX) is a rare kind of chronic cholecystitis, not yet reported in our media, characterized by the presence of chronic, inflammatory infiltration, formation of granulomas, with fibrosis and severe histiocytic reaction with macrophages rich in foam cells. The object of this study is to establish the clinical, radiological and histopathological pattern of CX, by means of the analysis of 6 cases identified in a retrospective check of 191 medical histories of cholecystectomized patients suffering from anatomopathological diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis, in the Department of Abdomen of the Institute of Neoplastic Diseases, from 1939 to 2004. The clinical presentation was characterized by the presence of a palpable mass on physical examination and weight loss. There were complications in two patients. The ultrasonigraph, tomograph and/or laparotomy scans of the vesicle were similar in appearance to a locally advanced vesicular cancer. In none of the specimens was the coexistence of a vesicular carcinoma identified. The vesicle was dried out in block with adjacent hepatic parenchyma in all cases. The CX can simulate a hepatobiliary malignant neoplasia and require suitable oncological surgical treatment. In cases of vesicular tumors, which can be considered inoperable there is the possibility of being faced with a xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (CX), a benign condition treatable with surgery. PMID:15818424
Reaño, Gustavo; Sanchez, Juvenal; Ruiz, Eloy; Celis, Juan; Payet, Eduardo; Berrospi, Francisco; Chavez, Ivan; Young, Frank; Doimi, Franco
Background The adverse effects of tobacco abuse on cardiovascular outcomes are well-known. However, the impact of passive smoke exposure on angina status and therapeutic response is less well-established. We examined the impact of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on symptomatic improvement in patients with chronic ischemic coronary disease undergoing enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP). Methods This observational study included 1,026 non-smokers (108 exposed and 918 not-exposed to SHS) from the Second International EECP Patient Registry. We also assessed angina response in 363 current smokers. Patient demographics, symptomatic improvement and quality of life assessment were determined by self-report prior and after EECP treatment. Results Non-smoking SHS subjects had a lower prevalence of prior revascularization (85% vs 90%), and had an increased prevalence of stroke (13% vs 7%) and prior smoking (72% vs 61%; all p < 0.05) compared to non-smokers without SHS exposure. Despite comparable degrees of coronary disease, baseline angina class, medical regimens and side effects during EECP, fewer SHS non-smokers completed a full 35-hour treatment course (77% vs 85%, p = 0.020) compared to non-smokers without SHS. Compared to non-smokers without SHS, non-smoking SHS subjects had less angina relief after EECP (angina class decreased ? 1 class: 68% vs 79%; p = 0.0082), both higher than that achieved in current smokers (66%). By multivariable logistic regression, SHS exposure was an independent predictor of failure to symptomatic improvement after EECP among non-smokers (OR 1.81, 95% confidence intervals 1.16–2.83). Conclusion Non-smokers with SHS exposure had an attenuated improvement in anginal symptoms compared to those without SHS following EECP.
Efstratiadis, Stilianos; Kennard, Elizabeth D; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Michaels, Andrew D
Introduction Quadriceps rupture is a disabling injury mostly seen in men over 40 years of age. Bilateral quadriceps rupture is a rare injury that is often secondary to predisposing medical conditions. Ultrasound is a cheap and reliable tool for diagnosis but is operator dependent. Thus, magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred method of investigation despite its cost and availability. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical repair are needed for an optimal end result. Case presentation We report the case of a healthy 54-year-old Caucasian male farmer who presented with bilateral simultaneous complete quadriceps rupture, which was managed surgically and he was followed up for three years. He was previously under our care for enthesopathy of the quadriceps on both sides. We believe that chronic enthesopathy of the superior pole of patella made his quadriceps susceptible to complete rupture on eccentric loading. Conclusion Only a few cases of bilateral simultaneous complete quadriceps rupture in patients with symptomatic enthesopathy have been previously reported. We stress the importance of warning patients of the risk of developing complete tendon rupture when they present with an enthesopathy around the knee.
BACKGROUND Current symptom criteria for identifying patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has poor specificity. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that symptoms drawn from the task force on rhinosinusitis (RSTF) criteria and the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for primary headaches can differentiate CRS patients from those with CRS-symptoms but no evidence for inflammation (non-CRS). METHODS A retrospective cohort study from a total of 140 charts of patients who received a diagnostic CT scan for CRS symptoms in a tertiary care clinic. The study was conducted in two phases: 1) using a retrospective review of otolaryngologist-documented symptoms (ODS) in the medical record and 2) using patient-reported symptoms (PRS) on a prospectively collected customized review of systems form from a separate cohort. A radiographic gold standard differentiated CRS from non-CRS patients. RESULTS Subjects in the CRS and non-CRS group were matched for age and race and almost universally met symptomatic criteria as defined by the RSTF in both study phases. In both study phases, facial pain, but not facial pressure, was negatively predictive for CRS (p<0.05). Similarly, hyposmia was positively predictive, while facial pain of a pulsating quality and photophobia were negatively predictive (p<0.05) although analysis of PRS was significant only when symptom frequency was considered. Nonetheless, significant overlap exists between the prevalence and frequency of symptoms in both groups. CONCLUSION The symptom-based diagnosis of CRS is challenging but symptoms of hyposmia are positively predictive while facial pain, a throbbing quality, headaches and photophobia are negatively predictive and show promise for improving the specificity of CRS diagnosis. Further validation studies are needed.
Hsueh, Wayne D.; Conley, David B.; Kim, Haena; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Kern, Robert C.; Tan, Bruce K.
We report a case of a 61-year-old lady who presented with central chest and epigastric pain. A clinical diagnosis of cholecystitis was established, and a cholecystectomy was carried out. Microscopic examination of the gallbladder showed chronic cholecystitis and metastatic carcinoma of probable breast lobular carcinoma origin. The report was followed by further clinical and mammographic examination, which showed a focal area of thickening in the left breast. Core biopsy of this lesion confirmed the diagnosis of lobular carcinoma of the breast. Her tumor was treated with surgery followed by chemo/hormone therapy. The patient died 5 years after the cholecystectomy from disseminated breast malignancy. PMID:23047208
Al-Rawi, Haitham; Al-Jafari, Mohammad; Mathew, Hitesh
Background Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common diseases requiring emergency surgery. Ultrasonography is an accurate test for cholelithiasis but has a high false-negative rate for acute cholecystitis. The Murphy sign and laboratory tests performed independently are also not particularly accurate. This study was designed to review the accuracy of ultrasonography for diagnosing acute cholecystitis in a regional hospital. Methods We studied all emergency cholecystectomies performed over a 1-year period. All imaging studies were reviewed by a single radiologist, and all pathology was reviewed by a single pathologist. The reviewers were blinded to each other’s results. Results A total of 107 patients required an emergency cholecystectomy in the study period; 83 of them underwent ultrasonography. Interradiologist agreement was 92% for ultrasonography. For cholelithiasis, ultrasonography had 100% sensitivity, 18% specificity, 81% positive predictive value (PPV) and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). For acute cholecystitis, it had 54% sensitivity, 81% specificity, 85% PPV and 47% NPV. All patients had chronic cholecystitis and 67% had acute cholecystitis on histology. When combined with positive Murphy sign and elevated neutrophil count, an ultrasound showing cholelithiasis or acute cholecystitis yielded a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 62%, PPV of 80% and NPV of 53% for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Ultrasonography alone has a high rate of false-negative studies for acute cholecystitis. However, a higher rate of accurate diagnosis can be achieved using a triad of positive Murphy sign, elevated neutrophil count and an ultrasound showing cholelithiasis or cholecystitis.
Hwang, Hamish; Marsh, Ian; Doyle, Jason
OBJECTIVES: It is currently recommend to perform a liver biopsy for patients with chronically elevated liver function tests (LFT) of unknown etiology (marker negative). The necessity and benefits of these recommendations are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of marker-negative LFT in patients referred for evaluation of chronically elevated LFT; to determine the prevalence of
Satyajit Daniel; Tamir Ben-Menachem; Gopikrishnan Vasudevan; Chan K Ma; Mark Blumenkehl
Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide. PMID:24827104
Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza
Acute cholecystitis is a common inflammatory condition of the gallbladder caused most commonly by Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella organisms. Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic coccus found as a commensal inhabitant of the digestive system in 16% of healthy people. We report a rare case of acute cholecystitis caused by S bovis and discuss its implications with regard to the two known S bovis biotypes (I & II) both of which are associated with a number of other gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:23605823
Deering, Eoin McCarthy; Muravec, Zlatko; Castineira, Constantino Fiuza; O'Donoghue, Gerry
Bacteriological examinations of anaerobic and aerobic microflora of the bile, tissues of the gallbladder wall in 67 patients operated on with destructive cholecystitis have shown that surgical interventions should be performed within the first hours after admission to the hospital and must include special methods of purposeful antibacterial therapy during operation and in the postoperative period. PMID:3617369
Arik'iants, M S; Tyshko, A G; Kolesnikov, E B; Skiba, V V
Sixty patients were evaluated for acute abdominal pain using technetium-99m PIPIDA hepatobiliary imaging. The sensitivity of the test was 90.6 percent in all patients and the accuracy was 93.3 percent. In the evaluation of acutely ill patients with right upper quadrant pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, hepatobiliary imaging with PIPIDA is the preferred test for diagnosing acute cholecystitis. If the test is positive, disease of the gallbladder and probably acute cholecystitis are present. Early operation can proceed if desirable. If the test is negative and the bilirubin level is less than 5.0 mg/dl, acute cholecystitis is not present. In such cases conservative treatment is appropriate, and follow-up tests should be performed to evaluate the possibility of chronic cholecystitis. When the bilirubin level exceeds 5.0 mg/dl, the test is often indeterminate.
Bennett, M.T.; Sheldon, M.I.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Weber, P.M.
Gallbladder localization of heterotopic pancreas (HP) is uncommon and very rarely gives rise to symptoms. Herein we report a case of HP found in the gallbladder neck presented with signs and symptoms of cholecystitis. The patient was a 40-year old male, suffering from epigastric pain, abdominal fullness and fever. On physical examination, the right upper abdomen was tender with a positive Murphy’s sign. Ultrasonographic examination showed a hydropic gallbladder without stones and he underwent a cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed an intramural nodule (9 mm) in the neck region which is consisted of acini, ducts and islet cells of an aberrant pancreatic tissue. Although HP is encountered rarely in the gallbladder and is found incidentally during pathological studies, this case emphasizes that HP might cause symptoms and present clinically as cholecystitis. For this reason, in patients presenting with symptomatic gallbladder diseases, including cholecystitis without any other pathology, HP should be taken into consideration before it is diagnosed as "idiopathic’’.
Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Bozova, Sevgi; Kupesiz, Gokben Y?ld?r?m; Ogus, Mehmet
Mastocytosis is an uncommon disorder defined by increased and abnormal mast cells in one or more tissues. Cutaneous mastocytosis (cm) is limited to the skin, with varying degrees of rash, pruritus, and disfigurement. Systemic mastocytosis (sm) typically involves the bone marrow, sometimes in association with other bone marrow disorders, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (cmml). Mastocytosis has been associated with somatic mutations in the gene encoding the tyrosine kinase Kit, leading to identification of Kit as a therapeutic target. The Kit inhibitor imatinib mesylate is approved for aggressive sm. We present an unusual patient with disabling pruritus from telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans, a subtype of cm, and cmml, but with no evidence of systemic mast cell disease. She was treated with imatinib and experienced marked improvement in her pruritus. Concomitant cm and cmml have not previously been reported, and the present report is the first of successful imatinib therapy in an adult patient with cm. PMID:23904774
Vannorsdall, E J; Collins, J A; Chen, Q C; Sarai, G; Baer, M R
Mastocytosis is an uncommon disorder defined by increased and abnormal mast cells in one or more tissues. Cutaneous mastocytosis (cm) is limited to the skin, with varying degrees of rash, pruritus, and disfigurement. Systemic mastocytosis (sm) typically involves the bone marrow, sometimes in association with other bone marrow disorders, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (cmml). Mastocytosis has been associated with somatic mutations in the gene encoding the tyrosine kinase Kit, leading to identification of Kit as a therapeutic target. The Kit inhibitor imatinib mesylate is approved for aggressive sm. We present an unusual patient with disabling pruritus from telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans, a subtype of cm, and cmml, but with no evidence of systemic mast cell disease. She was treated with imatinib and experienced marked improvement in her pruritus. Concomitant cm and cmml have not previously been reported, and the present report is the first of successful imatinib therapy in an adult patient with cm.
Vannorsdall, E.J.; Collins, J.A.; Chen, Q.C.; Sarai, G.; Baer, M.R.
As a nonsurgical treatment for acute acalculous or postoperative cholecystitis, ultrasound-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystic puncture and suction (PTCPS) has been performed in 24 patients with these diseases over the past 5 years. Cholecystic puncture and suction of the gallbladder contents were performed, followed by cholecystography. An antibiotic was infused into the gallbladder before removal of the puncturing needle. Eight patients
Yoshio Kinami; Hiroaki Hagihara; Ichiro Kita; Yasuhiko Kojima; Shigeki Takashima
Flow diverters constitute a new generation of flexible self-expanding, stent-like devices with a high-metal surface-area coverage for the endovascular management of wide-necked, fusiform, large, and giant unruptured intracranial aneurysms. They achieve aneurysm occlusion through endoluminal reconstruction of the dysplastic segment of the parent artery that gives rise to the aneurysm. To our knowledge, there is no report on the use of flow diverters for the management of occlusive cerebrovascular disease. We describe the novel use of telescoped flow diverters in a construct that acts as an endovascular bypass for the management of symptomatic chronic carotid occlusion. In long carotid occlusions with a burden of extensive clots and atherosclerotic plaque, we found that the reduced porosity of the diverter mesh serves as an effective barrier to in-stent clot protrusion and distal embolization. Diverter implantation allows subsequent angioplasty. With this patient report, we propose a new potential application for flow diverters in the management of occlusive cerebrovascular disease. The optimal application of these devices will continue to be defined as clinical experience evolves. PMID:22555126
Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal
BACKGROUND: Renal insufficiency, a common condition among patients with chronic heart failure, complicates the management of heart failure. However, the influence of renal insufficiency on sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) – another important comorbidity of heart failure – has not been well studied. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients (60 men and 19 women) with stable, symptomatic heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 45%) were studied. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (49%) had SDB as defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of five or greater: 15 patients were classified as having mild SDB (AHI of five or greater and less than 15), 10 patients as having moderate SDB (AHI of 15 or greater and less than 30) and 14 patients as having severe SDB (AHI of 30 or greater). The etiology of SDB was predominantly central. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in the severe SDB group was 587±377 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than those of the remaining three groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was comparable between non-SDB and SDB groups. There was no statistically significant correlation between eGFR and AHI, or between eGFR and the number of central sleep apneas in the study patients. CONCLUSION: Higher plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations were associated with more severe SDB, whereas the level of eGFR was not correlated with the severity of SDB. The results suggest that renal dysfunction plays a relatively minor role in determining breathing abnormalities in chronic heart failure.
Yamamoto, Umpei; Mohri, Masahiro
In about 95% of patients with acute cholecystitis the cystic duct is obstructed by a gall stone. The imprisoned bile salts have a toxic action on the gall bladder wall. Acute cholecystitis is liable to be confused with other causes of sudden pain and tenderness in the right hypochondrium. Below the diaphragm, acute retrocecal appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, a perforated peptic ulcer or acute pancreatitis may be confusing factors; however, the gall bladder remains shrunken, fibrotic, full of stones and nonfunctioning. Recurrent acute cholecystitis may follow, but there may be surprisingly long clinically silent periods. The treatment of choice is elective cholecystectomy. General measures include bed rest, intravenous fluids, a light diet and relief of pain with pethidine and buscopan. Antibiotics are given to treat septicemia and prevent peritonitis and empyema. During the first 24 h., 30% of the gall bladder cultures are positive. This rises to 80% after 72 h. Common infecting organisms are Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Klebsiella, often in combination. Anaerobes are present, if sought, and are usually found with aerobes. They include Bacteroides and Clostridia. Antibiotic(s) should have a spectrum to cover the colonic type micro-organisms which are usually found with infection of the biliary tree. The choice depends upon the clinical picture. A broad-spectrum penicillin or a cephalosporin is usually adequate for the stable patient with pain and mild fever. The severely septicemic patient is better treated with a combination of ureidopenicillin (mezlocillin or piperacillin) and metronidazole. PMID:8091058
Forssmann, K; Singer, M V
Pseudoaneurysms of the cystic artery secondary to calculus cholecystitis are rare. In this report we describe a case of an elderly female who presented with abdominal pain, pyrexia, anaemia and jaundice. She had known chronic cholecystitis, but was not considered a suitable surgical candidate. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) demonstrated a probable aneurysm within the gallbladder fossa. The patient proceeded to digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which confirmed an aneurysm arising from the cystic artery and was subsequently managed with transcatheter arterial embolisation using coils. This case report reviews the diagnosis and management of this rare complication.
Desai, Amidevi U.; Saunders, Michael P.; Anderson, Hugh J.; Howlett, David C.
Acute cholecystitis was produced in normal guinea pigs given intraperitoneal injections of 1.0 ml tincture of opium. Repeated injections of opium caused edema of the lamina propria and severe muscular hypertrophy. Occasional Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses wer...
H. B. Goldstein
Intramural gas in stomach is a rare finding, but differential diagnosis of this condition into gastric emphysema and emphysematous gastritis is clinically important because of vastly different aetiologies and prognosis. Emphysematous gastritis is caused by gas producing micro-organisms inside the stomach wall and is a potentially fatal condition, while, on the other hand, gas enters stomach wall through mucosal breach in the case of gastric emphysema and prognosis is usually good with complete resolution. To date, no case has been reported in the literature showing gas in the stomach wall in a patient with acute calculus cholecystitis. We present a case of a young man with upper abdominal pain, and who, upon diagnostic work up was diagnosed with acute calculus cholecystitis with associated intramural gas in the stomach with no known aetiological factors to be positive. Conservative management with close observation resulted in complete symptomatic resolution. PMID:23645637
Naqvi, Zohaib Gulzar; Shahzad, Noman; Alvi, Abdul Rehman; Effendi, Shahrukh
Background Emphysematous cholecystitis is a variant of acute cholecystitis which is generally caused by gas-forming organisms. Emphysematous cholecystitis may cause gas spreading within the subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneum. Case presentation We present a case of emphysematous cholecystitis in a middle-aged diabetic patient who, postoperatively, presented edema in both flanks and left chest crepitation on palpation, associated with hemodynamic worsening. Computed tomography scan of the chest and abdomen revealed a large pneumomediastinum, pneumoretroperitoneum, gas in subcutaneous tissue and flank abscesses. In both blood and surgical wound exudate cultures, Escherichia coli was found. Conclusion Emphysematous cholecystitis should be considered as a possible cause of pneumomediastinum.
This work attempts to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for acute cholecystitis in 98 clinically suspected patients from the emergency unit in whom at least 3 of 6 relevant criteria are present. Gallbladder distention to 5 cm or more transversely or in the anterior-posterior axis (criterion 1) was present in 64 patients; thickening of the gallbladder wall of at
Antonio Martínez; Xavier Bona; Martin Velasco; Julio Martín
Caecal volvulus is an uncommon cause of closed loop intestinal obstruction which can lead to caecal gangrene and high mortality. Delay in diagnosis is one of the causes of this high mortality. Caecal volvulus is reported to be associated with previous abdominal surgery in most cases. We present the first reported case of caecal volvulus following/associated with acute cholecystitis. PMID:23749828
Anjum, Ghulam Ali; Jaberansari, Sarah; Habeeb, Kayode
Patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation frequently develop an immunologic disease caused by the reactivation of the graft to the host tissues. This disease is called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and it is usually a systemic disorder. In a large proportion of cases, oral disorders that are related to a chronic phase of GVHD (cGVHD) occur, and their treatment involves the use of topical immunosuppressive drugs. Several medications have been studied for this purpose, but only a small number of clinical trials have been published. The present study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial that compares topical clobetasol and dexamethasone for the treatment of symptomatic oral cGVHD. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with clobetasol propionate .05% or dexamethasone .1 mg/mL for 28 days. In both arms, nystatin 100,000 IU/mL was administered with the corticosteroid. Oral lesions were evaluated by the modified oral mucositis rating scale (mOMRS) and symptoms were registered using a visual analogue scale. Thirty-five patients were recruited, and 32 patients were randomized into the study groups: 18 patients (56.3%) to the dexamethasone group and 14 patients (43.8%) to the clobetasol group. The use of clobetasol resulted in a significant reduction in mOMRS total score (P = .04) and in the score for ulcers (P = .03). In both groups, there was significant symptomatic improvement but the response was significantly greater in the clobetasol group (P = .02). In conclusion, clobetasol was significantly more effective than dexamethasone for the amelioration of symptoms and clinical aspects of oral lesions in cGVHD. PMID:24727333
Noce, Cesar W; Gomes, Alessandra; Shcaira, Vanessa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira P; Moreira, Maria Cláudia R; Silva Júnior, Arley; Gonçalves, Lúcio Souza; Garnica, Marcia; Maiolino, Angelo; Torres, Sandra R
Purpose: To present a series of cases of non-cirrhotic patients with symptomatic massive portal thrombosis treated by percutaneous techniques. All patients underwent a TIPS procedure in order to maintain the patency of the portal vein by facilitating the outflow. Methods: A total of six patients were treated for thrombosis of the main portal vein (6/6); the main right and left branches (3/6) and the splenic vein (5/6) and superior mesenteric vein (6/6). Two patients had a pancreatic malignancy; one patient with an orthotopic liver transplant had been surgically treated for a pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients had idiopathic thrombocytosis, and in the remaining patient no cause for the portal thrombosis was identified. During the initial procedure in each patient one or more approaches were tried: transhepatic (5/6), transileocolic (1/6), trans-splenic (1/6) or transjugular (1/6). In all cases the procedure was completed with a TIPS with either ultrasound guidance (3/6), 'gun-shot' technique (2/6) or fluoroscopic guidance (1/6).Results: No complications were observed during the procedures. One patient had a repeat episode of variceal bleeding at 30 months, one patient remained asymptomatic and was lost to follow-up at 24 months, two patients were successfully treated surgically (cephalic duodenopancreatectomy) and are alive at 4 and 36 months. One patient remains asymptomatic (without new episodes of abdominal pain) at 16 months of follow-up. One patient died because of tumor progression at 10 months. Conclusion: Percutaneous techniques for portal recanalization are an interesting alternative even in non-acute thrombosis. Once flow has been restored in the portal vein TIPS may be necessary to obtain an adequate outflow, hence facilitating and maintaining the portal flow.
Bilbao, Jose I., E-mail: email@example.com; Elorz, Mariana; Vivas, Isabel; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Bastarrika, Gorka; Benito, Alberto [Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Clinica Universitaria, Facultad de Medicina (Spain)
[Evaluation of the impact of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease on the result of surgical treatment with the use of endoscopic techniques and postoperative pharmacological treatment in patients with chronic sinusitis].
It is estimated that in Europe 10% of adults suffer from chronic sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis can be caused by many different diseases that share chronic inflammation of the sinuses as a common symptom. Rhinitis can be caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus, which successively can result in chronic sinusitis. The current gold standard for diagnosing GERD is--bothersome for the patient--24 h esophageal pH monitoring. This method can be unpleasant for the patients, which makes it less acceptable. Because of that the criteria for symptomatic GERD were made an alternative diagnostic way. We acknowledge that the presence of heartburn and stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus at least once a week can be diagnosed as symptomatic GERD. The aim of the study is the assessment of the frequency of symptomatic GERD in patients operated because of chronic sinusitis and impact of symptomatic GERD on the follow-up treatment up to 12 months after endoscopic nasal surgery. The authors analysed 144 patients operated at the JUCM Otolaryngological Clinic in Kraków between 2011 and 2013 because of sinusitis. The inclusion criteria were: diagnosed chronic sinusitis, indications for endoscopic sinus surgery, and a written consent for the research. Each patient was examined laryngologically and surveyed. Patients were divided into two groups: with and without symptomatic GERD. We analysed the symptoms in patients treated for sinusitis with or without GERD before, between 3 and 6 as well as in the 12th month after endonasal surgery. Moreover, we analysed the intensity of the global symptoms (expressed in the VAS scale) and separately for each of the 13 symptoms of chronic sinusitis (expressed on a scale 0 - 3). We established that 33 out of the 144 patients (22.9%) qualified for the first survey reported the symptoms of GERD. In the second survey, which was conducted between 3 and 6 month after ESS, 24 out of 119 (20%) people reported the symptoms and in the third survey, which took place in the 12th month after ESS, 14 out of 52 patients reported symptomatic GERD. The intensity of global symptoms rated in the VAS scale in patients with chronic sinusitis during the first survey was 7.8 and in the second and third survey the intensity was 4.2 and 4.3 respectively. But in patients without any symptoms they were 7.4, 2.8, 3.2. We also analysed 13 symptoms of chronic sinusitis rated on a scale 0 - 3. The result of the research was that in patients with symptomatic GERD, even after FESS and the appropriate follow-up, we can still suspect such symptoms as streaming the fluid over the back side of the throat, cough, pain or the feeling of fullness in the ear, headache or halitosis. We should take it under consideration during qualification for the surgery as well as predicting the results of the treatment. Further research is required to state if and how different methods and procedures used in case of patients with symptomatic GERD can reduce the uncomfortable influence of this disease on the effects of chronic sinusitis treatment. PMID:24167940
Nieckarz, Rafa?; Szaleniec, Joanna; Hartwich, Patryk; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Hydzik-Soboci?ska, Karolina; Muszy?ski, Piotr; Markiewicz, Beata; Turczynowski, ?ukasz; Sk?adzie?, Jacek; Strek, Pawe?
Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.
Ma, Edmond SK; Wong, Chris LP; Lai, Kristi TW; Chan, Edmond CH; Yam, WC; Chan, Angus CW
A 21-month-old domestic Hanford pig (Sus scrofa domestica) in a 1-year study for experimental myocardial infarction was euthanized at the end of the study. One week earlier, the animal had symptoms and elevated clinical chemistry results suggestive of hepatobiliary disease, which resolved after medical therapy. At necropsy, the gallbladder was markedly enlarged, discolored, and had a thickened wall. Within the gallbladder, there was abundant friable green-brown material. A culture of the gallbladder luminal material yielded Clostridium perfringens type A. Histopathology of the gallbladder demonstrated multifocal areas of necrosis of varying depths, admixed with an inflammatory infiltrate that was also observed on the serosa and within the associated adipose tissue. Luminal material was composed of cellular debris and bile sludge admixed with numerous bacterial rods. Smooth-muscle hypertrophy of numerous small arterioles with narrowed lumina was observed in the gallbladder. A diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis presumably because of ischemia of the gallbladder with secondary clostridial infection was made. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of acalculous cholecystitis with evidence of vascular compromise in a pig, as well as cholecystitis secondarily attributed to Clostridium perfringens type A. PMID:18599865
Starost, Matthew F; Burkholder, Tanya H
Background: Cholecystectomy remains the best treatment for acute cholecystitis but may cause high morbidity and mortality in critically ill or elderly patients. Methods: From October 1995 to March 2004, percutaneous cholecystostomy was performed in 65 patients with acute cholecystitis. The mean age was 78 years (range, 45–95). All patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class III (n = 51)
K. Welschbillig-Meunier; P. Pessaux; J. Lebigot; E. Lermite; Ch. Aube; O. Brehant; A. Hamy; J. P. Arnaud
Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare variant of acute cholecystitis with a high mortality rate. The combination of emphysematous cholecystitis and pneumoperitoneum is also rare. We herein describe a case of emphysematous cholecystitis with massive gas in the abdominal cavity. A 77-year-old male presented with epigastric pain and lassitude lasting for one week. A computed tomography scan demonstrated massive gas in the abdominal cavity. Gas was also detectable inside the gallbladder. Massive ascites as well as a pleural effusion were also detected. Under the diagnosis of perforation of the digestive tract, we performed emergency surgery. Beyond our expectations, the perforation site was not in the alimentary tract, but rather in the gallbladder. We then diagnosed the patient with emphysematous cholecystitis with perforation, and performed cholecystectomy. A pathological examination of the resected gallbladder revealed necrosis in the mucosa and thinning of the wall. Cultures of the ascites detected Clostridium perfringens, a gas-producing microorganism.
Miyahara, Hiroyuki; Shida, Dai; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Takahama, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Sachio
Correlations between anatomic and clinical findings were absent in a series of 214 cases of acute cholecystitis, and there was a high percentage of severe forms (58 p. 100). Early operation (between 48 and 72 hours) is therefore the most logical treatment and demonstrates comparable morbidity and mortality, if not lower figures, than with delayed surgery. Diagnosis can usually be made on clinical grounds and results of ultra-sound imaging and allows surgery to be performed after intensive care and preoperative antibiotic therapy. Total surgery with perioperative cholangiography is usually possible (95 p. 100 cases). PMID:6715437
Issa, M; Miclo, S; Holderbach, L J
Introduction. Concomitant cholecystitis and gallstone pancreatitis is an infrequent clinical encounter, reported sparsely in the literature. Concurrent acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis complicated by gall bladder perforation has not been reported before. Presentation of Case. We report a 39-year-old female presenting with concomitant cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis, complicated by gallbladder perforation. Discussion. There is much controversy surrounding the timing of cholecystectomy following gallstone pancreatitis, with the recent literature suggesting that “early” operation is safe. In the current case, gallbladder perforation altered the “routine” management of gallstone pancreatitis and posed as a management dilemma. Conclusion. Clinical judgement dictated timing of operative management and ultimately cholecystectomy was performed safely.
Toshniwal, Sumeet; Chan, Steven; Houli, Nezor
INTRODUCTION AML is the most common form of leukemia in adults. In rare circumstances AML may present in the form of extra-medullary disease. Gallbladder infiltration with myeloblasts is rare and only a few cases exist in the literature describing this entity. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a rare case of AML relapse in the form of extramedullary infiltration of the gallbladder in a 50-year-old male patient. The leukemic infiltration presented as symptomatic cholecystitis and sepsis. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and the gallbladder was pathologically examined. Histopathologic examination demonstrated multiple scattered, highly atypical single cells admixed with some plasma cells, small lymphocytes and macrophages consistent with leukemic infiltration. The abnormal cells demonstrated immunohistochemical staining for CD68, CD33 and CD117. The patient did well post-operatively but the relapse precluded him from bone marrow transplantation. DISCUSSION Although AML is relatively common, 3 cases per 100,000 population, extramedullary disease in the form of gallbladder infiltration is exceedingly rare. An extensive review of the literature revealed only four cases of myeloid infiltration of the gallbladder. To our knowledge this is the only case of relapsing disease in the form of gallbladder infiltration presenting as symptomatic cholecystitis in a pre-bone marrow transplantation patient. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion of atypical manifestations of AML when managing refractory sepsis. Extramedullary manifestations of AML in the form of gallbladder infiltration must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of myeloid malignancies and for patients whom fail conventional non-operative management.
Azin, Arash; Racz, Jennifer M.; Carolina Jimenez, M.; Sunil, Supreet; Porwit, Anna; Jackson, Timothy; Okrainec, Allan; Quereshy, Fayez
Haemorrhagic cholecystitis is a known rare life-threatening complication of acute cholecystitis. In this case report, we describe clinical presentation and radiological findings of acute cholecystitis presenting with massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage. We present a case of a 57-year-old male presenting to the emergency department with clinical symptoms of acute cholecystitis. Initially, the patient was haemodynamically stable. Gallbladder could not be visualized by ultrasound. Computed tomography with IV contrast showed a large haematoma in the gallbladder fossa, with active extravasation of IV contrast. On angiography the bleeding was localized to a branch of the cystic artery, which was embolized using gelfoam material. The patient was taken to the operating room for an urgent laparotomy and cholecystectomy.
Aljiffry, Murad M.; Almulhim, Amna N.; Jamal, Mohammad H.; Hassanain, Mazen M.
Acute cholecystitis is a relatively common clinical entity characterized histopathologically by obstruction of the cystic duct due to either edema or stone or both. Thorough clinical assessment and selection of the appropriate diagnostic tests are crucial in making an early diagnosis before surgical treatment. Many diagnostic tests are available for imaging the gallbladder. Hepatobiliary imaging using technetium Tc 99m IDA is the test of choice to either exclude or confirm the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and it carries a discriminating power greater than that of cholecystography or ultrasonography. In most patients the exclusion of the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis can be made as early as 30 minutes and the confirmation within three hours. The confirmation of acute cholecystitis by radionuclide imaging obviates the need for either cholecystography or ultrasonography. ImagesFigure 1.
Krishnamurthy, Gerbail T.
Haemorrhagic cholecystitis is a known rare life-threatening complication of acute cholecystitis. In this case report, we describe clinical presentation and radiological findings of acute cholecystitis presenting with massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage. We present a case of a 57-year-old male presenting to the emergency department with clinical symptoms of acute cholecystitis. Initially, the patient was haemodynamically stable. Gallbladder could not be visualized by ultrasound. Computed tomography with IV contrast showed a large haematoma in the gallbladder fossa, with active extravasation of IV contrast. On angiography the bleeding was localized to a branch of the cystic artery, which was embolized using gelfoam material. The patient was taken to the operating room for an urgent laparotomy and cholecystectomy. PMID:24876458
Aljiffry, Murad M; Almulhim, Amna N; Jamal, Mohammad H; Hassanain, Mazen M
Eosinophilic cholecystitis is a rare entity diagnosed on the basis of classical presentation of cholecystitis with presence of more than 90% eosinophilic infiltration within the gall bladder. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis still remains obscure. However it is frequently associated with other more severe diseases like hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic-myalgia syndrome, parasitic infestations, few herbal medicines and certain drugs. We report two cases who presented with gall stone disease, which on histopathological evaluation was diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Retrospective analysis of their case histories and investigation did not reveal any known etiology. These cases are being reported because of their rarity and to highlight the importance of complete workup to rule out other associated disorders that may be a manifestation of a more severe disease. PMID:24638193
Choudhury, Monisha; Pujani, Mukta; Katiyar, Yogita; Jyotsna, P Lalita; Rautela, Archna
We report a case of acute calculous cholecystitis through scrub typhus. A 69-year-old woman presented with a history of general myalgia, fever, and right abdominal pain. She referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of clinically suspected acute cholecystitis. Physicians concluded the cause of cholecystitis as gall bladder (GB) stone and proper antibiotics treatment of scrub typhus was started later. The patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi organ failure through scrub typhus. Five days after admission, the patient was treated with proper antibiotics and discharged on the 13th day after starting doxycycline treatment without any sequelae. In areas endemic for tsutsugamushi disease, even though a patient with GB stone presents with symptoms of acute cholecystitis, careful history and physical examination are required to reveal the existence of eschars or skin eruptions. PMID:22916327
Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Young Hye; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Yu Hyun
Introduction. Acalculous cholecystitis in the setting of typhoid fever in adults is an infrequent clinical encounter, reported sparsely in the literature. In this case report we review the presentation and management of enteric fever involving the biliary system and consider the literature surrounding this topic. The aim of this case report is to alert clinicians to the potential diagnosis of extraintestinal complications in the setting of typhoid fever in the returned traveller, requiring surgical intervention. Presentation of Case. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with acalculous cholecystitis secondary to Salmonella Typhi. Discussion. There is scarce evidence surrounding the optimal treatment and prognosis of typhoidal acalculous cholecystitis. In the current case, surgical invention was favoured due to failure of medical management. Conclusion. Clinical judgement dictated surgical intervention in this case of typhoidal acute acalculous cholecystitis, and cholecystectomy was safely performed. PMID:25054069
Rajan, Neeha; Motoroko, Imeldah; Udayasiri, Dilshan; McKenzie, Jo-Lyn; Tan, Jason S C; Tramontana, Adrian R
We report a case of acute calculous cholecystitis through scrub typhus. A 69-year-old woman presented with a history of general myalgia, fever, and right abdominal pain. She referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of clinically suspected acute cholecystitis. Physicians concluded the cause of cholecystitis as gall bladder (GB) stone and proper antibiotics treatment of scrub typhus was started later. The patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi organ failure through scrub typhus. Five days after admission, the patient was treated with proper antibiotics and discharged on the 13th day after starting doxycycline treatment without any sequelae. In areas endemic for tsutsugamushi disease, even though a patient with GB stone presents with symptoms of acute cholecystitis, careful history and physical examination are required to reveal the existence of eschars or skin eruptions.
Lee, Su Jin; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Yu Hyun
Introduction. Acalculous cholecystitis in the setting of typhoid fever in adults is an infrequent clinical encounter, reported sparsely in the literature. In this case report we review the presentation and management of enteric fever involving the biliary system and consider the literature surrounding this topic. The aim of this case report is to alert clinicians to the potential diagnosis of extraintestinal complications in the setting of typhoid fever in the returned traveller, requiring surgical intervention. Presentation of Case. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with acalculous cholecystitis secondary to Salmonella Typhi. Discussion. There is scarce evidence surrounding the optimal treatment and prognosis of typhoidal acalculous cholecystitis. In the current case, surgical invention was favoured due to failure of medical management. Conclusion. Clinical judgement dictated surgical intervention in this case of typhoidal acute acalculous cholecystitis, and cholecystectomy was safely performed.
Rajan, Neeha; Motoroko, Imeldah; Udayasiri, Dilshan; McKenzie, Jo-Lyn; Tan, Jason S. C.; Tramontana, Adrian R.
Results of bacteriological investigations and treatment of 112 patients with complicated forms of acute cholecystitis are described. It was found that in complicated forms of acute cholecystitis an important part was played by associations of bacteria among which neclostridial anaerobes were of leading importance responsible for the aggravation of the inflammatory process and course of the postoperative period. The intracholedochal antibacterial therapy with Dioxidin in combination with antibiotics is thought to be expedient. PMID:2878517
Zemskov, V S; Tyshko, A G; Arik'iants, M S
A 7 yr old castrated male Australian shepherd dog was examined for acute change in iris color, lethargy, and anorexia. Uveitis, acute renal failure, and presumed cholecystitis were diagnosed. Based on clinical findings, leptosporosis was suspected, and the dog was treated with antibiotics and supportive care. The dog made a complete recovery, and leptospirosis was confirmed on convalescent titers. Due to the zoonotic potential, leptospirosis should be considered in cases of uveitis, as well as possible cholecystitis. PMID:22058365
Background: Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare condition caused by ischemia of the gallbladder wall with secondary gas-producing bacterial proliferation. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of this condition differ from that in gallstone-related acute cholecystitis. This report illustrates a case of emphysematous cholecystitis successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery. Methods: An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with acute abdominal syndrome. Clinical examination and blood tests suggested acute cholecystitis. Plain radiography revealed a circular gas pattern in the right upper quadrant suggestive of emphysematous cholecystitis. Subsequent computed tomography confirmed the presence of gas in the gallbladder wall and a gas-fluid level within the organ. Results: Emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully performed during which bubbling of the gall-bladder wall was observed. Intraoperative cholangiography revealed no bile duct stones or biliary obstruction. The patient made an unremarkable recovery from surgery with no postoperative complications or admission to the intensive care unit. Pathological analysis revealed full-thickness infarctive necrosis of the gallbladder. Bacterial cultures grew Clostridium perfringens. Conclusions: This case illustrates a typical case of emphysematous cholecystitis successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery. It contributes to suggestions from other reports that this condition can be safely treated by the laparoscopic approach.
Lunca, Sorinel; Vix, Michel; Marescaux, Jacques
INTRODUCTION Early operations for symptomatic gallstones are gaining favour as the complication rate is thought to be lower and it reduces the overall morbidity. This study was performed to clarify how frequently early operations were being performed and what benefits resulted. PATIENTS AND METHODS Case notes of 171 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Princess Alexandra Hospital Harlow were retrospectively reviewed. They were grouped according to their initial diagnosis (cholelithiasis, acute cholecystitis) and the delay to surgery (early, interval). Forty-one cases were excluded as they either had incomplete notes or the initial diagnosis was a different manifestation of gallstones such as pancreatitis. Those receiving interval operations were then grouped according to the mode of their initial presentation. A total of 130 case notes were analysed. RESULTS The delay for an interval operation was 3–6 months compared with less than 2 weeks for early operations. Of patients with acute cholecystitis, 43% had early operations but only 12% of patients with cholelithiasis. Waiting for interval operations was associated with multiple re-admissions equivalent to an average of one extra presentation to accident and emergency per patient. This was particularly marked if the initial presentation was to accident and emergency rather than out-patients (P = 0.003). Complication rates were also higher in the interval group. CONCLUSIONS Early cholecystectomy on the next available list is likely to reduce morbidity and the long-term in-patient burden so should be recommended for all patients presenting as an emergency with symptomatic gallstones.
Anwar, Hanny A; Ahmed, Qamar A; Bradpiece, Howard A
A two-step real-time RT-PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology using a fluorescent probe (FAM-TAMRA) was developed to quantify Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in bee samples. Standard curves obtained from a CBPV control RNA and from a plasmid containing a partial sequence of CBPV showed that this assay provided linear detection over a 7-log range (R(2)>0.99) with a limit of detection of 100 copies, and reliable inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility. Standardisation including RNA purification and cDNAs synthesis was also validated. The CBPV TaqMan methodology was first evaluated by quantifying the CBPV genomic load in bee samples from an experimental infection obtained by topical application. Up to 1.9 x 10(10) CBPV copies per segment of insect body (head, thorax and abdomen) were revealed whereas a lower CBPV genomic load was detected in dissected organs such as mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, brain and alimentary canal (up to 7.2 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The CBPV genomic loads in different categories of bees from a hive presenting the trembling symptoms typical of Chronic paralysis were then quantified. Significantly higher CBPV loads were found in guard, symptomatic and dead bees (up to 1.9 x 10(13) CBPV copies) than in forager, drones and house bees (up to 3.4 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The results obtained for symptomatic or dead bees support the correlation between high CBPV genomic load and pathology expression. Moreover, the high CBPV genomic load revealed in guard bees highlights the possible pivotal role played by this category of bees in CBPV infection. PMID:17166598
Blanchard, Philippe; Ribière, Magali; Celle, Olivier; Lallemand, Perrine; Schurr, Frank; Olivier, Violaine; Iscache, Anne Laure; Faucon, Jean Paul
The association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and hypomagnesaemia has been recognized since 2006. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who developed severe symptomatic hypomagnesaemia after a long-term PPI therapy given for recurrent peptic ulcer disease. Hypomagnesaemia could only partially be resolved during substitution therapy, but was corrected after withdrawal of the PPI. Recurrence of hypomagnesaemia occurred after retreatment with PPIs, supporting the causal relationship. An underlying gastric acid hypersecretion (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) was highly suspected and eventually controlled by a combination of a histamine 2-receptor antagonist and octreotide, without the need for further PPI therapy after 2 years of follow-up. PMID:24635401
Ströker, E; Leone, L; Vandeput, Y; Borbath, I; Lefebvre, C
Background Optimal criteria for valve replacement are unclear in asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and normal left ventricular (LV) performance at rest. Moreover, previous studies have not assessed the prognostic capacity of load-adjusted LV performance (“contractility”) variables, which may be fundamentally related to clinical state. Therefore, 18 years ago, we set out to test prospectively the hypothesis that objective noninvasive measures of LV size and performance and, specifically, of load-adjusted variables, assessed at rest and during exercise (ex), could predict the development of currently accepted indications for operation for AR. Methods and Results Clinical variables and measures of LV size, performance, and end-systolic wall stress (ESS) were assessed annually in 104 patients by radionuclide cineangiography at rest and maximal ex and by echocardiography at rest; ESS was derived during ex. During an average 7.3-year follow-up among patients who had not been operated on, 39 of 104 patients either died suddenly (n = 4) or developed operable symptoms only (n = 22) or subnormal LV performance with or without symptoms (n= 13) (progression rate = 6.2%/y). By multivariate Cox model analysis, change (?) in LV ejection fraction (EF) from rest to ex, normalized for ?ESS from rest to ex (?LVEF-?ESS index), was the strongest predictor of progression to any end point or to sudden cardiac death alone. Unadjusted ?LVEF was almost as efficient. Symptom status modified prediction on the basis of the ?LVEF-?ESS index. The population tercile at highest risk by ?LVEF-?ESS progressed to end points at a rate of 13.3%/y, and the lowest-risk tercile progressed at 1.8%/y. Conclusions Currently accepted symptom and LV performance indications for valve replacement, as well as sudden cardiac death, can be predicted in asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients with AR by load-adjusted ?LVEF-?ESS index, which includes data obtained during exercise.
Borer, Jeffrey S.; Hochreiter, Clare; Herrold, Edmond McM; Supino, Phyllis; Aschermann, Michael; Wencker, Detlef; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Szulc, Massimiliano; Kligfield, Paul; Isom, O. Wayne
We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found.
Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.
We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001
Mallat, F; Hmida, W; Mestiri, S; Ziadi, S; Sriha, B; Mokni, M; Mosbah, F
The case of a 64-year-old patient with pica and severe mental retardation who was admitted to our hospital for treatment of recurrent cholecystitis is reported. Abdominal ultrasound showed sludge in the gallbladder, but no stones. Abdominal CT revealed a foreign body in the duodenum resembling a suction cup of the type commonly used in kitchens and bathrooms. The object could not be removed because it was deeply embedded in the hypertrophic intestinal mucosa. A nasogastric tube was inserted for feeding, since the object impeded the passage of solid foods. The patient's fever and abdominal pain subsequently resolved, and laboratory data improved. The indwelling feeding tube prevented recurrence of cholecystitis. Since pica is common not only in patients with mental retardation but also in dementia patients, the present case may also relate to the treatment of acute abdominal conditions in dementia patients. PMID:22151245
Miyakawa, Koichi; Ito, Masanobu; Hatta, Kotaro; Eto, Ko; Arai, Heii
Lactobacillus spp. rarely causes human disease. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and vascular disease admitted to our hospital with severe abdominal pain and fever. Signs of peritonitis were found upon examination. The patient underwent surgery, and a diagnosis of perforated cholecystitis with purulent peritonitis was made intra-operatively. A cholecystectomy was performed, and therapy with imipenem was initiated. Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from bile and peritoneal fluid cultures 2 days later. The patient recovered well and was discharged on post-operative day 16 after 14 days of treatment with imipenem. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported of acute cholecystitis caused by Lactobacillus spp. This organism should be considered as a cause of biliary infections, especially in patients with underlying diseases. Correct identification is often difficult, but it is very important because these organisms are usually resistant to vancomycin and other antibiotics. PMID:23886436
Tena, Daniel; Martínez, Nora Mariela; Losa, Cristina; Fernández, Cristina; Medina, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio
Acalculous cholecystitis, a recognized manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), causes abdominal pain which can be relieved by cholecystectomy. The indications for cholecystectomy have remained undefined, however, because the cholecystitis is usually accompanied by generalized cholangitis and it is difficult to distinguish the relative clinical importance of the two problems. Since 1985, we have performed cholecystectomy on 8 patients with AIDS who had clinical manifestations of acute cholecystitis associated with a thickening of the gallbladder wall by 5 mm to 12 mm. Two of the 8 had gallstones and 4 had associated cholangitis. All had been treated with antibiotics for 20 to 180 days before surgery, but physical deterioration had progressed in every case. At the moment of surgical intervention, 4 patients had multiple organ failure. One patient died 3 days postoperatively, but the rest recovered rapidly with resolution of the abdominal pain and sepsis. Two patients died 20 days after surgery due to complications of AIDS. The remaining 5 died due to AIDS at 6, 9, 10, 12, and 14 months after surgery. Two of this group developed progressive cholangitis with raised serum alkaline phosphatase. Our experience indicates that cholecystectomy should be considered for the treatment of severe and persistent symptoms of hepatobiliary manifestations of AIDS notwithstanding the presence of cholangitis. PMID:8080061
Wind, P; Chevallier, J M; Jones, D; Frileux, P; Cugnenc, P H
To evaluate value of %volume of contrast agent in gallbladder and contrast in cystic duct in diagnosis of acute cholecysititis with Gd-EOB-DTPA MRC obtained 60 min after contrast injection (T1-MRC60min). We included 16 acute cholecystitis (AC), 23 chronic cholecystitis (CC), and 40 healthy volunteers. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed cutoff value of 30.5% as predictor of AC comparing with healthy volunteers (sensitivity 93.8%, specificity 100%, AUC 0.958) and cutoff of 0% as predictor of AC comparing CC (sensitivity 81.2%, specificity 82.6%, AUC 0.823). In AC absent or obliterated cystic duct on T1-MRC60min showed 81.3%, 100%, sensitivity and specificity, respectively. These can be helpful for diagnosis of AC. PMID:24359644
Choi, In Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Seung Wha; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Je, Bo Kyung; Seo, Bo Kyong; Lee, Ki Yeol
Background The pathological boundary of acute cholecystitis (AC) between early edematous and late chronic fibrotic inflammation beyond 72 h is well-described. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) is safe in AC but the timing still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the duration of symptoms on clinical severity, pathology and outcome in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for AC during the urgent admission. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of 61 patients who underwent LC for AC over a 6-month period was performed. Results Of 61 patients 21 (34.43%) received ELC at <72 h and 40 (65.57%) received late LC (LLC) at >72 h. Clinically in the ELC group the majority were mild and in the LLC group the majority were moderate and severe in severity grading as per Tokyo guidelines (P<0.001). Surgical findings and histopathology showed no significant difference in the distribution of simple, phlegmonous and gangrenous cholecystitis between both groups (P=0.94). The majority were completed by a standard four port technique and only one required subtotal cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference between operating time, return to normal activities or hospital stay between both groups. There were no conversions to open cholecystectomy, no wound infections, no intra-abdominal collections, no biliary tract injury or mortality in either group. Conclusions The degree of inflammatory change in AC is not dependent on time. LC can be safely performed in AC regardless of timing with a standardized surgical strategy in experienced units.
Gomes, Rachel M.; Mehta, Niraj T.; Varik, Vanesha; Doctor, Nilesh H.
Initial reports have suggested that proximity of liver tumors to the gallbladder may increase the risk for cholecystitis after radiofrequency ablation. A colon adenocarcinoma metastasis to the liver in contact with the gallbladder was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation without subsequent cholecystitis.
Patti, Jay W.; Neeman, Ziv, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wood, Bradford J. [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 1C641, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is an unusual inflammatory disease of the gallbladder characterised by severe proliferative fibrosis and the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in areas of destructive inflammation. Its macroscopic appearance may occasionally be confused with gallbladder carcinoma. The authors present a case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis with type 3 choledochal cyst in a 20-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with a 1-week history of abdominal pain and fever. He underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy and then open cholecystectomy. A histological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis was made.
Darji, Parth; Thakkar, Gurudatt; Prajapati, Sanjay
Ultrasonography, 99mTc-DIDA cholescintigraphy, and infusion tomography of the gallbladder were compared in a prospective study comprising 45 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having acute cholecystitis. The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was established or excluded by operation in 35 patients, by oral cholecystography in 5, and by intravenous cholangiography in 5. The predictive values of a positive and a negative test were 100% and 83%, respectively, by ultrasonography and 98% and 88% by cholescintigraphy. Corresponding values for infusion tomography were 87% and 33%. The results suggest that in patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis, 99mTc-DIDA cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography provide a rapid and reliable diagnosis. PMID:7134840
Pedersen, J H; Hancke, S; Christensen, B; Gammelgaard, J; Haubek, A; Jensen, L I; Munck, O; Wied, U
Besides immunomodulation and immunosuppression, the specific treatment of symptoms is an essential component of the overall management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Symptomatic treatment is aimed at the elimination or reduction of symptoms impairing the functional abilities and quality of life of the affected patients. Moreover, with symptomatic treatment the development of a secondary physical impairment due to an existing one
T. Henze; P. Rieckmann; K. V. Toyka
Acute acalculous cholecystitis is rather unusual, but it is considered an increasing entity. Particularly interesting are the post-traumatic or post-operative forms of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Ischemia of the gallbladder and biliary stasis are the most likely pathogenetic factors. A case of acute acalculous cholecystitis after total gastrectomy for cancer is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the significance of cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate crystals findings in the bile of the gallbladder. The pathogenetic role of this microscopic form of lithiasis in post-operative acalculous cholecystitis is discussed. It is concluded that all surgeons should be aware of this pathology since it is becoming much more common to be faced with elderly patients having life-threatening post-operative gallbladder complications unrelated to macroscopic lithiasis. PMID:6533118
Flati, G; Flati, D; Jönsson, P E; Porowska, B; Tuscano, D; Amicucci, G; Negro, P; Carboni, M
Osteoarthritis is a major public health burden. The incidence of osteoarthritis increases with advancing age. Symptomatic treatments aimed at alleviating the pain and thereby restoring joint function form the basis of the treatment. The chronic course requires long-term treatment with special attention to minimizing the side effects of drugs. Acetaminophen has a good risk\\/benefit ratio that has prompted international consensus
Philippe Bertin; Karim Keddad; Isabelle Jolivet-Landreau
A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426
Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman
Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of demonstrated stones. AAC is frequently associated with severe systemic inflammation. However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of AAC still remain unclear. Acute infection with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in childhood is usually aymptomatic, whereas it often presents as typical infectious mononucleosis symptoms such as fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. AAC may occur during the course of acute EBV infection, which is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. AAC complicating the course of a primary EBV infection is usually associated with a favorable outcome. Most of the patients recover without any surgical treatment. Therefore, the detection of EBV in AAC would be important for prediction of better prognosis. We describe the case of a 10-year-old child who presented with AAC during the course of primary EBV infection, the first in Korea, and review the relevant literature. PMID:24749090
Kim, Ahlee; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Chang, Ju Young; Ko, Jae Sung
Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common, chronic inflammatory condition, which frequently presents with symptoms of pain and irritation. OLP is often difficult to manage. Therefore there is a need for more effective and safer therapies for symptomatic OLP. Objective: Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of topical tacrolimus as therapy for symptomatic OLP. Methods: A retrospective
Todd W. Rozycki; Roy S. Rogers; Mark R. Pittelkow; Marian T. McEvoy; Rokea A. el-Azhary; Alison J. Bruce; Joseph P. Fiore; Mark D. P. Davis
Background To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute calculous cholecystitis in comparison with other imaging modalities. Methods The authors performed a search of the Medline/ PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute calculous cholecystitis. The search design utilized a single or combination of the following terms : (1) acute cholecystitis, (2) ultrasonography, (3) computed tomography, (4) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and (5) cholescintigraphy. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 198 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 31 papers was reviewed. Results Sonography is still used as the initial imaging technique for evaluating patients with suspected acute calculous cholecystitis because of its high sensitivity at the detection of GB stones, its real-time character, and its speed and portability. Cholescintigraphy still has the highest sensitivity and specificity in patients who are suspected of having acute cholecystitis. However, due to a combination of reasons including logistic drawbacks, broad imaging capability and clinician referral pattern the use of cholescintigraphy is limited in clinical practice. CT is particularly useful for evaluating the many complications of acute calculous cholecystitis. The lack of widespread availability of MRI and the relatively high cost prohibits its primary use in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis. Conclusions US is currently considered the preferred initial imaging technique for patients who are clinically suspected of having acute calculous cholecystitis.
Background: Because of an expanded role for CT in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain, it is not rare that acute cholecystitis is depicted by CT. However, the sensitivity and the specificity of a given CT variable for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis is not known.Purpose: To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze acute cholecystitis at 64-section helical CT with submilimeter and isotropic voxels using a retrospective case-control study.Material and Methods: The 64-section helical CT examinations obtained with submilimeter and isotropic voxels in 40 patients with acute cholecystitis (25 men; mean age, 62.2years) were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed and compared to those of 40 control subjects matched for age and gender. Receiveroperating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the most discriminating cut-off values for quantitative variables. Comparisons of qualitative variables were made using univariate analysis.Results: Pericholecystic fat stranding, mural stratification, pericholecystic hypervascularity, spontaneous hyperattenuation of gallbladder wall, short (?32-mm) and long (?74-mm) gallbladder axis enlargement, and gallbladder wall thickening (?3.6-mm) were the most discriminating and independent variables for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (P, 0.0001). Using cut-off values found at ROC curve analysis, gallbladder wall thickening, and short and long gallbladder axis enlargement were the most sensitive findings (sensitivity ¼ 92.5%; 95%CI: 79.6%-98.4%) for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.Conclusion: Acute cholecystitis is associated with myriad suggestive findings on 64-section helical CT. It can be anticipated that familiarity with these findings would result in more confident diagnosis of acute cholecystitis at 64-section helical CT. PMID:23390157
Soyer, Philippe; Hoeffel, Christine; Dohan, Anthony; Gayat, Etienne; Eveno, Clarisse; Malgras, Brice; Pautrat, Karine; Boudiaf, Mourad
Background Despite evidence in favour of early cholecystectomy for most patients with acute cholecystitis, variation in practice has been reported across hospitals worldwide. We sought to characterize the extent and potential sources of variation in the performance of early cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis within a large regional health care system. Methods We used a population-based retrospective cohort design. The cohort was limited to adults with a first episode of acute cholecystitis, admitted through the emergency department. Patients were identified using administrative databases comprising all emergency department visits and hospital admissions in Ontario from 2004 to 2010. Patient and hospital characteristics associated with early cholecystectomy (within 7 d of emergency department presentation) were identified using multilevel logistic regression. Results We identified 24 437 patients admitted to 106 hospitals with a first episode of acute cholecystitis. Most (58%, n = 14 286) underwent early cholecystectomy. Rates of early cholecystectomy varied widely across hospitals (median 51%, interquartile range [IQR] 25%–72%), even among healthy patients aged 18–49 years with uncomplicated cholecystitis (median 74%, IQR 41%–88%). Multivariable multilevel analysis showed that hospitals in the lowest quartile for volume of acute cholecystitis admissions had the lowest adjusted odds of early cholecystectomy (odds ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.35–0.78) and that hospital effects accounted for half (27%) of the explained variation (53%) in early cholecystectomy. Interpretation Across the hospitals of a regional health care system, similar patients with acute cholecystitis did not receive comparable care. Hospital-specific initiatives should be considered to facilitate early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis.
Laupacis, Andreas; Rotstein, Ori D.; Hoch, Jeffrey S.; Haas, Barbara; Gomez, David; Zagorski, Brandon; Nathens, Avery B.
Non-parasitic liver cysts are seen in up to 5% of the population. They become symptomatic when they are large and can cause pain, nausea, vomiting, early satiety and obstructive jaundice. Treatment modalities include percutaneous drainage, open deroofing, hepatic resection and lately, laparoscopic deroofing. We assessed our management of eleven symptomatic patients over the last five years between May 1996 and August 2001. Two of these had mild symptoms and were kept under review. The remaining nine were treated surgically. Of these, eight were treated by laparotomy and open deroofing with argon laser coagulation of the cut edges while one was treated with left hepatic resection. Three of these had been previously treated with laparoscopic deroofing at other hospitals and had been referred after having developed recurrent symptomatic cysts. Two patients developed post-operative complications--bile leakage that resolved with conservative management. The patients were followed up for a median period of twelve months ranging from 3-62 months. One patient died of liver failure 12 months after surgery. There was no symptomatic recurrence. We conclude that open cyst deroofing gives marked symptomatic relief with a very low complication rate. In today's era of laparoscopic surgery, it has a definite role in the management of symptomatic liver cysts, more so in recurrent cysts following laparoscopic treatment. Images Fig 1 Fig 2
Pitale, A.; Bohra, A. K.; Diamond, T.
We characterised a tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) expression in relation to severity of inflammatory infiltration of the gallbladder mucosa in a chronic cholecystitis. We prospectively studied the gallbladder specimens obtained from 54 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy due to chronic calculous cholecystitis and 16 calculosis-free gallbladder specimens obtained from patients who underwent cholecystectomy due to the polyp/polyps as well as in cases of gallbladder injury. To assess TF and TFPI immunoreactivity by immunohistochemistry, the monoclonal anti-human TF and TFPI antibodies were used. The inflammatory infiltration of the gallbladder mucosa was reflected by the number of CD3 and CD68 positive cells. The expression of TF and TFPI differed significantly between the cholecystitis and the control group. Most capillary endothelial cells of the cholecystitis group presented weak expression for TFPI. The mean number of CD3 positive lymphocytes in the cholecystitis group was 18.6 ± 12.2, but the mean number of CD68 positive cells was 29.7 ± 13.9. In the control sections, it was 3.1 ± 1.9 and 8.8 ± 3.9, respectively (P < 0.001). The results of the current study suggest that the tissue procoagulant state found may be engaged in the etiopathogenesis of the cholecystitis.
Liczko, Jacek; Zaba, Malgorzata; Kurek, Jozef; Sabat, Daniel; Wyrobiec, Grzegorz; Domal-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Dudek, Damian; Helewski, Krzysztof
AIM: To evaluate the risk factors of acute cholecystitis after endoscopic common bile duct (CBD) stone removal. METHODS: A total 100 of patients who underwent endoscopic CBD stone removal with gallbladder (GB) in situ without subsequent cholecystectomy from January 2000 to July 2004 were evaluated retrospectively. The following factors were considered while evaluating risk factors for the development of acute cholecystitis: age, gender, serum bilirubin level, GB wall thickening, cystic duct patency, presence of a GB stone, CBD diameter, residual stone, lithotripsy, juxtapapillary diverticulum, presence of liver cirrhosis or diabetes mellitus, a presenting illness of cholangitis or pancreatitis, and procedure-related complications. RESULTS: During a mean 18-mo follow-up, 28 (28%) patients developed biliary symptoms; 17 (17%) acute cholecystitis and 13 (13%) CBD stone recurrence. Of patients with acute cholecystitis, 15 (88.2%) received laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 2 (11.8%) open cholecystectomy. All recurrent CBD stones were successfully removed endoscopically. The mean time elapse to acute cholecystitis was 10.2 mo (1-37 mo) and that to recurrent CBD stone was 18.4 mo. Of the 17 patients who received cholecystectomy, 2 (11.8%) developed recurrent CBD stones after cholecystectomy. By multivariate analysis, a serum total bilirubin level of <1.3 mg/dL and a CBD diameter of <11 mm at the time of stone removal were found to predict the development of acute cholecystitis. CONCLUSION: After CBD stone removal, there is no need for routine prophylactic cholecystectomy. However, patients without a dilated bile duct (<11 mm) and jaundice (<1.3 mg/dL) at the time of CBD stone removal have a higher risk of acute cholecystitis and are possible candidates for prophylactic cholecystectomy.
Lee, Jun Kyu; Ryu, Ji Kon; Park, Joo Kyung; Yoon, Won Jae; Lee, Sang Hyub; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Kim, Yong-Tae; Yoon, Yong Bum
We report the case of a 14 year-old male from Lima. He is a student with a history of bronchial asthma since age 4 receives conditional salbutamol, corticosteroids used for asthma attacks (a crisis in 2010, 1 month ago) Refuses surgery or transfusions. He presented with a two weeks for abdominal pain, nausea, fever, and jaundice. Epigastric pain is colicky and radiated back to righ upper quadrant, refers in addition to nausea and fever, for ten days notice jaundice of skin and sclera. On examen he was lucid, with jaundice of skin and mucous membranes. There was no palpable lymph nodes, abdomen with bowel sounds, soft, depressible, liver span of 15cm, positive Murphy, no peritonitis. The laboratory findings showed hemoglobin 13gr, MCV 90, platelets 461.000/mm3, WBC 4320/mm, lymphocytes 1700 (39%). total bilirubin: 8.8, B Direct: 7.6, ALT (alanine aminotransferase): 3016, AST (aspartate aminotransferase): 984, alkaline phosphatase: 250, albumin: 3.34gr%, globulin: 2.8, amylase: 589 (high serum amylase), TP: 17, INR: 1.6, VHA IgM positive. 89 mg glucose, urea 19 mg%, creatinine 0.5 mg Hemoglobin 13gr, MCV 90 Platelet 461000/mm3, WBC 4320/mm, Lymphocytes 1700 (39%). The nuclear magnetic resonance showed hepatomegaly associated with thickening of gallbladder wall without stones up to 11mm inside. No bile duct dilatation, bile duct 4mm, pancreas increased prevalence of body size. Mild splenomegaly and free fluid in the space of Morrison and right flank. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a gallbladder wall thickness (11mm), without stones in his light. Pancreas to increase volume with peripancreatic fluid free perivesicular with a volume of 430 cc. Findings consistent with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis. CT-scan showed enlarged pancreas with predominance of body and tail with peripancreatic edema; the gallbladder was thickening. We report this case because the extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis A infection are uncommon, specially the associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis simultaneous. PMID:21836659
Arcana, Ronald; Frisancho, Oscar
Background Gallbladder adenomyomatosis is a benign condition characterized by hyperplastic change in the gallbladder wall and overgrowth of the mucosa because of an unknown cause. Patients with gallbladder adenomyomatosis usually present with abdominal pain. However, we herein describe a case of a patient with gallbladder adenomyomatosis who did not present with abdominal pain, but with only fever. Case presentation A 34-year-old man presented to our hospital with a fever. No abdominal discomfort was declared. His physical examination showed no abnormalities. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thickness of the gallbladder. Acute cholecystitis was diagnosed. The fever persisted even after 1 week of antibiotic therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed gallbladder adenomyomatosis with intramural Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. Exploratory laparotomy with cholecystectomy was performed. The fever recovered and no residual symptoms were reported at the 3-year follow-up. Conclusions Gallbladder adenomyomatosis can present with fever as the only symptom. Although the association between gallbladder adenomyomatosis and malignancy has yet to be elucidated, previous reports have shown a strong association between gallbladder carcinoma and a subtype of gallbladder adenomyomatosis. Surgical intervention remains the first-choice treatment for patients with gallbladder adenomyomatosis.
Prostaglandins GE2 produces on the gallbladder a rise in intraluminal pressure, an increase in in intraluminal secretion, improves gallbladder contraction and decreases its absorption capacity. In this study, patients who received indomethacin twice a day by rectum, showed a significant reduction in volume and area of gallbladder after 24 and 48 hours (P < 0.05). The gallbladder volume after 24 hours had SEM 9.13 cm3, 95% CI 55.28 + 73.49 (P < 0.05). Score pain reduction after 24 hours was also significant (P < 0.001). The patients who underwent the classical Baralcina treatment of one IV vial BID showed a reduction in diameter and area of gallbladder but this was not statistically significant (P < 0.10). Reduction of volume at 24 hours was SEM 5.34 cm3 95% CI - 64.72 + 76.60 P 0.10 NS; and at 48 hours SEM 3.5 cm3, 95% CI 59.52% + 66.52 P 0.40. Score pain reduction was only significant at 48 hours P 0.001. The number of patients without pain at 24 hours was significantly higher in the indomethacin group ESP 0.21; 95% CI 0.46 + 0.88 P 0.001. In conclusion indomethacin is a useful medication in the treatment of acute cholecystitis and biliary colic due to its anti-prostaglandin effect on the gallbladder. PMID:1843681
Añez, M S; Martínez, D; Pacheco, J L; González, H; Rivera, J; Pelaschier, E; Uzcátegui, L; Romero, M D; Molina, Z; Roditti de Montilla, M
The role of the free radical processes (FRP) is shown and objectified in the development of the acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC). It is revealed on the first day of hospitalization already. In catarrhal and phlegmonic ACC free radical processes changes apply mostly to the oxygen part of the oxidation process. The greatest imbalance of the FRP is registered in the gangrenous ACC. It appeared like decrease of the oxygen and activation of the lipid FRP disregulation. On the first day FRP changes refer to the oxygen part of the oxidation process only. Starts with a second day from the disease début changes in the lipid component of the oxidative stress join the disregulation process. It is proved by the decrease of the antiperoxidant activity of plasma and increase of malondialdehyde. Malondialdehyde level and its rate of rise serve as prognostic criteria of the course and outcome of disease. FRP changes correlate with the clinical presentations of disease. They last till the patient's discharge. The high efficiency of the energetic corrector reamberin in a dose of 400-800 ml was shown in patients with ACC. PMID:21378711
Khokonov, M A; Silina, E V; Stupin, V A; Gakhramanov, T V; Bolevich, S B; Men'shova, N I; Sinel'nikova, T G; Balkizov, Z Z
In more than 90% of patients with acute cholecystitis, gallstones are impacted in the cystic duct. In the presence of cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, an appreciable number of various bacteria may be found in the bile and walls of the gall- bladder. Usually, the organisms found in the biliary tract are the normal intestinal flora: namely, enteric Gram-negative bacilli, including Escherichia
Mustafa Yildirim; Ismet Ozaydin; Idris Sahin; Mehmet Yasar
A 55-year old man was treated with sunitinib 50 mg/day for 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off, as a first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. During the fourth week of the first cycle, he was admitted to the Emergency Department with abdominal pain and vomiting. Acute acalculous cholecystitis was diagnosed. Sunitnib-associated cholecystitis is a rare adverse event previously reported in few cases. The mechanism behind this complication is not fully understood, although vascular endothelial dysfunction may play a role. The use of this drug is expanding in clinical oncology, and physicians should be aware of this life-threating adverse event.
da Fonseca, Leonardo Gomes; Barroso-Sousa, Romualdo; Sabbaga, Jorge; Hoff, Paulo Marcelo
One hundred twenty-two consecutive patients who had hepato-iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scans over a 5-month period were reviewed. These scans were found to have 94% sensitivity, but only 36% specificity for correctly diagnosing pathological variants of cholecystitis. Frequently, HIDA scans were misinterpreted to show common bile duct obstruction (CBDO); only 20% of cases of CBDO suggested on HIDA could be confirmed surgically. Sonography gave 88% to 90% sensitivity and 91% specificity in correctly diagnosing pathological variants of cholecystitis and correctly demonstrated CBDO in 80% of the cases. As first-line studies to evaluate biliary tract disease, HIDA scans are costly and should be eliminated.
Johnson, H.; Cooper, B.
Inspite of increased technical difficulties and high incidence of conversion to open procedures and complications, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a well established treatment for acute cholecystitis. In this study we reported our results in patients with acute cholecystitis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystecomy from 1998 to 2003. We found out that laparoscopic cholecystectomy was safe and was carried out with acceptable conversion rate and low morbidity. Predictors of complications were delay of surgery more than 48 hours following the onset of symptoms, leucocytosis > 15.000 U/microl and gallbladder wall ultrasonography thickness > 7mm. PMID:15224662
Bove, A; Bongarzoni, G; Serafini, F M; Bonomo, L; Dragani, G; Palone, F; Scotti, U; Corbellini, L
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness of infants and young children that is characterized by a medium vessel vasculitis, most commonly involving the coronary arteries. Though subclinical myocarditis is rather common in KD, symptomatic congestive heart failure is extremely uncommon. The authors report a 9-y-old boy who developed heart failure (ejection fraction 28%) in the acute phase of KD. He was initially treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) without much clinical improvement. He was then given 5 daily pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone followed by tapering doses of oral prednisolone. The child showed prompt clinical recovery and remains well on follow-up. The present case serves to highlight the fact that methylprednisolone can be considered upfront as rescue therapy in children with KD who have symptomatic congestive cardiac failure during the acute stage of the disease. PMID:21863318
Aggarwal, Pooja; Suri, Deepti; Narula, Nidhi; Manojkumar, Rohit; Singh, Surjit
Here we report a case of acalculus cholecystitis, which presented with features of obstructive jaundice of one-week duration. The patient underwent cholecystectomy and bile grew a mixed culture of Oerskovia turbata and Myroides spp. Being a rare isolate, characteristic features of the former are described in this report. The patient recovered without any complication. PMID:17901658
Thomas, M; Padmini, S B; Govindan, V K; Appalaraju, B
Background: Acute septic cholecystitis (AC) remains a difficult problem in patients with coexisting severe illness, and ultrasonographically guided percutaneous puncture and drainage of the gallbladder (PTBD) may be an alternative treatment in this context. Setting: University Hospital, Norway. Methods: Retrospective study of the safety and efficacy of this approach in 86 consecutive patients treated from 1992 to 1999. Results: Five
Åke Andrén-Sandberg; Trond Haugsvedt; Trond Bjerke Larssen; Karl Søndenaa
AIM: To evaluate the risk factors of acute cholecystitis after endoscopic common bile duct (CBD) stone removal. METHODS: A total 100 of patients who underwent en- doscopic CBD stone removal with gallbladder (GB) in situ without subsequent cholecystectomy from January 2000 to July 2004 were evaluated retrospectively. The follow- ing factors were considered while evaluating risk factors for the development
Jun Kyu Lee; Ji Kon Ryu; Joo Kyung Park; Won Jae Yoon; Sang Hyub Lee; Kwang Hyuck Lee; Yong-Tae Kim; Yong Bum Yoon
Abstract Many surgeons practice prophylactic drainage after cholecystectomy without reliable evidence. This study was conducted to answer the question whether to drain or not to drain after cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis. A retrospective review of all patients who had cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia, was conducted from April 2010 to April 2012. Data were extracted from hospital case files. Preoperative data included clinical presentation, routine investigations and liver function tests. Operative data included excessive adhesions, bleeding, bile leak, and drain insertion. Complicated cases such as pericholecystic collections, mucocele and empyema were also reported. Patients who needed therapeutic drainage were excluded. Postoperative data included hospital stay, volume of drained fluid, time of drain removal, and drain site problems. The study included 103 patients allocated into two groups; group A (n ?=? 38) for patients with operative drain insertion and group B (n ?=? 65) for patients without drain insertion. The number of patients with preoperative diagnosis of acute non-complicated cholecystitis was significantly greater in group B (80%) than group A (36.8%) (P < 0.001). Operative time was significantly longer in group A. All patients who were converted from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy were in group A. Multivariate analysis revealed that hospital stay was significantly (P < 0.001) longer in patients with preoperative complications. There was no added benefit for prophylactic drain insertion after cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis in non-complicated or in complicated cases.
Bawahab, Mohammed A.; Abd El Maksoud, Walid M; Alsareii, Saeed A.; Al Amri, Fahad S.; Ali, Hala F.; Nimeri, Abdul Rahman; Al Amri, Abdul Rahman M.; Assiri, Adel A.; Abdul Aziz, Mohammed I.
Although sunitinib is associated with a variety of adverse events, cases of sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis have rarely been reported. We herein report two cases of sunitinib-related acute acalculous cholecystitis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In both cases, the gallbladder was surgically removed because it was difficult to improve the patient's condition with the cessation of sunitinib and non-surgical treatment only. Attention must be paid to the possibility of sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis, which, although uncommon, can be life-threatening. PMID:24883158
Furubayashi, Nobuki; Negishi, Takahito; Hirata, Yu; Taguchi, Kenichi; Nakamura, Motonobu
Although sunitinib is associated with a variety of adverse events, cases of sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis have rarely been reported. We herein report two cases of sunitinib-related acute acalculous cholecystitis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In both cases, the gallbladder was surgically removed because it was difficult to improve the patient’s condition with the cessation of sunitinib and non-surgical treatment only. Attention must be paid to the possibility of sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis, which, although uncommon, can be life-threatening.
Furubayashi, Nobuki; Negishi, Takahito; Hirata, Yu; Taguchi, Kenichi; Nakamura, Motonobu
The Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were published in 2005 as the first practical guidelines presenting diagnostic and severity assessment criteria for these diseases. After the Japanese version, the Tokyo Guidelines (TG07) were reported in 2007 as the first international practical guidelines. There were some differences between the two guidelines, and some weak points in TG07 were pointed out, such as low sensitivity for diagnosis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. Therefore, revisions were started to not only make them up to date but also concurrent with the same diagnostic and severity assessment criteria. The Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) performed validation studies of TG07 and new diagnostic and severity assessment criteria of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. These were retrospective multi-institutional studies that collected cases of acute cholangitis, cholecystitis, and non-inflammatory biliary disease. TGRC held 35 meetings as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad and held three International Meetings. Through these efforts, TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The world's first management bundles of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were also presented. The revised Japanese version was published with the same content as TG13. An electronic application of TG13 that can help to diagnose and assess the severity of these diseases using the criteria of TG13 was made for free download. PMID:24334691
Mayumi, Toshihiko; Someya, Kazuki; Ootubo, Hiroki; Takama, Tatsuo; Kido, Takashi; Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro
Randomized phase 2 study of fludarabine with concurrent versus sequential treatment with rituximab in symptomatic, untreated patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9712 (CALGB 9712)
Recent studies have suggested that ritux- imab has clinical activity and modulates antiapoptotic proteins associated with drug resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We performed a random- ized phase 2 study to determine the effi- cacy, safety, and optimal administration schedule of rituximab with fludarabine in previously untreated CLL patients. Pa- tients were randomized to receive either 6 monthly courses
John C. Byrd; Bercedis L. Peterson; Vicki A. Morrison; Kathleen Park; Robert Jacobson; Eva Hoke; James W. Vardiman; Kanti Rai; Charles A. Schiffer; Richard A. Larson
?-blockers have been well-studied in the treatment of the symptomatic stages of chronic heart failure. Frequently physicians\\u000a treat patients with asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and patients with hypertension on ?-blockers without clear\\u000a evidence that there is value in doing so. Chronic heart failure poses an extraordinary economic burden; any effective therapy\\u000a that limits the progression to symptomatic heart failure
David M. Wild; Marrick Kukin
Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features. PMID:24605997
Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin
Chronic cough is often viewed as a difficult clinical problem. It can be physically and psychologically debilitating, occasionally leading to serious complications. Although there are many etiologies, an organized approach including focused history and physical examination, directed testing in select cases, and treatment trials lead to accurate, safe, and cost-effective diagnoses in most patients. Additional symptomatic treatment is frequently beneficial. Occasionally, diagnostic dilemmas, treatment failures, or more serious causative disorders necessitate referral for further testing and management. PMID:24490448
Rai, S P
After comparing the classical ultrasonographic findings of acute acalculous cholecystitis with our findings on 24 clinical and sonographic followed acute care unit patients, we have to pay attention to the possible reversibility of such phenomena as increased gallbladder wall thickness, low-level echo surrounding the gallbladder and sludge. In our experience, there is no correlation between a negative cholecystokinin stimulation test and an acute acalculous cholecystitis. PMID:2121670
Barras, J P; Hiltbrunner, A; Aeberhard, P
Background Endoscopic transpapillary pernasal gallbladder drainage and endoscopic gallbladder stenting (EGS) have recently been reported to be useful in patients with acute cholecystitis for whom a percutaneous approach is contraindicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of permanent EGS for management of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients who were poor surgical candidates. Methods We retrospectively studied 46 elderly patients aged 65 years or older with acute cholecystitis who were treated at Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization Niigata Rosai Hospital. In 40 patients, acute cholecystitis was diagnosed by transabdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, while 6 patients were transferred from other hospitals after primary management of acute cholecystitis. All patients underwent EGS, with a 7Fr double pig-tail stent being inserted into the gallbladder. If EGS failed, percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage or percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration was subsequently performed. The main outcome measure of this study was the efficacy of EGS. Results Permanent EGS was successful in 31 patients (77.5%) with acute cholecystitis, without any immediate postprocedural complications such as pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, or cholangitis. The most common comorbidities of these patients were cerebral infarction (n=14) and dementia (n=13). In 30 of these 31 patients (96.7%), there was no recurrence of cholecystitis and 29 patients (93.5%) remained asymptomatic until death or the end of the study period (after 1 month to 5 years). Conclusions EGS can be effective for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis who are poor surgical candidates and can provide a solution for several years.
Most reports of the operative treatment of symptomatic polycystic liver disease (PCLD) are anecdotal or consist of only a small subset of patients in an institution's overall experience treating hepatic cysts. We have reviewed our experience with nine consecutive patients with symptomatic PCLD undergoing operative treatment from 1981 to 1987. Indications for operation include chronic abdominal pain (4 patients), cyst infection (2 patients), biliary obstruction (2 patients), inferior vena cava obstruction (2 patients), and symptomatic abdominal distention (2 patients). The average duration of symptoms leading to operation was 7.8 months. Three types of cystic disease were identified based on gross morphology: dominant cystic disease (3 patients), diffuse cystic disease (4 patients), and mixed cystic disease (2 patients). Operations to treat symptomatic PCLD included unroofing and external drainage of infected cysts (2 operations), simple unroofing (1 operation), cyst fenestration alone (4 operations) and fenestration combined with resection (3 operations). Treatment directed at principally dominant cysts (five patients) was associated with resolution of symptoms and low morbidity and mortality. Treatment directed at diffusely cystic disease (four patients) resulted in significant morbidity and mortality including three deaths. Successful surgical treatment of symptomatic patients with PCLD depends on accurate preoperative identification of patients with symptoms related to one or more dominant cysts. In this setting fenestration or simple unroofing of the dominant cyst is safe and effective treatment. By comparison, extensive fenestration with or without hepatic resection in patients with symptoms attributed to a diffusely cystic liver may be associated with unacceptable morbidity and mortality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3288024
Turnage, R H; Eckhauser, F E; Knol, J A; Thompson, N W
Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma. PMID:24753678
Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish
Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.
Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish
Sellar arachnoid cysts are rare; an infected arachnoid cyst is extremely rare as only one case has been reported to date in the literature. Here, we report a patient with an infected or inflamed sellar arachnoid cyst that was successfully treated with transsphenoidal surgery (TSA). A 53-year-old female with a history of chronic sinusitis developed a headache 5 months ago, and one month before admission polyuria, polydipsia, and abnormal vaginal bleeding occurred. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a sellar cystic mass with a thickened pituitary stalk. Preoperative hormonal study revealed normal pituitary hormone levels except for a moderate elevation of prolactin. She was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus of the central nervous system origin based on a water-deprivation test. TSA was performed under an impression of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst according to the MRI findings. Intraoperative findings showed confirmation of turbid intracystic contents, but micro-organisms were unidentified on microbial culture. Pathology of the cyst wall revealed inflamed meningoepithelial lining cells compatible with an arachnoid cyst.
Park, Kwang Hyon; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang Hyun
Sellar arachnoid cysts are rare; an infected arachnoid cyst is extremely rare as only one case has been reported to date in the literature. Here, we report a patient with an infected or inflamed sellar arachnoid cyst that was successfully treated with transsphenoidal surgery (TSA). A 53-year-old female with a history of chronic sinusitis developed a headache 5 months ago, and one month before admission polyuria, polydipsia, and abnormal vaginal bleeding occurred. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a sellar cystic mass with a thickened pituitary stalk. Preoperative hormonal study revealed normal pituitary hormone levels except for a moderate elevation of prolactin. She was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus of the central nervous system origin based on a water-deprivation test. TSA was performed under an impression of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst according to the MRI findings. Intraoperative findings showed confirmation of turbid intracystic contents, but micro-organisms were unidentified on microbial culture. Pathology of the cyst wall revealed inflamed meningoepithelial lining cells compatible with an arachnoid cyst. PMID:24904886
Park, Kwang Hyon; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang Hyun
AIM: To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis. METHODS: The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM). Eight databases including MEDLINE, EMbase, Cochrane Central (CCTR), four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals, Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center, were searched. Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected, categorized according to study design, the strength of evidence, the first author’s hospital type, and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies. No article was of level?I?evidence, and 9.26% were of level II evidence. The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%, 0.68% and 7.29%, respectively. Typically, the articles featured in case reports of illness, examined from the perspective of EBM, were weak in both quality and evidence level, which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals, the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China. CONCLUSION: The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence, and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.
Dong, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Guan-Liang; Liu, Xing; Liu, Jia; Zhu, De-Zeng; Ling, Chang-Quan
Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301
Pandove, Paras K; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the standard for treatment of uncomplicated cholecystolithiasis. However, in\\u000a cases of cholecystitis or cholecysto-choledocholithiasis, technical and skill requirements may make questionable the convenience\\u000a of laparoscopy. Transcylindrical cholecystectomy (TC) is a modified minilaparotomy, performed gas-free through a single cylinder\\u000a 3.8 cm in diameter and 10.0 cm in length. Our study objective has been to assess the
Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively.
Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.
Background\\/Aims: Acute cholecystitis may atypically present itself in the elderly, thus causing diagnostic and therapeutic problems, and it is well recognized as a high-risk condition for morbidity. The outcome has been attributed to the presence of servere co-morbid disease. In an attempt to minimize the postoperative morbidity and mortality, we performed ultrasound-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PC) on elderly patients with
King-Teh Lee; Sen-Ren Wong; Jong-Shyong Cheng; Chen-Guo Ker; Pai-Ching Sheen; Yueh-Er Liu
We report a case of acute cholecystitis accompanied by acute pancreatitis and caused by Dolosigranulum pigrum in a 76-year-old male with gallstones. D. pigrum was isolated from a blood culture and confirmed by biochemistry tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. The isolate was susceptible to the ?-lactams ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin but was intermediate to erythromycin and clindamycin. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with appropriate antibiotics for two weeks.
Lin, Jung-Chung; Hou, Shu-Jin; Huang, Li-Ung; Sun, Jun-Ren; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Lu, Jang-Jih
Objective: To evaluate the negative fetal fibronectin (fFN) assay in patients with twin gestations who are symptomatic for preterm labor (PTL).Study Design: Fetal fibronectin expression in 955 symptomatic patients combined from two prospective multicenter trials was studied. Of the 955 patients, 43 had twin gestations in PTL with intact amniotic membranes at 24 and 35 weeks. Fetal fibronectin expression was
Dom A. Terrone; Brian K. Rinehart; Usha Kraeden; John C. Morrison
Objectives: The treatment of symptomatic cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) instability in children affected by CVJ abnormalities is a challenge. A series of severely symptomatic children has been reviewed to understand the controversial long-term effectiveness of the aggressive management of CVJ abnormalities, in terms of clinical improvement, spinal stability and growth. Methods: Three Down syndrome patients, 1 with mucopolysaccharidosis and 1 with
Carlo Giussani; Franck-Emmanuel Roux; Paolo Guerra; David Pirillo; Marco Grimaldi; Giuseppe Citerio; Erik P. Sganzerla
Background & Aims: Cancer of the gallbladder is the number one cause of cancer mortality in Chilean women. Incidence rates for this tumor vary widely on a worldwide basis, being approximately 30 times higher in high-risk than in low-risk populations, suggesting that environmental factors such as infectious microorganisms, carcinogens, and nutrition play a role in its pathogenesis. Because several Helicobacter
James G. Fox; Floyd E. Dewhirst; Zeli Shen; Yan Feng; Nancy S. Taylor; Bruce J. Paster; Rebecca L. Ericson; Carol N. Lau; Pelayo Correa; Juan C. Araya; Ivan Roa
The effect of **Naftidrofuryl (Nafronyl) on the symptoms of severe peripheral vascular disease has been studied in 40 hospital inpatients. Assess ment of ischaemic symptoms and of symptoms which may occur with any type of chronic pain was made using a linear analogue system. Patients treated with naftidrofuryl showed a significant symptomatic improvement compared to patients treated without vasoactive drug
S. E. Meehan; P. E. Preece; W. F. Walker
Introduction Sunitinib, an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is widely used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor and has had a variety of adverse events. However, sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis has been reported in only two patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor and renal cell carcinoma (clear cell subtype). Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese woman with a right sided abdominal swelling was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) showed a hypervascular bulky tumor in her right kidney, suggesting right renal cell carcinoma in clinical T4N0M0. Although sunitinib therapy was started as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, during the fourth week of the first cycle, she developed acute acalculous cholecystitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with sunitinib. Sunitinib therapy was discontinued immediately and she recovered after subsequent treatment with antibiotics and gabexate mesilate followed by percutaneous cholecystostomy. Cholecystectomy and right radical nephrectomy were performed and pathological examination showed that her renal tumor was a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (pT2) with necrosis. Inflammation and ischemia were observed in the gallbladder wall, which was compatible with acute acalculous cholecystitis. There has been no evidence of disease recurrence for more than six months. Conclusion We described the third case of sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis in a patient with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Attention is required to sunitinib-related acute cholecystitis which, while uncommon, could be life-threatening.
Background Previous work has shown an association between restricted wrist range of motion (ROM) and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. We compared the prevalence of MRI-identified wrist abnormalities and wrist ROM between asymptomatic and symptomatic computer users. Methods MR images at 1.5 T of both wrists were obtained from 10 asymptomatic controls (8 F, 2 M) and 14 computer users (10 F, 4 M) with chronic wrist pain (10 bilateral; 4 right-side). Maximum wrist range of motion in flexion and radioulnar deviation was measured with an electrogoniometer. Results Extraosseous ganglia were identified in 66.6% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists. Intraosseous ganglia were identified in 45.8% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists, and were significantly (p < .05) larger in the symptomatic wrists. Distal ECU tendon instability was identified in 58.4% of both asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Dominant wrist flexion was significantly greater in the asymptomatic group (68.8 ± 6.7 deg.) compared to the symptomatic group (60.7 ± 7.3 deg.), p < .01. There was no significant correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden (p = .09) Conclusions This appears to be the first MRI study of wrist abnormalities in computer users. This study demonstrates that a variety of wrist abnormalities are common in computer users and that only intraosseous ganglia prevalence and size differed between asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Flexion was restricted in the dominant wrist of the symptomatic group, but the correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden did not reach significance. Flexion restriction may be an indicator of increased joint loading, and identifying the cause may help to guide preventive and therapeutic interventions.
Introduction Metformin is licensed for treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. This report describes a patient on metformin who developed diarrhoea and symptomatic hypomagnesemia. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report on metformin-induced symptomatic hypomagnesemia. Case presentation The patient was a 57-year old Caucasian male with diabetes mellitus type 2. He had been on metformin for nine years and presented with chronic diarrhoea, spasms, paresthesias, pain, and malaise. Blood tests revealed hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia. Conclusion Drugs associated with diarrhoea may induce malabsorption. If malabsorption is substantial it may result in further symptoms of clinical importance. In some cases potentially life-threatening conditions may occur.
The presentation and management of a patient with symptomatic hydrocephalus from a cyst of the septum pellucidum is described and the underlying pathophysiology in relation to treatment is considered. The cyst appeared to cause intermittent obstruction of the foramina of Munro according to the degree of ventricular dilatation. Drainage and collapse of the cyst by fenestration reestablished continuous drainage of
Basil H. Amin
Background: The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence and clinical characteristics of symptomatic internal hernias (IH) after laparoscopic bariatric procedures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of cases of IH after 1,064 laparoscopic gastric bypasses (LGB) and biliopancreatic diversions with duodenal switch (LBPD-DS) performed from September 1998 to August 2002. Results: We documented 35 cases of IH
E. Comeau; M. Gagner; W. B. Inabnet; D. M. Herron; T. M. Quinn; A. Pomp
In 20 children needing treatment for symptomatic sick sinus syndrome, the average age at presentation was 7.1 years and ranged from 9 months to 18 years. Symptoms were never precise but, in retrospect, 5 children had syncope, 7 had a rapid heart action, 6 had dyspnoea or tachypnoea, 2 had nonspecific chest pains, 2 had pale spells, and 1 had
D J Radford; T Izukawa
The incidence and precipitating factors associated with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux were evaluated by a questionnaire in 446 hospitalized and 558 nonhospitalized subjects. Of 385 control subjects 7% experienced heartburn daily, 14% noted heartburn weekly, and 15% experienced it once a month, giving a total of 36% of subjects having heartburn at least monthly. Daily heartburn occurred at a significantly greater
Otto T. Nebel; Michael F. Fornes; Donald O. Castell
A case report of a unique malleable, rubbery, white mass found at cholecystectomy after a diagnosis of symptomatic cholelithiasis. This likely represents either a unique form of a calcium-containing or contrast-containing stone. There are no reported incidents of vicarious contrast stones and calcium-containing stones are reported to be crystalline and hard. PMID:21305973
Hall, Andrew B; Blake, Andrea; Wheeler, Brad; Cromer, Robert
Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is responsible for approximately 10% of all ischemic strokes in the United States. The risk of recurrent stroke may be as high as 35% in patient with critical stenosis >70% in diameter narrowing. Recent advances in medical and endovascular therapy have placed ICAD at the forefront of clinical stroke research to optimize the best medical and endovascular approach to treat this important underlying stroke etiology. Analysis of symptomatic ICAD studies lead to the question that whether angioplasty and/or stenting is a safe, suitable, and efficacious therapeutic strategy in patients with critical stenoses that are deemed refractory to medical management. Most of the currently available data in support of angioplasty and/or stenting in high risk patients with severe symptomatic ICAD is in the form of case series and randomized trial results of endovascular therapy versus medical treatment are awaited. This is a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the endovascular approach with angioplasty and/or stenting of symptomatic ICAD.
Short, Jody L.; Majid, Arshad; Hussain, Syed I.
Bilioenteric fistules are fairly rare, cholecystoduodenal fistules are the commonest type, accounting for 70-80% of cases. Cholecystoduodenal fistules usually occur as a consequence of cholecystolithiasis and cholecystitis. Their symptomatology is atypical and fistules are frequently detected during surgery. Preoperative diagnostic procedures include visualization methods, such as US, CT, MRI, resp.ERCP. Both conventional laparotomy, as well as laparoscopy may be used in the treatment of the disease. Each of the methods has its pros and cons. The authors present a case review of a 85-year old female patient with a cholecystoduodenal fistule, diagnosed prior to the surgical procedure. Conventional laparotomy was elected as a method of treatment and the outcome was successful. PMID:22026098
Prochotský, A; Okolicány, R; Dolák, S; Hut'an, M; Skultéty, J; Sekác, J
Impaired Ca2+ homeostasis and smooth muscle contractility co-exist in acute cholecystitis (AC) leading to gallbladder dysfunction. There is no pharmacological treatment for this pathological condition. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of melatonin treatment on Ca2+ signaling pathways and contractility altered by cholecystitis. [Ca2+]i was determined by epifluorescence microscopy in fura-2 loaded isolated gallbladder smooth muscle cells, and isometric tension was recorded from gallbladder muscle strips. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were determined by spectrophotometry and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was quantified by western blot. Melatonin was tested in two experimental groups, one of which underwent common bile duct ligation for 2 days and another that was later de-ligated for 2 days. Inflammation-induced impairment of Ca2+ responses to cholecystokinin and caffeine were recovered by melatonin treatment (30 mg/kg). This treatment also ameliorated the detrimental effects of AC on Ca2+ influx through both L-type and capacitative Ca2+ channels, and it was effective in preserving the pharmacological phenotype of these channels. Despite its effects on Ca2+ homeostasis, melatonin did not improve contractility. After de-ligation, Ca2+ influx and contractility were still impaired, but both were recovered by melatonin. These effects of melatonin were associated to a reduction of MDA levels, an increase in GSH content and a decrease in COX-2 expression. These findings indicate that melatonin restores Ca2+ homeostasis during AC and resolves inflammation. In addition, this indoleamine helps in the subsequent recovery of functionality. PMID:18339120
Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J
The presence of Helicobacter DNA species has been investigated in the biliary epithelium of patients with biliary diseases. However, conflicting results have been observed that may have been due to the small number of subjects studied, difficulty in obtaining a healthy control group, absence of controlling for confounding factors, or differences among populations. Therefore, we investigated the presence of Helicobacter species by culture and nested PCR of 16S rRNA genes in gallbladder tissue and bile from 46 Brazilian subjects with and 18 without cholelithiasis. The control group was mainly composed of liver donors and of patients who had submitted to cholecystectomy as part of the surgical treatment for morbid obesity. No Helicobacter species were grown from the bile or gallbladder tissues. Helicobacter DNA was detected in the gallbladder tissue and bile from 31.3 and 42.9% of the patients, respectively. In a logistic regression model, cholelithiasis was positively and independently associated with the female gender (P = 0.02), increasing age (P = 0.002), and the presence of Helicobacter DNA in the gallbladder tissue (P = 0.009). The presence of Helicobacter DNA in the bile was not associated with cholelithiasis (P = 0.8). A significant association between the presence of Helicobacter DNA in the gallbladder epithelium and histological cholecystitis, even after adjusting for gender and age (P = 0.002), was also observed. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were >99% similar to that of Helicobacter pylori. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that Helicobacter is associated with the pathogenesis of human cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.
Silva, Cintia Presser; Pereira-Lima, Julio Carlos; Oliveira, Adriana Goncalves; Guerra, Juliana Becattini; Marques, Daniela Lemos; Sarmanho, Leticia; Cabral, Monica Maria Demas Alvares; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhaes
The authors report a case of gangrenous cholecystitis without lithiasis but with secondary infection of the gallbladder by anaerobic germs. Pre-operative diagnosis was possible from simple x-rays of the abdomen which demonstrated an obvious fluid level in the gallbladder, and by parietography. An immediate cholecystectomy was performed. Bacteriological examination of the bile confirmed the presence of Clostridium perfringens. The main bile duct appeared normal and the bile in the common bile duct was sterile. Convalescence was uneventful with antibiotic cover, in spite of the age and condition of the patient. Gangrenous cholecystitis occurs more frequently without gallbladder stones in humans. Clinical signs are not specific but simple x-rays of the abdomen are pathognomonic and enable pre-operative diagnosis to be made. Urgent cholecystectomy appears to be the ideal treatment. This affection has a high mortality and early operation is therefore justified. PMID:7380889
Vinard, J L; Finet, P; Ohanessian, J; Gelas, P; Latreille, R
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an unusual and destructive inflammatory process that is characterized by thickening of the gallbladder (GB) wall with a tendency to adhere to neighboring organs. XGC is often mistaken for GB carcinoma, and the frequency of the coexistence of these two lesions is approximately 10%. Therefore, in case of severe XGC, there is chance of either overlooking the carcinoma or other significant lesions. CA 19-9 is commonly measured in the serum of patients with hepatobiliary malignancies. Although CA 19-9 can be elevated in benign conditions such as cholestasis, pancreatitis, tuberculosis, thyroid disease etc., malignancy should be considered at first in setting of its significant and persistent elevation. We report a case of a 62-year-old man who showed continuously rising level of CA19-9 over 2000 U/mL after cholecystectomy for xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and finally was diagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma by short-term follow up. PMID:20571310
Hwang, Sang Youn; Kim, Joon Suk; Jeong, Ji Bong; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Ahn, Young Joon; Chang, Mee Soo
Painful L5/S1 pseudoarthrosis has been previously managed with posterior excision and/or lumbar fusion. To our knowledge, the anterior approach for L5/S1 pseudoarthrectomy in the treatment of Bertolotti's syndrome has not been described. We present two patients with severe symptomatic L5/S1 pseudoarthroses that were successfully excised via an anterior retroperitoneal approach with 2 year clinical and radiological follow-up. The literature regarding surgical treatments for Bertolotti's syndrome is reviewed. The technique for an anterior retroperitoneal approach is described. This approach has been safe and effective in providing long term symptomatic relief to our two patients. Further studies comparing the outcomes of anterior versus posterior pseudoarthrectomy will guide the management of this condition. PMID:23969004
Malham, Gregory M; Limb, Rebecca J; Claydon, Matthew H; Brazenor, Graeme A
BACKGROUND: Maternal cervicovaginal colonization with Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS) is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. About 15% of women are carriers of GBS. Usually, they are asymptomatic. CASES: We describe two patients with symptomatic vaginitis for which no apparent cause was found. Both patients were heavily colonized with GBS. After antibiotic treatment, both became asymptomatic and culture negative, but after recolonization with GBS, symptoms resumed. This phenomenon was repeatedly observed. After emergence of resistance to antibiotics, local application of chlorhexidine appeared to be the only useful treatment. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that GBS-vaginitis may be a possible disease entity. Although at present it is not clear why some patients become symptomatic, we speculate that the immunologic response is somehow selectively hampered in such patients.
Honig, E; Mouton, J W; van der Meijden, W I
Pneumorrhachis, which involves the entrapment of air or gas within the spinal canal, is a rare clinical entity, and the pathogenesis and etiologies of this uncommon entity are various and can present a diagnostic challenge. Usually, pneumorrhachis represents an asymptomatic epiphenomenon but it can produce symptoms associated with its underlying pathology. Here, we report a rare case of symptomatic epidural pneumorrhachis accompanying pneumothorax. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed and a review of the literature is included.
Seo, Hong Ju
Distant metastases in penile cancers are rare, especially metachronous symptomatic intracranial metastasis. A middle-aged patient presented to us with an intracranial mass 2 years after being treated for penile cancer. Given the rarity of metastasis and the diagnostic dilemma along with the need for relief of neurological symptoms, it was excised and found to be a metastatic deposit. We discuss the case and review the relevant literature.
Moiyadi, Aliasgar V.; Tongaonkar, Hemant B.; Bakshi, Ganesh K.
The purposes of this study were to report degenerative changes that coexist with a symptomatic torn discoid lateral meniscus\\u000a in adults and to analyze the factors associated with the accompanied degenerative changes. From 1997 to 2008, 329 knees in\\u000a the 305 patients were included. Associations between the status of the meniscus and the coexisting degenerative changes on\\u000a the images and
Jin Hwan Ahn; Sang-Hee Choi; Yong Seuk Lee; Jae Chul Yoo; Moon Jong Chang; Sooho Bae; Young Ryeol Bae
We describe a case of a triplex system in a 4-year-old girl that was associated with a ureterocele and vesicoureteric reflux and causing symptomatic culture-proven urinary tract infections. Undetected on preoperative ultrasound imaging and micturating cystourethrogram, this was discovered at the time of a planned left heminephrectomy. The redundant system having been removed the patient is now asymptomatic. PMID:24334474
Calvert, William; Mullassery, Dhanya; Kenny, Simon E
Stroke is the leading cause of disability and one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Outside the setting of acute management, secondary prevention and stroke rehabilitation, little has been written to address the ongoing symptomatic and palliative needs of these patients and their families. In this literature review, we look beyond secondary prevention with the aim of providing evidence-informed management guidelines for the myriad and often under-recognized symptomatic and palliative care needs of stroke survivors. Some of the most common and disabling post-stroke symptoms that are reviewed here include central post-stroke pain, hemiplegic shoulder pain, painful spasticity, fatigue, incontinence, post-stroke seizures, sexual dysfunction, sleep-disordered breathing, depression and emotionalism. We review the role of caregivers and explore ways to support them and, lastly, remind the reader to be perceptive to the patient's spiritual needs. The literature is most robust, including controlled trials, for central post-stroke pain and depression. Synthesis and discussion outside these areas are frequently limited to smaller studies, case reports and expert opinion. While some data exists to guide informed decision-making, there is an urgent need to document best practice and identify appropriate clinical standards for the full spectrum of symptoms experienced by stroke survivors. We present the current and established data to aid health care providers in symptomatic and palliative management of stroke survivors. PMID:22258916
Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Holloway, Robert G; Walker, Melanie
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the accuracy of elevated liver function values, age, gender, pancreatitis and cholecystitis as predictors of common bile duct stones (CBDS). Methods: All patients operated on for gallstone disease over a period of 3 years in a Swedish county of 302 564 citizens were registered prospectively. Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was used to detect CBDS. Results: A total of 1171 patients were registered; 95% of these patients underwent IOC. Common bile duct stones were found in 42% of patients with elevated liver function values, 20% of patients with a history of pancreatitis and 9% of patients with cholecystitis. The presence of CBDS was significantly predicted by elevated liver function values, but not by age, gender, history of acute pancreatitis or cholecystitis. A total of 93% of patients with normal liver function tests had a normal IOC. The best agreement between elevated liver function values and CBDS was seen in patients undergoing elective surgery without a history of acute pancreatitis or cholecystitis. Conclusions: Although alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels represented the most reliable predictors of CBDS, false positive and false negative values were common, especially in patients with a history of cholecystitis or pancreatitis, which indicates that other mechanisms were responsible for elevated liver function values in these patients.
Videhult, Per; Sandblom, Gabriel; Rudberg, Claes; Rasmussen, Ib Christian
The combined endoscopic ultrasound and stimulated biliary drainage method involves the following steps: inserting an endoscopic ultrasound device within the antrum of a stomach; positioning the endoscopic ultrasound device within the stomach such that the endoscopic ultrasound device is allowed to have a substantially unobstructed view of the gallbladder; activating the endoscopic ultrasound device such that it is capable of detecting whether the gallbladder exhibits any of the following: gallbladder sludge or small gallstones, focal wall thickening, or adhesions about the gallbladder and/or cystic duct; delivering a cholecystokinin analogue intravenously to the human to enable the gallbladder to contract and to produce an ejection fraction of bile from the gallbladder during each contraction thereof; determining the degree of contraction of the gallbladder by means of measuring each the ejection fraction of the gallbladder; and removing the ejection fractions from the patient and analyzing the ejection fractions to detect the presence or absence of calcium bilirubinate and/or cholesterol granules or crystals therein; whereby cholecystitis or microlithiasis of a gallbladder can be diagnosed with an accuracy or sensitivity of between about 90% to 98%.
Acute calculous cholecystitis is a common disease in cirrhotic patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can resolve this problem but is performed based on the premise that the local inflammation must been controlled. An Initial ultrasound guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy may reduce the local inflammation and provide advantages in subsequent surgery. In this paper, we detailed our experience of treating acute severe calculous cholecystitis in patients with advanced cirrhosis by delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy plus initiated ultrasound guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and provided the analysis of the treatment effect. We hope this paper can provided a kind of standard procedure for this special disease; however, further prospective comparative randomized trials are needed to assess this treatment in cirrhotic patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:24772166
Yao, Zhicheng; Hu, Kunpeng; Huang, Pingzhu; Huang, He; Chen, Xingui; Yang, Peisheng; Liu, Bo
The prevalence of gallstones disease in Western countries is 10 - 15%. Gallstones can be one of two types - cholesterol or pigment - with cholesterol gallstones representing nearly the 80% of the total. Cholesterol and pigment gallstones have different predisposing factors: cholesterol gallstones are related to supersaturated bile in cholesterol, whereas black pigment gallstones are related to hyperbilirubinbilia factors (hemolysis, etc.); these are necessary, but not sufficient, factors to produce gallstones in vivo. Gall bladder mucosa factors (gall bladder secretion of mucin, local bile stasis and production of endogenous biliary ?-glucuronidase) may coexist with the aforementioned factors and facilitate gallstone nucleation and growth. The gold-standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Several studies have reported a significant reduction in the onset of symptomatic gallstones disease in patients undergoing chronic therapy with statins, which can reduce bile cholesterol saturation. Aspirin, which has been shown to reduce the local production of gall bladder mucins (mucosal or parietal factors of gallstone formation) in animal experimental models, does not appear to reduce the risk of symptomatic gallstones disease when tested alone. The new horizon of oral therapy for the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease needs to evaluate the long-term effect of statins and chronic aspirin administration in patients with dyslipidemia and/or atherosclerosis. PMID:22607008
Cariati, Andrea; Piromalli, Elisa
Purpose Covered self-expanding metal stents (CSEMS) have been used for palliation of malignant distal biliary strictures. Occlusion\\u000a of the cystic duct by CSEMS may be complicated by cholecystitis. This potentially could be prevented by placement of a transpapillary\\u000a gallbladder stent (GBS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods Between 11\\/2006 and 10\\/2007, a total of 73 patients (50 male) aged 65 ± 14 years underwent CSEMS placement for palliation
Sonia Gosain; Hugo Bonatti; LaVone Smith; Michele E. Rehan; Andrew Brock; Anshu Mahajan; Melissa Phillips; Henry C. Ho; Kristi Ellen; Vanessa M. Shami; Michel Kahaleh
Background The aim if this study was to compare percutaneous drainage (PD) of the gallbladder to emergency cholecystectomy (EC) in a\\u000a well-defined patient group with sepsis related to acute calculous\\/acalculous cholecystitis (ACC\\/AAC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Between 2001 and 2007, all consecutive patients of our ICU treated by either PD or EC were retrospectively analyzed. Cases\\u000a were collected from a prospective database. Percutaneous drainage was
E. Melloul; A. Denys; N. Demartines; J.-M. Calmes; M. Schäfer
To the Editor, A previously healthy 8-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with a seven-day history of fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting. On physical examination, exudative tonsillopharyngitis and cervical adenopathy were noticed. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness in the right upper quadrant. The liver and spleen were both enlarged. Laboratory investigations revealed a white blood cell count of 10.240/mm 3 (74% lymphocytes); alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 496 IU/L (N: 0-39 IU/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 569 IU/L (N: 0-36 IU/L), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 434 IU/L (N: 118-360 IU/L), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) 103 IU/L (N: 0-23 IU/L), total serum bilirubin 4,6 mg/dL with a direct fraction of 3,2 mg/dL. Throat, blood and urine cultures showed no growth. Ultrasonographic (US) examination of the abdomen demonstrated a markedly thickened, edematous gallbladder wall with pericholecystic fluid and no evidence of gallstones or dilatation of the biliary tract. IgG antibodies for Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen (VCA) were positive at a level of 62.21 (reference: <9), IgG antibodies for Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) were positive at a level of 87 (reference: <5), EBV DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantified in plasma with a viral load of 74.000 copies/mL confirming the diagnosis of reactive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Feeding was stopped, intravenous rehydration therapy was started. The patient's fever regressed on the fifth hospital day and US findings resolved on the seventh hospital day. Biochemical results and hepatosplenomegaly resolved within two months. The present case had both cholestatic hepatitis and acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) during the course of infectious mononucleosis due to EBV reactivation. AAC is an inflammatory process of the gallbladder in the absence of gallstones that rarely occurs in childhood during the course of infectious disease (1, 2). US criteria for AAC consisted of distention of the gallbladder, thickened gallbladder wall over 3.5 mm, gallbladder wall edema,pericholecystic fluid, nonshadowing echogenic materials or sludge, localized tenderness (sonographic Murphy's sign), and striated gallbladder wall (3). Only 13 cases of AAC associated with EBV infection have been reported all from 2007 and all had primary infection (4). Twelve of them were female similar to our case. Although direct invasion of EBV and/or irritation of the gallbladder from the bile stasis are considered to be possible causes of AAC during the course of acute EBV infection, the exact mechanisms have not been elucidated yet (5). Our patient had both EBV viremia and cholestatic hepatitis, so we thought that both of these pathogenetic mechanisms might be valid. Treatment of EBV is usually supportive and most cases of cholecystitis resolve spontaneously. In conclusion, AAC may complicate the course of EBV infection and reactivation of EBV may be associated with AAC. PMID:24623304
Teke, Türkan Ayd?n; Tan?r, Gönül; Ozel, Ay?enur; Timur, Ozge Metin; Ek?io?lu, Ay?e Seçil
Our aim is to describe a case of acromegaly that was associated with symptomatic Rathke's cyst. We describe a young male student without any significant family history who presented with clinical and biochemical features consistent with growth hormone excess, which was confirmed with dynamic testing. He also described a persistent headache predating symptoms of growth hormone excess by 4 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary showed a large sellar mass which was thought to be a somatotroph adenoma. Trans-sphenoidal surgery was performed; however, a colloid lesion was identified by the neurosurgeon that proved to be a Rathke's cyst. The association of acromegaly with Rathke's cyst is very rare, with less than 10 cases found to be reported on review of literature. This is the first report from India.
Gupta, Vishal; Grossman, Ashley; Kapadia, Aneesa; Thorat, Kiran
Our aim is to describe a case of acromegaly that was associated with symptomatic Rathke's cyst. We describe a young male student without any significant family history who presented with clinical and biochemical features consistent with growth hormone excess, which was confirmed with dynamic testing. He also described a persistent headache predating symptoms of growth hormone excess by 4 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary showed a large sellar mass which was thought to be a somatotroph adenoma. Trans-sphenoidal surgery was performed; however, a colloid lesion was identified by the neurosurgeon that proved to be a Rathke's cyst. The association of acromegaly with Rathke's cyst is very rare, with less than 10 cases found to be reported on review of literature. This is the first report from India. PMID:21731878
Gupta, Vishal; Grossman, Ashley; Kapadia, Aneesa; Thorat, Kiran
Carotid atherosclerotic plaques represent both stable and unstable atheromatous lesions. Atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture owing to their intrinsic composition such as a large lipid core, thin fibrous cap and intraplaque hemorrhage are associated with subsequent thromboembolic ischemic events. At least 15–20% of all ischemic strokes are attributable to carotid artery atherosclerosis. Characterization of plaques may enhance the understanding of natural history and ultimately the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. MRI of carotid plaque and embolic signals during transcranial Doppler have identified features beyond luminal stenosis that are predictive of future transient ischemic attacks and stroke. The value of specific therapies to prevent stroke in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe carotid artery stenosis are the subject of current research and analysis of recently published clinical trials that are discussed in this article.
Mughal, Majid M; Khan, Mohsin K; DeMarco, J Kevin; Majid, Arshad; Shamoun, Fadi; Abela, George S
A 29-year-old patient was admitted with acute abdomen in the 17th week of pregnancy. History revealed two episodes of colic in the right hypochondriac area during the previous six months, but no other abdominal complaints. Clinically the picture was that of acute cholecystitis. Laboratory findings included an elevated white cell count, a slight elevation of serum transaminases and a marked increase of serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Echographically there were dilated intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts containing two hyperechogenic elements without casting an acoustic shadow. A hydrops of the gallbladder with sludge and a thickening of the wall could also been seen. Because of pregnancy an ERCP could not be performed due to the need for X-ray, so we had to resort to open surgery. Under tocolytic and antibiotic shielding we carried out open cholecystectomy and choledochoscopic exploration of the common bile duct. Using a Fogarty balloon catheter we extracted two live, adult liver flukes and placed a T-tube in the duct. Because of positive fecal probes for fasciola eggs the T-tube had to be left in place until childbirth. Afterwards we performed a pre-cut-papillotomy by ERCP and took the T-tube out, having confirmed a clear duct on a T-tube-cholangiogram. With negative fecal probes and the eosinophilia on the white cell count returning to normal, we decided against the planned chemotherapy and assumed self-healing of the disease. The patient has been well since.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7481618
Riedtmann, H J; Obeid, T; Aeberhard, P; Sakmann, P
Neurological syndromes are not an uncommon presentation with insulinomas. Recurrent hypoglycemia associated with it can present with a variety of neurological symptoms that may include disturbances of consciousness, seizures, stroke-like presentation, movement disorder, dementia and chronic neuropathy. The myriad of presentations, resemblance with other neurological conditions and episodic nature often lead to misdiagnosis and a delay in definitive treatment. Rare cases of insulinoma presenting as combination of abnormal movements have been described. We report a patient who presented with both hypoglycemia induced symptomatic seizures and paroxysmal non-kinesiogenic dystonic choreoathetosis. Insulinoma is a potentially treatable disorder and early definitive intervention can prevent long term neurological disability in patients.
Gupta, Meena; Batra, Amit; Hirve, Makarand; Chowdhury, Debashish; Khwaja, Geeta A.; Mishra, P. K.
Objectives. The study was designed to investigate the analgesic effects and mechanisms of acetaminophen (paracetamol) in symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods. Twenty patients with symptomatic OA were randomly allocated to two groups treated with either acetaminophen or rofecoxib for 3 months. Visits and measurements were scheduled upon entry (T0), at month 1 (T1) and at month 3 (T3).
H. Shen; H. Sprott; A. Aeschlimann; R. E. Gay; B. A. Michel; S. Gay
Trefoil factor family protein 1 (TFF1, pS2) interacts with mucins to protect gastrointestinal epithelium against injury and contributes to mucosal repair by promoting epithelial cell migration and restitution. Moreover, TFF1 has antiproliferative and anti-apoptotic effects and promotes cell scattering and invasion. We investigated TFF1 expression in healthy and inflamed non-neoplastic gallbladder mucosa as well as in gallbladder carcinomas (n=57) and
Peter Kornprat; Peter Rehak; Martina Lemmerer; Margit Gogg-Kamerer; Cord Langner
The principles of optical modeling of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The main types of polycrystalline structures are detailed. It has been proposed and founded the scenarios of formation of bile microscopic images polarization structure in coherent radiation. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of intensity of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.
Marchuk, Yu F.; Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, I. O.; Andriychuk, D. R.
The principles of optical model of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The three optical levels - isotropic, liquid-crystal and solid-crystal have been proposed. It has been introduced and proposed the scenarios of phase distribution formation in the boundary field of laser radiation, transformed by bile layers. The experimental scheme of direct measurement of coordinate phase distributions has been presented. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation and fractal parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.
Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Marchuk, Yu. F.; Andriychuk, D. R.
Gordonia terrae has been reported to be a rare cause of bacteremia. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with acute cholecystitis. Commercial biochemical testing was not able to identify the strain at the genus level, classifying it instead as Rhodococcus sp. Definitive identification was obtained by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.
Gil-Sande, E.; Brun-Otero, M.; Campo-Cerecedo, F.; Esteban, E.; Aguilar, L.; Garcia-de-Lomas, J.
Objectives To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Participants Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (?37 weeks gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to <18 years at presentation). Main outcome measures Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. Results Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 (60%) perinatal and 19 (36%) childhood subjects, P=.07. Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9/32 (28%) with continuous EEG monitoring. One-and two-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival were 82% (95% CI 68%–90%) and 67% (95% CI 46%–82%), respectively. One- and two-year epilepsy-free survival were 96% (95% CI 83%–99%) and 87% (95% CI 65%–95%), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for acute seizures after presentation, remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P=.014, P=.025 and P=.0365, respectively log-rank test). Conclusions Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous EEG may detect electrographic seizures in some subjects. Single remote symptomatic seizures occur in many, and development of epilepsy is estimated to occur in 13% at two-years. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention is a risk factor for acute seizures after presentation, remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy.
Beslow, Lauren A; Abend, Nicholas S; Gindville, Melissa C; Bastian, Rachel A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Hillis, Argye E.; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C
Background Escherichia coli is a common cause of asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is frequently treated with antibiotics without a clear indication. Our goal was to determine patient and pathogen factors suggestive of ASB. Methods We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of adult inpatients with E. coli bacteriuria seen at a tertiary care hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Urine cultures were taken at the discretion of treating physicians. Bacterial isolates were tested for 14 putative virulence genes using high-throughput dot-blot hybridization. Results The median age of the 287 study patients was 65 (19–101) years; 78% were female. Seventy percent had community-acquired bacteriuria. One-hundred ten (38.3%) patients had ASB and 177 (61.7%) had symptomatic urinary tract infection (sUTI). Asymptomatic patients were more likely than symptomatic patients to have congestive heart failure (p?=?0.03), a history of myocardial infarction (p?=?0.01), chronic pulmonary disease (p?=?0.045), peripheral vascular disease (p?=?0.04), and dementia (p?=?0.03). Patients with sUTI were more likely to be neutropenic at the time of bacteriuria (p?=?0.046). Chronic pulmonary disease [OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.04, 4.1)] and dementia [OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.02, 5.8)] were independent predictors for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Absence of pyuria was not predictive of ASB. None of the individual virulence genes tested were associated with ASB nor was the total number of genes. Conclusions Asymptomatic E. coli bacteriuria in hospitalized patients was frequent and more common in patients with dementia and chronic pulmonary disease. Bacterial virulence factors could not discriminate symptomatic from asymptomatic bacteriurias. Asymptomatic E. coli bacteriuria cannot be predicted by virulence screening.
The term "internal impingement" describes the normal physiological contact that occurs between the posterosuperior glenoid and the greater tuberosity in positions of hyperabduction and external rotation. This physiological contact can become symptomatic when repeated overhead motion results in partial articular-sided posterosuperior rotator cuff tears and lesions of the posterosuperior glenoid labrum. The precise pathophysiology involved with the development of symptomatic internal impingement has been debated extensively over the past few decades. However, current literature suggests that symptomatic internal impingement may result from a combination of multiple factors involving repetitive overhead activity, physiological remodeling of the throwing shoulder, posterior capsule contracture, and scapular dyskinesis, among other factors. These can all lead to scapulohumeral hyperangulation and associated pathologic findings. The purpose of this article is to review the relevant anatomy, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of symptomatic internal impingement through a critical review of current evidence. PMID:24787727
Spiegl, Ulrich J; Warth, Ryan J; Millett, Peter J
Objective: To study tolerance to lactose in milk chocolate among symptomatic lactose maldigesters.Design: Randomized cross-over study.Subjects: Twenty-seven adult lactose maldigesters with symptomatic lactose intolerance.Methods: A 100 g chocolate sample prepared with whole milk (12 g lactose), whole-milk powder (12 g lactose), low-lactose milk powder (2 g lactose) or lactose-free milk powder was eaten after an overnight fast. Gastrointestinal symptoms (flatulence,
R M K Järvinen; M Loukaskorpi; M I J Uusitupa
. Racial group studies have identified differences in the occurrence of congenital heart disease (CHD) among ethnic populations.\\u000a The aim of this study was to characterize the proportionate frequency and clinical profile of children with symptomatic cardiac\\u000a abnormalities in Hong Kong. The hospital records of 666, mainly Southern Chinese children with symptomatic CHD, who were 4\\u000a years of age or
E. G. J. Jacobs; M. P. Leung; J. Karlberg
We report a case of severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a patient with symptomatic daytime cardiac bradyarrhythmia. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy prevented atrioventricular blocks that emerged after cardiac pacing for sick sinus syndrome. OSA could be associated with daytime bradyarrhythmia. Citation: Ji KH; Kim DH; Yun CH. Severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with symptomatic daytime bradyarrhythmia. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):246–247.
Ji, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Dae Hyeok; Yun, Chang-Ho
Chronic diarrhea can be caused by multiple disease entities. Basic diagnostic tests are required in order to administer specific therapies whenever possible. If no specific treatment can be used, a symptomatic management should be initiated in order to prevent massive electrolyte- and water losses. Substances that can be used are loperamide, cholestyramine, bulking agents, probiotics, anticholinergic agents and in severe cases opioids. If used properly these agents can be prescribed longterm with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24163167
Vohmann, B; Hoffmann, J C
An older lady presented 1 week after being discharged from hospital with acute cholecystitis. She suffered a sudden onset lower abdominal pain and was in hypovolaemic shock upon arrival. It was noted that she had been on antiplatelet therapy after suffering a recent myocardial infarction, an immunosuppressor and steroids for rheumatoid arthritis. Her admission bloods revealed a platelet count of 83 with normal clotting factors. After resuscitation, a CT scan confirmed fluid in the abdomen possibly arising from the right subhepatic space. During laparotomy, bleeding was noted from a perforated and ischaemic-looking gallbladder, with an intact cystic artery and duct and no biliary calculi evident. The gallbladder was removed and the patient was transferred to intensive therapy unit. She recovered well within the subsequent 8 days and was discharged. Her histology described ‘haemorrhage within the gallbladder wall along with oedema, fibrosis and patchy inflammation and no signs of malignancy or gangrene’.
Vijendren, Ananth; Cattle, Kirsty; Obichere, Marion
An older lady presented 1 week after being discharged from hospital with acute cholecystitis. She suffered a sudden onset lower abdominal pain and was in hypovolaemic shock upon arrival. It was noted that she had been on antiplatelet therapy after suffering a recent myocardial infarction, an immunosuppressor and steroids for rheumatoid arthritis. Her admission bloods revealed a platelet count of 83 with normal clotting factors. After resuscitation, a CT scan confirmed fluid in the abdomen possibly arising from the right subhepatic space. During laparotomy, bleeding was noted from a perforated and ischaemic-looking gallbladder, with an intact cystic artery and duct and no biliary calculi evident. The gallbladder was removed and the patient was transferred to intensive therapy unit. She recovered well within the subsequent 8 days and was discharged. Her histology described 'haemorrhage within the gallbladder wall along with oedema, fibrosis and patchy inflammation and no signs of malignancy or gangrene'. PMID:22778467
Vijendren, Ananth; Cattle, Kirsty; Obichere, Marion
? Summary Chronic urticaria is highly prevalent in the general population, and while there are multiple treatments for the disorder, the results obtained are not completely satisfactory. The second-generation H1 antihistamines remain the symptomatic treatment option of choice. Depending on the different pharmacokinetics and H1 receptor affi nity of each drug substance, different concentrations in skin can be expected, together
I Jáuregui; M Ferrer; J Montoro; I Dávila; J Bartra; A del Cuvillo; J Mullol; J Sastre; A Valero
Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients might present a number of concurrent clinical diagnoses that may be clustered according to their similarity. Profiling patients’ clinical presentations can be useful for better understanding the behavior of TMD and for providing appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to simultaneously classify symptomatic patients diagnosed with a variety of subtypes of TMD into homogenous groups based on their clinical presentation and occurrence of comorbidities. Methods Clinical records of 357 consecutive TMD patients seeking treatment in a private specialized clinic were included in the study sample. Patients presenting multiple subtypes of TMD diagnosed simultaneously were categorized according to the AAOP criteria. Descriptive statistics and two-step cluster analysis were used to characterize the clinical presentation of these patients based on the primary and secondary clinical diagnoses. Results The most common diagnoses were localized masticatory muscle pain (n?=?125) and disc displacement without reduction (n?=?104). Comorbidity was identified in 288 patients. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 100% of cases, generating an initial 6-cluster solution and a final 4-cluster solution. The interpretation of within-group ranking of the importance of variables in the clustering solutions resulted in the following characterization of clusters: chronic facial pain (n?=?36), acute muscle pain (n?=?125), acute articular pain (n?=?75) and chronic articular impairment (n?=?121). Conclusion Subgroups of acute and chronic TMD patients seeking treatment can be identified using clustering methods to provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of TMD when multiple diagnosis are present. Classifying patients into identifiable symptomatic profiles would help clinicians to estimate how common a disorder is within a population of TMD patients and understand the probability of certain pattern of clinical complaints.
An average follow-up of 40 years was obtained for 12 patients with spondylolisthesis treated at Hines Veterans Administration Hospital between 1944 and 1951. In each case, the slip had been Grade 1 and at the L5-S1 level. Five had been treated conservatively and seven surgically with a Hibbs fusion from L4 to S1. Of the conservatively managed patients, all functioned well during their working years, although one did have chronic, nondisabling, low-back pain. This same patient demonstrated radiographic evidence of progression to a Grade 2 spondylolisthesis. Among those undergoing surgery, the poor results were confined to those patients whose fusion attempts failed. Management for low-grade spondylolisthesis should be conservative where possible. When the low-back pain is disabling and surgery becomes necessary, failure to obtain a fusion portends a poor clinical result. PMID:2711249
Apel, D M; Lorenz, M A; Zindrick, M R
Effective treatment of chronic urticaria depends on identification of the etiologic factor, if possible, and its subsequent elimination, although symptoms may be suppressed by appropriate medication. The investigation of the patient who presents with chronic urticaria is discussed, with emphasis on the need for a detailed history, meticulous physical examination (including a search for occult infection) and full routine hematologic, biochemical and radiologic monitoring. The author discusses the use of intradermal skin tests, scratch tests for inhalants and the need for skin biopsy and gastro-intestinal tract screening. Dietary treatments reviewed include the elimination diet and the elemental diet, which is used in combination with gradual re-introduction of foods. Symptomatic treatments, including antihistamines, the newer H1-histamine receptor antagonists, used with tricyclic antidepressants and with combination therapy, and systemic corticosteroid therapy are also discussed.
We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241
Background: Children with adenoid hypertrophy have been shown to harbor pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx despite antibiotics. Removal of the adenoid is associated with a reduction in the bacterial count. Aims: The study was done to determine the bacteriology of the adenoid tissue in chronic adenotonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy, and determine the antibiotic sensitivity of potential pathogens. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted on 100 patients aged between three and twelve years who underwent adenotonsillectomy/adenoidectomy. After adenoidectomy, the specimen along with the swab taken from the surface of the adenoid was sent for microbiological examination. After 48 and 96 hours, the microbial growth was identified and the antibiotic-sensitivity pattern of the isolate was studied. Results: Aerobic organisms grew in 93% of the specimens and anaerobic organisms in 68%, whereas 7% had no growth. The surface was predominated by commensals and the pathogens were mainly found in the core. The predominant pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species. The organisms were resistant to penicillin but showed sensitivity to co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin. Co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin should be considered as the first line of medical treatment for adenotonsillar diseases. Conclusions: Infection is the main cause of adenoid hypertrophy. Amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate and ciprofloxacin should be considered as the drugs of choice for all adenotonsillar diseases. Early and prompt treatment of adenoid hypertrophy with appropriate antibiotics will avoid unnecessary exposure to repeated antimicrobial therapy, thereby maintaining the beneficial effects of the normal adenoid flora.
Rajeshwary, Aroor; Rai, Sheethal; Somayaji, Gangadhara; Pai, Vidya
The most common cases of acute abdomen during pregnancy are acute appendicitis followed by acute cholecystitis. The case presented is a 33-year-old patient in 16 weeks' in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer pregnancy who developed acute cholecystitis. Previously there were two unsuccessful cycles, one complicated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Due to clinical deterioration during intravenous antibiotic therapy laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and acute cholecystitis found. The postoperative course was uneventful. During the first 24 h tocolysis with intravenous fenoterol in addition to peroral atenolol 2 ? 50 mg was administered. Postoperative course was uneventful with further normal pregnancy. Elective cesarean section was made in term pregnancy (39 weeks) with singleton with Apgar 10/10. Current guidelines do not recommend prophylactic tocolysis in pregnant population with acute abdomen but there is no mention of the IVF-ET subpopulation of patients. Also, there are no guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in such patients with increased risk of thromboembolic accidents. To our knowledge this is the first case report of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy during IVF-ET gestation. PMID:23298928
Augustin, G; Vrcic, H; Zupancic, B
Background The caecal intubation rate (CIR) is an important quality standard for endoscopists, as well as for national bowel cancer screening programmes; however, individuals undergoing colonoscopy for bowel screening and symptomatic patients represent different groups, and their characteristics may affect colonoscopy performance. Objective To compare colonoscopists’ performance, as assessed by the CIR, in symptomatic patients compared to individuals undergoing colonoscopy for bowel cancer screening. Methods Retrospective audit of CIRs for all patients undergoing colonoscopy at our institution during the year 2008. We retrieved the data from an endoscopy reporting software database and from the local bowel cancer screening programme database. Demographic data was extracted, as well as details of known factors that may affect completion of colonoscopy, such as poor bowel preparation, presence of diverticular disease, polyps, tumour and strictures. The unadjusted CIRs for colonoscopists participating in the screening programme were compared between the bowel screening and the symptomatic patient groups. Results Five screening colonoscopists performed 1056 colonoscopies, of which 488 were bowel screening procedures. The overall CIR was significantly lower in the symptomatic, compared to the screening, individuals (88.5% versus 93%, P?0.02). No significant differences were observed between the two groups for risk factors that could impair the CIR. The CIR was <90% for two of the five colonoscopists in symptomatic patients, and just under 90% for one colonoscopist in screening individuals. Multivariate analysis revealed that non-screening colonoscopy was an independent predictor for an incomplete procedure (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2–2.8). Conclusions The CIR, a key quality performance indicator for colonoscopy, is lower in symptomatic patients compared to individuals undergoing colorectal cancer screening. These results suggested that CIR should be monitored independently in screening and non-screening colonoscopies.
Two cases are presented where ablation of severely symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias not responding to medical therapy was accomplished with radiofrequency current application. After a routine programmed stimulation protocol, a quadripolar ablation catheter with a 4-mm tip was advanced percutaneously into the left ventricle in one case and into the right ventricle in the second case; and after precise pace mapping, the arrhythmogenic focus was successfully ablated using radiofrequency current. The postablation ambulatory recording revealed virtual eradication of ventricular ectopy in both cases. In conclusion, in severely symptomatic cases of "benign" ventricular arrhythmias, radiofrequency ablation offers an effective therapeutic alternative. PMID:1382275
Gursoy, S; Brugada, J; Souza, O; Steurer, G; Andries, E; Brugada, P
Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the operative long-term results of a large cohort of children treated arthroscopically\\u000a for a symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We retrospectively reviewed the arthroscopic procedures performed on 104 knees (97 patients) between 1990 and 2006 to treat\\u000a symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus in children. The median age at the time of surgery was 8 years
Stefano Stilli; Leonardo Marchesini Reggiani; Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli; Michela Cappella; Onofrio Donzelli
Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract present with similar signs and symptoms. The functional disorders of the biliary tract include functional gallbladder disorder, dyskinesia, and the sphincter of Oddi disorders. Although the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis are relatively straightforward, the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders can be much more challenging. Many aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders are in need of further study. This article discusses uncomplicated gallstone disease and the functional disorders of the biliary tract to emphasize and update the essential components of diagnosis and management. PMID:24679419
Cafasso, Danielle E; Smith, Richard R
We report the case of a woman whose hypnic headache syndrome ceased following pituitary tumor removal. Symptomatic hypnic headache cases are rare, but are starting to appear in the literature. Until more is known, brain neuroimaging, ideally with magnetic resonance imaging, should be considered when the initial diagnosis of hypnic headache is made. PMID:19178579
Garza, Ivan; Oas, Kimberly Hall
Although obesity is a well-recognized risk fac- tor for gallstones, the excess risks associated with higher levels of obesity and recent weight change are poorly quantified. We evaluated these issues in the Nurses' Health Study. Among 90 302 women aged 34-59 y at baseline followed from 1980 to 1988, 2122 cases of newly diagnosed symptomatic gallstones occurred during 607 104
Meir J Stampftr; K Malcolm Maclure; Graham A Colditz; JoAnn E Manson; Walter C Willett
The unchanging rate of symptomatic hypotension that attends maintenance hemodialysis and its link to sodium/volume overload are explored. Correlations between interdialytic weight gain, ultrafiltration rate, hypertension, and mortality are found to be strong. Suggestions/opinions for correcting this unfortunate clinical reality are offered. PMID:22452289
Henderson, Lee W
When left to right shunting through the ductus arteriosus is of a degree contributing to the cardiopulmonary problems in a premature infant, the condition is clinically termed symptomatic PDA. It is also generally agreed that symptomatic PDA if left untreated is a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Studies have also concluded that all infants with symptomatic PDA who are prematurely born and/or ventilator dependent should be considered candidates for ductal closure by either pharmacological or surgical mean. Over a period of approximately 2 1/2 years, 22 premature infants with symptomatic PDA have been treated here with powder form indomethacin. The one course success rate was 68%. Thereafter, in another 2 1/2 years, 33 cases were selected for whom a liquid form was used instead. The success rate was 70%. Indomethacin is better given by an intravenous route. However, if the intravenous form is not available, using the liquid form by mouth or via the naso-gastric tube is a good substitute. PMID:2063689
Ho, M Y; Huang, F Y; Kao, H A
Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of uterine vessels was performed in three women with symptomatic myomas who required conventional surgical treatment. Uterine size and dominant myoma size were assessed by ultrasonography before and after surgery. Both uterine arteries, as well as anastomosis zone of uterine arteries with ovarian arteries, were occluded in all three women. Surgery was uneventful, and patients were hospitalized
Summary. Background. Arachnoid cysts may present with various symptoms and in different locations. Optimal treatment is still controversial, although cyst fenestration or shunt insertion are recognized as standard procedures. In this retrospective analysis the authors sought to determine which factors influence the outcome after surgery of symptomatic arachnoid cysts. Methods. 37 patients (24 male, 13 female, mean age 40.2 years)
J. A. Kandenwein; H.-P. Richter; W. Börm
This paper addresses the problem of the differential presentation of illness by women and men in two Spiritualist temples and a physician's office situated in rural Mexico. Women's morbidity raises the broader anthropological questions of the interplay between symptomatic expression and women's unequal status in the social structure, their cognitive evaluation of specific life experiences, cultural etiological explanations and Western
The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of the microbiota of primary endodontic infections associated with symptomatic teeth. Samples were collected by means of a #15 H-type file and 2 sterile paper points from 60 symptomatic (n = 30) or asymptomatic (n = 30) single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulp. The presence of 40 bacterial species was determined by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. The species found in higher counts (x10(5)) in symptomatic cases were Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. vincentii, Veillonella parvula, Treponema socranskii, Enterococcus faecalis, and Campylobacter gracilis and in asymptomatic cases were F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii, Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. nucleatum, E. faecalis, Eubacterium saburreum, and Neisseria mucosa. Total bacterial counts and counts of Tannerella forsythia were significant higher in symptomatic cases (p < 0.05), whereas levels of Propionibacterium acnes were reduced in this group of teeth. The data of the present investigation suggested an association between higher total bacterial counts and levels of T. forsythia and the presence of pain. PMID:18436031
Sassone, Luciana M; Fidel, Rivail A; Faveri, Marcelo; Guerra, Rafael; Figueiredo, Luciene; Fidel, Sandra R; Feres, Magda
Chronic lumbar arachnoiditis has numerous causes, including the introduction of contrast media into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The oily contrast medium Myodil (iophendylate) is often cited but the true incidence of symptomatic lumbar arachnoiditis due solely to the presence of Myodil is unknown. A retrospective review of 98 patients in whom Myodil was introduced by ventriculography or cisternography, i.e. remote from the lumbar spine, revealed no cases of chronic lumbar arachnoiditis. All patients were monitored closely for periods ranging from 1 to 28 years. We conclude that, in these circumstances, it is rare for Myodil to produce symptomatic arachnoiditis. PMID:1393409
Hughes, D G; Isherwood, I
Background and Objectives: Many studies have attempted cost analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to open cholecystectomy. However, these analyses have included costs, charges, expenses, etc., and at times they have been used interchangeably. This paper demonstrates how DRG diagrams containing charges and length-of-stay, preoperative prediction of conversion rates, decision-tree construction and sensitivity analysis can be used to select the most cost-efficient operation for a given patient with cholecystitis. Methods: A Delta DRG analysis for complicated cholecystectomy (DRG 195) showed the hospital to be an extreme outlier in both charges and length of stay. Record review indicated that 55% of the cases were converted laparoscopic cholecystectomies and the remainder were aged or younger patients with advanced disease. Chart and literature review determined the causes and the probability of conversion. Data were then placed into decision-tree and sensitivity analyses. The most cost-effective operation for a given probability of conversion was demonstrated. Results: Three preoperative findings and combinations of each predicted conversion rates and analysis showed that the charge of laparoscopic cholecystectomy must be held below the range of $5,36l - $13,084 to make routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy cost-effective. Conclusions: This method demonstrated that using Delta/DRG, decision-tree and sensitivity analysis offers physicians, hospitals and other health-care providers a method of evaluating the treatment of DRG categories to determine the most cost-effective management.
Caruso, Daniel Martin; Kassir, Andrew; Bay, Ralph Curtis; Malone, James M.
Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients.
Groeneweg, George; Huygen, Frank JPM; Coderre, Terence J; Zijlstra, Freek J
The intraspongious herniation of intervertebral disk material into the endplate of a vertebral body was first described by Schmorl in 1927. Any process which weakens the cartilaginous endplate or the subchondral cancellous bone may predispose to the development of Schmorl's nodes. These include Scheuermann's disease, infection, metabolic disorders, neoplastic disorders, and degenerative disease. In the young individual, however, trauma may precipitate an acute focal and symptomatic endplate herniation by the well-hydrated and delineated nucleus pulposus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging method for the detection of intervertebral disk disease and, thus, has facilitated the diagnosis of traumatic Schmorl's nodes. MRI was very helpful in diagnosing an acute, traumatic, symptomatic Schmorl's node when plain film radiographs and nuclear medicine bone scan were unremarkable. PMID:1754491
Walters, G; Coumas, J M; Akins, C M; Ragland, R L
Presentation of indication, technique and results of transarterial uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of symptomatic myomas. Technical requirements are presented like DSA, catheters, superselective catheterisation and the different embolization materials as polyvinylalcohol (PVA) or microspheres, as well as the follow-up after UAE. The technical success rate of UAE is documented to range between 98 to 100 % and myomatous symptomatology disappears in 85 to 94 % of the cases. A reduction in the size of the myomata after UAE is observed between 48 to 70 %. A resolution of the hemorrhage disappears in 80 to 96 % of the cases immediately. Particulate embolization of the uterine artery is a new minimally invasive therapy in the management of symptomatic leiomyomas with a high efficiency and low rate of major complications. Further studies may prove the longterm results after UAE, the influence on fertility and possible late complications. PMID:12886470
Vogl, T J; Jacobi, V; Gätje, R; Siebzehnrübl, E; Zangos, S
Although there is a substantial body of evidence implicating Myodil or Pantopaque as a cause of lumbar arachnoiditis, assessment of the clinically based evidence is complicated by the additional potentially causative factors present in a high proportion of cases. These include pre-existing spinal pathology, traumatic lumbar puncture and surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to attempt to ascertain whether Myodil introduced via ventricular catheter was associated with subsequent development of symptomatic lumbar arachnoiditis. In 222 patients in whom clinical records were reviewed there was no excess of back pain following ventriculography compared to the general population. Myodil ventriculography does not appear to be a major cause of symptomatic lumbar arachnoiditis. Several unavoidable problems with the methodology of this study are discussed. PMID:1286419
Hill, C A; Hunter, J V; Moseley, I F; Kendall, B E
Recent findings have implicated the gut microbiota as a contributor of metabolic diseases through the modulation of host metabolism and inflammation. Atherosclerosis is associated with lipid accumulation and inflammation in the arterial wall, and bacteria have been suggested as a causative agent of this disease. Here we use shotgun sequencing of the gut metagenome to demonstrate that the genus Collinsella was enriched in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis, defined as stenotic atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery leading to cerebrovascular events, whereas Roseburia and Eubacterium were enriched in healthy controls. Further characterization of the functional capacity of the metagenomes revealed that patient gut metagenomes were enriched in genes encoding peptidoglycan synthesis and depleted in phytoene dehydrogenase; patients also had reduced serum levels of ?-carotene. Our findings suggest that the gut metagenome is associated with the inflammatory status of the host and patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis harbor characteristic changes in the gut metagenome.
Karlsson, Fredrik H.; Fak, Frida; Nookaew, Intawat; Tremaroli, Valentina; Fagerberg, Bjorn; Petranovic, Dina; Backhed, Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens
Ropinirole is a novel, non-ergoline dopamine agonist chemical name with a very high specificity for dopamine D2-like receptors, currently being investigated for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. The efficacy of ropinirole has been investigated in three placebo-controlled studies: one using ropinirole as monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease and two using it as an adjunct to L-dopa in patients who are experiencing fluctuations in motor response. Ropinirole therapy for 12 weeks was an effective symptomatic therapy in both patient groups, as measured by either a significant improvement in the motor score of the UPDRS, reduction of awake time spent "off" or a reduction in the dose of L-dopa. Ropinirole therapy was generally well tolerated, the most frequent adverse events being nausea and vomiting which are typical of all dopamine agonists, but unlike other dopamine agonists, CNS side-effects were of the same magnitude as found patients receiving placebo. PMID:8748630
Brooks, D J; Torjanski, N; Burn, D J
Delay in making the diagnosis of symptomatic coronary artery disease was determined by studying the medical histories of 265 men aged 24.7 to 49.9 (mean 40.1) years with angiographically proven obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. The diagnosis of angina pectoris was delayed three times as often as the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and for five times as long. The diagnosis of symptomatic coronary artery disease was delayed three and a half times more often in patients less than 35 years of age, than in patients over 45; the average time from presentation with symptoms to diagnosis was 30 times longer in patients under 35 years of age than in patients over 45.
Burton, J. R.; FitzGibbon, G. M.
An aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital cardiac defect. In the majority of symptomatic neonates and infants, primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice. In selected infants, catheter closure of the defect with a device may be feasible. We report on the successful closure of an AP window in a 12 month old infant, using a 6mm Amplatzer septal occluder. The procedure and follow-up were uneventful. PMID:22368546
Pillekamp, F; Hannes, T; Koch, D; Brockmeier, K; Sreeram, N
An aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital cardiac defect. In the majority of symptomatic neonates and infants, primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice. In selected infants, catheter closure of the defect with a device may be feasible. We report on the successful closure of an AP window in a 12 month old infant, using a 6mm Amplatzer septal occluder. The procedure and follow-up were uneventful.
Pillekamp, F; Hannes, T; Koch, D; Brockmeier, K; Sreeram, N
Objectives: We sought to identify demographic and clinical features that were associated with expression of symptoms in the presence of Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes. Methods: We studied 82 asymptomatic (Clinical Dementia Rating global score = 0) and 824 symptomatic subjects (Clinical Dementia Rating score >0) with low to high AD neuropathologic changes at autopsy who were assessed at 1 of 34 National Institute on Aging–funded Alzheimer’s Disease Centers. All subjects underwent a clinical examination within 1 year of death. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the odds of being asymptomatic vs symptomatic. Results: Asymptomatic subjects tended to have low neurofibrillary tangle scores but a wide range of neuritic plaque frequencies. There were, however, a few asymptomatic subjects with very high tangle and neuritic plaque burden, as well as symptomatic subjects with few changes. In the multivariable model, asymptomatic subjects were older (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.07), had lower clinical Hachinski Ischemic Score (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.69–0.97), were less likely to have an APOE ?4 allele (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.16–0.83), and had lower neurofibrillary tangle score (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.17–0.45) compared with symptomatic subjects. Conclusions: Dissociating clinical symptoms from pathologic findings better allows for investigation of preclinical AD. Our results suggest that although the severity of the pathology, particularly neurofibrillary tangles, has a large role in determining the extent of symptoms, other factors, including age, APOE status, and comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease also explain differences in clinical presentation.
Mock, Charles; Roe, Catherine M.; Ghoshal, Nupur; Morris, John C.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Kukull, Walter
Treatment tolerability is an important endpoint when making conclusions about therapeutic effectiveness, and as such, accurately gauging the toxicity profile of new agents is essential to oncology drug development. Treatment toxicity in cancer clinical trials is evaluated using NCI's toxicity grading lexicon -- Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Many of the toxicities included in the CTCAE are symptomatic side effects that are most validly and efficiently collected by direct patient report.
Summary The landmark at the opposite end of an occluded segment can be used for probing the occluded subclavian artery to be recanalized. Using this technique in three patients with symptomatic subclavian artery occlusion, we found the landmark-wire technique to be safe and effective for reopening completely occluded subclavian arteries. We also introduced a technique in which a protective device can be safely used throughout the stenting procedure.
Liu, S.; Hee Jung, J.; Kwon, H-JU.; Kim, S-MI.; Suh, D.C.
Patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis are at high risk of subsequent stroke despite the use of antithrombotic agents\\u000a or surgical management. Although endovascular therapy appears to promise therapeutic solutions, the reported high peri-procedural\\u000a adverse event rate limits the widespread use of this technique. In the past few years, the morbidity and mortality associated\\u000a with intracranial angioplasty and stenting have decreased
Mikael Mazighi; Alex Abou-Chebl
Multiple symptomatic vertebral artery (VA) loops are rare and their management is challenging. A 55-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of frequent episodes of presyncope and mild left C5 radiculopathy that was exacerbated by flexion or extension of his neck. Examination revealed complex left VA loops at C2\\/3 and C4. The patient underwent posterior cervical fusion which resolved his
Nader S. Dahdaleh; Gregory W. Albert; David M. Hasan
Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed.
Nikolic, A.; Klun, I.; Bobic, B.; Ivovic, V.; Vujanic, M.; Zivkovic, T.; Djurkovic-Djakovic, O.
Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animal-to-person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797
Nikoli?, A; Klun, I; Bobi?, B; Ivovi?, V; Vujani?, M; Zivkovi?, T; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of mortality in the Western world, contributing to about 50% of all deaths. Atherosclerosis is characterized by deposition of lipids onto the coronary or carotid arterial wall and formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic plaques are categorized into two groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic. The symptomatic plaques tend to be unstable and prone to rupture, and are associated with an increase in ischemic events. Oxysterols, products of cholesterol oxidation, are cytotoxic materials. Their level and type may be associated with plaque formation, development and stability. Oxysterols stimulate the formation of foam cells, advance atherosclerotic plaque progression, and contribute to plaque vulnerability and instability due to their cytotoxicity and their ability to induce cell apoptosis. Studies indicate that plasma 7?-OH CH level can be used as a biomarker for detecting carotid and coronary artery disease. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the potential of oxysterols for use as biomarkers for plaque vulnerability and instability. The identification of biomarkers in the blood that can distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques remains an unresolved issue. PMID:24393847
Khatib, Soliman; Vaya, Jacob
Acute cholecystitis in patients unfit for general anesthesia often initially requires cholecystectomy tube placement without cholecystectomy. The best way to definitively manage those patients with irreversible medical conditions, leaving them unable to undergo cholecystectomy, has yet to be defined. Laser lithotripsy is currently used in the management of stones of the genitourinary system. Extracorporeal shock wave cholelithotripsy has been extensively evaluated in Munich, Germany and since then, has been abandoned as an alternative treatment of cholelithiasis. This report discusses a novel approach using established cholecystocutaneous fistula tracts and laser lithotripsy to definitively treat this group of patients. PMID:24300938
Polite, Nathan M; Brown, Roy; Braveman, Joshua
Pressure studies were performed in 55 patients (24 with chronic anterior leg pain and 31 asymptomatic recreational athletes). Pressure measurements were recorded at rest, during, and after exercise, using the slit catheter system. Seventeen of the twenty-four pa tients with symptomatic anterior leg pain were diag nosed on the basis of tissue pressure studies as having chronic exertional compartment syndrome.
C. H. Rorabeck; R. B. Bourne; P. J. Fowler; J. B. Finlay; Linda Nott
PURPOSE: This was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of topical nitroglycerin with internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic chronic anal fissures were randomly assigned to 0.25 percent nitroglycerintid or internal sphincterotomy. Both groups received stool softeners and fiber supplements and were assessed at six weeks and six months. RESULTS:
C. S. Richard; R. Gregoire; E. A. Plewes; R. Silverman; C. Burul; D. Buie; R. Reznick; T. Ross; M. Burnstein; B. I. O'Connor; D. Mukraj; R. S. McLeod
Compression therapy is the mainstay in the management of chronic venous disease, venous leg ulceration (VLU) and chronic oedema. The management of VLU alone is thought to cost a staggering £400 million per year and accounts for 13% of all district nursing visits. The predicted increase in elderly, obese and chronically ill patients will pose a further strain on already stretched resources. The impact of chronic venous and lymphovenous disease is also costly in terms of physical and psychological terms for patients. Adopting a preventive approach would reduce the financial, workload and symptomatic aspects of this condition. PMID:24820810
Treatment of chronic sarcoidosis with an azathioprine\\/prednisolone regimen. J. Muller- Quernheim, K. Kienast, M. Held, S. Pfeifer, U. Costabel. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: In a few patients with chronic sarcoidosis, prolonged, unacceptably high doses of corticosteroids are required to achieve symptomatic relief. In these cases, a corticosteroid-sparing drug might be administered to allow long-term treatment without the adverse effects
Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis. PMID:24349565
Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; La Perle, Krista M D; Gunn, John S
Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis.
Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Gunn, John S.
Background The presence of food-specific IgG antibodies in human serum may be useful for diagnosis of adverse food reactions. However, the clinical utility of tesing for such antibodies remains very controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels and population distribution of food-specific IgGs and their association with chronic symptoms in a large-scale Chinese population. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 21305 adult participants from different regions of China had 14 type of food-specific serum IgG antibodies that were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Amongthese, 5,394 participants were randomly chosen to complete follow-up questionnaire surveys on their dietary characteristics and chronic symptoms. The concentrations of food-specific IgGs against 14 foods ranged from a median (interquartile range) of 7.3 (3.8, 12.6) U/mL of pork-specfic IgG to 42.3 (28.8, 60.2) U/mL of crab-specific IgG. The concentration of food-specific IgGs was closely related to gender; after adjustment for region and age, women had higher concentrations of food-specific IgGs against all of the 14 foods except chicken (regression coefficient (95% CI): 0.01 (?0.003, 0.023); P?=?0.129) and corn (0.002 (?0.013, 0.016); P?=?0.825). Similar results were also found in the relationship of geographic region to the food-specific IgG concentrations for the 14 foods. Chronic symptoms were negatively associated with the concentrations of a few food-specific IgGs, and were positively associated with the concentrations of other food-specific IgGs. Conclusions The levels of food-specific IgGs were variable both in healthy and in symptomatic Chinese adults. These findings raise awareness that demographic factors, the type of food and specific chronic symptoms should be considered before food elimination treatment based on IgG testing in patients with chronic symptoms is used in clinical practice.
Wu, Liu-Xin; Li, Hong; Sun, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Hong-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Wang, Qi-Bin; Chen, Wei-Wei
Apart from local inflammation and defects in secretion, central mechanisms are important for pain etiology in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, centrally acting co-analgetic agents can be used in addition to classical pain medications. Endoscopic interventions are preferred in patients with obvious dilation of the pancreatic duct. Surgical interventions are generally more effective although they are usually reserved for patients with prior failure of conservative treatment. Diverse surgical options with different efficacies and morbidities are used in individual patients.One of the main problems in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases is abdominal pain. Primarily the underlying disease needs to be adequately treated. Symptomatic pain management will most likely include treatment with acetaminophen and tramadol as well as occasionally principles of a multimodal pain regimen. For the treatment of arthralgia as well as enteropathy-associated arthritis the same treatment options are available as for other spondyloarthritic disorders. PMID:24903043
Preiß, J C; Hoffmann, J C
The CO2 laser has been used by our group as a secure and efficient tool for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangiomas which can be responsible for disturbance for swallowing, phonation and in hygienic, besides discomfort and bleeding to patients. During the last four years, twelve patients with symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma were treated at the Laser Unit of our University. The treatment consisted in the application of CO2 laser at medium to low intensity according to characteristics and location of the lesions. For hemangiomas located at sites of easy surgical access such as anterior 1/3 of the tongue, lips, bucal vestibule we use 10 to 37 J/mm2 over the surface of the lesion. When the hemangioma was located at difficult surgical access sites, such as, tonsils, posterior 1/3 of tongue, or at pharyngeal wall we used 3.0 to 4.0 J/mm2 encircling the whole hemangioma. This causes reduction in the size of the lesion throughout sclerosis of nutrition vessels. After this initial procedure we applied 0.8 to 1.0 J/mm2 over the whole extent of the lesion. For both procedures we observed no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. The patients referred minimal post-operative discomfort with good cicatricial evolution. The evident reduction in the vascularization and size could be confirmed by photographic documentation. The good results described above, with disappearance of symptoms lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser is an efficient and secure method of treatment for symptomatic hemangioma of the oral cavity.
Nicola, Ester M.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.
Background Patients suffering from symptomatic macromastia are usually underserved, as they have to put up with very long waiting lists and are usually selected under restrictive criteria. The Oncoplastic Breast Surgery subspeciality requires a cross-specialty training, which is difficult, in particular, for trainees who have a background in general surgery, and not easily available. The introduction of reduction mammaplasty into a Breast Cancer Unit as treatment for symptomatic macromastia could have a synergic effect, making the scarce therapeutic offer at present available to these patients, who are usually treated in Plastic Departments, somewhat larger, and accelerating the uptake of oncoplastic training as a whole and, specifically, the oncoplastic breast conserving procedures based on the reduction mammaplasty techniques such as displacement conservative techniques and onco-therapeutic mammaplasty. This is a retrospective study analyzing the outcome of reduction mammaplasty for symptomatic macromastia in our Breast Cancer Unit. Methods A cohort study of 56 patients who underwent bilateral reduction mammaplasty at our Breast Unit between 2005 and 2009 were evaluated; morbidity and patient satisfaction were considered as end points. Data were collected by reviewing medical records and interviewing patients. Results Eight patients (14.28%) presented complications in the early postoperative period, two of them being reoperated on. The physical symptoms disappeared or significantly improved in 88% of patients and the degree of satisfaction with the care process and with the overall outcome were really high. Conclusion Our experience of the introduction of reduction mammaplasty in our Breast Cancer Unit has given good results, enabling us to learn the use of different reduction mammaplasty techniques using several pedicles which made it posssible to perform oncoplastic breast conserving surgery. In our opinion, this management policy could bring clear advantages both to patients (large-breasted and those with a breast cancer) and surgeons.
Most alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists are non-subtype selective and act on smooth muscle in the prostate, as well as in the vascular system and, as such, have effects on blood pressure as well as relieving LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As many elderly patients with LUTS also take concomitant antihypertensive therapy, it has been suggested by some that these patients should be treated with an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist that targets both symptomatic BPH and hypertension simultaneously. However, an alternative school of thought believes that hypertension, as a malignant disease, should be treated optimally first, before the LUTS are controlled. Many different classes of antihypertensive drugs have been developed and evidence, with regard to reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, supports the use of diuretics and beta-blockers in this indication. However, from this point of view, few data support the use of alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists in antihypertensive therapy, and studies indicate that elderly patients in particular are prone to orthostatic hypotension and its effects when treated with alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists. This, together with the fact that hypertension is such a potentially morbid disease, suggests that alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists should not be used as a first line treatment for the treatment of hypertension. Rather, patients with comorbidity should be treated optimally for both diseases, being treated initially for hypertension with the optimal agent available and then with an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist that is not haemodynamically active to target their LUTS. Tamsulosin, a selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, has no clinically significant effect on blood pressure compared with placebo, thus posing less risk for the patient, especially with regard to symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. PMID:9732826
Man in't Veld, A J
Recent observations in two patients, one with AGAT deficiency (AGAT-D) and one with GAMT deficiency (GAMT-D), both diagnosed already at birth, provide first evidence for important therapeutic effects of pre-symptomatic treatment with creatine (Cr) supplementation in AGAT-D and Cr supplementation plus guanidinoacetate lowering strategies in GAMT-D. Although long-term data are lacking, the results suggest that complete prevention of neurological sequelae in early treated patients could be feasible (Battini et al., 2006; Schulze et al., 2006). PMID:18652077
Schulze, Andreas; Battini, Roberta
Renal oncocytomas are benign tumours, often asymptomatic, and picked incidentally on radiological imaging. We present a case report of a symptomatic giant renal oncocytoma in a 61-year old man having lower back/right flank pain. A large right renal mass was identified on abdominal CT scan. Radiological features were not sufficient to differentiate this lesion from renal cancer. Right radical nephrectomy was performed. Typical features of oncocytoma, without evidence of malignancy, were seen on histological examination of the specimen. In this report, we discuss literature review of radiological, genetic, and pathological characteristics of renal oncocytoma.
Ahmad, Sarfraz; Manecksha, Rustom; Hayes, Brian D.; Grainger, Ronald
Ureterosciatic hernia (USH) is a rarely described entity and is an extremely rare cause of refractory flank pain. We report the diagnostic dilemma, and sequential endourological and finally the successful robotic management of one such symptomatic USH in an elderly woman who had presented with ipsilateral refractory flank pain, hydroureteronephrosis, and compromised renal function. We have also reviewed the current literature regarding the etiopathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and management of USHs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case to describe the robotic-assisted laparoscopic management of a case of USH.
Singh, Iqbal; Patel, Bhavin; Hemal, Ashok K.
The cognitive-enhancing effects of pramiracetam in animal models of learning and memory are characterized by an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. We evaluated antidementia efficacy of this drug in 10 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease employing a 2-phase, placebo-controlled, enrichment-type trial design. Eight patients evidenced a best dose in the dose-finding phase, but in the subsequent replication phase only two again improved to a similar degree. PETs with fluorodeoxyglucose obtained in two individuals showed no definite change. Doses up to 4,000 mg pramiracetam are unlikely to confer symptomatic benefit to Alzheimer's disease patients. PMID:2011259
Claus, J J; Ludwig, C; Mohr, E; Giuffra, M; Blin, J; Chase, T N
Hamartomas of the spleen (splenomas) are very rare benign tumors composed of an aberrant mixture of normal splenic elements. Herein we present a unique case of a symptomatic non-palpable splenoma in a 64-year-old female patient presented with anemia and thrombocytopenia and we describe imaging findings in ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a relatively small splenic hamartoma (35 mm at histopathology) associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia that resolved completely several months after splenectomy.
Tsitouridis, I; Michaelides, M; Tsitouridis, K; Davidis, I; Efstratiou, I
\\u000a Zusammenfassung Als Folge der zunehmend sinkenden Mortalität eines Herzinfarktes und der Veränderung in der Alterungsstruktur der Bevölkerung,\\u000a ist ein deutlicher Anstieg an Patienten mit Herzinsuffizienz zu beobachten. Trotz optimaler kardiologischer Therapie leiden\\u000a viele Patienten an Luftnot. Der Einsatz von Opioiden zur symptomatischen Behandlung von Luftnot ist in dieser Patientengruppe\\u000a unüblich. Es wurde eine systematische Literaturrecherche durchgeführt um herauszufinden, ob es eine
Markus Hochgerner; Friedrich M. Fruhwald; Imke Strohscheer
Chronic thrombocytopenias are pathological conditions defined as a persistent platelet count below the normal range for more than 6-12 months, clinically characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding. Recently, an International Working Group of expert clinicians has redefined standard terminology and definitions of primary and secondary chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). A document issued on acute childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (AIEOP) provides parents and physicians with guidelines for the management of chronic ITP and gives prominence to the periodic re-evaluation of differential diagnosis. The majority of chronic ITP children do not require pharmacological treatments, especially if symptoms are absent or minimal and the treatment decision depends on several factors, in particular clinical conditions rather than platelets count. The recommendations distinguish three therapeutic strategies: emergency or symptomatic treatment, maintenance therapy and treatment aiming at definitive remission. Experimental/off-label treatment of chronic ITP are reported in the literature, such as the use of rituximab. Currently, other drugs (thrombopoiesis stimulating factors, mycophenolate, dapsone, danazol, azathioprine, rFVIIa, cyclophosphamide, vinca alkaloids and cyclosporine) are recommended in special cases or trials. PMID:24492401
Del Vecchio, Giovanni C; De Santis, Attilio; Accettura, Lora; De Mattia, Domenico; Giordano, Paola
The role of T cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection against natural influenza illness in humans is uncertain. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) provided a unique natural experiment to determine whether crossreactive cellular immunity limits symptomatic illness in antibody-naive individuals. We followed 342 healthy adults through the UK pandemic waves and correlated the responses of pre-existing T cells to the pH1N1 virus and conserved core protein epitopes with clinical outcomes after incident pH1N1 infection. Higher frequencies of pre-existing T cells to conserved CD8 epitopes were found in individuals who developed less severe illness, with total symptom score having the strongest inverse correlation with the frequency of interferon-? (IFN-?)(+) interleukin-2 (IL-2)(-) CD8(+) T cells (r = -0.6, P = 0.004). Within this functional CD8(+)IFN-?(+)IL-2(-) population, cells with the CD45RA(+) chemokine (C-C) receptor 7 (CCR7)(-) phenotype inversely correlated with symptom score and had lung-homing and cytotoxic potential. In the absence of crossreactive neutralizing antibodies, CD8(+) T cells specific to conserved viral epitopes correlated with crossprotection against symptomatic influenza. This protective immune correlate could guide universal influenza vaccine development. PMID:24056771
Sridhar, Saranya; Begom, Shaima; Bermingham, Alison; Hoschler, Katja; Adamson, Walt; Carman, William; Bean, Thomas; Barclay, Wendy; Deeks, Jonathan J; Lalvani, Ajit
Introduction Fructose can trigger or worsen symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic fructose malabsorption in IBS patients and to test whether the patient's characteristics can help to detect a fructose malabsorption. Materials and methods Ninety Rome III IBS patients (predominant diarrhoea (IBS-D): 31%, predominant constipation (IBS-C): 18%, mixed type (IBS-M): 51%) were included prospectively. After exclusion of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by a glucose breath test, fructose malabsorption was assessed by a five-hour breath test, with symptom monitoring, after a 25?g load of fructose. An increase of more than 20?ppm of hydrogen (H2) or methane (CH4) levels in the exhaled air led to the diagnosis of malabsorption. Results Fructose test was abnormal in 20/90 patients among whom only 35% were intolerant, with a simultaneous rise of H2/CH4 levels and the onset of abdominal discomfort or diarrhoea. IBS characteristics were not predictive even if young (p?=?0.031) and male IBS patients (p?=?0.029) were at higher risk of malabsorption. At variance, 18 additional patients experienced intestinal symptoms during the test despite normal fructose absorption. Discussion After a 25?g fructose load, symptomatic fructose malabsorption and intolerance without malabsorption were detected in 22% and 28% of IBS patients respectively.
Gourcerol, Guillaume; Dechelotte, Pierre; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Ducrotte, Philippe
We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for the resection of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) in 23 patients (11 male, 12 female, average age 43 years). The patients were followed-up for between 3 months and 36 months. Headache was the primary pre-operative symptom (15/23, 65%) and all patients with headache improved after surgery. Seven patients with initial visual symptoms (9/23, 39%) also improved after treatment. Three of the six patients with pre-operative pituitary dysfunction (6/23, 26%) showed post-operative improvement. There was no permanent pituitary dysfunction. One patient developed temporary diabetes insipidus and two patients had a post-operative infection. Three patients had post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leaks, two of which were repaired using the EEA and the other using a lumbar drain. Two patients had recurrent cysts and both patients refused reoperation. We concluded that the EEA is safe and effective in the treatment of symptomatic RCC. Fenestration and aspiration of the cysts with partial excision of the cyst wall is usually sufficient. PMID:21493070
Xie, Tao; Hu, Fan; Yu, Yong; Gu, Ye; Wang, Xuejian; Zhang, Xiaobiao
The therapeutic alliance has been found to predict psychotherapy outcome in numerous studies. However, critics maintain that the therapeutic alliance is a by-product of prior symptomatic improvements. Moreover, almost all alliance research to date has used differences between patients in alliance as predictor of outcome, and results of such analyses do not necessarily mean that improving the alliance with a given patient will improve outcome (i.e., a within-patient effect). In a sample of 646 patients (76% women, 24% men) in primary care psychotherapy, the effect of working alliance on next session symptom level was analyzed using multilevel models. The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure was used to measure symptom level, and the patient version of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short form revised (Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006) was used to measure alliance. There was evidence for a reciprocal causal model, in which the alliance predicted subsequent change in symptoms while prior symptom change also affected the alliance. The alliance effect varied considerably between patients. This variation was partially explained by patients with personality problems showing stronger alliance effect. These results indicate that the alliance is not just a by-product of prior symptomatic improvements, even though improvement in symptoms is likely to enhance the alliance. Results also point to the importance of therapists paying attention to ruptures and repair of the therapy alliance. Generalization of results may be limited to relatively brief primary care psychotherapy. PMID:23506511
Falkenström, Fredrik; Granström, Fredrik; Holmqvist, Rolf
Dengue viruses (DV) are one of the most important arthropod-borne viral diseases in the developing world. DV can cause syndromes that are either self-limiting or severe. Allelic variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes have been demonstrated to be associated with disease susceptibility. Here we report the association of nonclassical HLA class I MICA-MICB genes with disease outcome during DV infection. A sequencing-based typing method and genotyping of MICA and MICB in a well-characterized group of Cuban individuals with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue fever (DF), or asymptomatic dengue infection (ADI) was performed. Statistical analysis revealed a tendency for MICA*008 and MICB*008 to associate with susceptibility to illness when symptomatic versus asymptomatic cases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p(v) = 0.03, and OR = 10.4, p = 0.0096, respectively) were compared. Surprisingly, a stronger association of both allelic forms was observed for the DF patients compared with the ADI group (MICA*008, OR = 5.2, p = 0.0001; and MICB*008, OR = 13.2, p = 0.0025) rather than the severe cases. Major histocompatibility class I-related gene-related natural killer cells and/or ?? and ?? T-cell activation might regulate the development of symptomatic DF and DHF. PMID:21762746
García, Gissel; del Puerto, Florencia; Pérez, Ana B; Sierra, Beatriz; Aguirre, Eglys; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Sánchez, Lizet; Hirayama, Kenji; Guzmán, María G
Background Hyponatremia has been reported from patients with severe neurological disease, and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and cerebral salt wasting syndrome are the two main etiologies of hyponatremia after brain injury. Here we describe a patient with a lateral medullary infarction who experienced symptomatic hyponatremia with finding suggestive of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone followed by cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Case presentation A 70-year-old Korean man visited emergency room complaining of sudden onset vertigo and gait disturbance. Neurological exam showed left side ataxia, Horner syndrome, and right side hypesthesia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed acute infarction involving left lateral medulla. His neurological status was stabilized, but he began to complain of non-vertiginous dizziness and general weakness five days after admission. Serum sodium level dropped from 131 mEq/mL to 122 mEq/mL with reduced serum osmolarity of 265 mOsm/L. The diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone was made and we restricted fluid intake, but his symptoms worsened and his mental status became drowsy. Follow up serum sodium level was 108 mEq/L with volume loss, suggesting cerebral salt wasting syndrome. We treated him with hypertonic saline and his consciousness was recovered. Conclusion This case shows symptomatic hyponatremia after lateral medullary infarction, providing insight about distinct pathogenesis of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and cerebral salt wasting syndrome.
To present a multi-center experience with the use of Dx/HA copolymer for treatment of symptomatic refluxing renal transplant UNC in children. A multi-center, retrospective chart review was performed. Eleven patients with a mean age of eight yr underwent renal transplantation with an anti-refluxing UNC. Data were collected to determine the safety and effectiveness of the procedure and to identify possible predictors of success. Endoscopic treatment was successful in one of five males and five of six females, for an overall success rate of 54.5%. The etiology of renal failure was associated with success of treatment, with 4/6 (67%) patients with upper tract pathology demonstrating resolution of the VUR, as compared with one of three (33%) patients with lower tract pathology. Male patients had a higher incidence of lower tract pathology. No complications were associated with the endoscopic procedure. Endoscopic injection of Dx/HA remains a safe option for the treatment of symptomatic refluxing transplant UNC in children. Although the success rate is lower than that seen in the treatment of primary VUR, the minimally invasive nature and safety of this technique may offer advantages over open reconstruction of the refluxing transplant ureter. PMID:19515081
Vemulakonda, Vijaya M; Koyle, Martin A; Lendvay, Thomas S; Risk, Michael C; Kirsch, Andrew J; Cheng, Earl Y; Cisek, Lars J; Campbell, Jeffrey B
Previous studies have shown that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has no preventive effect on subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid occlusion and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A few studies have assessed whether an urgent EC-IC bypass surgery is an effective treatment for main trunk stenosis or occlusion in acute stage. The authors retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients who underwent urgent EC-IC bypass for symptomatic internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion between January 2003 and December 2011. Clinical characteristics and neuroimagings were evaluated and analyzed. Based on preoperative angiogram, responsible lesions were the internal carotid artery in 19 (32.8%) patients and the middle cerebral artery in 39 (67.2%). No hemorrhagic complication occurred. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed improvement of neurological function after surgery, and 74.1% of patients had favorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was associated with insufficient collateral flow and new infarction after bypass surgery. PMID:23821132
Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nitta, Junpei; Ishizaka, Shigetoshi; Kanaya, Kohei; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro
BACKGROUND: Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive citrus disease which threatens citrus production worldwide and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is an associated causal agent of the disease. To better understand the physiological and molecular processes involved in host responses to Las, 2-DE and mass spectrometry analyses, as well as ICP spectroscopy analysis were employed to elucidate the global protein expression profiles and nutrient concentrations in leaves of Las-infected grapefruit plants at pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stages for HLB. RESULTS: This study identified 123 protein spots out of 191 spots that showed significant changes in the leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection and all identified spots matched to 69 unique proteins/peptides. A down-regulation of 56 proteins including those associated with photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and metabolism was correlated with significant reductions in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu in leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection, particularly in symptomatic plants. Oxygen-evolving enhancer (OEE) proteins, a PSI 9 kDa protein, and a Btf3-like protein were among a small group of proteins that were down-regulated in both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants in response to Las infection. Furthermore, a Las-mediated up-regulation of 13 grapefruit proteins was detected, which included Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, chitinases, lectin-related proteins, miraculin-like proteins, peroxiredoxins and a CAP 160 protein. Interestingly, a Las-mediated up-regulation of granule-bound starch synthase was correlated with an increase in the K concentrations of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants. CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the interrelationships between protein expression and nutritional status of Las-infected pre-symptomatic or symptomatic grapefruit plants and sheds light on the physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with HLB disease development. PMID:23578104
Nwugo, Chika C; Lin, Hong; Duan, Yongping; Civerolo, Edwin L
Chronic wounds are a challenge to treat for the clinician. We present a current overview of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development chronic nonhealing wounds. Solutions to some of these difficult problems are presented. PMID:15814118
Izadi, Kouros; Ganchi, Parham
PV thrombosis is not an uncommon occurrence following pediatric LT. Symptomatic PHT following PV thrombosis is treated medically, surgical portosystemic shunting (mesorex, splenorenal, and mesocaval) being reserved for refractory cases. A 10-yr-old boy suffered recurrent malena and hemorrhagic shock because of chronic PV thrombosis following LT nine yr ago (1999). Extensive work-up failed to localize the bleeding source. The liver function remained normal. Initial attempts at surgical shunts failed owing to thrombosis (mesocaval 2001, splenorenal, inferior mesenteric-left renal vein, splenic-left external iliac vein 2008). In this situation, we performed a Clatworthy shunt by anastomosing the divided lower end of the LCIV to the side of SMV. There was a single, large caliber anastomosis. Post-operatively, the malena stopped completely, and clinically, there was no lower limb edema or encephalopathy. Doppler USG revealed persistence of hepatopetal flow within the portal collaterals. Follow-up at two yr reveals stable hepatic function with a patent shunt. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of a Clatworthy shunt being performed in a transplant setting. We reviewed the literature pertaining to this shunt in non-transplant patients with PHT. PMID:21834802
Mali, V P; Robless, P A; Aw, M; Loh, D L; Quak, S H; Prabhakaran, K
Research has consistently demonstrated that stress reactions to potentially traumatic events do not represent a unified phenomenon. Instead, individuals tend to cluster into prototypical response patterns over time including chronic symptoms, recovery, and resilience. We examined heterogeneity in a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom course in a sample of 178 active-duty police officers following exposure to a life-threatening event using latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM). This analysis revealed 3 discrete PTSD symptom trajectories: resilient (88%), distressed-improving (10%), and distressed-worsening (2%). We further examined whether trait and peritraumatic dissociation distinguished these symptom trajectories. Findings indicate that trait and peritraumatic dissociation differentiated the resilient from the distressed-improving trajectory (trait, p < .05; peritraumatic, p < .001), but only peritraumatic dissociation differentiated the resilient from the distressed-worsening trajectory (p < .001). It is essential to explore heterogeneity in symptom course and its predictors among active-duty police officers, a repeatedly exposed group. These findings suggest that police officers may be a highly resilient group overall. Furthermore, though there is abundant evidence that dissociation has a positive linear relationship with PTSD symptoms, this study demonstrates that degree of dissociation can distinguish between resilient and symptomatic groups of individuals. PMID:21898602
Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Madan, Anita; Neylan, Thomas C; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R
This naturalistic study of 352 depressed patients admitted to a mood disorders program in a private psychiatric hospital demonstrated that, for the majority of patients, combining cognitive group therapy with ongoing supportive individual, psychoeducational, milieu, and pharmacological interventions resulted in rapid overall improvement and discharge within a few weeks. Improvement was manifested across cognitive and vegetative factor scores of the Beck Depression Inventory. However, patterns of symptom remission differed for subgroups defined by different lengths of stay. For example, patients hospitalized for 4 weeks showed good initial response, followed by a plateau in improvement, and, finally, continued response. These patients eventually reached the same level of functioning at discharge as did more rapidly responding patients with briefer stays. In contrast, a subset of patients (10% of the sample) hospitalized 5 weeks or more showed less overall improvement (especially in vegetative symptoms), plateauing at a moderately symptomatic level. These data suggest that in a minority of depressed individuals, continuing physiological disturbances may underlie dysthymia or residual depression. However, in contrast to the high rates (20-30%) of chronicity reported from tertiary care settings, these data indicate the relatively good initial treatment response of depressed patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital. PMID:8535385
Neimeyer, R A; Baker, K D; Haykal, R F; Akiskal, H S
Congenital syphilis is a severe, disabling infection often with grave consequences seen in infants. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to the unborn infant through the placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to affect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. The continuing prevalence of this disease reveals the failure of control measures established for its prevention. We put forth a case of symptomatic congenital syphilis presenting with skeletal manifestations at birth, a rare finding in literature. The report stresses upon the importance of implementing the World Health Organization's recommendation that all pregnant women should be screened for syphilis in the first antenatal visit in the first trimester and again in the late pregnancy. PMID:23094175
Murali, Machiraju Vasudeva; Nirmala, Cherukuri; Rao, Jampana Venkateswara
Two symptomatic patients with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency are reported. Patient 1, a 21-year-old female professional tennis player, suffered from exercise-induced attacks of muscle pain, burning sensations and proximal weakness. Patient 2, a 30-year-old male amateur marathon runner developed muscle cramps and rhabdomyolysis upon extensive exercise and insolation-induced fever. In both patients, the common p.S113L mutation was found in heterozygote state. No second mutation could be found upon sequencing of all the exons of CPT2 gene including exon-intron boundaries. Biochemically, residual CPT activity in muscle homogenate upon inhibition by malonyl-CoA and Triton-X-100 was intermediate between controls and patients with mutations on both alleles. Although CPT II deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder, the reported patients indicate that heterozygotes might also have typical attacks of myalgia, pareses or rhabdomyolysis. PMID:23184072
Joshi, Pushpa Raj; Deschauer, Marcus; Zierz, Stephan
Retroisthmic cleft refers to a cleft in the lamina and is rarely reported. It was first described by Brocher, and later Wick et al. proposed the term “laminolysis” to describe the retroisthmic cleft by analogy with the nomenclature of the applied stress fracture of the pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) and the pedicle (pediculolysis). In this paper, we describe two adolescent sports players with symptomatic lumbar laminolysis. Both improved significantly after adequate conservative treatment. Knowledge of laminolysis in adolescent patients with low back pain is necessary to avoid overlooking it and late diagnosis. For correct diagnosis, multidetector three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) is suggested. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also allows detection of inflammation in the defects.
Sakai, Toshinori; Takao, Shoichiro; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Yasui, Natsuo
The management of chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain, still has significant unmet needs. In addition to inadequate symptomatic relief, there are concerns about adverse effects and addiction associated with treatments. The transplantation of cells that secrete neuroactive substances with analgesic properties into the central nervous system has only become of practical interest in more recent years, but provides a novel strategy to challenge current approaches in treating chronic pain. This review covers pre-clinical and clinical studies from both allogeneic and xenogeneic sources for management of chronic refractory pain.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of secondary symptomatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) in patients previously treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty (VTP). Three hundred sixteen patients with 486 treated VCFs were included in the study according to the inclusion criteria. Patients were kept in regular follow-up using a standardized questionairre before, 1 day, 7 days, 6 months, and 1 year after, and, further on, on a yearly basis after VTP. The incidence of secondary symptomatic VCF was calculated, and anatomical distribution with respect to previous fractures characterized. Mean follow-up was 8 months (6-56 months) after VTP. Fifty-two of 316 (16.4 %) patients (45 female, 7 male) returned for treatment of 69 secondary VCFs adjacent to (35/69; 51%) or distant from (34/69; 49%) previously treated levels. Adjacent secondary VCF occurred significantly more often compared to distant secondary VCF. Of the total 69 secondary VCFs, 35 of 69 occurred below and 27 of 69 above pretreated VCFs. Of the 65 sandwich levels generated, in 7 of 65 (11%) secondary VCFs were observed. Secondary VCF below pretreated VCF occurred significantly earlier in time compared to VCF above and compared to sandwich body fractures. No major complication occurred during initial or follow-up intervention. We conclude that secondary VCFs do occur in individuals after VTP but the rate found in our study remains below the level expected from epidemiologic studies. Adjacent fractures occur more often and follow the cluster distribution of VCF as expected from the natural history of the underlying osteoporosis. No increased rate of secondary VCF after VTP was observed in this retrospective analysis. In accordance with the pertinent literature, short-term and also midterm clinical results are encouraging and provide further support for the usefulness and the low complication rate of this procedure as an adjunct to the spectrum of pain management in patients with severe midline back pain due to osteoporotic spine fractures.
Hierholzer, Johannes, E-mail: email@example.com; Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Baumann, Clemens; Slotosch, Christine [Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann gGmbH, Academic Teaching Hospital, Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Schulz, Rudolf [Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann, Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany)
The introduction of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has led to an increase in the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis. However, the case fatality rate is lower and the mortality rates of PE have remained unchanged, suggesting a lower severity of illness. Specifically, the multiple-detector CTPA increased the rate of subsegmental filling defect reported in patients with suspected PE. Whether these filling defects reported on CTPA would correlate with true subsegmental PE (SSPE) on pulmonary angiography or are actually artifacts is unknown. The inter-observer agreement for SSPE diagnosis among radiologists with varied levels of experience is low (? of 0.38; 95% CI, 0.0-0.89). Furthermore, the clinical importance of a symptomatic SSPE diagnosed by CTPA is unclear. SSPE are frequent on pulmonary angiography in patients with a low probability ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan for suspected PE. Several prospective management cohort studies have demonstrated that patients with low or intermediate V/Q scan results can be safely managed without anticoagulation by combining the scan results with the pretest probability (PTP) of PE and compression ultrasonography. Although clinical equipoise exists, the majority of patients diagnosed with SSPE on CTPA are currently treated with anticoagulant therapy. Only a small number of patients with SSPE diagnosed by CTPA and without DVT who did not receive anticoagulation treatment have been reported in the literature. None of these patients suffered recurrent symptomatic VTE (PE or DVT) during the 3-month follow-up period (0%; 95% CI, 0-7.4%), suggesting that SSPE might be clinically unimportant. These conclusions are only hypothesis generating and need to be confirmed in prospective clinical management studies before changing clinical practice. PMID:22672341
Carrier, M; Righini, M; Le Gal, G
IgG4-related sclerosing disease is an established disease entity with characteristic clinicopathological features. Recently, the association between IgG4-related sclerosing disease and the risk of malignancies has been suggested. IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis with pancreatic cancer has been reported. Further, a few cases of extraocular malignant lymphoma in patients with IgG4-related sclerosing disease have also been documented. Herein, we describe the first documented case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) following IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and cholecystitis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A 61-year-old Japanese male, with a past history of DLBCL, was detected with swelling of the pancreas and tumorous lesions in the gallbladder. Histopathological study of the resected gallbladder specimen revealed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with fibrosclerosis in the entire gallbladder wall. Eosinophilic infiltration and obliterative phlebitis were also noted. Immunohistochemically, many IgG4-positive plasma cells had infiltrated into the lesion, and the ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive plasma cells was 71.6%. Accordingly, a diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis was made. Seven months later, he presented with a painful tumor in his left parotid gland. Histopathological study demonstrated diffuse or cohesive sheet-like proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells with rich slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and irregular-shaped large nuclei. These lymphoid cells were positive for CD30, CD4, and cytotoxic markers, but negative for CD3 and ALK. Therefore, a diagnosis of ALK-negative ALCL was made. It has been suggested that the incidence of malignant lymphoma may be high in patients with IgG4-related sclerosing disease, therefore, intense medical follow-up is important in patients with this disorder.
Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
Summary We investigated the brainstem blink reflex in patients suffering from idiopathic and symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia to establish possible dysfunction in the reflex cycle and determine eventual differences between the two disease types. The study included 35 patients with idiopathic disease and seven patients with symptomatic disease, their results compared with those of 50 normal controls. We stimulated the forehead
Ivan Mikula; Zlatko Trkanjec; Ružica Negoveti?; Snježana Miškov; Vida Demarin
Optimal treatment of the hydrocephalic patient with symptomatic Dandy-Walker malformation or trapped fourth ventricle remains controversial. We describe 6 patients with symptomatic Dandy-Walker malformation or trapped fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus that were treated with an aggressive cyst fenestration. Four of the 6 patients had previously undergone five or more failed shunt procedures. There were no complications associated with surgery, and
Alan T. Villavicencio; John C. Wellons III; Timothy M. George
Background: This prospective study evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for the treatment of symptomatic cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. The technique, its complications, and effectiveness also were analyzed. Methods: Eight patients (five male, three female; mean age - SD = 47.75 - 8.59 years) with symptomatic cavernous hemangiomas of the liver were treated by
D. N. Srivastava; D. Gandhi; A. Seith; G. K. Pande; P. Sahni
OBJECTIVE. Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis. The aim our study was to determine the long-term clinical efficacy of UAE in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis without fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The cases of all patients who underwent UAE for ad- enomyosis without fibroids between 1998 and 2000 were analyzed.
Man Deuk Kim; Sehuyn Kim; Nahk Keun Kim; Mee Hwa Lee; Eun Hee Ahn; Hee Jin Kim; Jin Ho Cho; Sun Hee Cha
BACKGROUND: Exposure to cotton is known to produce a specific occupational disease known as byssinosis. A large population of textile workers was investigated to determine whether such exposure was also associated with chronic bronchitis once other possible aetiological factors had been accounted for. METHODS: A total of 2991 workers were investigated for the presence of symptoms compatible with chronic bronchitis. An MRC adapted respiratory questionnaire and MRC definition of chronic bronchitis were used for diagnostic labelling. Current and lifetime exposure to dust was estimated by personal and work area sampling, and the use of records of retrospective dust levels previously measured over the preceding 10 years. Airborne endotoxin exposure was measured using a quantitative turbidometric assay. Lung function tests were performed to measure forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). A control group of workers exposed to man-made fibre textiles was identified. The comparative prevalence of chronic bronchitis in the two populations was assessed, allowing for sex, age, smoking habit, and ethnic origin. Two case referent studies were also performed; cases of chronic bronchitis were separately matched with controls from the cotton and control populations to determine the effect of the symptomatic state on lung function. RESULTS: After controlling for smoking (pack years), workers in a cotton environment were significantly more likely to suffer from chronic bronchitis and this was most marked in workers over 45 years of age (odds ratio 2.51 (CI 1.3 to 4.9); p < 0.01). Regression analysis of all possible influencing parameters showed that cumulative exposure to cotton dust was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis after the effects of age, sex, smoking, and ethnic group were accounted for (p < 0.0005). In the intra-cotton population case control study a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis was associated with a small decrement in lung function compared with controls: percentage predicted FEV1 in cases 81.4% (95% CI 78.3 to 84.6), controls 86.7% (84.9 to 88.5); FVC in cases 89.9% (95% CI 87.0 to 92.9), controls 94.6% (92.8 to 96.4). After controlling for cumulative past exposure and pack years of smoking the effect of the diagnostic state remained significant for both FEV1 (p < 0.01) and FVC (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic bronchitis is more prevalent in cotton workers than in those working with man-made fibre and exposure is additive to the effect of smoking. The diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is associated with a small but significant decrement in lung function. ???
Niven, R. M.; Fletcher, A. M.; Pickering, C. A.; Fishwick, D.; Warburton, C. J.; Simpson, J. C.; Francis, H.; Oldham, L. A.
Background: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is more commonly used for osteoporotic compression fractures (OCFs) and osteolytic vertebral body tumors. This study aimed to study the differences between OCFs and vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) treated with PVP. Materials and Methods: Between September 2007 and January 2010, we prospectively treated 28 consecutive patients of OCFs (43 recently symptomatic OCFs) and 24 cases of VHs (26 VHs). We used visual analogue scale (VAS) pain and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to evaluate the patients. The followup period in group 1 and 2 were 25.1 months (range 12 - 31 months) and 21.3 months (range 14 - 28 months), respectively. Comparison of means was carried out with the Chi Square Tests, t-test, and N Par-Test for multiple comparisons, whenever appropriate. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Following PVP the VAS score decreased to 4.57 and 4.17 in group 1 and 2, respectively. The ODI scores were 32.5% and 30%, respectively. This decrease in ODI scores lasted throughout the followup period. Conclusions: Although the preoperative scores were significantly different between group 1 and 2, there was no significant difference between two groups following the PVP.
Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim G; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Toosi, Katayoun Z
High-flow hepatic vascular anomalies with arteriovenous shunting commonly manifest during the neonatal period with signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure, but to our knowledge, they have never been described in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). We report here our experience with 3 patients with hepatic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) who presented with symptoms of high-output congestive heart failure during the neonatal period and were subsequently diagnosed with HHT. Imaging showed large hypervascular lesions and multiple hepatic arteriovenous shunts that differentiated these lesions from liver hemangiomas. Transcatheter embolization was performed in all cases. One infant died of sepsis shortly after embolization; follow-up at the age of 2.5 years of the surviving infants revealed involution of the vascular lesions and no evidence of symptom recurrence. We conclude that severe symptoms related to hepatic AVMs in HHT can occur in the neonatal period and that HHT should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of symptomatic neonatal hepatic vascular malformations. Imaging plays a key role in differentiating hepatic AVMs from hemangiomas, because the latter require additional pharmacologic treatments. Early transcatheter embolization seems to be effective, but long-term outcomes still need to be assessed.
Al-Saleh, Suhail; John, Philip R.; Letarte, Michelle; Faughnan, Marie E.; Belik, Jaques
The results of a dome-shaped osteotomy of the proximal third of the fifth metatarsal in patients with symptomatic bunionette deformity were reviewed. The series was comprised of eight patients (10 feet; mean age of patients, 21 years). The average followup was 30 months. All patients were free from pain at the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint and were satisfied with the results of this procedure. The mean angle between the longitudinal axes of the fifth metatarsal and the proximal phalanx was 18.9 degrees before surgery and 2.6 degrees after surgery. The mean angle between the longitudinal axes of the fourth and fifth metatarsals was 12.2 degrees before surgery and 4.8 degrees after surgery. The overall results were good in all 10 feet. Three feet had delayed union at the osteotomy site, but union was obtained in all feet. The osteotomy site of the fifth metatarsal in feet with delayed union was more proximal than that of the other feet. Therefore, proximal osteotomy of the fifth metatarsal should be done not at the base, but at the proximal site of the diaphysis to prevent delayed union. A proximal dome-shaped osteotomy corrects the deformity and relieves the symptoms, but careful attention should be paid to the osteotomy site. PMID:11859240
Okuda, Ryuzo; Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Morikawa, Junichi; Jotoku, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Muneaki
Palatal tremor (PT) is usually considered a movement disorder that presents with recurring rhythmic contractions of the soft palate. The inferior olive shows a characteristic pseudohypertrophy secondary to brainstem lesions in the triangle of Mollaret and Guillain that interrupt dentato-olivary and tegmental pathways. We report a 35-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension who presented to the emergency department with PT after a left middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. The diagnostic work-up consisted of brain MRI, which revealed restricted diffusion over the left frontoparietal lobes without involvement of the brainstem. During hospitalization, the patient reported two brief episodes of soft palate and base-of-the-tongue high-frequency, low-amplitude and rhythmic tremor that resolved after intravenous administration of lorazepam. A 2-hour video electroencephalogram showed no abnormalities. After initiation of levetiracetam therapy, no further spells were reported by the patient. At the 2-month follow-up, the patient had had no episodes of stereotypical PT or upper limb tremors since discharge. This report provides further evidence of the central role of the cortex in the generation of PT. The cortical origin of symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT) should be considered in patients presenting after an acute ischemic insult, particularly if there is no evidence of a brainstem lesion. Potential causes of SPT of cortical origin include focal epilepsy and diaschisis. PMID:23507045
Salazar, Richard; Miller, Daniel
Several oral "vasoactive" drugs claim to increase walking capacity in patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Naftidrofuryl, cilostazol, buflomedil, and pentoxifylline are the most studied molecules. Although spanning several decades, several studies underlying these claims were not properly designed, underpowered or showed clinically doubtful outcomes. The evidence for these "vasoactive" drugs has always been received with scepticism, creating the need for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This brief review discusses the benefit-risk assessment of vasoactive drugs, by applying a systematic review to evaluate randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Oral naftidrofuryl and cilostazol have an acceptable safety profile as well as sustained evidence (documented by Cochrane analyses) of increased walking capacity. Subsequently, these drugs entered recommendations for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In contrast, buflomedil and pentoxifylline have limited and/or doubtful evidence to increase walking capacity. Moreover, there were safety concerns about the narrow therapeutic range of buflomedil. Most other "vasoactive" drugs were either inappropriately or insufficiently tested or showed no significant if not negative effects on IC. "Vasoactive" drugs are no substitutes for lifestyle or exercise therapy but are adjuvant treatment to the well-appreciated triad of cardiovascular prevention (antiplatelet agents, statins and ACE-inhibitors), of which statins in their own right have documented claims to significantly increase walking capacity. "Vasoactive" drugs may have a place in the pharmacological management of symptomatic PAD in addition to the basic cardiovascular pharmacotherapy, when revascularization is not indicated, when exercise therapy is not feasible or when there is still insufficient benefit. PMID:19485897
De Backer, T; Vander Stichele, R; De Buyzere, M; De Backer, G; Van Bortel, L
BACKGROUND--Palatal tremor is divided into symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT) and essential palatal tremor (EPT) on the basis of clinical features. The inferior olive seems to be abnormal in SPT, but not EPT. Because the inferior olive is likely to be involved in several types of motor learning, it is hypothesised that motor learning would be abnormal in patients with SPT, but not those with EPT. METHODS--In six patients with SPT and four patients with EPT, two motor learning paradigms were studied--the classical conditioning of an acoustically elicited eyeblink with electrical supraorbital nerve shock and a test of adaptation of ballistic arm movements to a change of the gain. RESULTS--Classical conditioning was impaired unilaterally or bilaterally in the patients with SPT, depending on whether they had unilateral or bilateral abnormalities of the inferior olives, except for the two least affected patients. All but one of the patients with EPT had normal conditioning. On the adaptation test of arm movements, most of the patients with SPT had impaired learning of the arm contralateral to the hypertrophied inferior olive, regardless of whether the abnormality was unilateral or bilateral, but all patients with EPT had normal results. CONCLUSIONS--In SPT pseudohypertrophy of the inferior olive leads to defective cerebellar function, whereas in EPT the inferior olive functions normally. Images
Deuschl, G; Toro, C; Valls-Sole, J; Hallett, M
A 36-year-old gentleman presented with 6 months of poor energy, tingling in fingers and weight loss with a change in bowel habit. He appeared cachectic and had clubbing, demineralisation of teeth, pectus carinatus, kyphosis, spinal tenderness, proximal muscle weakness and generalised muscle atrophy. Chvostek's and Trosseau's signs were positive. His haemoglobin (Hb) was 8.7 g/dl, MCV 64.7 fl with low iron. Calcium corrected was 1.30 nmol/l, parathyroid hormone 440.4 ng/l, vitamin D <12.5 nmol/l; INR was 2.7 with coagulation inhibitor studies negative. Radiographs of spine and pelvis commented on osteopenia with thoracic kyphosis and mild anterior wedging of thoracic vertebrae. Antitissue transglutaminase was 145 U/ml, and antiendomysial antibodies were positive. An oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was consistent with coeliac disease. A diagnosis of osteomalacia and coagulopathy secondary to coeliac disease was made. The hypocalcaemia was treated with calcium gluconate infusions with symptomatic relief. Coagulopathy was treated with vitamin K intravenously with normalisation of INR. Following treatment with coeliac diet, calcium slowly normalised.
McNicholas, Bairbre Aine; Bell, Marcia
A 36-year-old gentleman presented with 6 months of poor energy, tingling in fingers and weight loss with a change in bowel habit. He appeared cachectic and had clubbing, demineralisation of teeth, pectus carinatus, kyphosis, spinal tenderness, proximal muscle weakness and generalised muscle atrophy. Chvostek's and Trosseau's signs were positive. His haemoglobin (Hb) was 8.7 g/dl, MCV 64.7 fl with low iron. Calcium corrected was 1.30 nmol/l, parathyroid hormone 440.4 ng/l, vitamin D <12.5 nmol/l; INR was 2.7 with coagulation inhibitor studies negative. Radiographs of spine and pelvis commented on osteopenia with thoracic kyphosis and mild anterior wedging of thoracic vertebrae. Antitissue transglutaminase was 145 U/ml, and antiendomysial antibodies were positive. An oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was consistent with coeliac disease. A diagnosis of osteomalacia and coagulopathy secondary to coeliac disease was made. The hypocalcaemia was treated with calcium gluconate infusions with symptomatic relief. Coagulopathy was treated with vitamin K intravenously with normalisation of INR. Following treatment with coeliac diet, calcium slowly normalised. PMID:22798310
McNicholas, Bairbre Aine; Bell, Marcia
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is considered a cause of labrochondral disease and secondary osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, the clinical syndrome associated with FAI is not fully characterized. We determined the clinical history, functional status, activity status, and physical examination findings that characterize FAI. We prospectively evaluated 51 patients (52 hips) with symptomatic FAI. Evaluation of the clinical history, physical exam, and previous treatments was performed. Patients completed demographic and validated hip questionnaires (Baecke et al., SF-12, Modified Harris hip, and UCLA activity score). The average patient age was 35 years and 57% were male. Symptom onset was commonly insidious (65%) and activity-related. Pain occurred predominantly in the groin (83%). The mean time from symptom onset to definitive diagnosis was 3.1 years. Patients were evaluated by an average 4.2 healthcare providers prior to diagnosis and inaccurate diagnoses were common. Thirteen percent had unsuccessful surgery at another anatomic site. On exam, 88% of the hips were painful with the anterior impingement test. Hip flexion and internal rotation in flexion were limited to an average 97° and 9°, respectively. The patients were relatively active, yet demonstrated restrictions of function and overall health. These data may facilitate diagnosis of this disorder. Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Knaus, Evan R.; Hunt, Devyani M.; Lesher, John M.; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Prather, Heidi
Topiramate (TPM) has peculiar side effects such as speech difficulties, weight loss, oligohidrosis and hyperthermia. We present the frequency and severity of hypohidrosis in our patients under TPM treatment. One hundred and two patients treated with TPM were evaluated retrospectively. Five (8 months-15 years of age) of them experienced symptomatic hypohidrosis manifested with prolonged or intermittent fever. Pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat test had been performed on the five patients before they were managed, and no sweat had been collected in 4/5 cases. Of the 102 patients, 42 who started TPM treatment when the study was established were evaluated prospectively regarding oligohidrosis. First, they were questioned about whether hypohidrosis occurred after TPM. Of 42, 11 patients complained of hypohidrosis. A sweat test was then performed on these 11 patients. Sweat could not be obtained in 5/11, and increased chloride concentration was found in 4/11. However, sweat could be obtained in the patients who had no complaint of hypohidrosis. Pediatricians should be aware of this side effect of TPM to prevent nonrelevant and cumbersome investigations in patients with prolonged or intermittent fever onset during TPM treatment. Our findings suggest that 5% of patients would experience hyperthermia during TPM treatment. Hypohidrosis without hyperthermia would be more frequent. If it is possible to collect sweat in patients who get fever during TPM treatment, it would be highly probable that the fever is not due to hypohidrosis. Increased chloride concentration alone does not seem to be significant for the hyperthermia risk. PMID:16363346
Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Tatli, Burak; Yarami?, Ahmet; Aydinli, Nur; Cali?kan, Mine; Ozmen, Meral
This study was performed to assess oral valganciclovir V-GCV (GCV pro-drug), 15 mg/kg bid for 6 weeks to 13 neonates with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV). We monitored plasma levels of GCV within 30 days of therapy: C(trough), and C(2h) (before and the 2 hours after administration), we performed viral assessment in plasma and urine and tolerability at baseline, and every fortnight. Pharmacokinetics showed GCV stable and effective plasma concentrations: mean C(trough) = 0.51 +/- 0.3 and C(2h) : 3.81 +/- 1.37 microg/ml. No significant variability was seen neither intra-patient nor inter-patients. One newborn discontinued therapy because of thrombocytopenia, another finished with a neutrophils count of 1,000/microl. At the end of therapy 6 out of 12 and 8 out of 12 newborns were negative for CMV in urine and plasma. The 4 newborns positive for CMV DNA showed a 90% reduction of pre-therapy values. Clinically, the 4 patients reporting hepatic disease and the 3 with thrombocytopenia recovered after 6 weeks of therapy. Eight newborns suffered from SNHL; at the 6-month follow-up no patients had worsened, 2 had improved, and no deterioration was reported in 3 newborns with chorioretinitis scarring. The paucity of adverse events, and the effectiveness and stability of drug plasma concentrations are the important findings of our study. PMID:19763643
Lombardi, G; Garofoli, F; Villani, P; Tizzoni, M; Angelini, M; Cusato, M; Bollani, L; De Silvestri, A; Regazzi, M; Stronati, M
OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of symptomatic macrovascular disease, as defined by the World Health Organisation questionnaire for intermittent claudication, in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to compare the prevalence in this population with a cross sectional population study group reported in the Edinburgh Artery Study (EAS). METHODS--A group of 53 patients with a diagnosis of limited or diffuse systemic sclerosis were identified from our register. They were asked to complete the WHO questionnaire to establish the presence or absence of intermittent claudication. In addition, each patient's case notes were reviewed to establish the existence of definite peripheral vascular disease and to determine their risk factor profile. RESULTS--Forty six patients responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 87%. Intermittent claudication was found in 10 SSc patients (21.7%) according to the questionnaire (two with diffuse and eight with limited SSc), compared with a prevalence rate of 4.6% for claudication in the EAS. Three SSc patients experienced clinical events attributable to occlusion of a major artery proven on angiography. Four patients had hypertension, there were three current and four ex-smokers, and two had increased total cholesterol. None of these patients had diabetes. CONCLUSIONS--This study demonstrated a greater prevalence of macrovascular disease in patients with SSc than had been found in a neighbouring population.
Veale, D J; Collidge, T A; Belch, J J
The present article is intended to review the clinical profile of chronic catatonias as described by the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard's school of psychiatry: chronic psychoses characterized by a motor profile symptomatology that differs from that present in acute catatonia. PMID:21218202
Derito, María N C; Monchablon Espinoza, Alberto
Background and objectives: Optimal hemoglobin targets for chronic kidney disease patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents remain controversial. The effects of different hemoglobin targets on blood transfusion requirements have not been well characterized, despite their relevance to clinical decision-making. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Five hundred ninety-six incident hemodialysis patients without symptomatic cardiac disease were randomly assigned to hemoglobin targets of 9.5 to 11.5 g/dl or 13.5 to 14.5 g/dl for 96 wk using epoetin alfa as primary therapy and changes in left ventricular structure as the primary outcome (previously reported). Patients were masked to treatment assignment. Blood transfusion data were prospectively collected at 4-wk intervals. Results: The mean age and prior duration of dialysis therapy of the study population were 50.8 and 0.8 yr, respectively. Previously reported mortality was similar in low and high-target subjects, at 4.7 (95% confidence interval 3.0, 7.3) and 3.1 (1.8, 5.4) per hundred patient years, respectively. Transfusion rates were 0.66 (0.59, 0.74) units of blood per year in low and 0.26 (0.22, 0.32) in high-target subjects (P < 0.0001). Hemoglobin level at transfusion (7.7 [7.5, 7.9]) versus 8.1 [7.6, 8.5] g/dl) were similar with both groups. High hemoglobin target was a significant predictor of time to first transfusion independent of baseline associations (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval = 0.26 ? 0.67). Conclusions: In hemodialysis patients with comparatively low mortality risks, normal hemoglobin targets may reduce the need for transfusions.
Foley, Robert N.; Curtis, Bryan M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.
The aims were to investigate the effects of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on autonomic function, gastric distention and tone, and central control mechanisms in gastroparetic patients. Ten gastroparetic patients refractory to standard medical therapy participated in this study and data were collected at baseline, within two weeks before surgery for implantation of GES system, and at follow-up sessions between 6 and 12 weeks after GES therapy was initiated. In each session, electrocardiogram, electrogastrogram (EGG) and gastric barostat measurements were conducted before and after a caloric liquid meal. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) brain scans were performed on a separate day. During GES therapy there was a significant increase in the discomfort threshold for mean pressure from 21 mmHg at baseline to 25 mmHg at follow-up, and for mean volume from 561 mL to 713 mL. A significant increase in the postprandial EGG power (amplitude) was observed between baseline and follow up. The sympathovagal balance was significantly decreased after GES therapy, indicating a significant increase in vagal activity. The cumulative PET data showed an increase in quantitative radioactive counts relative to the standardized data base in both the thalamic and caudate nuclei after chronic GES therapy. We conclude that our data suggest that the symptomatic improvement achieved by GES in gastroparesis is best explained by activation of vagal afferent pathways to influence CNS control mechanisms for nausea and vomiting accompanied by enhanced vagal efferent autonomic function and decreased gastric sensitivity to volume distention which enhances postprandial gastric accommodation. PMID:19719511
McCallum, R W; Dusing, R W; Sarosiek, I; Cocjin, J; Forster, J; Lin, Z
Background: In 1769, William Cullen introduced the word “urticaria” (transient edematous papules, plaque with itching). Urticaria affects 15-25% of people at least once in their life time. It is a clinical reaction pattern triggered by many factors causing the liberation of vasoactive substances such as histamine, prostaglandins and kinins. Urticaria is classified according to its duration into acute (< 6 weeks duration) and chronic (>6 weeks duration). Various clinical investigations may be initiated to diagnosis the cause. Aims: To evaluate the types of chronic urticaria with reference to etiology from history and investigations. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 patients with chronic urticaria of more than six weeks were studied. Autologous serum skin test (ASST) was performed after physical urticarias were excluded. Standard batteries of tests were performed after ASST in all patients; and other specific investigations were done where necessary. Skin prick test was done in idiopathic urticaria. Results: The study sample consisted of 62 male and 88 female patients with a mean age of 21-40 years. About 50% of patients showed an ASST positive reaction, 3.9% were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA), IgE titer was elevated in 37%, H. pylori antibodies was positive in 26.7%. Thyroid antibodies were positive in 6.2%. Giardia and entamoeba histolytica was reported in 3.3% on routine stool examination and on urinalysis 8% had elevated WBC counts; 12% showed para nasal sinusitis, with maxillary sinusitis of 7.3%. Random blood sugar was high in 5.3%. Four patients had ASOM, two had positive KOH mount for dermatophytes, abdominal USG showed cholecystitis in two patients. Recurrent tonsillitis was noted in two patients. Urticaria following intake of NSAIDs was observed in four patients and with oral contraceptive pills in one patient. Contact urticaria to condom (latex) was seen in one patient. Cholinergic (4.7%) and dermographic (4.7%) urticaria were the predominant physical urticarias. Prick test was performed in idiopathic urticaria with maximum reactions to food antigens (25%) where brinjal was the commonest, 9% to dust in which spider web was the most common, 8% to pollen where parthenium and amaranthus were the commonest, followed by A. flavus in fungi, pigeon in epithelia and cockroach in insects. Conclusion: Nearly half of the patients had chronic autoimmune urticaria on the basis of ASST. A significant number of them had serological makers of autoimmune activity. ASST provides an easy, inexpensive investigation in CU and helps direct attention to underlying systemic auto immune diseases. The presence of these auto antibodies was significantly associated with more frequent and longer lasting urticarial attacks. Exhaustive work ups with extensive laboratory diagnostics, challenge tests, and prick testing should be reserved for individual cases following detailed history.
Krupa Shankar, D S; Ramnane, Mukesh; Rajouria, Eliz Aryal
Background Despite its first description over 40 years ago, knowledge of the clinical course of isovaleric acidemia (IVA), a disorder predisposing to severe acidotic episodes during catabolic stress, is still anecdotal. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic presentation and factors determining the neurological and neurocognitive outcomes of patients diagnosed with IVA following clinical manifestation. Methods Retrospective data on 21 children and adults with symptomatic IVA diagnosed from 1976 to 1999 were analyzed for outcome determinants including age at diagnosis and number of catabolic episodes. Sixteen of 21 patients were evaluated cross-sectionally focusing on the neurological and neurocognitive status. Additionally, 155 cases of patients with IVA published in the international literature were reviewed and analyzed for outcome parameters including mortality. Results 57% of study patients (12/21) were diagnosed within the first weeks of life and 43% (9/21) in childhood. An acute metabolic attack was the main cause of diagnostic work-up. 44% of investigated study patients (7/16) showed mild motor dysfunction and only 19% (3/16) had cognitive deficits. No other organ complications were found. The patients' intelligence quotient was not related to the number of catabolic episodes but was inversely related to age at diagnosis. In published cases, mortality was high (33%) if associated with neonatal diagnosis, following manifestation at an average age of 7 days. Conclusions Within the group of "classical" organic acidurias, IVA appears to be exceptional considering its milder neuropathologic implications. The potential to avoid neonatal mortality and to improve neurologic and cognitive outcome under early treatment reinforces IVA to be qualified for newborn screening.
Symptomatic sacroiliac (SI) joint disease is poorly understood. The literature provides no clear aetiology for SI joint pathology, making evaluation and diagnosis challenging. We hypothesised that patients with documented sacroiliac pain might provide insight into the aetiology of these symptoms. Specifically, we questioned whether SI joint symptoms might be associated with abnormal hip radiographs. We reviewed the pelvic and hip radiographs of a prospectively collected cohort of 30 consecutive patients with SI joint pathology. This database included 33 hips from 30 patients. Radiographic analysis included measurements of the lateral centre edge angle, Tönnis angle, and the triangular index, of the ipsilateral hip. Evidence for retrotorsion of the hemipelvis was recorded. Hips were graded on the Tönnis grading system for hip arthrosis. In this cohort 14/33 (42%) of hips had evidence of significant osteoarthrosis indicated by Tönnis grade 2 or greater and 15/33 (45%) displayed subchondral cyst formation around the hip or head neck junction. In assessing acetabular anatomy, 21% (7/33) had retroversion, 12% (4/33) had a lateral centre edge angle >40° with 3% (1/33) >45°. Tönnis angle was <0° in 27% (9/33). Coxa profunda and acetabuli protrusio were present in 47% (17/33) and 3% (1/33), respectively. When femoral head morphology was assessed, 33% (11/33) showed evidence of cam impingement. Overall, 76% (25/33) had at least one abnormality on their hip radiograph. A significant number of patients meeting strict diagnostic criteria for SI joint pain had radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip arthrosis. The clinician should maintain FAI in the differential diagnosis when investigating patients with buttock pain. PMID:23417531
Morgan, Patrick M; Anderson, Anthony W; Swiontkowski, Marc F
The carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a validated marker of cerebrovascular disease risk. This paper presents a new parameter, the IMT variability (IMTV), and compares it between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients taken from a cohort of Italian population. One hundred forty-two patients were analyzed (age 59 ± 112 years, 59% males), 42 of these patients suffered from TIA or minor stroke. The lumen-intima (LI) and media-adventitia (MA) interfaces of the far wall were manually traced by a Reader. We also used a computer-based automated system (called AutoEdge) to obtain the LI/MA interfaces. The LI/MA interfaces were used to measure the IMT and the IMTV along the distal wall of the common carotid artery. Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The agreement between the Reader's IMT and the AutoEdge IMT values was 98.7% for the symptomatic (0.83 ± 0.44 mm for Reader, 0.82 ± 0.35 mm for AutoEdge) and 94.9% for the asymptomatic patients (0.78 ± 0.45 mm for Reader, 0.74 ± 0.30 mm for AutoEdge). Correlation was 65% for symptomatic and 68% for asymptomatic patients, respectively. The IMT measured using AutoEdge was 1.2% lower compared to manual measurements in symptomatic population, while 5.12% lower in asymptomatic. The IMTV was 11% higher in symptomatic patients compared to asymptomatic when using manual delineations, 8% higher when using AutoEdge. There was no statistical difference between the manual and automated IMTV measurements (Wilcoxon signed rank, P > 0.7). We conclude that the IMT and IMTV values were very similar between Reader and AutoEdge software when studying symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in Italian population. PMID:22748012
Saba, Luca; Meiburger, Kristen M; Molinari, Filippo; Ledda, Giuseppe; Anzidei, Michele; Acharya, U Rajendra; Zeng, Guang; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S
The synergism of technical refinement and advanced technology has significantly increased the popularity of infrapopliteal intervention. Since chronic total occlusion (CTO) is a common disorder among patients with symptomatic infrapopliteal artery disease, infrapopliteal CTO intervention is now evolving rapidly in the field of endovascular intervention. Guidewire crossing through the CTO is essential for a successful procedure. We review up-to-date infrapopliteal CTO crossing techniques based on the current literature. PMID:24754287
Kawarada, Osami; Sakamoto, Shingo; Harada, Koichiro; Ishihara, Masaharu; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao
Rationale: Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly causes hospitalization. The change in lung mechanics during exacerbation and its relationship to symptoms in spontane- ously breathing individuals has not been described. Objective: We hypothesized that changes in both airflow and lung volumes would occur during an exacerbation, but that only volume change would relate to symptomatic improvement. Methods: Lung mechanics
Nicola J. Stevenson; Paul P. Walker; Richard W. Costello; Peter M. A. Calverley
Over the course of 18 months 359 patients with defined acute and chronic inner ear disorders who had not responded to treatment with medication were given hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. The inner ear diseases of the patients were divided, based on the duration of their conditions, into four symptomatic groups. Of the patients who had had hearing loss for less
R. J. Kau; K. Sendtner-Gress; U. Ganzer; W. Arnold
This paper presents the first report of the use of topical azathioprine in the management of persistent symptomatic chronic oral graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Topical azathioprine suspension was used as an oral rinse and was swallowed, maintaining the previously prescribed systemic dose of azathioprine, and resulted in improvement in a case of oral GVHD that was resistant to other approaches to
JB Epstein; S Nantel; SM Sheoltch
The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of angina, myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac death, and all-cause death following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study design was based on retrospective, nonrandomized analysis and was set in referral teaching hospitals and community hospitals. Eighty-four chronic dialysis patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease
Ann L. Rinehart; Charles A. Herzog; Allan J. Collins; John M. Flack; Jennie Z. Ma; John A. Opsahl
When diagnosing disease, time is often a more formidable enemy than the pathogen itself. Current detection methods rely primarily on post-symptomatic protein production (i.e. antibodies), which does not occur in noticeable levels until several weeks after...
Myositis ossificans is a rare cause of pain following knee arthroplasty. We describe a 72-year-old woman who developed symptomatic early onset myositis ossificans at the femoral marker pin site following navigated knee arthroplasty. PMID:23022029
Abdul-Jabar, Hani B; Lidder, Surjit; Huf, Sarah W; Dutta, Amitava
PurposeWe sought to quantify prostate tissue changes induced by finasteride and to identify a predictor of finasteride response in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) via a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial.
Leonard S. Marks; Alan W. Partin; Glenn J. Gormley; Frederick J. Dorey; Erlinda D. Shery; Joel B. Garris; Eric N. P. Subong; Elizabeth Stoner; Jean B. deKernion
An 18 month old 14 kg male with symptomatic Brugada syndrome underwent placement of an epicardial automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator using a single coil transvenous lead sutured to the anterolateral aspect of the left ventricle.
Moltedo, Jose M; Abello, Mauricio; Gustavo, Sivori; Javier, Celada; Delucis, Pablo Garcia
An 18 month old 14 kg male with symptomatic Brugada syndrome underwent placement of an epicardial automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator using a single coil transvenous lead sutured to the anterolateral aspect of the left ventricle. PMID:21760684
Moltedo, Jose M; Abello, Mauricio; Gustavo, Sivori; Javier, Celada; Delucis, Pablo Garcia
The classification of the International Headache Society (IHS) generally differentiates episodic from chronic headache. Chronic migraine is defined as headache on 15 and more days a month over more than 3 months and headache on 8 days or more fulfils the criteria for migraine or were triptan/ergot-responsive when thought to be migrainous in early stages of the attack. The prevalence of chronic migraine is estimated at 2-4?%. The quality of life is highly compromised in this condition and comorbidities are much more frequent compared to episodic migraine. Data from prospective randomized studies are scarce as most patients with chronic migraine were excluded from previous trials and only few studies were conducted for this condition. The efficacy for prophylactic treatment compared with placebo is proven for topiramate and onabotulinum toxin A. PMID:24337617
Diener, H C; Holle, D; Müller, D; Nägel, S; Rabe, K
... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...
Symptomatic BK viral infection in the immunocompromised host is well described, most commonly seen in renal transplant recipients, bone marrow transplant recipients, and HIV positive patients. The present case describes a novel clinical scenario of symptomatic urological BK virus infection in a patient receiving treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. This case highlights the importance of casting a wide diagnostic net for adverse events encountered with novel therapeutic agents or regimens.
Acute portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) can cause acute mesenteric ischemia and be fatal with mortality rate of 37%-76%. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt venous revascularization are warranted in patients with acute symptomatic PVMVT. Due to advances in catheter-directed treatment, endovascular treatment has been used for revascularization of affected vessels in PVMVT. We report two cases of symptomatic PVMVT treated successfully by transhepatic percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy-assisted thrombolysis.
Jun, Kang Woong; Kim, Mi Hyeong; Park, Keun Myoung; Chun, Ho Jong; Hong, Kee Chun; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu
BackgroundRelationships between early deficits of lung function, infant airway pathology and outcome in symptomatic infants are unclear. A study was undertaken to determine the associations between early lung function, airway histology and inflammation in symptomatic infants with the continuance of respiratory symptoms, lung function and subsequent use of inhaled asthma medication at the age of 3 years.Methods53 children who underwent
Kristiina Malmström; Anna S Pelkonen; L Pekka Malmberg; Seppo Sarna; Harry Lindahl; Merja Kajosaari; Markku Turpeinen; Sejal Saglani; Andy Bush; Tari Haahtela; Peter K Jeffery; Mika J Mäkelä
PURPOSE: To describe symptomatic pulmonary emboli from brain arteriovenous malformation embolization with liquid acrylates and to analyze the reasons for these complications and describe preventive techniques. METHODS: The clinical records of 182 patients embolized with acrylate glue since 1978 for treatment of brain AVMs were searched for evidence of symptomatic pulmo- nary complications. Originally iso-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and more recently n-butyl-2-cyanoacry- late
David M. Pelz; Stephen P. Lownie; Allan J. Fox; Linda C. Hutton
Background Cord retethering and other postoperative complications can occur after the surgical untethering of a first-time symptomatic\\u000a tethered cord. It is unclear if using duraplasty vs. primary dural closure in the initial operation is associated with decreased\\u000a incidence of either immediate postoperative complications or subsequent symptomatic retethering. It is also unclear if different\\u000a etiologies are associated with different outcomes after each
Roger Samuels; Matthew J. McGirt; Frank J. Attenello; Giannina L. Garcés Ambrossi; Neil Singh; Can Solakoglu; Jon D. Weingart; Benjamin S. Carson; George I. Jallo
Introduction Congenital cytomegalovirus (CCMV) infection is a common neonatal infection affecting 1% of all live births, 10% of which are symptomatic. Many of these infants have long-term sequelae. The objective is to document the clinical presentation of SCCMV infection in neonates, the frequency of sequelae and severity of adverse neurologic outcomes and risk factors.Methods A review and analysis of all symptomatic infants
Ranjit I. Kylat; Edmond N. Kelly; Elizabeth Lee Ford-Jones
Introduction Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of lifestyle interventions in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of dietary supplements in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of drug interventions in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of nerve blocks for pain relief in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of different invasive treatments for specific complications of chronic pancreatitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: avoiding alcohol consumption, biliary decompression, calcium supplements, ductal decompression (endoscopic or surgical), low-fat diet, nerve blocks, opioid analgesics, pancreatic enzyme supplements, pseudocyst decompression (endoscopic or surgical), resection using distal pancreatectomy, resection using pancreaticoduodenectomy (Kausch–Whipple or pylorus-preserving), and vitamin/antioxidant supplements.
Introduction Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of lifestyle interventions in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of dietary supplements in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of drug interventions in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of nerve blocks for pain relief in people with chronic pancreatitis? What are the effects of different invasive treatments for specific complications of chronic pancreatitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 23 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: avoiding alcohol consumption, biliary decompression, calcium supplements, ductal decompression (endoscopic or surgical), low-fat diet, nerve blocks, opioid analgesics, pancreatic enzyme supplements, pseudocyst decompression (endoscopic or surgical), resection using distal pancreatectomy, resection using pancreaticoduodenectomy (Kausch–Whipple or pylorus-preserving), and vitamin/antioxidant supplements.
Exposure to influenza viruses is necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy human hosts to develop symptomatic illness. The host response is an important determinant of disease progression. In order to delineate host molecular responses that differentiate symptomatic and asymptomatic Influenza A infection, we inoculated 17 healthy adults with live influenza (H3N2/Wisconsin) and examined changes in host peripheral blood gene expression at 16 timepoints over 132 hours. Here we present distinct transcriptional dynamics of host responses unique to asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. We show that symptomatic hosts invoke, simultaneously, multiple pattern recognition receptors-mediated antiviral and inflammatory responses that may relate to virus-induced oxidative stress. In contrast, asymptomatic subjects tightly regulate these responses and exhibit elevated expression of genes that function in antioxidant responses and cell-mediated responses. We reveal an ab initio molecular signature that strongly correlates to symptomatic clinical disease and biomarkers whose expression patterns best discriminate early from late phases of infection. Our results establish a temporal pattern of host molecular responses that differentiates symptomatic from asymptomatic infections and reveals an asymptomatic host-unique non-passive response signature, suggesting novel putative molecular targets for both prognostic assessment and ameliorative therapeutic intervention in seasonal and pandemic influenza.
Huang, Yongsheng; Zaas, Aimee K.; Rao, Arvind; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Woolf, Peter J.; Veldman, Timothy; ?ien, N. Christine; McClain, Micah T.; Varkey, Jay B.; Nicholson, Bradley; Carin, Lawrence; Kingsmore, Stephen; Woods, Christopher W.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Hero, Alfred O.
This study assessed the association between daily changes in respiratory health and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the winter of 1990-1991. During the study period, 24-h PM10 concentrations ranged from 7 to 251 micrograms/m3. Participants included symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of fifth- and sixth-grade students. Relatively small but statistically significant (p less than 0.01) negative associations between peak expiratory flow (PEF) and PM10 were observed for both the symptomatic and asymptomatic samples. The association was strongest for the symptomatic children. Large associations between the incidence of respiratory symptoms, especially cough, and PM10 pollution were also observed for both samples. Again the association was strongest for the symptomatic sample. Immediate and delayed PM10 effects were observed. Respiratory symptoms and PEF changes were more closely associated with 5-day moving-average PM10 levels than with concurrent-day levels. These associations were also observed at PM10 levels below the 24-h standard of 150 micrograms/m3. This study indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic children may suffer acute health effects of respirable particulate pollution, with symptomatic children suffering the most.
Pope, C.A. 3d.; Dockery, D.W. (Department of Economics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States))
Abstract Although several reports have revealed that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions in the gallbladder, the positive results of (18)F-FDG PET are not specific for malignancy because (18)F-FDG is also accumulated in inflammatory lesions. It is known that the most important pathway for (18)F-FDG to enter the cell body is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) through GLUT-3. We herein present a case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET. In this case, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 were both positively expressed in inflammatory cells at the gallbladder wall of XGC and this is the first report to reveal GLUT expression in XGC. This report reveals that surgeons should carefully consider the appropriate treatment of gallbladder tumor, even with a positive result on (18)F-FDG PET. PMID:24229026
Sawada, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yutaka; Sekine, Shinichi; Shibuya, Kazuto; Yoshioka, Isaku; Matsui, Koshi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Toru; Nagata, Takuya; Uotani, Hideyuki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro
Antihistamines are the drugs of choice in the symptomatic relief of chronic idiopathic urticaria; however, the usefulness of classic antihistamines has been limited by side effects. In the 1980s a new class of antihistamines has been developed that maintains effectiveness and produces less side effects (eg anticholinergic side effects, daytime sedation, etc). This review analyzes each of the new nonsedating antihistamines commercially available in Spain (astemizole, ebastine, cetirizine, loratadine and terfenadine) and evaluates its clinical efficacy and safety in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. PMID:7572544
Negro, J M; Sarrió, F; Miralles, J C; García Sellés, F J; López Sánchez, J D; Pagán, J a; Hernándéz, J
Background Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is the most devastating complication of thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke. It is not clear whether patients with sICH continue to bleed after diagnosis, nor has the most appropriate treatment been determined. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of our prospectively collected Get With the Guidelines–Stroke database between April 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007. Radiologic images and all procoagulant agents used were reviewed. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Results Of 2362 patients with acute ischemic stroke during the study period, sICH occurred in 19 of the 311 patients (6.1%) who received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and 2 of the 72 (2.8%) who received intra-arterial thrombolysis. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with sICH than in those without (15 of 20 [75.0]% vs 56 of 332 [16.9%], P<.001). Eleven of 20 patients (55.0%) received therapy for co-agulopathy: 7 received fresh frozen plasma; 5, cryoprecipitate; 4, phytonadione (vitamin K1); 3, platelets; and 1, aminocaproic acid. Independent predictors of inhospital mortality included sICH (odds ratio, 32.6; 95% confidence interval, 8.8–120.2), increasing National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (1.2; 1.1–1.2), older age (1.3; 1.0–1.7), and intra-arterial thrombolysis (2.9; 1.4–6.0). Treatment for coagulopathy was not associated with outcome. Continued bleeding (>33% increase in intracerebral hemorrhage volume) occurred in 4 of 10 patients with follow-up scans available (40.0%). Conclusions In many patients with sICH after thrombolysis, coagulopathy goes untreated. Our finding of continued bleeding after diagnosis in 40.0% of patients suggests a powerful opportunity for intervention. A multicenter registry to analyze management of thrombolysis-associated intracerebral hemorrhage and outcomes is warranted.
Goldstein, Joshua N.; Marrero, Marisela; Masrur, Shihab; Pervez, Muhammad; Barrocas, Alex M.; Abdullah, Abdul; Oleinik, Alexandra; Rosand, Jonathan; Smith, Eric E.; Dzik, Walter H.; Schwamm, Lee H.
Cough may be the first overt sign of disease of the airways or lungs when it represents more than a defense mechanism, and may by its persistence become a helpful pointer of potential disease for both patient and physician. On the other hand, impairment or absence of the coughing mechanism can be harmful and even fatal; this is why cough suppression is rarely indicated in childhood. Pediatricians are concerned more with the etiology of the cough and making the right diagnosis. Whereas chronic cough in adults has been universally defined as a cough that lasts more than 8 weeks, in childhood, different timing has been reported. Many reasons support defining a cough that lasts more than 4 weeks in preschool children as chronic, however; and this is particularly true when the cough is wet. During childhood, the respiratory tract and nervous system undergo a series of anatomical and physiological maturation processes that influence the cough reflex. In addition, immunological response undergoes developmental and memorial processes that make infection and congenital abnormalities the overwhelming causes of cough in preschool children. Cough in children should be treated on the basis of etiology, and there is no evidence in support of the use of medication for symptomatic cough relief or adopting empirical approaches. Most cases of chronic cough in preschool age are caused by protracted bacterial bronchitis, tracheobronchomalacia, foreign body aspiration, post-infectious cough or some combination of these. Other causes of chronic cough, such as bronchiectasis, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux, and upper respiratory syndrome appear to be less frequent in this age group. The prevalence of each depends on the population in consideration, the epidemiology of infectious diseases, socioeconomic aspects, and the local health system. PMID:24008117
Kantar, Ahmad; Bernardini, Roberto; Paravati, Francesco; Minasi, Domenico; Sacco, Oliviero
The benefits of bisphosphonates are well documented, but prolonged use has been associated with atypical femur fractures. Radiographic markers for fracture predisposition could potentially aid in safer medication use. In this case-control designed study, we compared hip radiographic parameters and the demographic characteristics of chronic bisphosphonate users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture with a group of chronic bisphosphonate users who did not sustain an atypical femur fracture and also a group who sustained an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Radiographic parameters included were neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip-axis length (HAL) and center-edge angle (CE). Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between radiographic measures and femur fracture. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis determined cut-off points for neck-shaft angle and risk of atypical femur fracture. Ultimately, pre-fracture radiographs of 53 bisphosphonate users who developed atypical fracture were compared with 43 asymptomatic chronic bisphosphonate users and 64 intertrochanteric fracture patients. Duration of bisphosphonate use did not statistically differ between users sustaining atypical fracture and those without fracture (7.9 [±3.5] vs. 7.7 [±3.3] years, p=0.7). Bisphosphonate users who fractured had acute/varus pre-fracture neck-shaft angles (p<0.001), shorter hip-axis length (p<0.01), and narrower center-edge angles (p<0.01). Regression analysis revealed associations between neck-shaft angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.81-0.97; p=0.01), center edge angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.80-0.99]; p=0.03), and BMI (OR=1.15 [95% CI=1.02-1.31; p=0.03) with fracture development. ROC curve analysis (AUC=0.67 [95% CI=0.56-0.79]) determined that a cut-off point for neck-shaft angle <128.3° yielded 69% sensitivity and 63% specificity for development of atypical femoral fracture. Ultimately, an acute/varus angle of the femoral neck, high BMI, and narrow center-edge angle were associated with development of atypical femur fracture in long-term bisphosphonate users. Patients on long-term bisphosphonates should be regularly radiographically evaluated in order to assess for potential risk of atypical fracture. PMID:24565751
Taormina, David P; Marcano, Alejandro I; Karia, Raj; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C
In six males with chronic neurological signs who, 14-41 years previously, had an episode of acute trichinellosis cardinal symptoms were chronic muscle pain and lower-neuron damage. Other findings, probably related to trichinellosis, were episodes of pyrexia, chronic gastro-intestinal and cardiac symptoms, and in one case symptomatic epilepsy with psychomotor attacks. Significant laboratory findings were a chronic leukocytosis in one case, repeated elevations of eosinophil count in three. Muscle biopsy in all patients revealed live trichinella and (or) focal myositis. The serological findings did not correlate with the biopsy ones. If the live trichinae are encapsulated, antibody titres may be negative, while they may be markedly elevated when the trichinellae are dead. Whether encapsulated larvae can be influenced by tiabendazol or mebendazol is not clear from these observations. PMID:7117159
Fröscher, W; Gullotta, F; Saathoff, M
Oncologists recommend chemotherapy to postmenopausal women with adverse prognostic factors, but predictors of the benefit of chemotherapy are mainly based on mortality from symptomatic cancer trials. From 1990 to 1998, 1475 breast cancers (875 screen detected cancers [SDBCs]: 600 symptomatic) were treated in women aged 50-65 years and prognostic factors compared with cancer mortality. Median follow-up was 110 months. The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was calculated for 6737 breast cancers which were part of the Association of Breast Surgery (ABS) 2001/2002 Audit of SDBCs to validate survival figures. Ten year survival was 92.1% for SDBC and 77.6% for symptomatic cancers. Adjusting for baseline factors, SDBCs had a reduced mortality (RR = 0.42 (0.31-0.57), independent of grade, node status and tumour size. Oestrogen receptor (ER) positive SDBC had a lower annual mortality rate (0.6%) compared with symptomatic (4.3%: P < 0.001) or ER negative SDBC (1.8%). Epithelial proliferation was lower in SDBC in all NPI groups compared with symptomatic cancers (P ? 0.001). Grade, node status, ER status, size and mode of detection predicted survival. Survival for each NPI group was better for SDBC. For ER positive SDBC in the Moderate Prognostic Group 1 (MPG1), 10 year mortality was 6.4% compared with 17.6% in symptomatic (P = 0.001). NPI on 6,737 operable SDBC confirmed similar mortality in all groups (4% mortality in MPG1 group). SDBC have lower mortality than symptomatic due to a lower proliferative index. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy is over-treatment for ER positive SDBCs with Good Prognostic Group (GPG) and MPG1 NPI scores. PMID:21744241
Bundred, Nigel J; Prasad, Ramachandran; Morris, Julie; Knox, W Fiona; Byrne, Ged; Cheung, Shan; Wilson, Mary; Lawrence, Gill
Summary Background Splenic artery aneurysm is the third most common abdominal aneurysm. Most often it is due to pancreatitis. There were only 19 cases of aneurysms larger than 5 cm in diameter described in the literature. Management of splenic artery aneurysms depends on the size and symptoms. Invasive treatment modalities involve open procedures and interventional radiology methods (endovascular). Case Reports A 44-years-old male with chronic pancreatitis, in a gradually worsening general condition due to a large splenic artery aneurysm, was subjected to the procedure. Blood flow through the aneurysm was cut-off by implanting a covered stent between celiac trunk and common hepatic artery. Patient’s general condition rapidly improved, allowing discharge home in good state soon after the procedure. Conclusions Percutaneous embolization appears to be the best method of treatment of large splenic artery aneurysms. Complications of such treatment are significantly less dangerous than those associated with surgery.
Kuklinski, Adam; Batycki, Krzysztof; Matuszewski, Wieslaw; Ostrach, Andrzej; Kupis, Zbigniew; Legowik, Tomasz
A 9-year-old boy showed a progressive generalized dystonia, with onset at the age of 4 years, combined with mental deterioration and behavioral disturbances. The values of beta-hexosaminidase activities studied in plasma, leukocytes, and fibroblasts obtained using two different substrates (MUG-NAc and MUG-NAc-6-S) were significantly reduced but higher than in Tay-Sachs disease and similar to those found in the juvenile chronic form of GM2 gangliosidosis. With anticholinergic therapy, for 1.5 years, the dystonic symptoms did not progress and the boy can still care for himself and attend school. The description of another case of the disease, clinically expressed as dystonia, corroborates the existence of a dystonic phenotype of GM2 gangliosidosis. PMID:1532632
Nardocci, N; Bertagnolio, B; Rumi, V; Angelini, L
We present an unusual case of an athletic 17-year-old male cyclist with bilateral chronic dislocating biceps femoris tendons. On flexion of the knee, the biceps tendon subluxed over a large exostosis, creating a snapping sound. Snapping of tendons is common around the hip, ankles, shoulder, and elbow, but rare at the knee. When it does occur, snapping about the knee can be due to discoid meniscus, rheumatoid nodules, synovial plicae, iliotibial band syndrome, congenital snapping knee, and snapping tendons. Research revealed only 5 previous cases due to subluxation of the biceps femoris tendon. The case we present is the only one due to an exostosis, as well as the only one that required bilateral surgical repair. The patient presented when his pain became significant enough to interfere with his ability to continue competitive cycling. PMID:18300673
Fung, Daniel A; Frey, Steven; Markbreiter, Lance
In non-smokers without intake of an ACE-inhibitor, the three most common causes of chronic cough are eosinophilic airways disease (asthma or eosinophilic bronchitis), Upper-airway-cough-syndrome (UACS) and Gastro-esophageal-reflux desease (GERD). In smokers, chronic bronchitis and COPD are common causes as well. In patients with a normal chest X-ray and lack of information on a less frequent cause in history and physical examination, it is recommended therefore to routinely look for these diseases and/or to treat them empirically. PMID:24025176
Schafroth Török, Salome
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We investigated the brainstem blink reflex in patients suffering from idiopathic and symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia to establish possible dysfunction in the reflex cycle and determine eventual differences between the two disease types. The study included 35 patients with idiopathic disease and seven patients with symptomatic disease, their results compared with those of 50 normal controls. We stimulated the forehead afferents of the supraorbital nerve and recorded the response from both orbicularis oculi muscles. We tested latencies of bilateral late components (R2, R2'), irritative R3 component and the incidence of R3 component. The patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia showed normal parameters of blink reflex, except for the greater incidence of R3 component. Patients with symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia showed prolonged latencies of R2, R2' and R3 components when stimulating the afflicted side, but no significant difference in incidence of R3 component compared with the control group. The results indicate that abnormalities of blink reflex are significantly different in the two groups of patients. The high incidence of R3 component seems to be typical of idiopathic disease, whereas the prolonged latencies of late reflex components after stimulation of the afflicted side seem to be typical for symptomatic disease. These results suggest that testing the blink reflex may prove a significant aid in distinguishing the idiopathic and symptomatic disease types. PMID:16053198
Mikula, Ivan; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Negoveti?, Ruzica; Miskov, Snjezana; Demarin, Vida
No medical intervention guideline for prenatally diagnosed symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection (CCMVI) is currently available. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of immunoglobulin fetal therapy for symptomatic CCMVI. With informed consent, hyper-immunoglobulin was injected into the peritoneal cavity of affected fetuses or into the maternal blood in 12 women who had symptomatic CCMVI. After immunoglobulin therapy, ultrasound examinations demonstrated the following changes: Ascites disappearance 57.1% (4/7) and a decrease in ascites volume 14.3% (1/7); improvement in intrauterine growth restriction 54.5% (6/11); disappearance of mild ventriculomegaly 40% (2/5); and in one case hepatomegaly and hydronephrosis disappeared. The survival rate of affected infants was found to be 83.3% (10/12). Concerning morbidity, 25.0% (3/12) of the infants developed normally. An additional two cases had only unilateral hearing difficulty without other sequelae. Therefore, 41.7% (5/12) of symptomatic CCMVI infants whose mothers received prenatal immunoglobulin therapies had no or only minimal sequelae (unilateral hearing difficulty). No direct adverse effects were observed. Immunoglobulin therapy may be effective for symptomatic CCMVI, reducing the incidence and severity of sequelae. To confirm the efficacy, a randomized study should be further performed. PMID:22884280
The carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a validated marker of cerebrovascular disease risk. This work presents a new parameter, the IMT variability (IMTV), and compares the IMT and IMTV in symptomatic and asymptomatic Italian patients. 142 patients were analyzed (age 59±11.2 years, 59% males), 42 of which suffered from TIA (transient ischemic attack) or minor stroke. The lumen-intima (LI) and media-adventitia (MA) interfaces were manually traced by a Reader, and automatically traced by an automated system (AutoEdge). These interfaces were then used to measure the IMT and IMTV along the carotid wall. Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. There was about a 65% correlation between the manual and automated measurements of IMT. There was no statistical difference between the manual and automated IMTV measurements (Wilcoxon signed rank, p>0.7). The observed mean IMT for symptomatic patients (0.83±0.44 mm for Reader vs. 0.82±0.35 mm for AutoEdge) was higher compared to asymptomatic patients (0.78±0.45 mm for Reader vs. 0.74±0.30 mm for AutoEdge). The symptomatic IMTV was about 11% higher than the asymptomatic IMTV when using Reader tracings and 8% higher when using AutoEdge. AutoEdge was very accurate in measuring the IMT and IMTV both for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Results showed that the symptomatic subjects had comparable IMT with respect to asymptomatic subjects, but a higher IMTV value. PMID:23366474
Molinari, Filippo; Meiburger, Kristen M; Saba, Luca; Ledda, Giuseppe; Anzidei, Michele; Acharya, U Rajendra; Zeng, Guang; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit
Background Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare chronic fibrosing inflammatory disease that typically affects the adipose tissue and mesentery of the small intestine but may also affect the mesosigmoid and the mesocolon. The pathology of this disease remains unclear despite association with some malignancies or inflammatory disorders. We report a case of mesocolic panniculitis and a literature review of its clinical presentation, imaging findings, associated conditions and treatment options. Case presentation A 64?year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the gastroenterology department for severe weakness, left lower quadrant abdominal pain, weight loss and diarrhoea. Physical examination revealed a palpable firm mass occupying the entire left part of the abdomen. Abdominal CT-scan showed fatty infiltration of the mesosigmoid and left mesocolic fat which was strongly suggestive of panniculitis. Laparoscopic surgery revealed an inflamed and edematous mesocolon and mesosigmoid; the sigmoid mucosa appeared petechial which was suggestive of venous ischemia. Histological examination of surgical biopsies revealed mesocolic panniculitis. Despite exhaustive investigation, no associated conditions were found and the cause was classified as idiopathic. Surprisingly, the patient clinically improved without therapeutic intervention other than supportive care. Conclusion Although mesenteric panniculitis is most often a radiographic diagnosis without clinical symptomatology, it can also present with significant general status alteration. We report a case of mesocolic panniculitis complicated by development of an inflammatory mass associated with ischemic colitis. Mesenteric panniculitis is a difficult diagnosis to make which typically requires histologic confirmation. The overall prognosis is good with supportive treatment.
Introduction To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of pulpotomy treatment with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in symptomatic mature permanent teeth with carious exposure. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 27-54 years presented with 11 symptomatic permanent teeth (n=11). Each offending carious tooth was clinically and radiographically determined. We removed caries as conservatively as possible; however pulp exposure was inevitable. ProRoot MTA pulpotomy was performed on these teeth. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiographically for 24-42 months. Results Immediate relief of patients` symptoms occurred. Moreover, teeth responses to the electric pulp tester were within normal range on follow-up appointment and the radiographs did not reveal any abnormality/lesion in the periapical areas. Conclusion Pulpotomy using MTA could be a good alternative for root canal therapy (RCT) for managing symptomatic mature permanent teeth with carious exposure, however further large-scale multicenter clinical trials are highly encouraged to confirm this hypothesis.
Barngkgei, Imad Hassan; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Alboni, Roula Safouh
Isolated symptomatic occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a rare condition and until date, only few cases regarding the revascularization of the ACA have been reported. This paper reports on successful attempt to revascularize the ACA using superficial temporal artery (STA) in patient with isolated symptomatic occlusion of the ACA. A 69-year-old man presented with several episodes of transient weakness involving left lower extremity. Cerebral angiography showed occlusion of the right ACA at the A2 segment. After medical treatment failure, the patient underwent STA-ACA bypass surgery. Subsequent to surgery, there was immediate disappearance of transient ischemic attack and follow-up angiography showed favorable revascularization of the ACA territory. Bypass surgery can be considered in the patients with symptomatic occlusion of the ACA, who have experienced failure in medical treatment.
Lee, Sang Chul; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans. A MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was previously associated with symptomatic dengue compared to non-dengue causes of acute febrile illnesses in infants. We measured circulating levels of soluble (s)MICB in the sera of infants with symptomatic primary dengue virus infections. We found that serum levels of sMICB increased between pre-infection and acute illness among infants with symptomatic primary dengue virus infections. The likelihood of being hospitalized with an acute primary DENV infection during infancy also tended to be higher with increasing acute illness sMICB levels. The elevation of sMICB during acute primary DENV infections in infants likely represents an immune evasion strategy and contributes to the severity of the acute illness.
Libraty, Daniel H.; Zhang, Lei; Obcena, AnaMae; Brion, Job D.; Capeding, Rosario Z.
Background and Purpose—Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been reported to reduce restenosis rate after coronary angioplasty and stenting. This study was performed to investigate the effect of cilostazol on the progression of intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS). Methods—We randomized 135 patients with acute symptomatic stenosis in the M1 segment of middle cerebral artery or the basilar artery to either cilostazol 200
Sun U. Kwon; Yong-Jin Cho; Ja-Seong Koo; Hee-Joon Bae; Yong-Seok Lee; Keun-Sik Hong; Jun Hong Lee; Jong S. Kim
Objectives- To characterize the 3D Doppler sonographic appearance of the uterine cavity in asymptomatic and symptomatic women after administration of mifepristone and misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy. Methods- A prospective observational study was performed. Women admitted for medical termination of pregnancy underwent transvaginal sonography 15 days after the procedure. Volumes were acquired, and offline analyses of the 3D vascularization indices were performed. Outcomes were collected at the follow-up scan and by telephone after the termination. Women were subclassified as asymptomatic or symptomatic according to the presence/absence of fever, vaginal bleeding, abdominal/pelvic pain, and infections. Spotting was defined as any episodic vaginal bleeding that was less than an expected menstruation and not regarded as a symptom. Results- A total of 104 women who underwent medical termination of pregnancy between 6 and 9 weeks' gestation were enrolled in the study. The termination procedure was successful in 98% of cases; among them, 9 women (8.6%) were symptomatic due to bleeding. Two asymptomatic women required surgery; 1 had sonographic evidence of suspected retained products of conception (endometrial thickness ?15 mm or power Doppler vascularization presence). Fifty-seven women (55%) presented with retained products of conception. All the women with suspected retained products regained normal menses; of these, 3 symptomatic women with retained products (2.9%) underwent a 1-month sonographic follow-up. The symptomatic status was not associated with endometrial thickness, 3D intrauterine mass volume, or 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D power Doppler appearances. Conclusions- The necessity of surgery after medical termination of pregnancy cannot be predicted by sonography. In cases with sonographic evidence of suspected retained products of conception, endometrial thickness, 2D Doppler findings, and the 3D vascularization indices correlated poorly with bleeding symptoms. Long-term follow-up should be considered in symptomatic women, and it can avoid any unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:24764340
Napolitano, Raffaele; Ghosh, Madhu; Gillott, David J; Ojha, Kamal
Background Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a quality measure recorded by initiatives such as the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). However, because surveillance-detected DVT rates may be higher than symptomatic DVT rates, we examined how differences in the method of DVT detection may affect the use of this quality measure. Methods Using the NSQIP database (2007–2009), we compared DVT rates of vascular (amputation, open aortic procedures, and lower extremity bypass) and nonvascular (prostatectomy, gastric bypass [GBP], and hip arthroplasty) operations. Using a predefined literature search strategy, we compared the incidence of DVT in NSQIP to the incidence of DVT reported in published literature, diagnosed by symptomatic status or by surveillance studies. Results Within NSQIP, the overall incidence of postoperative DVT was 0.7%. This varied from 0.3% after GBP to 1.8% after open aortic surgery. Across all procedures except amputation, the incidence of DVT in NSQIP was similar to the incidence of DVT reported in our literature survey of “symptomatic” DVTs. The relative rate (RR) of literature-derived symptomatic DVTs to NSQIP ranged from 0.7 for aortic cases (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–1.7) to 1.4 (95% CI, .7–3.1) for GBP. Overall, surveillance studies had 11.6 higher RR of DVT compared to NSQIP (95% CI, 10.5–13), ranging from 2.6 for GBP (95% CI, 1.4–5) to 14 .5 for hip arthroplasty (95% CI, 10.5–20). Conclusions The incidence of DVT reported in NSQIP is similar to the reported incidence of symptomatic DVT for many high-risk procedures but is much lower than rates of DVT reported in surveillance studies. Clear delineation of symptomatic vs surveillance detection of DVT would improve the usefulness of this measurement in quality improvement registries.
De Martino, Randall R.; Beck, Adam W.; Edwards, Matthew S.; Corriere, Matthew A.; Wallaert, Jessica B.; Stone, David H.; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Goodney, Philip P.
Patient: Male, 60 Final Diagnosis: Iatrogenic intercostal lung hernia Symptoms: — Medication: No medication Clinical Procedure: Surgically cerrected Specialty: Thoracic surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Iatrogenic intercostal lung hernia is a rare thoracic pathology. Injury of intercostal muscles and costocondral separation during median sternotomy and sternal dehiscence surgery are important factors in the development of hernia. We report for the first time a case of a 60-year-old man with acquired lung hernia after sternal dehiscence surgery, presenting as chest pain and exertional dyspnea. Case Report: A 60-year-old man presented with a 6-week history of progressive exertional dyspnea, particularly following vigorous coughing. Past medical history included slight chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery 8 weeks previously, using the left internal mammary artery for the left anterior descending artery via median sternotomy and sternal dehiscence by the Robicsek method. A chest X-ray showed intact sternal and parasternal wires, but the bilateral lung parenchyma appeared normal. A spiral computed tomography scan of the chest found intercostal herniation of the anterior segment of the left upper lobe. The lung hernia was repaired surgically to relieve exertional dyspnea and incarceration, and to improve respiratory function. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient recovered well. Conclusions: Intercostal lung hernia after median sternotomy and sternal dehiscence surgery is rare, and it has been previously reported on. Preventive techniques include gentle manipulation of the sternal retractor, avoidance of rib fractures, and using a protective method of intercostal arteries and nerves such as Sharma technique. Thoracic surgeons should be aware of this rare complication in sternal dehiscence surgery.
Celik, Sezai; Aydemir, Cuneyt; Gurer, Onur; Is?k, Omer
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH.
Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.
This report describes a patient with symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection who was unable to tolerate nitroimidazole drugs because of severe hypersensitivity, for which desensitisation was not possible. Use of intravaginal clotrimazole, intravaginal paromomycin, intravaginal furazolidone, povidone-iodine douches, and oral nitazoxanide were unsuccessful in eradicating the patient's T. vaginalis infection. A 2-month course of intravaginal topical boric acid subsequently achieved a complete symptomatic cure and the patient remained T. vaginalis wet prep- and culture-negative 60 days after treatment. PMID:22877600
Muzny, Christina; Barnes, Arti; Mena, Leandro
Purpose To evaluate the mid-term clinical results and patient satisfaction following uterine artery embolization (UAE) in women with\\u000a symptomatic fibroids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Between August 1998 and December 2002, 135 patients had UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. All patients were asked to fill\\u000a in a questionnaire. Questions were aimed at changes in bleeding, pain, and bulk-related symptoms. Symptoms after UAE were\\u000a scored as disappeared,
Albert J. Smeets; Paul N. M. Lohle; Harry A. M. Vervest; P. Focco Boekkooi; Leo E. H. Lampmann
Recently, surgical treatment of a symptomatic unicameral cyst of the proximal femur has been achieved with less invasive procedures than traditional open curettage with an autologous bone graft. In this article we introduce endoscopic surgery for a symptomatic unicameral cyst of the proximal femur. The presented technique, which includes minimally invasive endoscopic curettage of the cyst and injection of a bone substitute, not only minimizes muscle damage around the femur but also enables sufficient curettage of the fibrous membrane in the cyst wall and the bony septum through direct detailed visualization by an endoscope. Furthermore, sufficient initial strength after curettage can be obtained by injecting calcium phosphate cement as a bone substitute.
Miyamoto, Wataru; Takao, Masato; Yasui, Youichi; Miki, Shinya; Matsushita, Takashi
This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of several uncultivated phylotypes and newly named bacterial species in symptomatic endodontic infections. Samples taken from cases clinically diagnosed as acute periradicular abscesses or acute periradicular periodontitis were surveyed for the presence of 12 taxa by means of a 16S rRNA-gene-based nested or hemi-nested PCR assay. The most prevalent of the target taxa were Dialister invisus, Olsenella uli, Granulicatella adiacens, and Synergistes clones BA121 and E3_33. Findings revealed that novel phylotypes and newly named species can take part in the microbiota associated with symptomatic endodontic infections and a pathogenetic role is suspected. PMID:16099112
Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F
The lack of information about management of chronic constipation in children amidst general physicians has necessitated this review. A literature search in PubMed was conducted with regard to epidemiology, clinical features, investigation and management of chronic constipation in children. English language studies published over the last 20 y were considered and relevant information was extracted. Constipation is a common problem among children; the commonest cause is functional (95 %). An elaborate history and thorough physical examination are only essential things required to make a diagnosis of functional constipation. Management consists of disimpaction, followed by maintenance therapy with oral laxative, dietary modification and toilet training. A regular follow-up with slow tapering of laxative is the must for effective treatment. Early withdrawal of laxative is the commonest cause of recurrence. PMID:23943571
Urticaria affects 15% to 20% of the population once or more during a lifetime. Chronic urticaria is a frequent recurrent eruption over a period greater than 6 weeks; the cause remains a mystery in more than 75% of cases. Urticaria and angioedema may be produced by immunologic or nonimmunologic means. Urticarial vasculitis, contact urticaria, mastocytosis, physical urticarias, dermatographism, cholinergic urticaria, localized heat urticaria, cold urticaria, aquagenic urticaria, and vibratory angioedema all require specific evaluation and treatment. Chronic idiopathic urticaria is usually controlled by antihistamines; depending on the circadian rhythm of the eruption, sedative or nonsedative antihistamines are prescribed. Some patients will require a combination of H1 and H2 antagonists, or even parenteral corticosteroids.
Burrall, B. A.; Halpern, G. M.; Huntley, A. C.
Recent data suggest that Alzheimer's patients who discontinue treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors have a significantly delayed cognitive decline as compared to patients receiving placebo. Such observations suggest cholinesterase inhibitors to provide a disease-modifying effect as well as symptomatic relief and, moreover, that this benefit remains after drug withdrawal. Consistent with this suggestion, we now demonstrate that chronic administration of tacrine,
Keith J Murphy; Andrew G Foley; Alan W O'Connell; Ciaran M Regan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of standardized French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol® in patients with severe chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). 98 subjects with symptomatic CVI and edema were randomly assigned to one group treated with 150mg Pycnogenol a day only, another group with stockings only and a third group with both Pycnogenol and
M. R. Cesarone; G. Belcaro; P. Rohdewald; L. Pellegrini; A. Ledda; G. Vinciguerra; A. Ricci; E. Ippolito; F. Fano; M. Dugall; M. Cacchio; A. Di Renzo; M. Hosoi; S. Stuard; M. Corsi
Opinion statement Chronic diarrhea can be due to any of several hundred conditions. When investigation fails to uncover a specific cause that\\u000a can be treated successfully, nonspecific therapy is implemented. This includes dietary alterations if specific aggravating\\u000a foods can be identified, enteral or parenteral nutrition if nutritional status is compromised, and use of oral rehydration\\u000a solutions if diarrhea produces volume depletion.
Lawrence R. Schiller
Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking
Sharon R. Schatz
Although research on neural tissue repair has made enormous progress in recent years, spinal cord injury remains a devastating condition for which there is still no cure. In fact, recent estimates of prevalence in the United States reveal that spinal cord injury has undergone a five-fold increase in the last decades. Though, it has become the second most common neurological problem in North America after Alzheimer's disease. Despite modern trauma units and intensive care treatments, spinal cord injury remains associated with several comorbid conditions and unbearable health care costs. Regular administration of a plethora of symptomatic drug treatments aimed at controlling related-secondary complications and life-threatening problems in chronic spinal cord-injured patients has recently been reported. This article provides a thorough overview of the main drug classes and products currently used or in development for chronic spinal cord injury. Special attention is paid to a novel class of drug treatment designed to provide a holistic solution for several chronic complications and diseases related with spinal cord injury. There is clear evidence showing that new class can elicit 'on-demand' episodes of rhythmic and stereotyped walking activity in previously completely paraplegic animals and may consequently constitute a simple therapy against several physical inactivity-related comorbid problems. Understanding further pharmacological approaches to chronic spinal cord injury may improve both life expectancy and overall quality of life while reducing unsustainable cost increases associated with this debilitation condition. PMID:23360274
Steuer, Inge; Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A
Chronic urticaria is highly prevalent in the general population, and while there are multiple treatments for the disorder, the results obtained are not completely satisfactory. The second-generation H1 antihistamines remain the symptomatic treatment option of choice. Depending on the different pharmacokinetics and H1 receptor affinity of each drug substance, different concentrations in skin can be expected, together with different efficacy in relation to the histamine-induced wheal inhibition test--though this does not necessarily have repercussions upon clinical response. The antiinflammatory properties of the H1 antihistamines could be of relevance in chronic urticaria, though it is not clear to what degree they influence the final therapeutic result. Before moving on to another therapeutic level, the advisability of antihistamine dose escalation should be considered, involving increments even above those approved in the Summary of Product Characteristics. Physical urticaria, when manifesting isolatedly, tends to respond well to H1 antihistamines, with the exception of genuine solar urticaria and delayed pressure urticaria. In some cases of chronic urticaria, the combination of H2 antihistamines may prove effective--though only with common liver metabolism (CYP3A4 isoenzyme-mediated) H1 antihistamines, due to the existence of mutual metabolic interferences. The role of leukotriene antagonists associated to antihistamines in application to chronic urticaria remains to be clearly defined. PMID:18228682
Jáuregui, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Dávila, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A
This article reports long-term infection and treatment failure in 18 symptomatic individuals infected with Blastocystis spp. Patients were initially treated with either metronidazole, iodoquinol or triple combination therapy consisting of nitazoxanide, furazolidone and secnidazole. Following treatment, resolution of clinical symptoms did not occur and follow-up testing revealed ongoing infection with the same subtype. Patients then underwent secondary treatment with a variety of antimicrobial agents but remained symptomatic with Blastocystis spp. still present in faeces. Sequencing of the SSU rDNA was completed on all isolates and four subtypes were identified in this group: ST1, ST3, ST4 and ST5. This study highlights the lack of efficacy of several commonly used antimicrobial regimens in the treatment of Blastocystis and the chronic nature of some infections. It also demonstrates the need for further research into treatment options for Blastocystis infection. PMID:24243286
Roberts, Tamalee; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Stark, Damien
Symptomatic cavum septi pellucidi is a rare occurrence. Clinically, it can manifest with persistent or intermittent symptoms of internal hydrocephalus and consciousness disorders, simulating a colloid cyst of the third ventricle, possibly with mental symptoms, focal deficits, epilepsy, ataxia and pyramidal signs. This is a case of a 24-year-old woman with persistent symptoms of hydrocephalus due to obstruction of the
Monaco Pierfrancesco; Filippi Stefania; Mascari Carmelo; Godano Umberto
Summary The cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) and cavum Vergae (CV) are persistent, primitive, or acquired, midline structures of adult human brain. It is customary to distinguish between the non-communicating and the communicating cava, depending on whether the cavum communicates with the cerebral ventricular system or not. Only a few cases of symptomatic non-communicating cava, called septum pellucidum and cavum Vergae
E. Ronsin; D. Grosskopf; J. Perre
Objective: To find vertebral metastases with high risk of symptomatic malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC), features of vertebral metastases caused motor deficits of the lower extremities were examined. Methods: From 2004 through 2006, 78 patients with metastases of the thoracic and\\/or the cervical spine were treated with radiation therapy (RT). Of these, 86 irradiated lesions in 73 patients were evaluable
Yasushi Hamamoto; Masaaki Kataoka; Takatoshi Senba; Kotaro Uwatsu; Yoshifumi Sugawara; Takeshi Inoue; Shinya Sakai; Shoji Aono; Tadaaki Takahashi; Shogo Oda
We report the placement of a covered stent within the internal iliac vein (IIV) to occlude a symptomatic iatrogenic internal iliac arteriovenous fistula following an abdominal aortic graft. Angiography revealed a direct communication between an internal iliac graft to artery anastomosis and the right IIV with rapid shunting into the inferior vena cava and a small associated pseudoaneurysm. Femoral, brachial
P. Cronin; S. J. McPherson; J. F. Meaney; A. Mavor
To diagnosis symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) using peripheral blood rather than tissue aspirates, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for which the detection limit is 1 Leishmania-infected macrophage in 8 mL of blood. ...
E. Nuzum F. White C. Thakur R. Dietze J. Wages
Twelve wrists in 10 patients with a mean age of 23.6 years were treated for symptomatic increased ulnar inclination of the joint surface with corrective osteotomy of the radius. Diagnoses included mild ulnar dysplasia, posttraumatic deformity, Madelung's disease, and multiple hereditary exostosis. All patients had radial-sided wrist pain and an ulnarly displaced arc of radioulnar deviation. Preoperative radiographs showed excessive
Diego L. Fernandez; John T. Capo; Eduardo Gonzalez
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of testing for fetal fibronectin (fFN) to rule out the diagnosis of preterm labour in symptomatic patients in a Canadian setting. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded clinical evaluation of fFN testing in women presenting with threatened preterm labour at between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation at two Canadian tertiary care
Amanda Skoll; Neda Amiri; Marie-France Delisle; Sayrin Lalji; Montreal QC
Fluid in the subacromial bursa (SAB) is a common finding on magnetic resonance (MR) images of the shoulder, and the implications of this finding have not been clarified. We retrospectively reviewed and correlated the MR features with arthroscopic findings in 21 symptomatic patients who had fluid in the SAB on MR imaging without demonstrable rotator cuff tear. Rotator cuff impingement
Johnny U. V. Monu; Steven Pruett; William J. Vanarthos; Thomas L. Pope
Twenty-five patients with symptomatic uncemented total hip components were studied with contrast arthrography prior to surgical exploration. All but one had uncemented femoral stems and 16 had an uncemented acetabular component. As judged by the findings at surgery, on the femoral side the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of arthrography were 57%, 60%, and 58% respectively. There was a relatively high
Robert L. Barrack; Michael Tanzer; Susan V. Kattapuram; William H. Harris
Putative etiology was studied in 991 patients with symptomatic localization-related epilepsies seen in a university hospital in South India. They formed 39% of patients with various types of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes seen during the study period. Seizure occurred in close temporal association with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult in 53% of patients. Infections of CNS including single
J. M. K Murthy; Ravi Yangala
Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a rare syndrome characterized by the triad of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, pigmentary retinopathy and cardiac conduction system disturbances; it is a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with which usually presents before the patient reaches the age of 20. Here we present a case report of a patient with KSS who presented with symptomatic complete heart block. PMID:23102393
Puri, Aniket; Pradhan, Akshyaya; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Singh, Vikas; Sethi, Rishi; Narain, Varun S
This longitudinal population-based study documents the incidence of all symptomatic fractures from 1989 to 1992 in an elderly, predominantly Caucasian population of males and females (?60 years as at 1 January 1989) living in the geographically isolated region of the city of Dubbo, NSW, Australia. Fractures were ascertained by reviewing reports from all radiology services in the region. There were
G. Jones; T. Nguyen; P. N. Sambrook; P. J. Kelly; C. Gilbert; J. A. Eisman
A series of 95 eyes (93 patients) with retinal breaks, high-risk candidates for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, were treated prophylactically with argon laser photocoagulation (ALP). Group A comprised 74 eyes with flap symptomatic tears. In 28 of these (subgroup A (1)) the size of the tear was smaller than 1 disc diameter and greater than 1\\/3 disc diameter. In 46 eyes
A Pollak; M Oliver
OBJECTIVE. Gastroesophageal anastomotic leak after cancer resection has a mortality rate of up to 60% and significant morbidity, whatever the mode of treatment. We assessed the efficacy of esophageal stenting as a therapeutic option to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with symptomatic intrathoracic anastomotic leakage. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. During a 52-month period, 14 patients had placement of stents for
Shuvro H. Roy-Choudhury; Anthony A. Nicholson; Kevin R. Wedgwood; Richard A. J. Mannion; Peter C. Sedman; Christopher M. S. Royston; David J. Breen
Background and purpose There are limited data on the causes and severity of subsequent stroke in patients presenting initially with TIA or stroke attributed to intracranial arterial stenosis. Methods We evaluated the location, type (lacunar vs. non-lacunar), cause, and severity of stroke in patients who had an ischemic stroke endpoint in the Warfarin Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial. Results Of the 569 patients enrolled in the WASID trial, 106 patients (18.6%) had an ischemic stroke during a mean follow-up of 1.8 years. Stroke occurred in the territory of the symptomatic artery in 77 (73%) of 106 patients. Among the 77 strokes in the territory, 70 (91%) were non-lacunar and 34 (44%) were disabling. Stroke out of the territory of the symptomatic artery occurred in 29 (27%) of 106 patients. Among these 29 strokes, 24 (83%) were non-lacunar, 14 (48%) were due to previously asymptomatic intracranial stenosis, and 9 (31%) were disabling. Conclusions Most subsequent strokes in patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis are in the same territory and non-lacunar, and nearly half of the strokes in the territory are disabling. The most commonly identified cause of stroke out of the territory was a previously asymptomatic intracranial stenosis. Penetrating artery disease was responsible for a low number of strokes.
Famakin, Bolanle M; Chimowitz, Marc I; Lynn, Michael J; Stern, Barney J; George, Mary G.
Study Objective: This study was conducted to prospectively measure the accuracy of serum progesterone levels to detect ectopic pregnancy. Methods: Seven hundred sixteen symptomatic first-trimester emergency department patients with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding at a tertiary care military teaching hospital had progesterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay with results unavailable to the treating physician. All patients were monitored until a
Robert G. Buckley; Kerry J. King; Jeffrey D. Disney; Robert H. Riffenburgh; John D. Gorman; Jack H. Klausen
Objective: Since there is no current consensus on the diagnos- tic standards or surgical indications for symptomatic cysts of the septum pellucidum (CSP), we presented our experience treating such cases with neuroendoscopic surgery in order to possibly make a contribution to the attainment of such a consensus. Methods: In the last 5 years, we effectively treated 5 patients (4 males
Tamotsu Miki; Jun Wada; Nobuyuki Nakajima; Tadayoshi Inaji; Jiro Akimoto; Jo Haraoka
Previous studies of visually symptomatic dyslexics have found that their contrast thresholds for pattern discrimination are the same as non-dyslexics. However, when noise is added to the stimuli, contrast thresholds rise markedly in dyslexics compared with non-dyslexics. This result could be due to impaired noise exclusion in dyslexics. Some…
Northway, Nadia; Manahilov, Velitchko; Simpson, William
Management of urinary tract infections (UTI) in Central America and especially Nicaragua, is complicated by the lack of knowledge about the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens. We conducted a prevalence study to gain more insight into the aetiology, bacterial resistance and risk factors for symptomatic UTI in the region of León, Nicaragua. In 2002, all consecutive patients with UTI symptoms and
A. J Matute; E Hak; C. A. M Schurink; A McArthur; E Alonso; M Paniagua; E van Asbeck; A. M Roskott; F Froeling; M Rozenberg-Arska; I. M Hoepelman
Pelvic floor function has been studied in 27 women with symptomatic utero-vaginal prolapse and 15 age-matched control subjects. There was no evidence in the patients on physiological testing of significant denervation of the pelvic floor muscles, with no significant difference in the maximum resting and squeeze anal pressures, the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency or external anal sphincter fibre density
M. A. Beevors; D. Z. Lubowski; D. W. King; M. A. Carlton
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of newer Fontan modifications (lateral tunnel with or without fenestration) and patient's age at surgery on the incidence and impact of symptomatic postoperative early and intermediate arrhythmias. Modifications to the Fontan procedure are used to decrease postoperative complications, and the Fontan procedure is now being performed on younger patients to
Frank Cecchin; Christopher L Johnsrude; James C. Perry; Richard A. Friedman
There is still considerable uncertainty about the place of carotid stenting in patients with recently symptomatic carotid bifurcation stenosis. Most reviews of carotid endarterectomy versus carotid stenting concentrate on technical aspects and advances in stenting, but the techniques involved in both carotid endarterectomy and stenting are evolving. In addition to reviewing the results of the various randomised controlled trials of
Peter M. Rothwell
The clinical relevance of symptomatic extension of spontaneous, acute, symptomatic, lower-limb superficial-vein thrombosis (SVT) is debated. We performed a post hoc analysis of a double-blind trial comparing fondaparinux with placebo. The main study outcome was SVT extension by day 77, whether to ? 3 cm or > 3 cm from the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ). All events were objectively confirmed and validated by an adjudication committee. With placebo (n = 1500), symptomatic SVT extension to ? 3 cm or > 3 cm from the SFJ occurred in 54 (3.6%) and 56 (3.7%) patients, respectively, inducing comparable medical resource consumption (eg, anticoagulant drugs and SFJ ligation); subsequent deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred in 9.3% (5/54) and 8.9% (5/56) of patients, respectively. Fondaparinux was associated with lower incidences of SVT extension to ? 3 cm (0.3%; 5/1502; P < .001) and > 3 cm (0.8%; 12/1502; P < .001) from the SFJ and reduced related use of medical resources; no subsequent deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism was observed in fondaparinux patients. Thus, symptomatic extensions are common SVT complications and, whether or not reaching the SFJ, are associated with a significant risk of venous thromboembolic complications and medical resource consumption, all reduced by fondaparinux. PMID:23821661
Leizorovicz, Alain; Becker, François; Buchmüller, Andrea; Quéré, Isabelle; Prandoni, Paolo; Decousus, Hervé
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia in infancy and childhood (SHIC), may be an early manifestation of a primary immunodeficiency or a maturational delay in the normal production of immunoglobulins (Ig). We aimed to evaluate the natural course of SHIC and correlate in vitro lymphoproliferative and secretory responses with recovery of immunoglobulin values and clinical resolution. METHODS: Children, older than 1 year of
Mona Iancovici Kidon; Zeev T Handzel; Rivka Schwartz; Irit Altboum; Michael Stein; Israel Zan-Bar
Background: Zenker's diverticulum is associated with characteristic symptoms of progressive dysphagia and regurgitation. As most patients are elderly, the perioperative risk is usually high. We report our clinical experience with the transoral endoscopic staple-assisted method, including a thorough assessment of the symptomatic relief achieved by the procedure. Methods: 46 consecutive patients (29 m, 17 f) with a median age of
C. Chiari; W. Yeganehfar; M. Scharitzer; M. Mittlböck; C. Armbruster; R. Roka; R. Függer; E. Wenzl; P. Pokieser; G. Bischof
Summary A double blind crossover study with placebo and carbamazepine was done in 30 diabetic patients who presented diverse clinical types of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. The active drug offered symptomatic relief of all sensory manifestations in 28 cases. No effort was made to assess the action of carbamazepine upon motor or visceral manifestations of neuropathy. There were two complete failures. Untoward
J. A. Rull; R. Quibrera; H. González-Millán; O. Lozano Castañeda
As the life expectancy for men increases, more cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) will be expected. Symptomatic BPH causes morbidity and can lower the quality of life. We investigated whether short-term administration of a herbal preparation known as PR-2000 could improved BPH symptom in men. Thirty patients with moderate to severe symptomatic BPH were treated with PR-2000, 2 tablets
Urticaria is a common condition that occurs in both children and adults. Most cases have no specific allergic trigger and the aetiology of urticaria remains idiopathic and occasionally spontaneous in nature. Inappropriate advice such as avoidance of foods (milk, egg, prawn, and brinjal) is common place in certain sections of India mostly by nonspecialists that should not be routinely recommended. It is important to look for physical urticarias such as pressure urticaria in chronic cases, which may be present either alone or in combination with other causes. Autoimmune causes for chronic urticaria have been found to play an important role in a significant proportion of patients. Long-acting nonsedating antihistamines at higher than the standard doses is safe and effective. Quality of life is affected adversely in patients with chronic symptomatic urticaria and some may require multidisciplinary management. PMID:24223585
Khan, Sujoy; Maitra, Anirban; Hissaria, Pravin; Roy, Sitesh; Padukudru Anand, Mahesh; Nag, Nalin; Singh, Harpal
Urticaria is a common condition that occurs in both children and adults. Most cases have no specific allergic trigger and the aetiology of urticaria remains idiopathic and occasionally spontaneous in nature. Inappropriate advice such as avoidance of foods (milk, egg, prawn, and brinjal) is common place in certain sections of India mostly by nonspecialists that should not be routinely recommended. It is important to look for physical urticarias such as pressure urticaria in chronic cases, which may be present either alone or in combination with other causes. Autoimmune causes for chronic urticaria have been found to play an important role in a significant proportion of patients. Long-acting nonsedating antihistamines at higher than the standard doses is safe and effective. Quality of life is affected adversely in patients with chronic symptomatic urticaria and some may require multidisciplinary management.
Khan, Sujoy; Maitra, Anirban; Hissaria, Pravin; Roy, Sitesh; Padukudru Anand, Mahesh; Nag, Nalin; Singh, Harpal
Object Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is frequently used to evaluate peripheral cerebral resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the middle cerebral artery prior to and during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis may have reduced peripheral cerebral resistance to compensate for inadequate CBF. The authors aim to determine whether symptomatic patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance prior to CEA demonstrate increased CBF and cognitive improvement as early as 1 day after CEA. Methods Fifty-three patients with symptomatic CEA were included in this observational study. All patients underwent neuropsychometric evaluation 24 hours or less preoperatively and 1 day postoperatively. The MCA was evaluated using TCD for CBF mean velocity (MV) and pulsatility index (PI). Pulsatility index ? 0.80 was used as a cutoff for reduced peripheral cerebral resistance. Results Significantly more patients with baseline PI ? 0.80 exhibited cognitive improvement 1 day after CEA than those with PI > 0.80 (35.0% vs 6.1%, p = 0.007). Patients with cognitive improvement had a significantly greater increase in CBF MV than patients without cognitive improvement (13.4 ± 17.1 cm/sec vs 4.3 ± 9.9 cm/sec, p = 0.03). In multivariate regression model, a baseline PI ? 0.80 was significantly associated with increased odds of cognitive improvement (OR 7.32 [1.40–59.49], p = 0.02). Conclusions Symptomatic CEA patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance, measured as PI ? 0.80, are likely to have increased CBF and improved cognitive performance as early as 1 day after CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Revascularization in this cohort may afford benefits beyond prevention of future stroke. Clinical trial registration no: NCT00597883 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Heyer, Eric J.; Mergeche, Joanna L.; Connolly, E. Sander
Background Recent evidence suggests that less than one-quarter of patients with symptomatic nosocomial Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are linked to other in-patients. However, this evidence was limited to one geographic area. We aimed to investigate the level of symptomatic CDI transmission in hospitals located across England from 2008 to 2012. Methods A generalized additive mixed-effects Poisson model was fitted to English hospital-surveillance data. After adjusting for seasonal fluctuations and between-hospital variation in reported CDI over time, possible clustering (transmission between symptomatic in-patients) of CDI cases was identified. We hypothesised that a temporal proximity would be reflected in the degree of correlation between in-hospital CDI cases per week. This correlation was modelled through a latent autoregressive structure of order 1 (AR(1)). Findings Forty-six hospitals (33 general, seven specialist, and six teaching hospitals) located in all English regions met our criteria. In total, 12,717 CDI cases were identified; seventy-five per cent of these occurred >48 hours after admission. There were slight increases in reports during winter months. We found a low, but statistically significant, correlation between successive weekly CDI case incidences (phi?=?0.029, 95%CI: 0.009–0.049). This correlation was five times stronger in a subgroup analysis restricted to teaching hospitals (phi?=?0.104, 95%CI: 0.048–0.159). Conclusions The results suggest that symptomatic patient-to-patient transmission has been a source of CDI-acquisition in English hospitals in recent years, and that this might be a more important transmission route in teaching hospitals. Nonetheless, the weak correlation indicates that, in line with recent evidence, symptomatic cases might not be the primary source of nosocomial CDI in England.
van Kleef, Esther; Gasparrini, Antonio; Guy, Rebecca; Cookson, Barry; Hope, Russell; Jit, Mark; Robotham, Julie V.; Deeny, Sarah R.; Edmunds, W. John
Purpose This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subjects with no traumatic history, and to assess their impact on clinical and radiographic manifestations of TMJ. Materials and Methods A total of 3,046 asymptomatic and 4,378 symptomatic patients were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reviewed for bifid condyles. T-tests were used to compare the frequency of BMCs when stratified by symptom, gender, and side. In BMC patients, the clinical features of pain and noise, osseous changes, and parasagittal positioning of the condyles were compared between the normally shaped condyle side and the BMC side using chi-squared tests. Results Fifteen (0.49%) asymptomatic and 22 (0.50%) symptomatic patients were found to have BMCs. Among the bilateral cases, the number of condyles were 19 (0.31%) and 25 (0.29%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, between female and male patients, or between the right and left sides (p>0.05). Compared with the normally shaped condyle side, the BMC side showed no statistically significant differences in the distribution of pain and noise, parasagittal condylar position, or condylar osseous changes, with the exception of osteophytes. In the symptomatic group, osteophytes were found more frequently on the normally shaped condyle side than the BMC side (p<0.05). Conclusion BMCs tended to be identified as an incidental finding. The presence of BMC would not lead to any TMJ symptoms or cause osseous changes.
Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To assess whether additional implantation of Coflex following spinal decompression provided better clinical outcomes compared to decompression alone for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and to determine whether improvement in clinical outcomes correlated with changes in the radiological indices studied. Overview of Literature Literature on benefits of additional Coflex implantation compared to decompression alone for symptomatic LSS is limited. Methods Patients with symptomatic LSS who met the study criteria were offered spinal decompression with Coflex implantation. Those patients who accepted Coflex implantation were placed in the Coflex group (n=22); while those opting for decompression alone, were placed in the comparison group (n=24). Clinical outcomes were assessed preoperatively, six-months, one-year and two-years postoperatively, using the Oswestry disability index, 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS)-back pain and VAS-leg pain, and short form-36 (SF-36). Radiological indices (disc height, foraminal height and sagittal angle) were assessed preoperatively, six months, one year, and two years postoperatively. Results Both groups showed statistically significant (p<0.001) improvement in all the clinical outcome indicators at all points in time as compared to the preoperative status. However, improvement in the Coflex group was significantly greater (p<0.001) than the comparison group. Changes in the radiological indices did not correlate significantly with the improvement in clinical outcome indicators. Conclusions Additional Coflex implantation after spinal decompression in symptomatic LSS offers better clinical outcomes than decompression alone in the short-term. Changes in radiological indices do not correlate with the improvements in clinical outcomes after surgery for symptomatic LSS.
Shah, Siddarth M; Ng, Yau Hong; Pannierselvam, Vinodh Kumar; DasDe, Sudeep; Shen, Liang
Single-visit root canal therapy is one of the reality in modern endodontics globally, both for vital and non-vital teeth, despite many research efforts and much controversy, specially when post-operative pain is concerned. There are increased post-operative complications as pain, swelling, discomfort in managing teeth having symptomatic pulpal pathosis. To clinically verify the possibility to treat symptomatic vital and non-vital teeth in one visit technique, 126 patiens were selected and advised to undergone single visit endodontic treatment at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka. Endodontically involved symptomatic vital and symptomatic non-vital teeth were enrolled in two groups and advised to undergone single visit endodontic treatment. Both groups were assessed at 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours and long term post operative evaluation up to 10 months. The main outcome measure was post operative pain. The result of our study indicates that single visit root canal treatment is a safe, effective and practical method of treatment of an endodontically involved tooth both in vital and non vital cases when applied in appropriate situation. Significantly fewer patients of symptomatic vital cases reported pain in immediate follow up i.e. 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours in comparison to non vital cases (12.69% vs. 22.2%, 4.16% vs. 11.11%, 1.58% vs. 7.93%). At 10 months of long term follow up the recall rate was 74.35% and 90(71%) of patients were comfortable after receiving treatment. Post operative pain incidence in single visit was equivalent to that of multi visit endodontics, provided one had an accurate diagnosis, proper case selection and skilled technique. PMID:24858161
Howlader, M R; Chowdhury, S S; Rahman, M; Hossain, A; Zannat, T A
Background Symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy is a barrier to same day surgery, and the cause of ER visits. A standard protocol of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, dependent on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels, can address this issue. How effective is it? When does it fail? Methods We performed a retrospective review of the prospective Thyroid Database from January 2006 to December 2010. 620 patients underwent completion (CT) or total thyroidectomy (TT), and followed our post-operative protocol of calcium carbonate administration for iPTH levels ?10pg/ml and calcium carbonate and 0.25?g calcitriol BID for iPTH <10pg/ml. Calcium and iPTH values, pathology and medication, were compared to evaluate protocol efficacy. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Using the protocol, sixty-one (10.2%) patients were chemically hypocalcemic but never developed symptoms and twenty-four (3.9%) patients developed breakthrough symptomatic hypocalcemia. The symptomatic (SX) and asymptomatic (ASX) groups were similar with regard to gender, cancer diagnosis, and pre-operative calcium and iPTH. The symptomatic group was significantly younger (39.6 ± 2.8 vs. 49 ± 0.6 years, p=0.01), with lower post-operative iPTH levels. 33% (n=8) of SX patients had an iPTH ?5 pg/ml vs. only 6% (n=37) of ASX patients. While the majority of patients with a PTH <5 pg/ml were asymptomatic, 62.5% (n=5) of SX patients with iPTH levels ?5 pg/ml, required an increased in calcitriol dose to achieve both biochemical correction and symptom relief. Conclusion Prophylactic calcium and vitamin D supplementation based on post-operative iPTH levels can minimize symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. An iPTH ? 5pg/ml may warrant higher initial doses of calcitriol in order to prevent symptoms.
Carter, Yvette; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.
Chronic diarrhea can be due to any of several hundred conditions. When investigation fails to uncover a specific cause that can be treated successfully, nonspecific therapy is implemented. This includes dietary alterations if specific aggravating foods can be identified, enteral or parenteral nutrition if nutritional status is compromised, and use of oral rehydration solutions if diarrhea produces volume depletion. Strategic use of dietary fiber can improve stool consistency and can be of special value when fecal incontinence is present concurrently. Medications of value include opiate antidiarrheal drugs, clonidine, octreotide, and bile acid-binding agents. Less potent opiates such as loperamide and diphenoxylate should be tried first, with more potent agents such as codeine, opium, and morphine used in refractory cases. Clonidine has both proabsorptive and motility effects that facilitate its antidiarrheal effect, but its antihypertensive action limits its utility. Octreotide is of great value in treating diarrhea due to endocrine tumors and dumping syndrome; its efficacy in other conditions or in nonspecific diarrhea is less well established. Bile acid binders such as cholestyramine or colestipol have several specific uses but have limited utility in nonspecific chronic diarrhea. PMID:15913515
Schiller, Lawrence R
SUMMARY. Immediate family members of veterans diagnosed with Gulf War Illnesses often complain of fatiguing illnesses, and upon analysis they report similar signs and symptoms as their veteran family members. Since a relatively common finding in Gulf War Illness patients is a bacterial infection due to Mycoplasma species, we examined military families (149 patients: 42 veterans, 40 spouses, 32 other
Garth L. Nicolson; Marwan Y. Nasralla; Nancy L. Nicolson; Joerg Haier
Elucidation of the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has transformed this disease from being invariably fatal to being the type of leukemia with the best prognosis. Median survival associated with CML is estimated at > 20 years. Nevertheless, blast crisis occurs at an incidence of 1%-2% per year, and once this has occurred, treatment options are limited and survival is short. Due to the overall therapeutic success, the prevalence of CML is gradually increasing. The optimal management of this disease includes access to modern therapies and standardized surveillance methods for all patients, which will certainly create challenges. Furthermore, all available TKIs show mild but frequent side effects that may require symptomatic therapy. Adherence to therapy is the key prerequisite for efficacy of the drugs and for long-term success. Comprehensive information on the nature of the disease and the need for the continuous treatment using the appropriate dosages and timely information on efficacy data are key factors for optimal compliance. Standardized laboratory methods are required to provide optimal surveillance according to current recommendations. CML occurs in all age groups. Despite a median age of 55-60 years, particular challenges are the management of the disease in children, young women with the wish to get pregnant, and older patients. The main challenges in the long-term management of CML patients are discussed in this review. PMID:22160024
Three patients with chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) (1 M, 2 F) and 9 healthy controls (8 M 1 F) were studied with transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography. One patient who was studied during the spontaneous attacks hyperventilated markedly. Middle cerebral artery velocity (VMCA) was measured in the first attack, and anterior cerebral artery velocity (VACA) in the second attack, respectively. VMCA and VACA decreased bilaterally during attack. VMCA started to decrease at an early stage of the attack, i.e. prior to the major hyperventilation that was observed during the attack. VACA on the symptomatic side decreased less than that on the other side (P < 0.05). Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) was expressed as the percentage change in mean blood flow velocity as a function of end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) reduction induced by voluntary hyperventilation (delta V/delta PETCO2). In the 3 patients, a slightly lowered VMR was observed in the MCA and posterior cerebral artery on both sides, and in the ACA on the symptomatic side (P > 0.05) in comparison with controls. These observations may imply an abnormal vascular reactivity in CPH. PMID:7903292
Shen, J M
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise. PMID:23612903
Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E
None of the drugs currently available for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are able to reduce the progressive decline in lung function which is the hallmark of this disease. Smoking cessation is the only intervention that has proved effective. The current pharmacological treatment of COPD is symptomatic and is mainly based on bronchodilators, such as selective ?2-adrenergic agonists (short- and long-acting), anticholinergics, theophylline, or a combination of these drugs. Glucocorticoids are not generally recommended for patients with stable mild to moderate COPD due to their lack of efficacy, side effects, and high costs. However, glucocorticoids are recommended for severe COPD and frequent exacerbations of COPD. New pharmacological strategies for COPD need to be developed because the current treatment is inadequate.
A 41 year old woman developed chronic active hepatitis with prominent cholestasis. She was treated with prednisolone over 3 years with symptomatic benefit and improvement in serum biochemistry. However, various steroid-related side effects were encountered and steatorrhoea eventually occurred with very troublesome nocturnal diarrhoea. Therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid 750 mg daily was started. Serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase normalized for the first time since her illness began. Steatorrhoea was abolished. There was good control of symptoms as prednisolone therapy was gradually reduced. However, when prednisolone was completely withdrawn there was a prompt biochemical deterioration. Addition of low-dose azathioprine has maintained normal blood tests over 24 months without return of the original symptoms. There are no side effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in subjects without gallstones and this agent may be effective treatment for cholestatic liver disease.
Bateson, M. C.
It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL) is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD). One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this.
Frith, James; Newton, Julia L
OBJECTIVE: Silent brain infarctions are the silent cerebrovascular events that are distinguished from symptomatic lacunar infarctions by their ‘silence'; the origin of these infarctions is still unclear. This study analyzed the characteristics of silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions and sought to explore the mechanism of this ‘silence'. METHODS: In total, 156 patients with only silent brain infarctions, 90 with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions, 160 with both silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions, and 115 without any infarctions were recruited. Vascular risk factors, leukoaraiosis, and vascular assessment results were compared. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were compared between patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions and patients with two types of infarctions. The locations of all of the infarctions were evaluated. The evolution of the two types of infarctions was retrospectively studied by comparing the infarcts on the magnetic resonance images of 63 patients obtained at different times. RESULTS: The main risk factors for silent brain infarctions were hypertension, age, and advanced leukoaraiosis; the main factors for symptomatic lacunar infarctions were hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis of relevant arteries. The neurological deficits of patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions were more severe than those of patients with both types of infarctions. More silent brain infarctions were located in the corona radiata and basal ganglia; these locations were different from those of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions. The initial sizes of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions were larger than the silent brain infarctions, whereas the final sizes were almost equal between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ischemic preconditioning and nonstrategic locations may be the main reasons for the ‘silence' of silent brain infarctions.
Feng, Chao; Bai, Xue; Xu, Yu; Hua, Ting; Liu, Xue-Yuan
Importance A gold standard objective measure of nasal airway obstruction (NAO) does not currently exist, so patient-reported measures are commonly used, particularly the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and the visual analog scale (VAS). However, questions remain regarding how best to utilize these instruments. Objectives The goal of this study is to systematically review studies on NOSE and VAS scores in NAO patients and compile and standardize the data to (1) define symptomatic and normative values for (a) pre and post-surgical NAO patients, (b) asymptomatic individuals, and (c) the general population, (2) determine if post-surgery scores are comparable to asymptomatic scores, and (3) determine if there is a clinically useful pre-operative and post-operative score change. Evidence Review A systematic review of the literature was performed through PubMed for studies assessing NOSE and VAS scores in patients with chronic NAO. Strict inclusion criteria were applied to focus on anatomic obstruction only. For statistical analysis, the patients were divided into asymptomatic, pre- and post-surgery NAO, and the general population. Findings The average NOSE and VAS scores for a patient with NAO were 65 ± 22 and 6.9 ± 2.3 respectively. The average post-surgery NOSE score was 23 ± 20 and VAS score was 2.1 ± 2.2. The average asymptomatic individual NOSE score was 15 ± 17, and VAS score was 2.1 ± 1.6. The average NOSE and VAS scores for the general population were 42 ± 27 and 4.6 ± 2.6 respectively. The average pre- to post-surgical change was > 40 for NOSE and > 4 for VAS. Conclusions and Relevance We have shown that normative and abnormal value ranges for NOSE and VAS can be established for clinical use. Given the consistency of both scales, we conclude that these measures should be used as a clinically meaningful measure of successful surgical outcomes.
Rhee, John S.; Sullivan, Corbin D.; Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Garcia, Guilherme J.M.
IMPORTANCE Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease for which there are limited therapeutic options. This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled study to demonstrate that antimycobacterial therapy reduces lesion diameter and disease severity among patients with chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-daily antimycobacterial therapy on the resolution of chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, placebo-controlled, single-masked trial on 30 patients with symptomatic chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions deemed to require therapeutic intervention. SETTING A tertiary referral dermatology center in Nashville, Tennessee. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to receive either the oral concomitant levofloxacin, ethambutol, azithromycin, and rifampin (CLEAR) regimen or a comparative placebo regimen for 8 weeks with a 180-day follow-up. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Participants were monitored for absolute change in lesion diameter and decrease in granuloma burden, if present, on completion of therapy. OBSERVATIONS In the intention-to-treat analysis, the CLEAR-treated group had a mean (SD) decrease in lesion diameter of ?8.4 (14.0) mm compared with an increase of 0.07 (3.2) mm in the placebo-treated group (P = .05). The CLEAR group had a significant reduction in granuloma burden and experienced a mean (SD) decline of ?2.9 (2.5) mm in lesion severity compared with a decline of ?0.6 (2.1) mm in the placebo group (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Antimycobacterial therapy may result in significant reductions in chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis lesion diameter compared with placebo. These observed reductions, associated with a clinically significant improvement in symptoms, were present at the 180-day follow-up period. Transcriptome analysis of sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells revealed reversal of pathways associated with disease severity and enhanced T-cell function following T-cell receptor stimulation.
Drake, Wonder P.; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Richmond, Bradley W.; Isom, Joan; Burke, Victoria E.; Algood, Holly; Braun, Nicole; Taylor, Thyneice; Pandit, Kusum V.; Aboud, Caroline; Yu, Chang; Kaminski, Naftali; Boyd, Alan S.; King, Lloyd E.
Our purpose is to report a rare complication of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with vertebral bone penetration, interval fracture, subsequent endovascular management and outcome. We report a case of an IVC filter embedded within the second lumbar vertebral body and in which one of the primary struts fractured, which presented as chronic low back pain. The filter was retrieved percutaneously approximately 2 years after placement. A fractured small strut remained within the vertebral bone; patient's pain resolved. Symptomatic filter in situ should be retrieved even when fractured. PMID:22542386
Kendirli, Mustafa T; Sildiroglu, Onur; Cage, Dorothy L; Turba, Ulku C
OBJECTIVE: To develop a meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary\\u000a disease (COPD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINHAL, and Cochrane Library searches for trials of rehabilitation for COPD patients. Abstracts presented at national\\u000a meetings and the reference lists of pertinent articles were reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if: trials were randomized; patients were symptomatic
Ghassan F. Salman; Michael C. Mosier; Brent W. Beasley; David R. Calkins
In this paper we formulate a model of dengue fever transmission by considering the presence of asymptomatic and symptomatic compartments. The model takes the form as a system of differential equations representing a host-vector SIR (Susceptible - Infective -Recovered) disease transmission. It is assumed that both host and vector populations are constant. It is also assumed that reinfection of recovered hosts by the disease is possible due to a wanning immunity in human body. We analyze the model to determine the qualitative behavior of the model solution and use the concept of effective basic reproduction number (fraktur Rp) as a control criteria of the disease transmission. The effect of mosquito biting protection (e.g. by using insect repellent) is also considered. We compute the long-term ratio of the asymptomatic and symptomatic classes and show a condition for which the iceberg phenomenon could appear.
Anggriani, N.; Supriatna, A. K.; Soewono, E.
Summary Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a common reason for seeking medical attention and the threat of pandemic influenza will likely add to these numbers. Using human viral challenge studies with live rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A, we developed peripheral blood gene expression signatures that distinguish individuals with symptomatic ARI from uninfected individuals with > 95% accuracy. We validated this “acute respiratory viral” signature - encompassing genes with a known role in host defense against viral infections - across each viral challenge. We also validated the signature in an independently acquired dataset for influenza A and classified infected individuals from healthy controls with 100% accuracy. In the same dataset, we could also distinguish viral from bacterial ARIs (93% accuracy). These results demonstrate that ARIs induce changes in human peripheral blood gene expression that can be used to diagnose a viral etiology of respiratory infection and triage symptomatic individuals.
Zaas, Aimee K.; Chen, Minhua; Varkey, Jay; Veldman, Timothy; Hero, Alfred O.; Lucas, Joseph; Huang, Yongsheng; Turner, Ronald; Gilbert, Anthony; Lambkin-Williams, Robert; ?ien, N. Christine; Nicholson, Bradly; Kingsmore, Stephen; Carin, Lawrence; Woods, Christopher W.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.
This theoretical paper is derived from a discourse analysis of the textual material from a study of the seven deaths associated with legalised euthanasia in the Northern Territory, Australia. The textual analysis utilises evidence from interviews, letters written by people seeking euthanasia, medical reports, coroner's records and media reports concerning the social experiment of legalised euthanasia in Australia. The paper does not discuss the euthanasia debate. It argues that the body is a neglected concern in the debates and offers a construction of the discourses of the body as symptomatic, dependent, shameful and temporal. Medical discourses frame the body as symptomatic but these people were also concerned with the loss of autonomy associated with dependence, with shame connected with loss of bodily functions and the embodied experience of determining a 'time to die'. PMID:11882215
Street, A F; Kissane, D W
Characterization of carotid atherosclerosis and classification of plaque into symptomatic or asymptomatic and risk score estimation are of clinical value. A statistical system is described for symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaque automated classification of carotid ultrasound images and cardiovascular risk score computation. The technique is applicable for the following types of modalities for carotids: 2D Ultrasound, 3D Ultrasound, CT, MR. Wall region is segmented and features are extracted consisting of type 1 combination consisting of: (a) Higher Order Spectra; (b) Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT); (c) Texture and (d) Wall Variability; type 2 combination consisting of: (a) Local Binary Pattern; (b) Law's Mask Energy and (c) Wall Variability and type 3 combination: (a) Trace Transform; (b) Fuzzy Grayscale Level Co-occurrence Matrix and (c) Wall Variability. These features are trained using a training classifier on training images and the coefficients are applied to on-line test patient images. The system yields the cardiovascular risk score value using the feature combinations.
To study the possibility of application of nootropics and antioxidants in the complex antiepileptic therapy, we examined 75 patients with symptomatic focal posttraumatic epilepsy. A statistically significant reduction in the number of epileptic seizures, improvement of cognitive function and quality of life of the patients as well as a decrease in the severity of depression and epileptic changes in the EEG were identified. The potentiation of antiepileptic activity of basic drugs, normalization of brain's electrical activity and reduction in EEG epileptiform activity, in particular coherent indicators of slow-wave activity, were noted after treatment with the antioxidant mexidol. A trend towards the improvement of neuropsychological performance and quality of life was observed. There was a lack of seizure aggravation typical of many nootropic drugs. Thus, phenotropil and mexidol can be recommended for complex treatment of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy. PMID:23887448
Savenkov, A A; Badalian, O L; Avakian, G N
We report a case of symptomatic visceral Armillifer pentastomiasis in a 23-year-old female Liberian immigrant to The Netherlands. The patient was referred to the gynecologist because of lower abdominal pain. During laparotomy, multiple adhesions were seen in the lower pelvis and a hydrosalpinx with an encapsulated Armillifer nymph, most likely Armillifer armillatus, was found. Key features of the parasite's cuticle which facilitate the diagnosis of pentastomiasis, are presented. Symptomatic pentastomiasis is uncommon, and most cases are diagnosed incidentally during surgery for other reasons, or at autopsy. With regard to increasing international migration, other imported pentastomiasis cases to Europe and North America are reviewed, and more cases are likely to be seen in the future. PMID:24211241
Tappe, Dennis; Dijkmans, Anneke C; Brienen, Eric A T; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Ruhe, Inge M C; Netten, Magali C M L; van Lieshout, Lisette
Pituitary macroadenomas can invade the cavernous sinus and rarely cause occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Most patients with symptomatic obstruction of the ICA by a pituitary tumor have been reported as a result of apoplexy. The authors review the literature about this condition and report a 48-year-old man who presented with transient ischemic attacks leading to a stroke. Imaging studies demonstrated complete occlusion of the left ICA and critical narrowing of the right ICA at the level of the clinoid processes, most likely due to macroadenoma mass effect. There was no radiologic evidence of apoplexy. Surgical resection of the tumor and ICA decompression via the transsphenoidal route resulted in prevention of further symptoms. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma without evidence of hemorrhage or intratumoral infarction. This patient, to the authors' knowledge, is the first documented patient with symptomatic carotid compression by a pituitary adenoma without evidence of apoplexy. PMID:24211140
Rey-Dios, Roberto; Payner, Troy D; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A
The terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab has become the standard of treatment in patients with symptomatic paroxysmal\\u000a nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). In this retrospective study, 19 PNH patients received chronic therapy with eculizumab with\\u000a a median duration of 16 months (range 6–46 months). Parameters of hemolysis, transfusion requirements, and serum iron parameters\\u000a were analyzed. Lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly decreased by 85% from a
Alexander Röth; Christina Hock; Anna Konik; Sandra Christoph; Ulrich Dührsen
The oxygen-15 water bolus positron emission tomography (PET) method was used to image regional brain activity in 4 patients with chronic post-traumatic neuropathic pain confined to one lower limb and in 1 patient with post-herpetic neuralgia. In comparison to 13 normal subjects, scans of the patients disclosed a statistically significant decrease in thalamic activity contralateral to the symptomatic side. Examination
Michael J. Iadarola; Mitchell B. Max; Karen Faith Berman; Michael G. Byas-Smith; Robert C. Coghill; Richard H. Gracely; Gary J. Bennett
This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), a treatment combining mindfulness meditation and interventions taken from cognitive therapy, in patients suffering from chronic-recurrent depression. Currently symptomatic patients with at least three previous episodes of depression and a history of suicidal ideation were randomly allocated to receive either MBCT delivered in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU; N=14 completers)
Thorsten Barnhofer; Catherine Crane; Emily Hargus; Myanthi Amarasinghe; Rosie Winder; J. Mark G. Williams
Increases in compartment pressure associated with chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) may be due to changes in the mechanical\\u000a properties and\\/or thickness of fascia (4,22). To explore this possibility, we compared the mechanical and biochemical characteristics\\u000a (stiffness, thickness, time-dependent response, collagen content, and collagen crosslinking) of fascia from patients with\\u000a symptomatic anterior compartment syndrome to fascia from adjacent collateral compartments. We
Christof Hurschler; RAY VANDERBY JR; Daniel A. Martinez; Arthur C. Vailas; William D. Turnipseed
Histologically, Schmorl's nodes are defined as the loss of nuclear material through the cartilage plate, growth plate, and end plate into the vertebral body. Most Schmorl's nodes are asymptomatic, although there are some reports of symptomatic Schmorl's nodes, which should be treated similarly to vertebral compression fractures, with conservative treatment as the first choice. We report the case that we reduced the pain by blocking the ramus communicans nerve in a patient with Schmorl's node.
Kwon, Hyung Ki; Lee, Jae Jun; Hwang, Sung Mi; Lim, So Young
Histologically, Schmorl's nodes are defined as the loss of nuclear material through the cartilage plate, growth plate, and end plate into the vertebral body. Most Schmorl's nodes are asymptomatic, although there are some reports of symptomatic Schmorl's nodes, which should be treated similarly to vertebral compression fractures, with conservative treatment as the first choice. We report the case that we reduced the pain by blocking the ramus communicans nerve in a patient with Schmorl's node. PMID:21217891
Jang, Ji Su; Kwon, Hyung Ki; Lee, Jae Jun; Hwang, Sung Mi; Lim, So Young
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL) is an emerging disease, expanding in various parts of the world. The infection caused by Leishmania, an intracellular protozoan parasite, can show different clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic or subclinical to symptomatic dogs, in which a wide spectrum of clinical signs is evident. The fact that the parasite replicates in different organs raises the hypothesis that each organ may have a specific immune response. The local immune responses should be evaluated and taken into consideration when developing prophylactic tools. Therefore, phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood, lymph node and bone marrow lymphocyte populations and the expression of class II molecules of major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) were performed in asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs and in dogs that had been diagnosed and treated for leishmaniasis. Our findings showed that blood and bone marrow lymphocytes from symptomatic dogs were highly activated. In bone marrow of asymptomatic and treated dogs, a high frequency of MHCII(+) lymphocytes was observed, as well as MHCII(+) monocytes in the treated group. These results show increased expression of MHCII molecules giving evidence for antigenic presentation mainly by lymphocytes. The symptomatic and treated dogs showed an expansion of CD4(+) T cells subpopulations in lymph nodes, revealing an important contribution of these cells in controlling local parasite replication. This study also underlines the eventual importance of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative) and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD8(+) (double positive) T cell subsets in sensing and controlling latent infections and their possible function in the immune dynamics during CanL. The specific cellular immune responses raised in different compartments where the parasite replicates seem to have variable effects on local parasite control, highlighting the complexity of the cellular immune response developed by the dog infected by Leishmania infantum. PMID:20615553
Alexandre-Pires, Graça; de Brito, Maria Teresa Villa; Algueró, Cármen; Martins, Catarina; Rodrigues, Olivia Roos; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela
Summary Anti-oxidant treatment has been shown to prevent nerve dysfunction in experimental diabetes mellitus, thus providing a rationale of potential therapeutic value for diabetic patients. The effects of the anti-oxidant -lipoic acid (thioctic acid) were studied in a 3-week multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial (Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy; ALADIN) in 328 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with symptomatic peripheral neuropathy who were
D. Ziegler; M. Hanefeld; K. J. Ruhnau; H. P. Meiner; M. Lobisch; K. Schiitte; F. A. Gries
Objective: To compare the incidence of sleep and pain complaints in symptomatic traumatic brain injury (TBI) (mild vs moderate\\/severe) and neurologic populations.Design: Case-control study.Setting: Outpatient neuropsychology service at a university-affiliated tertiary care center.Patients: A consecutive sample of mild (n = 127) and moderate to severe (n = 75) patients with TBI and a general neurologic (non-TBI) group (n = 123)
John T. Beetar; Thomas J. Guilmette; Francis R. Sparadeo
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y (RY) gastric bypass is an effective treatment for morbid obesity. However, little information is available\\u000a regarding the gastrointestinal symptomatic outcome after laparoscopic RY gastric bypass for morbid obesity. The purpose of\\u000a this study is to identify changes occurring in gastrointestinal symptoms after laparoscopic RY gastric bypass. A previously\\u000a validated, 19-point gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire was administered prospectively to each
Allen Foster; Henry L. Laws; Quintin H. Gonzalez; Ronald H. Clements
Background:Data collection for screen-detected breast cancer in the United Kingdom is fully funded, which has led to improvements in clinical practice. However, data on symptomatic cancer are deficient, and the aim of this project was to monitor the current practice.Methods:A data set was designed together with surrogate outcome measures to reflect best practice. Data from cancer registries initially required the
T Bates; O Kearins; I Monypenny; C Lagord; G Lawrence
Background Patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) of ?70% luminal stenosis are at high risk of stroke recurrence. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between hemodynamics of ICAS revealed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and risk of stroke recurrence in this patient subset. Methods Patients with a symptomatic ICAS lesion of 70–99% luminal stenosis were screened and enrolled in this study. CFD models were reconstructed based on baseline computed tomographic angiography (CTA) source images, to reveal hemodynamics of the qualifying symptomatic ICAS lesions. Change of pressures across a lesion was represented by the ratio of post- and pre-stenotic pressures. Change of shear strain rates (SSR) across a lesion was represented by the ratio of SSRs at the stenotic throat and proximal normal vessel segment, similar for the change of flow velocities. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Results Overall, 32 patients (median age 65; 59.4% males) were recruited. The median pressure, SSR and velocity ratios for the ICAS lesions were 0.40 (?2.46–0.79), 4.5 (2.2–20.6), and 7.4 (5.2–12.5), respectively. SSR ratio (hazard ratio [HR] 1.027; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.051; P?=?0.023) and velocity ratio (HR 1.029; 95% CI, 1.002–1.056; P?=?0.035) were significantly related to recurrent territorial ischemic stroke within 1 year by univariate Cox regression, respectively with the c-statistics of 0.776 (95% CI, 0.594–0.903; P?=?0.014) and 0.776 (95% CI, 0.594–0.903; P?=?0.002) in receiver operating characteristic analysis. Conclusions Hemodynamics of ICAS on CFD models reconstructed from routinely obtained CTA images may predict subsequent stroke recurrence in patients with a symptomatic ICAS lesion of 70–99% luminal stenosis.
Leng, Xinyi; Scalzo, Fabien; Ip, Hing Lung; Johnson, Mark; Fong, Albert K.; Fan, Florence S. Y.; Chen, Xiangyan; Soo, Yannie O. Y.; Miao, Zhongrong; Liu, Liping; Feldmann, Edward; Leung, Thomas W. H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Wong, Ka Sing
Aim. Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) is an age-related seizure susceptibility syndrome that affects the central autonomic system. Although the majority of the few ictal recordings obtained so far suggest an occipital origin, semiological and interictal EEG data appear to favour more extensive involvement. In this study, the characteristics (including those based on semiology and EEG) of children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome (n=24) and those with lesion-related, symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy (SOLE) (n=23) were compared. Methods. Detailed semiological information and EEG parameters including the localisation, distribution, density (n/sec), reactivity, and morphological characteristics of spike-wave foci and their relationship with different states of vigilance were compared between the two groups. Results. The age at seizure onset was significantly younger in patients with symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy than in those with PS (mean age at onset: 3.4 versus 5.6 years, respectively; p=0.044). Autonomic seizures (p=0.001) and ictal syncope (p=0.055) were more frequent in PS than in symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy (87.5% and 37.5% versus 43.5% and 13%, respectively). The interictal spike-wave activity increased significantly during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep in both groups. The spike waves in non-REM seen in PS tended to spread mainly to central and centro-temporal regions. Conclusions. The results indicate that although common features do exist, Panayiotopoulos syndrome differs from symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy and has a unique low epileptogenic threshold related to particular brain circuits. PMID:24777033
Tata, Gulten; Guveli, Betul Tekin; Dortcan, Nimet; Cokar, Ozlem; Kurucu, Hatice; Demirbilek, Veysi; Dervent, Aysin
Objective: Evaluation of the effect of a ginger extract (Zintona EC) on patients suffering from gonarthritis.Material and methods: Twenty-nine patients (6 men and 23 women) with symptomatic gonarthritis (ACR criteria), in the age range 42–85 years, were included after randomization in a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study of 6 months' duration. The treatment group was given a ginger extract
I Wigler; I Grotto; D Caspi; M Yaron
The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005).
Steffen Moritz; Michael Krausz; Evelin Gottwalz; Martin Lambert; Christian Perro; Stefanie Ganzer; Dieter Naber
We report on a patient who was treated with several antiarrhythmic drugs as well as different ablation strategies. Nevertheless, symptomatic atrial fibrillation always recurred until an off-label use with ranolazine was started. We could demonstrate potent effects of ranolazine on atrial fibrillation in a "wash-in wash-out" situation. Although promising controlled studies are needed to investigate a potential role of ranolazine for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. PMID:23205928
Sossalla, Samuel; Sohns, Christian; Seegers, Joachim; Lüthje, Lars; Vollmann, Dirk; Zabel, Markus
Gastrogastric fistula (GGF) is a known complication of gastric bypass surgery. Revisional surgery for GGF repair can be technically\\u000a challenging. We describe our experience with endoscopic repair of small GGFs. A retrospective review was performed to identify\\u000a patients in whom symptomatic GGF was repaired endoscopically at our institution between September 2004 and September 2008.\\u000a At endoscopy, the fistulous margins were
Atul Bhardwaj; Robert N. Cooney; Andrew Wehrman; Ann M. Rogers; Abraham Mathew
BackgroundWe conducted for the first time a systematic review, including a meta-analysis, of the incidence of symptomatic rotavirus (RV) infections, because (1) it was shown to be an influential factor in estimating the cost-effectiveness of RV vaccination, (2) multiple community-based studies assessed it prospectively, (3) previous studies indicated, inconclusively, it might be similar around the world.MethodologyPubmed (which includes Medline) was
Joke Bilcke; Pierre van Damme; Marc van Ranst; Niel Hens; Marc Aerts; Philippe Beutels; Chris Mavergames
Background Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain. There is an absence of information about symptomatic rotator cuffs from the patients’ perspective; this limits the information clinicians can share with patients and the information that patients can access via sources such as the internet. This study describes the experiences of people with a symptomatic rotator cuff, their symptoms, the impact upon their daily lives and the coping strategies utilised by study participants. Methods An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used. 20 participants of the UKUFF trial (The United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Surgery Trial) agreed to participate in in-depth semi-structured interviews about their experiences about living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. Field notes, memos and a reflexive diary were used. Data was coded in accordance with interpretive phenomenological analysis. Peer review, code-recode audits and constant comparison of data, codes and categories occurred throughout. Results The majority of patients described intense pain and severely disturbed sleep. Limited movement and reduced muscle strength were described by some participants. The predominantly adverse impact that a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had upon activities of daily living, leisure activities and occupation was described. The emotional and financial impact and impact upon caring roles were detailed. Coping strategies included attempting to carry on as normally as possible, accepting their condition, using their other arm, using analgesics, aids and adaptions. Conclusions Clinicians need to appreciate and understand the intensity and shocking nature of pain that may be experienced by participants with known rotator cuff tears and understand the detrimental impact tears can have upon all areas of patient’s lives. Clinicians also need to be aware of the potential emotional impact caused by cuff tears and to ensure that patients needing help for conditions such as depression are speedily identified and provided with support, explanation and appropriate treatment.
Background\\/Aim: In this prospective study the results of rubber band ligation (RBL) of symptomatic hemorrhoids in 500 consecutive patients with 2nd (255 cases), 3rd (218 cases) and 4th degree (27 cases) hemorrhoids are presented. Methods: The patients’ symptoms were hemorrhage in 142 cases (28.4%), prolapse in 33 cases (6.6%) and both hemorrhage and prolapse in 325 cases (65%). Sixteen patients
Vassilios A. Komborozos; George J. Skrekas; Christos A. Pissiotis
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total disc replacement surgery compared with spinal\\u000a fusion in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc degeneration. Low back pain (LBP), a major health problem in Western countries,\\u000a can be caused by a variety of pathologies, one of which is degenerative disc disease (DDD). When conservative treatment fails,\\u000a surgery
Karin D. van den Eerenbeemt; Raymond W. Ostelo; Barend J. van Royen; Wilco C. Peul; Maurits W. van Tulder
Symptomatic calcifications of the rotator cuff tendons is well-known pathologic condition. However, pathologic calcifications may involve other structures of the locomotor system as well. We report about five patients (age 52–66 years) with a painful calcification at the proximal part of the medial collateral ligament of the knee joint. All five patients presented with load-dependent pain pretending meniscus symptoms, but manual
Matthias Muschol; Ingo Müller; Wolf Petersen; Joachim Hassenpflug
Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in term infants is rare. In over 23,000 deliveries the authors were only able to find 12 diagnosed cases for an incidence of 5.9\\/10,000 livebirths (?2,500 g and ?37 weeks' gestation). No consistent clinical patterns were identified. However, the obstetrical risk factors were a precipitate delivery, a second stage of more than 2 hours, the use of
B. P. Sachs; D. Acker; R. Tuomala; E. Brown
Purpose To describe the use of limited, low-irradiance, single-spot photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin for the treatment of symptomatic choroidal hemangiomas. Methods Thirteen consecutive patients with a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma were treated with limited PDT 6 min following a 1-min infusion with verteporfin (6 mg\\/m 2 body surface area), using a diode laser (692 nm) and a single spot large enough to cover
F. D. Verbraak; R. O. Schlingemann; J. E. E. Keunen; M. D. de Smet
This study evaluated the outcome of patients with symptomatic bone Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) treated with indomethacin alone, either at diagnosis or after reactivation (after recurrence with previous therapies). We evaluated the nonrandomized use of oral indomethacin (2 mg/kg/d) in patients with symptomatic single-system bone LCH. From 1997 to 2012, 38 sequential patients were treated for a median of 4 months. Criteria of nonactive disease (NAD) after initial treatment (8 wk) were: no pain, no soft tissue involvement, no increase of size, or no new bone lesions. Twenty-two patients were treated at diagnosis: 18 showed NAD after initial treatment (2 patients who had bone reactivations were retreated with indomethacin and remain with NAD). Three patients improved and they are with NAD after treatment with indomethacin, steroids, or radiotherapy. One patient developed progressive bone disease and he is with NAD after treatment with steroids and chemotherapy. Sixteen patients were treated after reactivation, and all were with NAD after initial treatment: 5 reactivated and 4 remain with NAD after retreatment with indomethacin. Toxicity was not significant. We conclude that indomethacin is a well tolerated and active drug in patients with symptomatic bone disease. The results support the concept that chemotherapy may not be necessary for limited bone disease. PMID:24977402
Braier, Jorge; Rosso, Diego; Pollono, Daniel; Rey, Guadalupe; Lagomarsino, Eduardo; Latella, Antonio; Zubizarreta, Pedro
Over the last two decades, marked increase in detection of incidental or asymptomatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in developed countries was observed. The study included 268 patients aged from 25 to 92 years with RCC, which underwent evaluation and treatment in urology clinic MRSRCI for the past 5 years. There were no significant differences in the frequency of histological types of RCC between incidental and symptomatic tumors. Among incidental neoplasms with clear- cell structure, tumor with small size--up to 4 cm (T1a stage) and moderate to high degree of differentiation (G 1-2 according Fuhrman) were predominant. Papillary variant of RCC was detected at a higher stage of the disease and characterized by a high degree of nuclear atypia, which indicates its high malignant potential. Chromophobe RCC was usually diagnosed at T3 stage. The average age of men and women with chromophobe RCC was 46.5 +/- 6.8 years; there were no age difference in patients with symptomatic and incidental RCC. Among the benign tumors of the kidneys, angiomyolipoma was most commonly diagnosed--in 13 (53.8%) cases. Thus, incidental tumors have a better prognosis than symptomatic tumors. PMID:24437232
Trapeznikova, M F; Kazantseva, I A; Tian, P A; Dutov, V V
Summary Although a decrease in cerebrovascular reserves (CVR) is known to enhance the risk of stroke, changes in this parameter after carotid artery stenting (CAS) have rarely been investigated. The present study is the first to compare CVR recoveries after applying CAS to patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease. CAS was performed for 31 consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease. They underwent acetazolamide-challenged single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and after CAS to obtain data on resting stage cerebral blood flow (CBFrest values) in various regions of interest (ROIs) defined by a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. CVR values on ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheric sides were then calculated based on the CBFrest data. The 31 patients were dichotomized into unilateral (n=22) and bilateral (n=9) lesion groups, and no significant between-group differences were observed in CBFrest before and after CAS. In the unilateral group, there were no differences in CVR values before and after CAS. In the bilateral group, however, the CVR values significantly increased in nearly all the investigated ROIs on the contralateral side. Also, the hemispheric CVR values on both sides significantly increased after CAS in the bilateral group, while no such increase was observed in the unilateral group. CAS in patients with symptomatic bilateral carotid artery disease has the potential utility for their haemodynamic improvement even on the contralateral hemispheric side.
Abe, A.; Ueda, T.; Ueda, M.; Nogoshi, S.; Nishiyama, Y.; Katayama, Y.
Purpose: Evidence regarding distinguishing characteristics of women with symptomatic leiomyomas during pregnancy who undergo myomectomy during pregnancy and those who respond to conservative treatment is sparse because it mostly derives from case reports and small patient series. As the first of its type, the present study analyzed the characteristics of women with symptomatic leiomyomas treated with myomectomy during pregnancy and those treated conservatively. Methods: We performed a computer search of medical records from 1 January 2001 to 31 March 2011 using the International Classification of Diseases Codes for pregnancy, myomectomy and leiomyomas during pregnancy. Results: 27 patients were admitted during pregnancy directly related to leiomyomas; 17 of the 27 patients received conservative treatment for symptomatic leiomyomas, and 10 patients had surgery during pregnancy: 3 had undergone diagnostic surgical procedures and 7 myomectomy. Perioperative and postoperative morbidity was low in all women in our sample. Conclusion: In our pilot study, myomectomy during pregnancy was safely performed in carefully selected patients, with subserosal or pedunculated leiomyomas that failed to respond to conservative treatment, with low perioperative and postoperative morbidity.
Rothmund, R.; Taran, F. A.; Boeer, B.; Wallwiener, M.; Abele, H.; Campo, R.; Wallwiener, D.; Brucker, S.; Rall, K.
Background.?The understanding of dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics and the clinical spectrum of infection are critical to informing surveillance and control measures. Geographic cluster studies can elucidate these features in greater detail than cohort studies alone. Methods.?A 4-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study was undertaken in rural Thailand. Cohort children underwent pre-/postseason serology and active school absence–based surveillance to detect inapparent and symptomatic dengue. Cluster investigations were triggered by cohort dengue and non-dengue febrile illnesses (positive and negative clusters, respectively). Results.?The annual cohort incidence of symptomatic dengue ranged from 1.3% to 4.4%. DENV-4 predominated in the first 2 years, DENV-1 in the second 2 years. The inapparent-to-symptomatic infection ratio ranged from 1.1:1 to 2.9:1. Positive clusters had a 16.0% infection rate, negative clusters 1.1%. Of 119 infections in positive clusters, 59.7% were febrile, 20.2% were afebrile with other symptoms, and 20.2% were asymptomatic. Of 16 febrile children detected during cluster investigations who continued to attend school, 9 had detectable viremia. Conclusions.?Dengue transmission risk was high near viremic children in both high- and low-incidence years. Inapparent infections in the cohort overestimated the rate of asymptomatic infections. Ambulatory children with mild febrile viremic infections could represent an important component of dengue transmission.
Yoon, In-Kyu; Rothman, Alan L.; Tannitisupawong, Darunee; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Jarman, Richard G.; Aldstadt, Jared; Nisalak, Ananda; Mammen, Mammen P.; Thammapalo, Suwich; Green, Sharone; Libraty, Daniel H.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Getis, Arthur; Endy, Timothy; Jones, James W.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Pimgate, Chusak; Scott, Thomas W.
Patients seen at 10 public health sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Baltimore, MD; Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Durham, NC; New Orleans, LA; Raleigh, NC; and San Diego, CA, from August 1993 through June 1994 were asked to participate in a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual activity and condom use during the time between STD symptom onset and clinic attendance. Patients were asked to report sexual activity and condom use while STD symptoms were present. The sample of 3025 study participants was 75.3% African-American and 63.5% male, aged 18-73 years, of mean age 28.1 years. Sexual activity while experiencing STD symptoms was reported by 39.7% of 2508 symptomatic patients, of whom 17.2% reported always using a condom. Multivariate logistic regression found that factors associated with sexual activity while symptomatic include duration of symptoms for 7 or fewer days, being Black, and being male. In addition, such regression found that symptomatic patients who always used condoms were more likely to be aged 30 years or older, and to have at least a high school education. PMID:10333283
Irwin, D E; Thomas, J C; Spitters, C E; Leone, P A; Stratton, J D; Martin, D H; Zenilman, J M; Schwebke, J R; Hook, E W
Background Acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia is a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with stroke-like neurological impairment, but few textbooks describe the full brain imaging appearances. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify how often hypoglycaemia may mimic ischaemic stroke on imaging, common patterns and relationships with hypoglycaemia severity, duration, clinical outcome and add two new cases. Methods We searched EMBASE and Medline databases for papers reporting imaging in adults with symptomatic hypoglycaemia. We analysed the clinical presentation, outcome, brain imaging findings, duration and severity of hypoglycaemia, time course of lesion appearance, including two new cases. Results We found 42 papers describing computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in 65 patients, plus our two cases with symptomatic hypoglycaemia. Imaging abnormalities on computed tomography and magnetic resonance were uni or bilateral, cortical or sub-cortical. Thirteen (20%) mimicked cortical or lacunar stroke. Acute lesions had restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance or low attenuation on computed tomography, plus swelling; older lesions showed focal atrophy or disappeared, as with ischaemic stroke. The association between the depth or duration of hypoglycaemia, the severity or extent of neurological deficit, and the imaging abnormalities, was weak. Conclusion Imaging abnormalities in patients with hypoglycaemia are uncommon but very variable, weakly associated with neurological deficit, and about a fifth mimic acute ischaemic stroke. Blood glucose testing should be routine in all patients with acute neurological impairment and hypoglycaemia should be included in the differential diagnosis of imaging appearances in patients presenting with acute stroke.
AIM: To summarize our methods and experience with interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV-SMV) thrombosis. METHODS: Forty-six patients (30 males, 16 females, aged 17-68 years) with symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis were accurately diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound scans, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. They were treated with interventional therapy, including direct thrombolysis (26 cases through a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; 6 through percutaneous transhepatic portal vein cannulation) and indirect thrombolysis (10 through the femoral artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization; 4 through the radial artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization). RESULTS: The blood reperfusion of PV-SMV was achieved completely or partially in 34 patients 3-13 d after thrombolysis. In 11 patients there was no PV-SMV blood reperfusion but the number of collateral vessels increased significantly. Symptoms in these 45 patients were improved dramatically without severe operational complications. In 1 patient, the thrombi did not respond to the interventional treatment and resulted in intestinal necrosis, which required surgical treatment. In 3 patients with interventional treatment, thrombi re-formed 1, 3 and 4 mo after treatment. In these 3 patients, indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis was performed again and was successful. CONCLUSION: Interventional treatment, including direct or indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis, is a safe and effective method for patients with symptomatic acute-subacute PV-SMV thrombosis.
Liu, Feng-Yong; Wang, Mao-Qiang; Fan, Qing-Sheng; Duan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Peng
Background The purpose of this report is to describe the perioperative outcomes of standard carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with general anesthesia, routine shunting, and tissue patching in symptomatic carotid stenoses. Materials and Methods Between October 2007 and July 2011, 22 patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (male/female, 19/3; mean age, 67.2±9.4 years) underwent a combined total of 23 CEAs using a standardized technique. The strict surgical protocol included general anesthesia and standard carotid bifurcation endarterectomy with routine shunting. The 8-French Pruitt-Inahara shunt was used in all the patients. Results During the ischemic time, the shunts were inserted within 2.5 minutes, and 5 patients (22.7%) revealed ischemic cerebral signals (flat wave) in electroencephalographic monitoring but recovered soon after insertion of the shunt. The mean shunting time for CEA was 59.1±10.3 minutes. There was no perioperative mortality or even minor stroke. All patients woke up in the operating room or the operative care room before being moved to the ward. One patient had difficulty swallowing due to hypoglossal nerve palsy, but had completely recovered by 1 month postsurgery. Conclusion Routine shunting is suggested to be a safe and reliable method of brain perfusion and protection during CEA in symptomatic carotid stenoses.
Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Min Ho; Shin, Byoung-Soo; Park, Hyun Kyu
Objective To explore the psychological consequences of experiencing symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Design Qualitative interview-based study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Setting Outpatients who attended an anticoagulation clinic in a district general hospital. Participants Patients attending an anticoagulation clinic following hospital admission for symptomatic PE were approached to participate. A total of 9 (4 women, 5 men) of 11 patients approached agreed to be interviewed. Participants were aged between 26 and 72?years and had previously experienced a PE between 9 and 60?months (median=26?months, mean=24?months). Intervention Audiotaped semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants experiences of having a PE and how it had affected their lives since. Data were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify emergent themes. Results Three major themes with associated subthemes were identified. Participants described having a PE as a life-changing experience comprising initial shock, followed by feeling of loss of self, life-changing decisions and behaviour modification. Features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were described with flashbacks, hypervigilance and intrusive thoughts being most prevalent. Participants identified several areas of support needed for such patients including easier access to support through information giving and emotional support. Conclusions Long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism go beyond the physical alone. Patients describe experiencing symptomatic PE to be a life-changing distressing event leading to behaviour modification and in some PTSD. It is likely that earlier psychological intervention may reduce such long-term sequelae.
Noble, Simon; Lewis, Rhian; Whithers, Jodie; Lewis, Sarah; Bennett, Paul
Objective: To assess the long-term improvement in symptoms after magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) for uterine myomas. Methods: Japanese women with symptomatic myomas underwent MRgFUS using the ExAblate 2000 system. The symptom severity score (SSS) was examined before and after the treatment at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months. Simultaneously, we asked the patients' satisfaction level regarding the overall change of subjective symptoms: symptom free, improved a great deal, improved to some extent, no change, or worsened. The myoma volumes were measured at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months after MRgFUS. Results: No severe adverse event occurred with any of the patients. The mean SSS value before treatment was 38.3+/-21.5 (n = 106), which diminished significantly during follow-up for 3-48 months after treatment. Patients' satisfaction level was favorable, although the response rate was low. Over 80% of the patients replied that their symptoms were improved to at least some extent, and over 50% of the patients replied that their symptoms were improved a great deal. This trend continued throughout this follow up period. The mean myoma volume was also decreased from the pretreatment volume in this follow up period. Conclusion: MRgFUS is an effective and safe method for treating symptomatic uterine myomas. Long-term symptomatic improvement is promising.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and is characterized by muscle degeneration and death. DMD affects males; females being asymptomatic carriers of mutations. However, some of them manifest symptoms due to a translocation between X chromosome and an autosome or to a heterozygous mutation leading to inactivation of most of their normal X chromosome. Six symptomatic female carriers and two asymptomatic were analyzed by: I) Segregation of STRs-(CA)n and MLPA assays to detect a hemizygous alteration, and II) X chromosome inactivation pattern to uncover the reason for symptoms in these females. The symptomatic females shared mild but progressive muscular weakness and increased serum creatin kinase (CK) levels. Levels of dystrophin protein were below normal or absent in many fibers. Segregation of STRs-(CA)n revealed hemizygous patterns in three patients, which were confirmed by MLPA. In addition, this analysis showed a duplication in another patient. X chromosome inactivation assay revealed a skewed X inactivation pattern in the symptomatic females and a random inactivation pattern in the asymptomatic ones. Our results support the hypothesis that the DMD phenotype in female carriers of a dystrophin mutation has a direct correlation with a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern. PMID:24135430
Giliberto, Florencia; Radic, Claudia Pamela; Luce, Leonela; Ferreiro, Verónica; de Brasi, Carlos; Szijan, Irene
Although we and others have demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) may impact such neurogenetic conditions as lysosomal storage diseases when transplanted at birth, it has remained unclear whether such interventions can impact well-established mid-stage disease, a situation often encountered clinically. Here we report that when NSCs were injected intracranially into the brain of adult symptomatic Sandhoff (Hexb?/?) mice, cells migrated far from the injection site and integrated into the host cytoarchitecture, restoring ?-hexosaminidase enzyme activity and promoting neuropathologic and behavioral improvement. Mouse lifespan increased, neurological function improved, and disease progression was slowed. These clinical benefits correlated with neuropathological correction at the cellular and molecular levels, reflecting the multiple potential beneficial actions of stem cells, including enzyme cross-correction, cell replacement, tropic support, and direct anti-inflammatory action. Pathotropism, i.e., migration and homing of NSCs to pathological sites, could be imaged in real time by magnetic resonance imaging. Differentially expressed chemokines might play a role in directing the migration of transplanted stem cells to sites of pathology. Because many of the beneficial actions of NSCs observed in newborn brains were recapitulated in adult brains to the benefit of Sandhoff recipients, NSC-based interventions may also be useful in symptomatic subjects with established disease, even in symptomatic patients.
Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Sibson, Nicola R; Lowe, John P; Stuckey, Daniel J; Tester, Katie; Fu, Gerald; Newlin, Robbin M; Smith, David A; Snyder, Evan Y; Platt, Frances M
Medical records, for 2000 and 2001, of symptomatic amoebic patients who were treated at our hospitals in Tokyo, Yokohama and Osaka were studied retrospectively for the purpose of gathering epidemiological data on symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection. A total of 58 patients were treated. Fifty-five of them were male, and 96% of the male patients were Japanese. The mean age of patients was 44.9 years old, and 91% of patients contracted the disease in Japan. Fifty-six per cent of the male patients indicated that they were practising homosexuals, and 44% of the male patients denied these practices or left the question unanswered. The serum Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test was positive in 45% of the patients, and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive in 45%. Our study revealed that recent symptomatic E. histolytica infection almost exclusively afflicted middle-aged males in the big cities of Japan, that a majority of the patients were probably exposed to the causative organism during homosexual activity, and that an increasing number of patients will be co-infected with HIV.
Ohnishi, K.; Kato, Y.; Imamura, A.; Fukayama, M.; Tsunoda, T.; Sakaue, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Sagara, H.
Background To show effectiveness of low-dose splenic irradiation in symptomatic congestive splenomegaly. Methods Five patients were referred to our department for symptomatic congestive splenomegaly within three years. Primary diseases were autoimmune hepatitis with liver cirrhosis (n?=?2), cystic fibrosis (n?=?1), granulomatous liver disease (n?=?1) and Werlhof disease with liver cirrhosis (n?=?1). Mean age was 54 years (range: 36–67). Patients received splenic irradiation with a total dose of 3 Gy (single dose: 0.5 Gy). One patient was re-irradiated after long-term failure with the same treatment schedule. Results In four patients long term relief of splenic pain could be observed during the follow-up time of median 20 (range: 2–36) months. Four patients showed haematological response after irradiation with an increase of erythrocytes, leucocytes and/or platelets. A slightly decrease in spleen size was found in two patients. Conclusions Low-dose splenic irradiation in symptomatic congestive splenomegaly is feasible and perhaps as effective as in lympho-and myeloproliferative malignancies regarding pain relief and haematological response.
Purpose of review We review important new clinical observations in chronic pancreatitis (CP) reported in 2011. Recent findings Smoking increases the risk of non-gallstone acute pancreatitis (AP) and the progression of AP to CP. Binge drinking during Oktoberfest did not associate with increased hospital admissions for AP. The unfolded protein response is an adaptive mechanism to maintain pancreatic health in response to noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Onset of diabetes mellitus in CP is likely due to progressive disease rather than individual variables. Insufficient pancreatic enzyme dosing is common for treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea; 90,000 USP U of lipase should be given with mea