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Sample records for synchronic optical transmission

  1. New low-complexity and robust time synchronization technique for optical IMDD OFDM transmissions.

    PubMed

    Truong, Tuan-Anh; Arzel, Matthieu; Lin, Hao; Jahan, Bruno; Jezequel, Michel

    2014-06-16

    This paper provides an analysis of the performance of conventional preamble-based time synchronization techniques, which have been proposed for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) radio transmissions, in the context of optical Intensity Modulated and Direct Detected (IMDD) OFDM transmissions over single-mode fiber. A novel preamble structure along with a two-stage synchronization algorithm is proposed. Thanks to the particular structure of the preamble, a first coarse synchronization metric does not present minor peaks. In addition, without the knowledge of the preamble waveform the receiver can perform both coarse and fine synchronization steps. As maximal delay in arrival time between different frequency components of a signal depends on chromatic dispersion and the signal bandwidth, it is also observed that a slowly time-varying preamble is more robust than a fast time-varying one. By means of numerical simulations, the proposed method is shown to provide better performance when compared to other conventional methods in terms of timing offset variance with reduced receiver complexity. In unamplified transmissions the proposed technique guarantees a quasi-optimal transmission capacity even with a short cyclic prefix. PMID:24977530

  2. Carrier Synchronization for 3-and 4-bit-per-Symbol Optical Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Ezra; Kahn, Joseph M.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate carrier synchronization for coherent detection of optical signals encoding 3 and 4 bits/symbol. We consider the effects of laser phase noise and of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), which can arise from local oscillator (LO) shot noise or LO-spontaneous beat noise. We identify 8-and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that perform well when the receiver phase-locked loop (PLL) tracks the instantaneous signal phase with moderate phase error. We propose implementations of 8-and 16-QAM transmitters using Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulators. We outline a numerical method for computing the bit error rate (BER) of 8-and 16-QAM in the presence of AWGN and phase error. It is found that these schemes can tolerate phase-error standard deviations of 2.48° and 1.24°, respectively, for a power penalty of 0.5 dB at a BER of 10-9. We propose a suitable PLL design and analyze its performance, taking account of laser phase noise, AWGN, and propagation delay within the PLL. Our analysis shows that the phase error depends on the constellation penalty, which is the mean power of constellation symbols times the mean inverse power. We establish a procedure for finding the optimal PLL natural frequency, and determine tolerable laser linewidths and PLL propagation delays. For zero propagation delay, 8-and 16-QAM can tolerate linewidth-to-bit-rate ratios of 1.8 × 10-5 and 1.4 × 10-6, respectively, assuming a total penalty of 1.0 dB.

  3. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  4. Synchronization of optically coupled resonant tunneling diode oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeira, Bruno; Figueiredo, José M. L.; Ironside, Charles N.; Quintana, José M.

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the synchronous response of two fiber-optic coupled optoelectronic circuit oscillators based on resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). The fiber-optic synchronization link employs injection of a periodic oscillating optical modulated signal generated by a master RTD-laser diode (LD) oscillator to a slave RTD-photodetector (PD) oscillator. The synchronous regimes were evaluated as a function of frequency detuning and optical injection strength. The results show the slave RTD-PD oscillator follows the frequency and noise characteristics of the master RTD-LD oscillator resulting in two oscillators with similar phase noise characteristics exhibiting single side band phase noise levels below -100 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency. Optical synchronization of RTD-based optoelectronic circuit oscillators have many applications spanning from sensing, to microwave generation, and data transmission.

  5. Spiking optical patterns and synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbluh, Michael; Aviad, Yaara; Cohen, Elad; Khaykovich, Lev; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kopelowitz, Evi; Yoskovits, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2007-10-01

    We analyze the time resolved spike statistics of a solitary and two mutually interacting chaotic semiconductor lasers whose chaos is characterized by apparently random, short intensity spikes. Repulsion between two successive spikes is observed, resulting in a refractory period, which is largest at laser threshold. For time intervals between spikes greater than the refractory period, the distribution of the intervals follows a Poisson distribution. The spiking pattern is highly periodic over time windows corresponding to the optical length of the external cavity, with a slow change of the spiking pattern as time increases. When zero-lag synchronization between two lasers is established, the statistics of the nearly perfectly matched spikes are not altered. The similarity of these features to those found in complex interacting neural networks, suggests the use of laser systems as simpler physical models for neural networks.

  6. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  7. Synchronization using pulsed edge tracking in optical PPM communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R.

    1972-01-01

    A pulse position modulated (PPM) optical communication system using narrow pulses of light for data transmission requires accurate time synchronization between transmitter and receiver. The presence of signal energy in the form of optical pulses suggests the use of a pulse edge tracking method of maintaining the necessary timing. The edge tracking operation in a binary PPM system is examined, taking into account the quantum nature of the optical transmissions. Consideration is given first to pure synchronization using a periodic pulsed intensity, then extended to the case where position modulation is present and auxiliary bit decisioning is needed to aid the tracking operation. Performance analysis is made in terms of timing error and its associated statistics. Timing error variances are shown as a function of system signal to noise ratio.

  8. Fiber optic data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  9. Bidirectional synchronization and hierarchical error correction for robust image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, HongZhi; Chen, Chang W.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel joint source and channel image coding scheme for noisy channel transmission. The proposed scheme consists of two innovative components: (1) Intelligent bi-directional synchronization, and (2) Layered bit-plane error protection. The bi-directional synchronization is able to recover the coding synchronization when any single or even when two consecutive synchronization codes are corrupted by the channel noise. With synchronized partition, unequal error protection for each bit-plane can be designed to suit for a wide range of channel environments. The hierarchical error protection strategy is based on the analysis of bit-plane error sensitivity, aiming at achieving an optimal joint source and channel coding when the compressed image data are transmitted over noisy channels. Experimental results over extensive channel simulations show that the proposed scheme outperforms the approach proposed by Sherwood and Zeger who have reported the best numerical results in the literature.

  10. Dual-control nonlinear-optical loop mirrors for all-optical soliton synchronous modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigo, Sébastien; Desurvire, Emmanuel; Audouin, Olivier

    1996-09-01

    A novel dual-control configuration of nonlinear loop mirrors is used for all-optical soliton synchronous regeneration. Simulations show substantial improvement in transmission in this device compared with single-control devices, owing to chirp-free modulation. The absence of chirp is confirmed experimentally through a spectral analysis of the dual-control modulator.

  11. Data transmission optical link for RF-GUN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowski, Krzysztof; Zielinski, Jerzy; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2005-09-01

    Today, the fast optical data transmission is one of the fundamentals of modern distributed control systems. The fibers are widely use as multi-gigabit data stream medium. For a short range transmission, the multimode fibers are in common use. The data rate for this kind of transmission exceeds 10 Gbps for 10 Gigabit Ethernet and 10G Fibre Channel protocols. The Field Programmable Gate Arrays are one of the opportunities of managing the optical transmission. This article is concerning a synchronous optical transmission system via a multimode fiber. The transmission is controlled by the FPGA of two manufacturers: Xilinx and Altera. This paper contains the newest technology overview and market device parameters. It also describes a board for the optical transmission, technical details of the transmission and optical transmission results.

  12. Investigation on the synchronized characteristics of the incoherent optical feedback chaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Wu, Zhengmao; Li, Linfu; Fan, Li; Fan, Yan; Xia, Guangqiong

    2007-11-01

    Based on the theoretical model of the synchronization system with incoherent optical feedback, the influence of the internal parameter mismatch on the synchronized characteristics of the chaotic system has been investigated. The result shows that the chaotic system with incoherent optical feedback can be realized more easily than the complete synchronized system, and has higher security than injection locking synchronization system. Using encoding of chaos shift keying, the message can be hidden efficiently during the transmission in the system and decoded easily in receiver.

  13. Stealth transmission of temporal phase en/decoded polarization-modulated-code-shift-keying optical-code-division multiple-access signal over synchronous digital hierarchy network with asynchronous detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zhu, Huatao; Zheng, Jilin

    2014-06-01

    An innovative approach for security-enhanced optical stealth transmission in a synchronous digital hierarchy network is proposed and experimentally investigated. The security enhancement is achieved through a signal modulation format, so-called polarization-modulated-code-shift-keying, which is implemented with two superstructured fiber Bragg gratings-based optical-code-division multiple-access encoders and a polarization modulator. The proposed modulation format can provide a constant energy level for both bits 0's and 1's, which avoids secure vulnerability of single-stealth-user with on-off-keying modulation before coupling into the host channel and after the cascade of filters. Moreover, a self-made cost-effective gain-switched distributed feedback laser with relatively narrow spectrum is first employed as a stealth optical source, which greatly reduces the system cost and complexity. The stealth signal is recovered and detected asynchronously. The experimental results show high secure performance and robustness against eavesdropping, while keeping a bit error rate below forward error correction limit.

  14. All optical OFDM transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, June-Koo K.; Lim, Seong-Jin; Kserawi, Malaz

    2011-12-01

    All-optical OFDM data transmission opens up a new realm of advanced optical transmission at extreme data rates, as subcarriers are multiplexed and demultiplexed by all optical discrete Fourier transforms (DFT). This paper reviews the principles of all optical OFDM transmission and its system application techniques, providing the generic ideas and the practical implementation issues to achieve 100Gbps or higher data rates with a spectral efficiency of 1 bps/Hz or better. This paper also include discussions on all-optical OFDM implementation variants such as an AWG-based OFDM multiplexer and demultiplexer, a receiver design without optical sampling, a transmitter design with frequency-locked cw lasers, an OFDM cyclic prefix designs, and a chromatic dispersion mitigation technique.

  15. A fiber optic synchronization system for LUX

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R.B.; Staples, J.W.; Doolittle, L.R.

    2004-06-30

    The LUX femtosecond light source concept would support pump-probe experiments that need to synchronize laser light pulses with electron-beam-generated X-ray pulses to less than 50 fs at the experimenter endstations. To synchronize multiple endstation lasers with the X-ray pulse, we are developing a fiber-distributed optical timing network. A high frequency clock signal is distributed via fiber to RF cavities (controlling X-ray probe pulse timing) and mode-locked lasers at endstations (controlling pump pulse timing). The superconducting cavities are actively locked to the optical clock phase. Most of the RF timing error is contained within a 10 kHz bandwidth, so these errors and any others affecting X-ray pulse timing (such as RF gun phase) can be detected and transmitted digitally to correct laser timing at the endstations. Time delay through the fibers will be stabilized by comparing a retro-reflected pulse from the experimenter endstation end with a reference pulse from the sending en d, and actively controlling the fiber length.

  16. Effects of unwanted feedback on synchronized chaotic optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Ma, Dong

    2006-04-01

    The effects of unwanted external optical feedback on synchronized chaotic optical communication systems are studied numerically. We consider an open-loop configuration consisting of a transmitter laser with double external optical feedbacks and a receiver laser with optical injection from the transmitter laser. First, including the effects of unwanted optical feedback, the synchronization performances of both the complete synchronization and the generalized synchronization are examined. Then the encoding and decoding performances of the generalized synchronization and the effects of the introduced feedback are investigated, respectively. Finally, we study the control of the unwanted feedback on the dynamics of the transmitter laser and briefly discuss the system security when the transmitter laser is driven to operate in a steady state or periodic oscillation state by the additional feedback.

  17. Method of joint frame synchronization and data-aided channel estimation for 100-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexing-single carrier frequency domain equalization coherent optical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yun; Tan, Jun; Liu, Liu; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Jun; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Minlei

    2016-02-01

    To improve the performance of channel estimation (CE), a method of joint frame synchronization and data-aided CE using less training overhead is proposed. A 100-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexing coherent transmission system with quaternary phase-shift keying based on the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation. The simulation results show that the proposed method could achieve accurate timing offset and CE in the presence of strong amplified spontaneous emission noise.

  18. Transmission of radiometer data from the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Synchronous Meteorological Satellite uses a spin scanner radiometer which generates eight visual signals and two infrared signals. These signals are multiplexed and converted into a 28-Mbps data stream. This signal is transmitted to ground by quadriphase modulation at 1686.1 MHz. On the ground, the digital signal is reconstructed to an analog signal. To conserve bandwidth, an analog-to-digital converter with a nonlinear transfer function was used for the visual signals. The size of the quantization step was made proportional to the noise output of the scanner photomultiplier tube which increases as the square root of incident light. The radiometer data transmission link was simulated on a digital computer to determine the transfer function. Some results of the simulation are shown.

  19. Performance of PLL synchronized optical PPM communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Gardner, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Receiver timing synchronization of an optical PPM communication system can be achieved using a phase-locked loop (PLL) if the photodetector output is properly processed. The synchronization performance is shown to improve with increasing signal power and decreasing loop bandwidth. The bit error rate performance of the PLL synchronized PPM system is analyzed and compared to that of the perfectly synchronized system. It is shown that the increase in signal power needed to compensate for the imperfect sychronization is small (less than 0.1 dB) for loop bandwidths less than 0.1 percent of the slot frequency.

  20. Dynamics and Synchronization of Semiconductor Lasers for Chaotic Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Chen, How-Foo; Tang, Shuo

    The objective of this chapter is to provide a complete picture of the nonlinear dynamics and chaos synchronization of single-mode semiconductor lasers for chaotic optical communications. Basic concepts and theoretical framework are reviewed. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the fundamental concepts. Numerical computations are employed for mapping the dynamical states and for illustrating certain detailed characteristics of the chaotic states. Three different semiconductor laser systems, namely, the optical injection system, the optical feedback system, and the optoelectronic feedback system, that are of most interest for high-bit-rate chaotic optical communications are considered. The optical injection system is a nonautonomous system that follows a period-doubling route to chaos. The optical feedback system is a phase-sensitive delayed-feedback autonomous system for which all three known routes, namely, period-doubling, quasiperiodicity, and intermittency, to chaos can be found. The optical feedback system is a phase-insensitive delayed-feedback autonomous system that follows a quasiperiodicity route to chaotic pulsing. Identical synchronization in unidirectionally coupled configurations is the focus of discussions for chaotic communications. For optical injection and optical feedback systems, the frequency, phase, and amplitude of the optical fields of both transmitter and receiver lasers are all locked in synchronism when complete synchronization is accomplished. For the optoelectronic feedback system, chaos synchronization involves neither the locking of the optical frequency nor the synchronization of the optical phase. For both optical feedback and optoelectronic feedback systems, where the transmitter is configured with a delayed feedback loop, anticipated and retarded synchronization can be observed as the difference between the feedback delay time and the propagation time from the transmitter laser to the receiver laser is varied. For a

  1. Synchronization of Distant Optical Clocks at the Femtosecond Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Sinclair, Laura C.; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Swann, William C.; Baumann, Esther; Bergeron, Hugo; Cermak, Michael; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2016-04-01

    The use of optical clocks or oscillators in future ultraprecise navigation, gravitational sensing, coherent arrays, and relativity experiments will require time comparison and synchronization over terrestrial or satellite free-space links. Here, we demonstrate full unambiguous synchronization of two optical time scales across a free-space link. The time deviation between synchronized time scales is below 1 fs over durations from 0.1 to 6500 s, despite atmospheric turbulence and kilometer-scale path length variations. Over 2 days, the time wander is 40 fs peak to peak. Our approach relies on the two-way reciprocity of a single-spatial-mode optical link, valid to below 225 attoseconds across a turbulent 4-km path. This femtosecond level of time-frequency transfer should enable optical networks using state-of-the-art optical clocks or oscillators.

  2. A synchronous phase detection system for an optical interferometric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, I. J.

    1982-05-01

    A system has been developed to accurately detect phase produced in optical interferometric sensors. The system employs optical heterodyning, and it synchronously detects optical phase by feeding an error signal back to a phase modulator in the reference leg of the interferometer. This system is seen to have properties similar to a phase-locked loop used for the demodulation of FM signals. The system model is second order and nonlinear, but a linear approximation serves to accurately describe the system in synchronous operation and is corroborated with well-matched empirical data. The complete model is simulated via computer techniques and is needed to describe the system's parameters that lead to loss and reacquisition of synchronization.

  3. Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovsky, Arkady; Rosenblum, Michael; Kurths, Jürgen

    2003-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Synchronization Without Formulae: 2. Basic notions: the self-sustained oscillator and its phase; 3. Synchronization of a periodic oscillator by external force; 4. Synchronization of two and many oscillators; 5. Synchronization of chaotic systems; 6. Detecting synchronization in experiments; Part II. Phase Locking and Frequency Entrainment: 7. Synchronization of periodic oscillators by periodic external action; 8. Mutual synchronization of two interacting periodic oscillators; 9. Synchronization in the presence of noise; 10. Phase synchronization of chaotic systems; 11. Synchronization in oscillatory media; 12. Populations of globally coupled oscillators; Part III. Synchronization of Chaotic Systems: 13. Complete synchronization I: basic concepts; 14. Complete synchronization II: generalizations and complex systems; 15. Synchronization of complex dynamics by external forces; Appendix 1. Discovery of synchronization by Christiaan Huygens; Appendix 2. Instantaneous phase and frequency of a signal; References; Index.

  4. Efficient signal transmission by synchronization through compound chaotic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, K.; Lakshmanan, M.

    1997-07-01

    The idea of synchronization of chaotic systems is further extended to the case where all the drive system variables are combined suitably to obtain a compound chaotic signal. An appropriate feedback loop is constructed in the response system to achieve synchronization among the variables of the drive and response systems. We apply this approach to transmit both analog and digital data signals in which the quality of the recovered signal is higher and the encoding is more secure.

  5. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  6. Word and frame synchronization with verification for PPM optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A method for obtaining word and frame synchronization in pulse position modulated optical communication systems is described. The method uses a short sync sequence inserted at the beginning of each data frame and a verification procedure to distinguish between inserted and randomly occurring sequences at the receiver. This results in an easy to implement sync system which provides reliable synchronization even at high symbol error rates. Results are given for the application of this approach to a highly energy efficient 256-ary PPM test system.

  7. 40 Gb/s dynamic wavelength-division-multiplexing/time-division-multiplexing hybrid access network with energy and data stream synchronized transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Lei

    2013-09-15

    A dynamic wavelength-division-multiplexing/time-division-multiplexing hybrid access network with energy and data synchronized transmission is proposed to support flexible resource allocation. Dynamic scheduling of wavelength with different split ratio nodes is realized by the control model at the optical distribution network (ODN). All-optical amplification of the optical data signal and energy supply are also incorporated in the ODN. A proof-of-concept experiment is implemented to verify the feasibility of the proposal. PMID:24104799

  8. Photonic layer security in fiber-optic networks and optical OFDM transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing

    Currently the Internet is experiencing an explosive growth in the world. Such growth leads to an increased data transmission rate demand in fiber-optical networks. Optical orthogonal frequency multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as a promising solution to achieve data rate beyond 100Gb/s per wavelength channel. In the meanwhile, because of extensive data transmission and sharing, data security has become an important problem and receives considerable attention in current research literature. This thesis focuses on data security issues at the physical layer of optical networks involving code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems and steganography methods. The thesis also covers several implementation issues in optical OFDM transmission. Optical CDMA is regarded as a good candidate to provide photonic layer security in multi-access channels. In this thesis we provide a systematic analysis of the security performance of incoherent optical CDMA codes. Based on the analysis, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated several methods to improve the security performance of the optical CDMA systems, such as applying all-optical encryption, and code hopping using nonlinear wavelength conversion. Moreover, we demonstrate that the use of wireless CDMA codes in optical systems can enhance the security in one single-user end-to-end optical channel. Optical steganography is another method to provide photonic data security and involves hiding the existence of data transmissions. In the thesis, we demonstrate that an optical steganography channel can exist in phase modulated public channels as well as traditional on-off-keying (OOK) modulated channels, without data synchronization. We also demonstrate an optical steganography system with enhanced security by utilizing temporal phase modulation techniques. Additionally, as one type of an overlay channel, the optical steganography technology can carry the sensor data collected by wireless sensor network on top of public optical

  9. Improved superimposed training sequence-based timing synchronization for space optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruyan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Hui

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the timing synchronization problem of a space optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) communication system. First, based on the good autocorrelation property of generalized chirp-like sequence, a training sequence is constructed to fit the non-negative light intensity signal requirement of the OOFDM system, of which the front and rear portions are cyclical and the whole is mirror-symmetric. No longer a periodic-repetition structure, the mirror-symmetric structure can effectively avoid the side lobe of objective function and reduce the complexity of correlation calculation, and thereby can improve the synchronization performance. Then, the constructed training sequence is superimposed on a complete data symbol for transmission to efficiently utilize transmitting power and spectrum resources of the communication system. At the receiver, the position of timing synchronization is estimated using maximum-likelihood algorithm and the correlation between the local sequence and the received signal. Simulation results show that, compared with several existing methods, the proposed timing synchronization method achieves better synchronization performances under both strong and weak atmospheric turbulence channels.

  10. Optical synchronization system for femtosecond X-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2011-12-13

    Femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses require precise synchronization between 100 meter-10 km separated lasers in a various experiments. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1-10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with various implementations. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz will be lock to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  11. Synchronous Spin Exchange Optical Pumping for Precision NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korver, Anna; Weber, Josh; Thrasher, Daniel; Walker, Thad

    2016-05-01

    We present the successful execution of synchronous spin exchange optical pumping for precision NMR. In this novel form of NMR, the bias field is applied as a sequence of alkali 2 π pulses; the resulting transverse alkali polarization is then modulated at the NMR frequency and spin exchange collisions build up a transverse precessing noble gas polarization. As compared to longitudinally pumped NMR, this method suppresses the alkali frequency shift by over a factor of 2500. We also discuss how we use synchronous spin exchange optical pumping to excite two noble gas species simultaneously. With dual species operation, we are able to use one species to lock the magnetic field while the other is left to detect nonmagnetic interactions. This method promises to achieve NMR frequency uncertainties of 100nHz/√{ Hz}. Research supported by the NSF and Northrop-Grumman Corp.

  12. Synchronous Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korver, A.; Thrasher, D.; Bulatowicz, M.; Walker, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to precision NMR with hyperpolarized gases designed to mitigate NMR shifts due to the alkali spin-exchange field. The NMR bias field is implemented as a sequence of alkali (Rb) 2 π pulses, allowing the Rb polarization to be optically pumped transverse to the bias field. When the Rb polarization is modulated at the noble-gas (Xe) NMR resonance, spin-exchange collisions buildup a precessing transverse Xe polarization. We study and mitigate novel NMR broadening effects due to the oscillating spin-exchange field. Spin-exchange frequency shifts are suppressed 2500 ×, and Rb magnetometer gain measurements project photon shot-noise limited NMR frequency uncertainties below 10 nHz /√{Hz } .

  13. Synchronous Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping.

    PubMed

    Korver, A; Thrasher, D; Bulatowicz, M; Walker, T G

    2015-12-18

    We demonstrate a new approach to precision NMR with hyperpolarized gases designed to mitigate NMR shifts due to the alkali spin-exchange field. The NMR bias field is implemented as a sequence of alkali (Rb) 2π pulses, allowing the Rb polarization to be optically pumped transverse to the bias field. When the Rb polarization is modulated at the noble-gas (Xe) NMR resonance, spin-exchange collisions buildup a precessing transverse Xe polarization. We study and mitigate novel NMR broadening effects due to the oscillating spin-exchange field. Spin-exchange frequency shifts are suppressed 2500×, and Rb magnetometer gain measurements project photon shot-noise limited NMR frequency uncertainties below 10  nHz/sqrt[Hz]. PMID:26722919

  14. Synchronization of laser oscillators, associative memory, and optical neurocomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppensteadt, Frank C.; Izhikevich, Eugene M.

    2000-09-01

    We investigate here possible neurocomputational features of networks of laser oscillators. Our approach is similar to classical optical neurocomputing where artificial neurons are lasers and connection matrices are holographic media. However, we consider oscillatory neurons communicating via phases rather than amplitudes. Memorized patterns correspond to synchronized states where the neurons oscillate with equal frequencies and with prescribed phase relations. The mechanism of recognition is related to phase locking.

  15. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  16. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-raySources

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-05-09

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  17. Laser diode array and transmission optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.

    1989-01-01

    Information on laser diode array and transmission optics is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on coherent combining of laser diode arrays, amplification through a laser diode array, the far field pattern of a laser diode transmitter, and beam diameter at receiver vs. transmission distance.

  18. Remote atomic clock synchronization via satellites and optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piester, D.; Rost, M.; Fujieda, M.; Feldmann, T.; Bauch, A.

    2011-07-01

    In the global network of institutions engaged with the realization of International Atomic Time (TAI), atomic clocks and time scales are compared by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and by employing telecommunication satellites for two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT). The frequencies of the state-of-the-art primary caesium fountain clocks can be compared at the level of 10-15 (relative, 1 day averaging) and time scales can be synchronized with an uncertainty of one nanosecond. Future improvements of worldwide clock comparisons will require also an improvement of the local signal distribution systems. For example, the future ACES (atomic clock ensemble in space) mission shall demonstrate remote time scale comparisons at the uncertainty level of 100 ps. To ensure that the ACES ground instrument will be synchronized to the local time scale at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) without a significant uncertainty contribution, we have developed a means for calibrated clock comparisons through optical fibers. An uncertainty below 40 ps over a distance of 2 km has been demonstrated on the campus of PTB. This technology is thus in general a promising candidate for synchronization of enhanced time transfer equipment with the local realizations of Coordinated Universal Time UTC. Based on these experiments we estimate the uncertainty level for calibrated time transfer through optical fibers over longer distances. These findings are compared with the current status and developments of satellite based time transfer systems, with a focus on the calibration techniques for operational systems.

  19. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  20. Synchronization of optical photons for quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Toyama, Takeshi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental element of quantum information processing with photonic qubits is the nonclassical quantum interference between two photons when they bunch together via the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. Ultimately, many such photons must be processed in complex interferometric networks. For this purpose, it is essential to synchronize the arrival times of the flying photons and to keep their purities high. On the basis of the recent experimental success of single-photon storage with high purity, we demonstrate for the first time the HOM interference of two heralded, nearly pure optical photons synchronized through two independent quantum memories. Controlled storage times of up to 1.8 μs for about 90 events per second were achieved with purities that were sufficiently high for a negative Wigner function confirmed with homodyne measurements. PMID:27386536

  1. Synchronization of optical photons for quantum information processing

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Toyama, Takeshi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental element of quantum information processing with photonic qubits is the nonclassical quantum interference between two photons when they bunch together via the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. Ultimately, many such photons must be processed in complex interferometric networks. For this purpose, it is essential to synchronize the arrival times of the flying photons and to keep their purities high. On the basis of the recent experimental success of single-photon storage with high purity, we demonstrate for the first time the HOM interference of two heralded, nearly pure optical photons synchronized through two independent quantum memories. Controlled storage times of up to 1.8 μs for about 90 events per second were achieved with purities that were sufficiently high for a negative Wigner function confirmed with homodyne measurements. PMID:27386536

  2. A synchronous fiber optic ring local area network for multigigabit/s mixed-traffic communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Eng, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    A synchronous-ring fiber optic local area network is reported that facilitates the simultaneous transmission of packet and real-time traffic at gigabit/s rates, minimizes the amount of high-speed logic, and simplifies the user interface to the network. The novelty of the technique is based on (1) suspending in transit around the ring's circumference an integral number of data frames and (2) achieving this condition by skewing the frame clock rate a small amount. Rather than use the whole data frame as one packet destined to a specific user, many individual channels are instead time-multiplexed into the data frame. This technique only becomes feasible for local networks as data rates approach the Gbit/s range. This departure from other synchronous rings results in several advantages both in terms of system performance and hardware simplicity.

  3. Computer controlled synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roy I.; Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements.

  4. Computer controllable synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, R.I.; Patil, P.B.

    1989-08-08

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements. 6 figs.

  5. Electrochromic variable transmission optical combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Russell S.; Wood, Michael V.; Radmard, Bijan; Mahmud, Ken; Schuler, Peter; Sotzing, Gregory A.; Seshadri, Venkataraman; Mino, Warren; Padilla, Javier; Otero, Tobibio F.

    2005-05-01

    Complementary coloring conducting polymer based electrochromic devices have been designed, fabricated and tested for possible application as a variable attenuation combiner element for a see-through head mounted display or a variable trasnsmissive sand wind dust goggle lens. Electrochromic cells fabricated on both glass and polycarbonate substrates have been demonstrated to meet closely the desired goals of low power consumption, wide transmission range, fast switching speeds and long lifetime. Photopic transmissions of 34% in colored state and 67% in bleached state were achieved in a reproducible manner. The measured switching times are 0.6 sec (colored to bleached state) and 1.9 sec (bleached to colored state). The life cycle testing showed stability up to 92,000 switches. The measured power consumption of the fabricated devices was < 1 mW/cm . The electrochromic technology design effort has identified processes for obtaining the optimum layer thickness and selecting polymers and gel electrolytes necessary to obtain the widest transmission range, fastest switching speed and longest lifetime. Early environmental testing has been performed by subjecting prototype electrochromic cells to temperatures varying from -30°C to + 40°C with the results reported herein. Follow on work includes further optimization of electronic drive schemes as well as field testing of electrochromic lens equipped sand, wind dust goggles.

  6. Synchronization of colloidal rotors through angular optical binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, S. H.; Chvátal, L.; Zemánek, P.

    2016-02-01

    A mechanism for the synchronization of driven colloidal rotors via optical coupling torques is presented and analyzed. Following our recent experiments [Brzobohatý et al., Opt. Express 23, 7273 (2015)], 10.1364/OE.23.007273, we consider a counterpropagating optical beam trap that carries spin angular momentum, but no net linear momentum, operating in an aqueous solvent. The angular momentum carried by the beams causes the continuous low-Reynolds-number rotation of spheroidal colloids. Due to multiple scattering, the optical torques experienced by these particles depend on their relative orientations, while the effect of hydrodynamic interaction is negligible. This results in frequency pulling, which causes weakly dissimilar spheroids to synchronize their rotation rates and lock their relative phases. The effect is qualitatively captured by a coupled dipole model and quantitatively reproduced by T -matrix calculations. For pairs of rotors, the relative torque Δ τ is shown to vary with relative phase Δ ϕ according to Δ τ ≈A sin(2 Δ ϕ +δ )+B for constants A ,B ,δ , so the resulting motion is governed by the well-known Adler equation. We show that this behavior can be preserved for larger numbers of particles. The application of these phenomena to the inertial motion of particles in vacuum could provide a route to the sympathetic cooling of mesoscopic particles.

  7. Solar light transmission of polymer optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tekelioglu, Murat; Wood, Byard D.

    2009-11-15

    Light transfer (10 m) has been shown in recent experiments that used large-core optical fibers. Theoretical models are not extensive, however, and a further correlation between the theory and experiments has not been given. In this paper, straight and bent fiber subsystem models are introduced with skew and meridional rays to predict the light transmission of POFs (plastic optical fibers). Such fibers have been realized, for example, in HSL (hybrid solar lighting) systems. The purpose of this paper is to combine the straight and bent fiber subsystems to estimate the light transmission of HSL systems. It is shown that meridional rays, for which the optical-loss parameters were estimated, better represent the experimental results compared to skew rays ({+-}5.3% vs {+-}24.7% of %-difference). Model predictions were compared with the results of a commercial software. Sensitivity analysis on the subsystems indicated the most-to-least significant parameters in light transmission. (author)

  8. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  9. Synchronized amplification of local information transmission by peripheral retinal input.

    PubMed

    Jadzinsky, Pablo D; Baccus, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli have varying statistics influenced by both the environment and by active sensing behaviors that rapidly and globally change the sensory input. Consequently, sensory systems often adjust their neural code to the expected statistics of their sensory input to transmit novel sensory information. Here, we show that sudden peripheral motion amplifies and accelerates information transmission in salamander ganglion cells in a 50 ms time window. Underlying this gating of information is a transient increase in adaptation to contrast, enhancing sensitivity to a broader range of stimuli. Using a model and natural images, we show that this effect coincides with an expected increase in information in bipolar cells after a global image shift. Our findings reveal the dynamic allocation of energy resources to increase neural activity at times of expected high information content, a principle of adaptation that balances the competing requirements of conserving spikes and transmitting information. PMID:26568312

  10. Multilayer Dielectric Transmissive Optical Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew Scott; Fork, Richard Lynn

    2004-01-01

    A multilayer dielectric device has been fabricated as a prototype of a low-loss, low-distortion, transmissive optical phase modulator that would provide as much as a full cycle of phase change for all frequency components of a transmitted optical pulse over a frequency band as wide as 6.3 THz. Arrays of devices like this one could be an alternative to the arrays of mechanically actuated phase-control optics (adaptive optics) that have heretofore been used to correct for wave-front distortions in highly precise optical systems. Potential applications for these high-speed wave-front-control arrays of devices include agile beam steering, optical communications, optical metrology, optical tracking and targeting, directional optical ranging, and interferometric astronomy. The device concept is based on the same principle as that of band-pass interference filters made of multiple dielectric layers with fractional-wavelength thicknesses, except that here there is an additional focus on obtaining the desired spectral phase profile in addition to the device s spectral transmission profile. The device includes a GaAs substrate, on which there is deposited a stack of GaAs layers alternating with AlAs layers, amounting to a total of 91 layers. The design thicknesses of the layers range from 10 nm to greater than 1 micrometer. The number of layers and the thickness of each layer were chosen in a computational optimization process in which the wavelength dependences of the indices of refraction of GaAs and AlAs were taken into account as the design was iterated to maximize the transmission and minimize the group-velocity dispersion for a wavelength band wide enough to include all significant spectral components of the pulsed optical signal to be phase modulated.

  11. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Guest Feature Editors

    Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors

    Submission deadline: 15 June 2007
    Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems.

    Scope of Submission

    The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics

  12. Synchronized amplification of local information transmission by peripheral retinal input

    PubMed Central

    Jadzinsky, Pablo D; Baccus, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli have varying statistics influenced by both the environment and by active sensing behaviors that rapidly and globally change the sensory input. Consequently, sensory systems often adjust their neural code to the expected statistics of their sensory input to transmit novel sensory information. Here, we show that sudden peripheral motion amplifies and accelerates information transmission in salamander ganglion cells in a 50 ms time window. Underlying this gating of information is a transient increase in adaptation to contrast, enhancing sensitivity to a broader range of stimuli. Using a model and natural images, we show that this effect coincides with an expected increase in information in bipolar cells after a global image shift. Our findings reveal the dynamic allocation of energy resources to increase neural activity at times of expected high information content, a principle of adaptation that balances the competing requirements of conserving spikes and transmitting information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09266.001 PMID:26568312

  13. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOEpatents

    St. John, Wallace B.; DuBois, David H.

    1996-01-01

    A system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway.

  14. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOEpatents

    St. John, W.B.; DuBois, D.H.

    1996-12-03

    Disclosed is a system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway. 7 figs.

  15. Spike phase synchronization in delayed-coupled neural networks: Uniform vs. non-uniform transmission delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated phase synchronization in delayed dynamical networks. Non-identical spiking Hindmarsh-Rose neurons were considered as individual dynamical systems and coupled through a number of network structures such as scale-free, Erdős-Rényi, and modular. The individual neurons were coupled through excitatory chemical synapses with uniform or distributed time delays. The profile of spike phase synchrony was different when the delay was uniform across the edges as compared to the case when it was distributed, i.e., different delays for the edges. When an identical transmission delay was considered, a quasi-periodic pattern was observed in the spike phase synchrony. There were specific values of delay where the phase synchronization reached to its peaks. The behavior of the phase synchronization in the networks with non-uniform delays was different with the former case, where the phase synchrony decreased as distributed delays introduced to the networks.

  16. Optical chaos synchronization and encrypted communications of VCSEL by direct optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosomi, Naohito; Sasaki, Wakao

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose electro-optical nonlinear delayed feedback systems (NDFS) for optical secure communications using VCSEL for the first time. Its optical output can perform more sensitive chaotic dynamics by varying only a few mA of injection current range resulting in very significant charges of VCSEL's operation conditions from threshold to maximum rating. This enables us to vary chaotic output dynamically by a slight difference of initial values in NDFS. We have proposed a chaos synchronization system using two identical NDFS's of VCSEL, and realized chaos synchronization by optical injection. As a result of experiment the correlation coefficient up to about 0.88 was obtained. Moreover, by varying the delay time and feedback gain in the parameters of NDFSs, we have confirmed that the variations of these parameters may affect variations of correlation.

  17. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOEpatents

    St. John, Wallace B.; DuBois, David H.

    1998-08-11

    A digital system provides sending and receiving gateways for HIPPI interfaces. Electronic logic circuitry formats data signals and overhead signals in a data frame that is suitable for transmission over a connecting fiber optic link. Multiplexers route the data and overhead signals to a framer module. The framer module allocates the data and overhead signals to a plurality of 9-byte words that are arranged in a selected protocol. The formatted words are stored in a storage register for output through the gateway.

  18. Synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator with broadband chirped mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevičiūte, Karolina; Melnikas, Simas; Kičas, Simonas; Trišauskas, Lukas; Vengelis, Julius; Grigonis, Rimantas; Vengris, Mikas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas

    2015-05-01

    We present results obtained during investigation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) with broadband complementary chirped mirror pairs (CMP). The SPOPO based on β-BBO nonlinear crystal is pumped by second harmonic of femtosecond Yb:KGW laser and provides signal pulses tunable over spectral range from 625 to 980 nm. More than 500 mW are generated in the signal beam, giving up to 27 % pump power to signal power conversion efficiency. The plane SPOPO cavity mirror pairs were specially designed to provide 99 % reflection in broad spectral range corresponding to signal wavelength tuning (630-1030 nm) and to suppress group delay dispersion (GDD) oscillations down to +/-10 fs2. Dispersion properties of designed mirrors were tested with white light interferometer (WLI) and attributed to the SPOPO tuning behaviour.

  19. Regeneration in synchronous optical network/WDM rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevian, Armen R.

    2003-06-01

    In today's WDM all-optical networks, a majority of existing virtual topology design algorithms have ignored link-performance limiting factors such as dispersion, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), cross talk resulting from signal leakage in optical cross connects (OXCs), and fiber nonlinearities. All these factors result in bit-error-rate (BER) degradation at the receiving end. To maintain a BER below a certain level, some lightpaths in the network will require regeneration at the intermediate nodes, thus, setting up a lightpath in a multihop manner. In synchronous optical network (SONET) ring networks, the terminal equipment cost associated with electronic multiplexing is predominantly high. Wavelength add-drop multiplexers reduce the amount of SONET terminal equipment at each node by allowing certain wavelengths or bands to bypass the node optically without being electronically terminated. Most of the previous research in this area has focused on the virtual topology design and wavelength-routing algorithms to address the cost savings. Here we consider both unidirectional path-switched and bidirectional line-switched rings (UPSR, BLSR/2) with optical bypass. We analytically derive a relationship for the number of regenerators to support both single-hub and all-to-all situations for uniform and nonuniform traffic cases with an arbitrary internodal length distribution. We obtain lower and upper bounds for regeneration cost on a ring when nodes are randomly placed. Equivalency is established between UPSR and BLSR/2 networks in terms of regeneration cost for cases of single link failure. Regeneration cost advantage is shown for nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF) over standard single-mode fiber in dispersion-limited regimes.

  20. Phase locked loop synchronization for direct detection optical PPM communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. C.; Gardner, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Receiver timing synchronization of an optical pulse position modulation (PPM) communication system can be achieved using a phase locked loop (PLL) if the photodetector output is properly processed. The synchronization performance is shown to improve with increasing signal power and decreasing loop bandwidth. Bit error rate (BER) of the PLL synchronized PPM system is analyzed and compared to that for the perfectly synchronized system. It is shown that the increase in signal power needed to compensate for the imperfect synchronization is small (less than 0.1 dB) for loop bandwidths less than 0.1% of the slot frequency.

  1. Effects of transmission on Gaussian optical states.

    PubMed

    McKinstrie, C J; Marshall, K; Weedbrook, C

    2015-04-20

    The noise properties of phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive optical transmission links are described in detail, for Gaussian input signals. Formulas are derived for the quadrature covariance matrices of the output signals, which allow one to quantify the noise figures of the links and the fidelities of transmission. Another formula is derived, which relates the density operator of an output signal, in the number-state representation, to its covariance matrix. This density matrix allows one to quantify the decrease in coherence and changes in photon-number probabilities associated with transmission. Based on the aforementioned performance metrics, links with distributed phase-sensitive amplification perform significantly better than other links. PMID:25969122

  2. Optical Transmission Properties of Dielectric Aperture Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao

    Optical detection devices such as optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are widely used in many applications for the functions of measurements, inspections and analysis. Due to the large dimension of prisms and gratings, the traditional optical devices normally occupy a large space with complicated components. Since cheaper and smaller optical devices are always in demand, miniaturization has been kept going for years. Thanks to recent fabrication advances, nanophotonic devices such as semiconductor laser chips have been growing in number and diversity. However, the optical biosensor chips and the optical spectrometer chips are seldom reported in the literature. For the reason of improving system integration, the study of ultra-compact, low-cost, high-performance and easy-alignment optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are imperative. This thesis is an endeavor in these two subjects and will present our research work on studying the optical transmission properties of dielectric aperture arrays and developing new optical biosensors and optical spectrometers. The first half of the thesis demonstrates that the optical phase shift associated with the surface plasmon (SP) assisted extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) in nano-hole arrays fabricated in a metal film has a strong dependence on the material refractive index value in close proximity to the holes. A novel refractive index sensor based on detecting the EOT phase shift is proposed by building a model. This device readily provides a 2-D biosensor array platform for non-labeled real-time detection of a variety of organic and biological molecules in a sensor chip format, which leads to a high packing density, minimal analyte volumes, and a large number of parallel channels while facilitating high resolution imaging and supporting a large space-bandwidth product (SBP). Simulation (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical Solutions Inc) results indicate an achievable sensitivity limit of 4.37x10-9 refractive index

  3. Blind symbol synchronization for direct detection optical OFDM using a reduced number of virtual subcarriers.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, R; Killey, R I

    2015-03-01

    Symbol synchronization constitutes a major component in optical OFDM transceivers. In this paper, we propose reducing the complexity of a blind symbol synchronization technique for direct detection OFDM receivers based on virtual subcarriers by optimizing the number and location of the virtual subcarriers. Compared to the system design in our previous study, this new technique offers a reduction of 92% in the number of virtual subcarriers (from 26 to 2 in a system with 50 data carrying subchannels) resulting in significant savings in complexity with a minimal penalty. Moreover, it offers an increase in the system capacity as more subcarriers can be used to transmit data. The technique was assessed experimentally using a transmission system of direct detection 16-QAM optical OFDM operating at a data rate of 30.65 Gb/s over 23.3 km SSMF with BER of 10(-3). Negligible penalty was observed at high received powers. However, at low received powers, the number of averaging symbols had to be increased in order to improve the robustness of the method. PMID:25836864

  4. Nonlinear optical transmission of cyanobacteria-derived optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Edward H.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Zhao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Cyanobacteria-derived optical materials for optical limiting applications have been studied in this work. Six samples have been prepared from cyanobacteria including cyanobacteria suspension in water, extracts in water, methanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and pyrolyzed cyanobacteria (PCYB) dispersed in dsDNA (sodium salt from salmon testes) solution and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, respectively. The extracts contain phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carotenoids as measured by optical absorption spectroscopy, while the PCYB is a nanostructural composite composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoringes, and multilayer graphenes, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The optical limiting responses of the samples have been measured at 532 and 756 nm. The PCYB in dsDNA solution has the best limiting performance out of all the cyanobacteria-derived samples. It outperforms carbon black suspension standard at 532 nm and is a broadband limiter, which makes it attractive for optical limiting applications.

  5. Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01206.001. PMID:24368731

  6. Chaotic synchronization in Bose-Einstein condensate of moving optical lattices via linear coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Feng, Xiu-Qin; Yao, Zhi-Hai; Jia, Hong-Yang

    2015-11-01

    A systematic study of the chaotic synchronization of Bose-Einstein condensed body is performed using linear coupling method based on Lyapunov stability theory, Sylvester’s criterion, and Gerschgorin disc theorem. The chaotic synchronization of Bose-Einstein condensed body in moving optical lattices is realized by linear coupling. The relationship between the synchronization time and coupling coefficient is obtained. Both the single-variable coupling and double-variable coupling are effective. The results of numerical calculation prove that the chaotic synchronization of double-variable coupling is faster than that of single-variable coupling and small coupling coefficient can achieve the chaotic synchronization. Weak noise has little influence on synchronization effect, so the linear coupling technology is suitable for the chaotic synchronization of Bose-Einstein condensate. Project supported by the Industrial Technology Research and Development Special Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 2013C46) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20101510).

  7. Optical scanning cryptography for secure wireless transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Kim, Taegeun; Doh, Kyu

    2003-11-01

    We propose a method for secure wireless transmission of encrypted information. By use of an encryption key, an image or document is optically encrypted by optical heterodyne scanning and hence encryption is performed on the fly. We call this technique optical scanning cryptography. The output of the heterodyne encrypted signal is at radio frequency and can be directly sent through an antenna to a secure site for digital storage to be prepared for decryption. In the secure site, an identical optical scanning system to that used for encryption is used, together with a decryption key, to generate an electrical signal. The electrical signal is then processed and sent to a computer to be used for decryption. Utilizing the stored information received from the encryption stage and the electrical information from the secure site, a digital decryption unit performs a decryption algorithm. If the encryption key and the decryption key are matched, the decryption unit will decrypt the image or document faithfully. The overall cryptosystem can perform the incoherent optical processing counterpart of the well-known coherent double-random phase-encoding technique. We present computer simulations of the idea.

  8. Optical scanning cryptography for secure wireless transmission.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Kim, Taegeun; Doh, Kyu

    2003-11-10

    We propose a method for secure wireless transmission of encrypted information. By use of an encryption key, an image or document is optically encrypted by optical heterodyne scanning and hence encryption is performed on the fly. We call this technique optical scanning cryptography. The output of the heterodyne encrypted signal is at radio frequency and can be directly sent through an antenna to a secure site for digital storage to be prepared for decryption. In the secure site, an identical optical scanning system to that used for encryption is used, together with a decryption key, to generate an electrical signal. The electrical signal is then processed and sent to a computer to be used for decryption. Utilizing the stored information received from the encryption stage and the electrical information from the secure site, a digital decryption unit performs a decryption algorithm. If the encryption key and the decryption key are matched, the decryption unit will decrypt the image or document faithfully. The overall cryptosystem can perform the incoherent optical processing counterpart of the well-known coherent double-random phase-encoding technique. We present computer simulations of the idea. PMID:14650492

  9. SINR Analysis of Hexagonal Multicarrier Transmission Systems in the Presence of Insufficient Synchronization for Doubly Dispersive Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kui; Xu, Youyun; Zhang, Dongmei

    2011-07-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset) on hexagonal multicarrier transmission (HMT) systems for doubly dispersive channel. Exact SINR and demodulated symbol expressions for HMT systems in the presence of insufficient synchronization transmission conditions over doubly dispersive channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum and uniform delay power profile and uniform Doppler power spectrum are derived, respectively. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradations on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization are incurred as in traditional cyclic-prefix orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) transmission. HMT systems outperform traditional OFDM systems with respect to signal to interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) against inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI) caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive(DD) channel. The BER performance of the HMT systems using Monte Carlo simulation match with the conclusion given by the proposed exact SINR expression.

  10. Energy efficiency of optical grooming of QAM optical transmission channels.

    PubMed

    Bhopalwala, Mariya; Rastegarfar, Houman; Kilper, Daniel C; Wang, Michael; Bergman, Keren

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the energy use for optical grooming of quadrature amplitude modulated signals in optical transmission systems is used to determine the potential efficiency benefits. An energy model is developed for both optical and electronic grooming and used to study the relative efficiency for three different network scenarios. The energy efficiency is evaluated considering both coherent and direct detection transceivers including power management strategies. Results indicate efficiency improvements up to an order of magnitude may be possible for 100 GBaud rates and 25-30 GBaud is a critical point at which optical grooming becomes the more efficient approach. These results are further shown to apply for the case of projected efficiency improvements in the underlying device technologies. PMID:26906845

  11. Transmissive Diffractive Optical Element Solar Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard; Moynihan, Philip; Price, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Solar-thermal-radiation concentrators in the form of transmissive diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have been proposed as alternatives to mirror-type solar concentrators now in use. In comparison with functionally equivalent mirror-type solar concentrators, the transmissive, diffractive solar concentrators would weigh and cost less, and would be subject to relaxed mechanical tolerances. A DOE concentrator would be made from a thin, flat disk or membrane of a transmissive material having a suitable index of refraction. By virtue of its thinness, the DOE concentrator would have an areal mass density significantly less than that of a functionally equivalent conventional mirror. The DOE concentrator would have a relatively wide aperture--characterized by a focal-length/aperture-diameter ratio ('f number') on the order of 1. A kinoform (a surface-relief phase hologram) of high diffractive order would be microfabricated onto one face of the disk. The kinoform (see figure) would be designed to both diffract and refract incident solar radiation onto a desired focal region, without concern for forming an image of the Sun. The high diffractive order of this kinoform (in contradistinction to the low diffractive orders of some other kinoforms) would be necessary to obtain the desired f number of 1, which, in turn, would be necessary for obtaining a desired concentration ratio of 2,500 or greater. The design process of optimizing the concentration ratio of a proposed DOE solar concentrator includes computing convolutions of the optical bandwidth of the Sun with the optical transmission of the diffractive medium. Because, as in the cases of other non-imaging, light-concentrating optics, image quality is not a design requirement, the process also includes trading image quality against concentration ratio. A baseline design for one example calls for an aperture diameter of 1 m. This baseline design would be scalable to a diameter as large as 10 m, or to a smaller diameter for a

  12. Heaviside revisited: Distortionless signal transmission through lossy media with application to precision clock synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flake, Robert H.

    2016-02-01

    A recently discovered non-sinusoidal, non-periodic electrical signal in the form of an exponentially rising pulse achieves distortionless propagation at constant velocity through lossy, passive transmission media. This unique property is derived theoretically in the framework of the telegrapher's equation analyzed by Heaviside and confirmed experimentally in propagation of such a pulse along serially connected sections of telephone cable. The utility of the distortion-free pulse within the field of time-domain reflectometry is demonstrated in precise time-of-flight measurement of the reflected signal, with the prospect of enhancing the accuracy of protocols for synchronization of spatially separated clocks.

  13. Absolute stability and synchronization in neural field models with transmission delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chiu-Yen; Shih, Chih-Wen; Wu, Chang-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Neural fields model macroscopic parts of the cortex which involve several populations of neurons. We consider a class of neural field models which are represented by integro-differential equations with transmission time delays which are space-dependent. The considered domains underlying the systems can be bounded or unbounded. A new approach, called sequential contracting, instead of the conventional Lyapunov functional technique, is employed to investigate the global dynamics of such systems. Sufficient conditions for the absolute stability and synchronization of the systems are established. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  14. Tbit/s Optical Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Fatima C. G.; Ellis, Andrew D.; Cuenot, Benjamin; Healy, Tadhg; McCarthy, Mary

    2005-10-01

    We discuss our Science Foundation Ireland-funded work to design of a highly spectral efficient Tbit/s optical transmission system for long-haul communications. Such systems are comprised of several wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channels (or frequency channels), closely spaced (<100 GHz), and modulated at high bit rates (40 Gbit/s). The highest efficiencies have been achieved using combinations of techniques, by increasing the information per channel and minimizing interferometric cross-talk. In conventional systems, incoherent interference occurs when beat signals from adjacent channels fall within the receiver bandwidth. This generates noise if the relative phase is random, e.g., where independent lasers are used for each channel. However, if the optical phase difference between adjacent channels is controlled, the interference signal is deterministic. Therefore, if each channel is modulated with a data signal, any interference effect is distributed in the same way from one bit slot to another, and the relative optical phases may be aligned to either increase or decrease the eye opening. This interference control may be achieved by controlling the phase of each laser individually with optical phase locked loops, or by replacing the typical bank of lasers with one or more coherent comb sources. The wavelengths of adjacent channels are thus phased locked to each other, and the data are encoded with an array of modulators that preserves this relative optical phase. The proposed technique, Coherent WDM, exploits this optical phase-locking mechanism in a simple and cost-effective configuration because it is based on a comb generation (multi-wavelength source) via the use of sine-wave-driven amplitude modulators (generating side-bands), followed by data encoding at the same rate. Recent results show significant improvement in performance over conventional systems. More improvement may come when a combination of approaches is used.

  15. Speed synchronization control for integrated automotive motor-transmission powertrain system with random delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Zongde

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a robust speed synchronization controller design for an integrated motor-transmission powertrain system in which the driving motor and multi-gearbox are directly coupled. As the controller area network (CAN) is commonly used in the vehicle powertrain system, the possible network-induced random delays in both feedback and forward channel are considered and modeled by using two Markov chains in the controller design process. For the application perspective, the control law adopted here is a generalized proportional-integral (PI) control. By employing the system-augmentation technique, a delay-free stochastic closed-loop system is obtained and the generalized PI controller design problem is converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem. Since there are external disturbances involved in the closed-loop system, the energy-to-peak performance is considered to guarantee the robustness of the controller. And the controlled output is chosen as the speed synchronization error. To further improve the transient response of the closed-loop system, the pole placement is also employed in the energy-to-peak performance based speed synchronization control. The mode-dependent control gains are obtained by using an iterative linear matrix inequality (LMI) algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  16. Measurement of magnetic moment via optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidsieck, Alexandra; Schmid, Daniel; Gleich, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic moment of nanoparticles is an important property for drug targeting and related applications as well as for the simulation thereof. However, the measurement of the magnetic moment of nanoparticles, nanoparticle-virus-complexes or microspheres in solution can be difficult and often yields unsatisfying or incomparable results. To measure the magnetic moment, we designed a custom measurement device including a magnetic set-up to observe nanoparticles indirectly via light transmission in solution. We present a simple, cheap device of manageable size, which can be used in any laboratory as well as a novel evaluation method to determine the magnetic moment of nanoparticles via the change of the optical density of the particle suspension in a well-defined magnetic gradient field. In contrast to many of the established measurement methods, we are able to observe and measure the nanoparticle complexes in their natural state in the respective medium. The nanoparticles move along the magnetic gradient and thereby away from the observation point. Due to this movement, the optical density of the fluid decreases and the transmission increases over time at the measurement location. By comparing the measurement with parametric simulations, we can deduce the magnetic moment from the observed behavior.

  17. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Vishwa; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ghosh, R.

    2011-12-01

    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, α. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through α in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as α varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to α.

  18. Theoretical study of use of optical orthogonal codes for compressed video transmission in optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shila; Chatterji, B. N.

    2007-09-01

    A theoretical investigation to evaluate the performance of optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) for compressed video transmission is shown. OCDMA has many advantages than a typical synchronous protocol time division multiple access (TDMA). A pulsed laser transmission of multi channel digital video can be done using various techniques depending on whether the multi channel data are to be synchronous or asynchronous. A typical form of asynchronous digital operation is wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in which the digital data of each video source are assigned a specific and separate wavelength. A sophisticated hardware such as accurate wavelength control of all lasers and tunable narrow band optical filters at the receivers is required in this case. A major disadvantage with CDMA is the reduction in per channel data rate (relative to the speeds available in the laser itself) that occurs in the insertion of code addressing. Hence optical CDMA for the video transmission application is meaningful when individual channel video bit rates can be significantly reduced and that can be done by compression of video data. In our work for compression of video image standard JPEG is implemented where a compression ratio of about 60 % is obtained without noticeable image degradation. Compared to the other existing techniques JPEG standard achieves higher compression ration with high S/N ratio. Here we demonstrated the auto and cross correlation properties of the codes. We have shown the implementation of bipolar Walsh coding in OCDMA system and their use in transmission of image/video.

  19. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-04-01

    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed.

  20. Colossal optical transmission through buried metal gratings (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Christopher M.; Liu, Runyu; Zhao, Xiang; Yu, Lan; Li, Xiuling; Wasserman, Daniel M.; Podolskiy, Viktor A.

    2015-09-01

    In Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOT), a metallic film perforated with an array of [periodic] apertures exhibits transmission over 100% normalized to the total aperture area, at selected frequencies. EOT devices have potential applications as optical filters and as couplers in hybrid electro-optic contacts/devices. Traditional passive extraordinary optical transmission structures, typically demonstrate un-normalized transmission well below 50%, and are typically outperformed by simpler thin-film techniques. To overcome these limitations, we demonstrate a new breed of extraordinary optical transmission devices, by "burying" an extraordinary optical transmission grating in a dielectric matrix via a metal-assisted-chemical etching process. The resulting structure is an extraordinary optical transmission grating on top of a dielectric substrate with dielectric nano-pillars extruded through the grating apertures. These structures not only show significantly enhanced peak transmission when normalized to the open area of the metal film, but more importantly, peak transmission greater than that observed from the bare semiconductor surface. The structures were modeled using three-dimensional rigorous coupled wave analysis and characterized experimentally by Fourier transform infrared reflection and transmission spectroscopy, and the good agreement between the two has been demonstrated. The drastic enhancement of light transmission in our structures originates from structuring of high-index dielectric substrate, with pillars effectively guiding light through metal apertures.

  1. Low-complexity joint symbol synchronization and sampling frequency offset estimation scheme for optical IMDD OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Qianwu; Chen, Jian; Li, Yingchun; Song, Yingxiong

    2016-06-13

    A low-complexity joint symbol synchronization and SFO estimation scheme for asynchronous optical IMDD OFDM systems based on only one training symbol is proposed. Numerical simulations and experimental demonstrations are also under taken to evaluate the performance of the mentioned scheme. The experimental results show that robust and precise symbol synchronization and the SFO estimation can be achieved simultaneously at received optical power as low as -20dBm in asynchronous OOFDM systems. SFO estimation accuracy in MSE can be lower than 1 × 10-11 under SFO range from -60ppm to 60ppm after 25km SSMF transmission. Optimal System performance can be maintained until cumulate number of employed frames for calculation is less than 50 under above-mentioned conditions. Meanwhile, the proposed joint scheme has a low level of operation complexity comparing with existing methods, when the symbol synchronization and SFO estimation are considered together. Above-mentioned results can give an important reference in practical system designs. PMID:27410279

  2. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such, it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.

  3. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such,more » it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.« less

  4. Synchronous pumping of picosecond dye laser using high efficiency second harmonic generation from optical fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Bernardin, J. P.; Macdonald, R. L.; Demouchy, G.

    1991-01-01

    The stable operation of a mode-locked dye laser synchronously pumped by the second harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser produced in an Nd codoped germanosilicate optical fiber is reported. The optical fiber preparation technique, which results in a second harmonic conversion efficiency of 2 percent, is described. This optical fiber SHG conversion efficiency is the highest reported to date using a continuous-wave mode-locked laser.

  5. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  6. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  7. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Grguraš, I; Behrens, C; Bromberger, H; Costello, J T; Czwalinna, M K; Felber, M; Hoffmann, M C; Ilchen, M; Liu, H Y; Mazza, T; Meyer, M; Pfeiffer, S; Prędki, P; Schefer, S; Schmidt, C; Wegner, U; Schlarb, H; Cavalieri, A L

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  8. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  9. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; et al

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarilymore » by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.« less

  10. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission systems described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber. 3 figs.

  11. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system s described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber.

  12. System for transmitting and receiving asynchronous nonhomogeneous variable width parallel data over a synchronous high speed serial transmission media

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.H.

    1990-09-18

    The patent describes a system witch utilizes a synchronous serial transmission media to transmit data between a data source that generates asynchronous nonhomogeneous variable width parallel data pattern inputs, and a data sink that accepts parallel data pattern outputs corresponding to the inputs. It comprises: transmitter means responsive to each of the parallel data pattern inputs, for synchronously transmitting a serial data pattern representative of a given input over the media; and receiver means, responsive to data transmitted over the media, for generating the parallel data pattern outputs.

  13. Polarization-selective optical transmission through a plasmonic metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Pelzman, Charles; Cho, Sang-Yeon

    2015-06-22

    We present the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a nanoslit-based metasurface that offers polarization-selective optical transmission for advanced imaging applications. The metasurface consists of an array of meta-atoms, constructed with two orthogonally coupled subwavelength apertures. Highly enhanced optical transmission was achieved by selective excitation of surface plasmon waves on the metasurface. By rotating the orientation of the linearly polarized incident beam, switching of enhanced optical transmission bands through the metasurface was experimentally demonstrated. This demonstration is a significant step towards developing advanced multispectral imaging devices.

  14. Polarization-selective optical transmission through a plasmonic metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Pelzman, Charles; Cho, Sang-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a nanoslit-based metasurface that offers polarization-selective optical transmission for advanced imaging applications. The metasurface consists of an array of meta-atoms, constructed with two orthogonally coupled subwavelength apertures. Highly enhanced optical transmission was achieved by selective excitation of surface plasmon waves on the metasurface. By rotating the orientation of the linearly polarized incident beam, switching of enhanced optical transmission bands through the metasurface was experimentally demonstrated. This demonstration is a significant step towards developing advanced multispectral imaging devices. PMID:26180264

  15. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-02-01

    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment of the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed. 27 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Modulator bias control based on dither signal in 40Gb/s RZ optical transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Wang, Muguang; Fu, Yongjun; Cao, Jihong; Qin, Xi; Zhang, Feng; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-11-01

    The bias drift effect in the packaged LiNbO3 modulator is investigated. The Bessel expansion of the dithered clock shows that the harmonic component equal to the dither frequency can be synchronously demodulated to get the bias drift and avoid the random phase difference between the clock or data and the dither signal. By using the time division control method one control system can track two modulator bias drift in 40Gb/s RZ optical transmission system because the optimum bias point changes very slowly.

  17. Optical Phase-Locked Loops: Performance Investigation and Psk Synchronous Communication System Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Dogan A.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis study presents the design/analysis considerations, fundamental performance limitations and the experimental set-up of an optical phase-locked loop which is employed in phase-shift keying homodyne and synchronous heterodyne optical fiber communication system experiments. From an optical communication systems point of view, the characteristics of the lightwave sources to be used are important to investigate. Therefore, frequency modulation, frequency noise and intensity noise characteristics of 1320-nm (227 THz) laser-diode-pumped miniature Nd:YAG ring lasers have been investigated. The modulation and noise properties of these lasers are characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively. For applications such as optical phase-locking, phase-shift keying homodyne and synchronous heterodyne optical fiber and optical free -space communication systems, subcarrier multiplexing systems, and microwave phase array antennas diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers are excellent lightwave sources. The reasons that make these lasers attractive candidates for such a variety of applications include the narrow laser linewidth, the uniformly flat frequency modulation response and the wide frequency modulation bandwidth. A stable second-order optical phase-locked loop has been constructed using two Nd:YAG lasers and a balanced optical receiver. The loop is designed so that the local oscillator laser locks to the frequency/phase variations of the transmitter laser. The frequency/phase tracking performance of the loop is limited by the quantum phase noise and mainly by the frequency drift induced by the temperature variations of both the transmitter and local oscillator laser cavities. Using the loop, optical phase -shift keying homodyne communication system experiments are demonstrated at modulation rates of 140 Mb/s and 2 Gb/s. The receiver sensitivity at 140 Mb/s is 25 photons/bit which is the highest sensitivity reported to date with any optical communication system. An optical

  18. Two chaos synchronization schemes and public-channel message transmission in a mutually coupled semiconductor lasers system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Yang, Lei; Xiang, Shuiying; Zheng, Di

    2009-06-01

    Chaos synchronization and message transmission of a mutually coupled system consisting of two semiconductor lasers (SLs) and a partially transparent mirror (PTM) in between are investigated theoretically. Analytical results show that two types of chaos synchronization schemes, named as isochronal synchronization (IS) and leader/laggard synchronization (LLS), can be achieved by adjusting the reflectivity and position of PTM. By establishing SIMULINK model, numerical simulations illustrate that as the PTM is positioned at the center of two lasers, IS is available when the reflectivity of PTM is moderate. The LLS is achieved when the reflectivity of PTM equals to 0.5, which means feedback strength equals to coupling strength. Its lag time is just determined by the difference of feedback delay time. The investigations of mutual chaos pass filtering (MCPF) effects and the secure chaotic communication simulations indicate that IS allows real-time bidirectional message transmission on a public-channel, while LLS can achieve higher security chaotic communication by using its lag time as cryptography key. The demonstrated system can be used as a rudiment of array chaos communications system.

  19. An image-based method to synchronize cone-beam CT and optical surface tracking.

    PubMed

    Fassi, Aurora; Schaerer, Joël; Riboldi, Marco; Sarrut, David; Baroni, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The integration of in-room X-ray imaging and optical surface tracking has gained increasing importance in the field of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). An essential step for this integration consists of temporally synchronizing the acquisition of X-ray projections and surface data. We present an image-based method for the synchronization of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and optical surface systems, which does not require the use of additional hardware. The method is based on optically tracking the motion of a component of the CBCT/gantry unit, which rotates during the acquisition of the CBCT scan. A calibration procedure was implemented to relate the position of the rotating component identified by the optical system with the time elapsed since the beginning of the CBCT scan, thus obtaining the temporal correspondence between the acquisition of X-ray projections and surface data. The accuracy of the proposed synchronization method was evaluated on a motorized moving phantom, performing eight simultaneous acquisitions with an Elekta Synergy CBCT machine and the AlignRT optical device. The median time difference between the sinusoidal peaks of phantom motion signals extracted from the synchronized CBCT and AlignRT systems ranged between -3.1 and 12.9 msec, with a maximum interquartile range of 14.4 msec. The method was also applied to clinical data acquired from seven lung cancer patients, demonstrating the potential of the proposed approach in estimating the individual and daily variations in respiratory parameters and motion correlation of internal and external structures. The presented synchronization method can be particularly useful for tumor tracking applications in extracranial radiation treatments, especially in the field of patient-specific breathing models, based on the correlation between internal tumor motion and external surface surrogates. PMID:26103183

  20. Link optimization for DWDM transmission with an optical phase conjugation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Paweł; Rizzelli, Giuseppe; Ania-Castañón, Juan Diego

    2016-07-25

    We characterize in-span signal power asymmetry in random distributed feedback ultralong Raman laser-amplified WDM transmission and numerically optimize fiber span length and operating band to achieve the lowest inter-span signal power asymmetry between transmitted and optically conjugated channels in systems relying upon mid-link optical conjugation to combat fiber nonlinear impairments. PMID:27464097

  1. Femtosecond-precision synchronization of the pump-probe optical laser for user experiments at FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, S.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Predki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schlarb, H.; Wegner, U.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present the long-term stable synchronization of the FLASH pump-probe Ti:sapphire oscillator to an optical reference with sub-10 fs (rms) timing jitter employing a balanced optical cross-correlator. The reference pulse train, transmitted over an actively transit time-stabilized 500m long fiber link, is generated by the FLASH master laser oscillator. This laser also provides the reference for several electron bunch arrival time monitors with sub-10 fs resolution, which in turn enables a longitudinal feedback reducing the electron bunch arrival time jitter to below 25 fs (rms). Combining the precise synchronization of the laser and the longitudinal accelerator feedback enabled a proof-of-principle pump-probe experiment at FLASH, ultimately showing a significant reduction of the timing jitter between the optical laser and the XUV pulses generated by the FEL, compared to the present standard operation.

  2. Performance analysis of multiple interference suppression over asynchronous/synchronous optical code-division multiple-access system based on complementary/prime/shifted coding scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieh, Ta-Chun; Yang, Chao-Chin; Huang, Jen-Fa

    2011-08-01

    A complete complementary/prime/shifted prime (CPS) code family for the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system is proposed. Based on the ability of complete complementary (CC) code, the multiple-access interference (MAI) can be suppressed and eliminated via spectral amplitude coding (SAC) OCDMA system under asynchronous/synchronous transmission. By utilizing the shifted prime (SP) code in the SAC scheme, the hardware implementation of encoder/decoder can be simplified with a reduced number of optical components, such as arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This system has a superior performance as compared to previous bipolar-bipolar coding OCDMA systems.

  3. Rotating optical coupler for signal transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivie, C. V.

    1977-01-01

    Optical coupler using Dove prism assembly to form stationary image of rotating object, transmits data across rotating interface without sliprings or other mechanical contacts. Device can handle many high-bit-rate data channels.

  4. Advances in transmission x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in x-ray optics are reviewed. Specific advances in coded aperture imaging, zone plate lens fabrication, time and space resolved spectroscopy, and CCD x-ray detection are discussed.

  5. Optical signal monitoring in phase modulated optical fiber transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is one of the essential functions for future high speed optical networks. Among the parameters to be monitored, chromatic dispersion (CD) is especially important since it has a significant impact on overall system performance. In this thesis effective CD monitoring approaches for phase-shift keying (PSK) based optical transmission systems are investigated. A number of monitoring schemes based on radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling are proposed and their performance evaluated. A method for dispersion monitoring of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals based on RF power detection is studied. The RF power spectrum is found to increase with the increase of CD and decrease with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The spectral power density dependence on CD is studied theoretically and then verified through simulations and experiments. The monitoring sensitivity for nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) based systems can reach 80ps/nm/dB and 34ps/nm/dB respectively. The scheme enables the monitoring of differential group delay (DGD) and CD simultaneously. The monitoring sensitivity of CD and DGD can reach 56.7ps/nm/dB and 3.1ps/dB using a bandpass filter. The effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), DGD, fiber nonlinearity and chirp on the monitoring results are investigated. Two RF pilot tones are employed for CD monitoring of DPSK signals. Specially selected pilot tone frequencies enable good monitoring sensitivity with minimum influence on the received signals. The dynamic range exceeding 35dB and monitoring sensitivity up to 9.5ps/nm/dB are achieved. Asynchronous sampling technique is employed for CD monitoring. A signed CD monitoring method for 10Gb/s NRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK systems using asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique is studied. The demodulated signals suffer asymmetric waveform distortion if

  6. Synchronous initiation of optical detonators by Q-switched solid laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujon, J.; Musset, O.; Marchand, A.; Bigot, C.

    2008-10-01

    The initiation of pyrotechnic substances by a laser light has been studied for more than 30 years. But until recently the use of this technology for defence applications encountered three main technical problems: the volume and the mass of lasers, the linear loss of optical fibres and their possible damage caused by the transport of strong laser power. Recent technical progress performed in the field of electrical and optical devices are now very promising for future opto-pyrotechnic functional chains. The objective of this paper is to present a demonstrator developed in order to initiate in a synchronous way four optical detonators and to measure the dispersion of their functioning times. It includes four compact Q-switched Nd:Cr:GSGG solid laser sources, pumped by flash lamp (energy ~110mJ, FWHM ~8.5 ns), two ultra-fast electro-optical selectors (based on RTP crystals) used to steer the laser beam and six optical fibre lines to transmit the laser pulses to the optical detonators. The set-up integrates also complex control and safety systems, as well as cameras allowing an optimal alignment of optical fibres. Experiments led us to initiate in a synchronous way four detonators with a mean scattering of 50 ns. The perspectives in this domain of initiation concern mainly the miniaturization and the hardening to the environments of electrical and optical components.

  7. Transmissive Nanohole Arrays for Massively-Parallel Optical Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput optical biosensing technique is proposed and demonstrated. This hybrid technique combines optical transmission of nanoholes with colorimetric silver staining. The size and spacing of the nanoholes are chosen so that individual nanoholes can be independently resolved in massive parallel using an ordinary transmission optical microscope, and, in place of determining a spectral shift, the brightness of each nanohole is recorded to greatly simplify the readout. Each nanohole then acts as an independent sensor, and the blocking of nanohole optical transmission by enzymatic silver staining defines the specific detection of a biological agent. Nearly 10000 nanoholes can be simultaneously monitored under the field of view of a typical microscope. As an initial proof of concept, biotinylated lysozyme (biotin-HEL) was used as a model analyte, giving a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. PMID:25530982

  8. Signal subspace analysis for decoherent processes during interferometric fiber-optic gyroscopes using synchronous adaptive filters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxiao; Wang, Zinan; Peng, Chao; Li, Zhengbin

    2014-10-10

    Conventional signal processing methods for improving the random walk coefficient and the bias stability of interferometric fiber-optic gyroscopes are usually implemented in one-dimension sequence. In this paper, as a comparison, we allocated synchronous adaptive filters with the calculations of correlations of multidimensional signals in the perspective of the signal subspace. First, two synchronous independent channels are obtained through quadrature demodulation. Next, synchronous adaptive filters were carried out in order to project the original channels to the high related error channels and the approximation channels. The error channel signals were then processed by principal component analysis for suppressing coherent noises. Finally, an optimal state estimation of these error channels and approximation channels based on the Kalman gain coefficient was operated. Experimental results show that this signal processing method improved the raw measurements' variance from 0.0630 [(°/h)2] to 0.0103 [(°/h)2]. PMID:25322393

  9. Fiber optic transmissions in electrical utility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Louis

    2000-12-01

    The application of optic and photonic technology in electric networks in many cases is subject to constraints that differ from telecommunication or commercial applications. Starting by an overview of the quality of service (QoS) needed, in the first part of this paper we summarise some issues that confronted Hydro-Quebec in applying fibre optic technologies to its network. We explore by presenting lab and field trials some issues related to optical ground wires (OPGW) design and network architecture. We present temperature, vibration, ageing and short circuit current effects. We submit the results and analysis of a first field trial of and OC-48 link over a 265 km OPGW line, PMD measurements and an overview of the final design that is being implemented presently using Raman amplification. In the last section of the paper, we will discuss shortly of non-conventional photonic based technologies, local and distributed sensors and optical phenomenon that are used or have been discovered in utilities optical networks.

  10. Reference frequency transmission over optical fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G.; Kirk, A.

    1986-01-01

    A 100-MHz reference frequency from a hydrogen maser frequency standard has been transmitted via optical fiber over a 14-km distance with a measured stability of 1.5 X 10 to the-15 power for 1000 seconds averaging time. This capability was demonstrated in a frequency distribution experiment performed in April, 1986. The reference frequency was transmitted over a single-mode fiber-optic link from Deep Space Station (DSS) 13 to DSS 12 and back. The background leading up to the experiment and the significance of stable reference frequency distribution in the Deep Space Network (DSN) is discussed. Also described are the experiment, including the fiber-optic link, the measurement method and equipment, and finally the results of the experiment.

  11. FEC for high-speed optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Changsong; Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Zhiyu; Chang, Deyuan; Yu, Fan

    2011-12-01

    This paper will at first explain the requirement of high speed optical transport network on forward error correction (FEC) codes in terms of code length, code rate, coding gain, burst error correction capability, error floor, latency, coding/decoding complexity. Then, a few code schemes used in current optical transport systems such as Reed-Solomon codes recommended by ITU-T G.709 and enhanced FECs listed in ITU-T, G.975.1 are introduced. Advanced codes recently developed by vendors used for 100Gbps systems and their performances are summarized. Features and special requirements on soft decoding FEC (SDFEC) especially inter-working between SDFEC and equalizer, with and without deferential coding etc. are analyzed. Some perspectives of future FEC for optical transport are also given.

  12. Single-Cycle Optical Pulses Synchronized with Molecular Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexei V.

    2002-05-01

    We have previously shown that coherent molecular motion can result in light modulation and subfemtosecond pulse compression. Our technique is based on adiabatic preparation of a macroscopic molecular ensemble in a single vibrational superposition-state [1]. Recently we have demonstrated collinear generation of mutually-coherent spectral sidebands, extending from infrared to far ultraviolet. We adjusted individual spectral phases to allow synthesis of desired single-cycle waveforms at the target, and characterized these waveforms by measuring the pulse-shape dependent multiphoton ionization rate [2]. This Raman source can be used to study multiphoton processes in a regime not accessible by other light sources. In particular, it will allow measurement of ionization and high-order harmonic generation as a function of sub-cycle phase (or the phase of the carrier with respect to the pulse envelope). Moreover, by utilizing an even wider spectrum, this source will produce waveforms with a prescribed non-sinusoidal sub-cycle field shape. By the very nature of the generation process, our light source produces trains of pulses, which are perfectly synchronized with the molecular motion in the given molecular system, and provide a unique tool for studying molecular and electronic dynamics. We envision producing a coherent molecular oscillation, applying a tightly focused train of perfectly timed pulses, adjusting the delay, and studying electronic properties as function of molecular coordinates. We can use the coherent molecular motion to control multiphoton excitations in an EIT-like manner: We can have a destructive or a constructive interference among different multiphoton paths, depending on the relative phase of the molecular motion and the Raman sidebands. Possible extensions of this general technique range from studying complicated multi-mode motion of complex molecules, to probing ultrafast electronic dynamics in atoms. REFERENCES: 1. S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov

  13. Add/drop multiplexing and TDM signal transmission in an optical CDMA ring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Guo, Changjian; Chen, Jiajia; Zhang, Linjian; Jiang, Qiong; He, Sailing

    2007-08-01

    It is shown that a ring topology is better than a star topology for an optical-code-division multiple access (OCDMA) network as an optical metropolitan or local area network in terms of security and capacity. Each node in an OCDMA ring network requires an OCDMA add/drop multiplexer. We present what we believe to be a novel OCDMA add/drop multiplexer that can simultaneously add and drop multiple code channels, and a proof-of-feasibility experiment is demonstrated. An OCDMA ring may also adapt code channels for time domain multiplexing and other digital signal transmission systems. An experiment for the synchronized digital hierarchy (SDH) signal over a OCDMA link is demonstrated.

  14. Optical design of laser transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulan; Feng, Jinliang; Li, Yongliang; Yang, Jiandong

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses a design of optical transfer system used in carbon-dioxide laser therapeutic machine. The design of this system is according to the requirement of the therapeutic machine. The therapeutic machine requires the movement of laser transfer system is similar to the movement of human beings arms, which possesses 7 rotating hinges. We use optical hinges, which is composed of 45 degree mirrors. Because the carbon-dioxide laser mode is not good, light beam diameter at focus and divergence angle dissemination are big, we use a collecting lens at the transfer system output part in order to make the light beam diameter at focus in 0.2 to approximately 0.3 mm. For whole system the focus off-axis error is less than 0.5 mm, the transfer power consumption is smaller than 10%. The system can move in three dimension space freely and satisfies the therapeutic machine requirement.

  15. Coherent optical component technologies for WDM transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mino, S.; Murata, K.; Saida, T.; Ogawa, I.

    2011-01-01

    We review our recent progress toward 100 Gbps and beyond, focusing on integrated optical devices. Topics include our recently developed integrated optical front-ends for 100 Gbps PDM-QPSK based on multi-channel micro collimator optics and hermetically sealed O/E converters, and PLC-LiNbO3 hybrid optical modulators for 100 Gbps PDM-QPSK. We also describe our recent work on exceeding 100 Gbps, including 64 QAM modulators, modulation-level-selectable modulators, and high-speed digital-analog converter ICs for future multi-level transmissions.

  16. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion.

  17. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, J.D.

    1997-05-06

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion. 3 figs.

  18. Measuring Large Optical Transmission Matrices of Disordered Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Hillman, Timothy R.; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Ji Oon; Feld, Michael S.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Park, YongKeun

    2013-10-01

    We report a measurement of the large optical transmission matrix (TM) of a complex turbid medium. The TM is acquired using polarization-sensitive, full-field interferometric microscopy equipped with a rotating galvanometer mirror. It is represented with respect to input and output bases of optical modes, which correspond to plane wave components of the respective illumination and transmitted waves. The modes are sampled so finely in angular spectrum space that their number exceeds the total number of resolvable modes for the illuminated area of the sample. As such, we investigate the singular value spectrum of the TM in order to detect evidence of open transmission channels, predicted by random-matrix theory. Our results comport with theoretical expectations, given the experimental limitations of the system. We consider the impact of these limitations on the usefulness of transmission matrices in optical measurements.

  19. Measuring large optical transmission matrices of disordered media.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Hillman, Timothy R; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Ji Oon; Feld, Michael S; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Park, YongKeun

    2013-10-11

    We report a measurement of the large optical transmission matrix (TM) of a complex turbid medium. The TM is acquired using polarization-sensitive, full-field interferometric microscopy equipped with a rotating galvanometer mirror. It is represented with respect to input and output bases of optical modes, which correspond to plane wave components of the respective illumination and transmitted waves. The modes are sampled so finely in angular spectrum space that their number exceeds the total number of resolvable modes for the illuminated area of the sample. As such, we investigate the singular value spectrum of the TM in order to detect evidence of open transmission channels, predicted by random-matrix theory. Our results comport with theoretical expectations, given the experimental limitations of the system. We consider the impact of these limitations on the usefulness of transmission matrices in optical measurements. PMID:24160602

  20. Infrared transmission measurements of highly curved optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Morrow, Howard E.

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) measurements on flat witness samples are combined with ray trace results of transmission through a 1/8 inch, 12 mill focal length lens to estimate the net transmission of that lens as it is used in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES I) Sounder optical train. The ray trace code uses a 'double random' ray method allowing radiometry to be done with a standard ray propagation algorithm.

  1. An optical filter with angular selectivity of the light transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirullin, Rustam S.

    2015-09-01

    Features of the application of a novel optical filter with angular selectivity of the light transmission to architectural glazing are considered. The filter consists of a sheet transparent substrate with thin-film grating layers on both surfaces. The gratings formed by directionally transmissive strips, alternating with absorptive, reflective, or scattering strips. Their relative position on the input and output surfaces provides angular selectivity of the directional light transmission - as the incidence angle changes, the proportion of radiation that passes through both gratings of the filter also changes. Chromogenic materials currently used in the laminated smart windows, providing control over the intensity and spectrum of the transmitted solar radiation, cannot achieve the selective regulation on the ranges of incidence angles. Such a regulation requires the use of additional daylight-redirecting devices, especially blinds, to dynamically adapt to the position of the sun. The grating optical filter provides angular selectivity of the light transmission of a window without such devices. The features of using this filter in the single and double glazed windows are described. A graphic analytical calculation method is proposed for estimating the effect of geometrical and optical parameters of the filter on the angular characteristics of the light transmission. An algorithm to optimize filtering solar radiation taking into account the geographical coordinates of terrain, time of day and year and the orientation of the window to the cardinal is set. An algorithm to calculating geometrical parameters of the filter with pre-specified characteristics of the light transmission is obtained.

  2. Mode locked Nd:YVO 4 laser with intracavity synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadilova, Alena; Kubeček, Václav; Čech, Miroslav; Hiršl, Petr; Jelínkova, Helena; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-02-01

    The motivation of this work is the development of laser sensor and gyroscope based on short pulse solid state ring laser. In comparison with regular ring laser containing the gain medium and saturable absorber, where counterpropagating pulses overlap, a ring synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator, in which the pulse crossing point is controlled externally by the time of arrival of the pump pulses, is the ideal source for short pulse laser sensor. The optimum configuration is a synchronously pumped parametric oscillator inserted inside the optical resonator of the diode pumped mode-locked solid state laser. We are developing a such system, as a first step we have demonstrated operation of a diode pumped Nd:YVO 4 passively mode-locked laser using semiconductor saturable absorber with synchronously pumped intracavity optical parametric oscillator in linear configuration. The repetition rate of the pump laser was 132 MHz and the pulse duration of 15 ps. Parametric oscillator was based on 20 mm long Brewster cut single grating (with poling periode of 30.3 μm) periodically poled magnesium doped lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal. The temperature tuning of parametric luminescence from the crystal with peak wavelength at 1537 nm - 1550 nm for temperature variation from 30 °C to 57 °C was observed.

  3. Optical transmission measurements on monocrystalline and polycrystalline cesium iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Arens, J. F.; Simon, M.

    1973-01-01

    A summary is presented of optical measurements performed on a variety of cesium iodide samples to characterize quantitatively the optical quality of the materials, and to define and measure parameters which determine its suitability as a detector material for high energy cosmic ray experiments on HEAO-A. The general case of light transmission through a long rectangular slab under multiple internal reflections is discussed along with transmission and scattering as a function of wavelength at normal incidence. Scattering parameters are tabulated for encapsulated single crystal CsI and polyscin.

  4. Plasmonic Brewster Angle: Broadband Extraordinary Transmission through Optical Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alù, Andrea; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Nadia; Bloemer, Mark J.

    2011-03-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission through metallic gratings is a well established effect based on the collective resonance of corrugated screens. Being based on plasmonic resonances, its bandwidth is inherently narrow, in particular, for thick screens and narrow apertures. We introduce here a different mechanism to achieve total transmission through an otherwise opaque screen, based on an ultrabroadband tunneling that can span from dc to the visible range at a given incidence angle. This phenomenon effectively represents the equivalent of Brewster transmission for plasmonic and opaque screens.

  5. Soliton transmission in optical fibers with loss and saturable nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicklen, Gregory H.; Tamil, Lakshman S.

    1996-09-01

    Optical solitons propagating in media exhibiting saturable nonlinearity offer advantages over Kerr-medium solitons for transmission over large distances through optical fibers with loss. Soliton pulses in saturable media offer greater energy for a given peak power, and upper-branch solitons decrease in width with distance traveled. These properties result in pulses that remain distinct and detectable for greater distances than Kerr-medium solitons do with the same peak power. .

  6. Companding transform based SPM compensation in coherent optical OFDM transmission.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate a mitigation of fiber nonlinearity based on μ-law companding transform in coherent optical OFDM transmissions. High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) increases fiber nonlinear impairments caused by the Kerr effect in optical fiber. The μ-law companding modifies amplitude profile of OFDM signal with time domain signal processing, which reduces high PAPR of OFDM signal. The effects of companding parameter on noise enhancement and PAPR variation are presented. The impacts of companding transform on system performances are evaluated in a single polarization system as well as polarization multiplexed system. The resolution of analog-to-digital converter (ADC), dispersion map of transmission link, and launch power tolerance are also considered. The results of bit-error-rate (BER) measurements show that the μ-law companding improves OSNR margin over 5.5 dB after transmission of 1,040 km over SMF. PMID:22274091

  7. Extraordinary optical transmission in nanopatterned ultrathin metal films without holes.

    PubMed

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2016-02-28

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ∼750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller than the period, with an enhancement of ∼2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (∼5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ∼40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ∼30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing. PMID:26853881

  8. Extraordinary optical transmission in nanopatterned ultrathin metal films without holes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ~750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller thanmore » the period, with an enhancement of ~2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (~5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ~40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ~30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing.« less

  9. Transmission of a signal that synchronizes cell movements in swarms of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Dale; Warrick, Hans

    2014-01-01

    We offer evidence for a signal that synchronizes the behavior of hundreds of Myxococcus xanthus cells in a growing swarm. Swarms are driven to expand by the periodic reversing of direction by members. By using time-lapse photomicroscopy, two organized multicellular elements of the swarm were analyzed: single-layered, rectangular rafts and round, multilayered mounds. Rafts of hundreds of cells with their long axes aligned in parallel enlarge as individual cells from the neighborhood join them from either side. Rafts can also add a second layer piece by piece. By repeating layer additions to a raft and rounding each layer, a regular multilayered mound can be formed. About an hour after a five-layered mound had formed, all of the cells from its top layer descended to the periphery of the fourth layer, both rapidly and synchronously. Following the first synchronized descent and spaced at constant time intervals, a new fifth layer was (re)constructed from fourth-layer cells, in very close proximity to its old position and with a number of cells similar to that before the “explosive” descent. This unexpected series of changes in mound structure can be explained by the spread of a signal that synchronizes the reversals of large groups of individual cells. PMID:25149859

  10. Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungbong; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Shinojima, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Hidetaka; Yamada, Koji; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Itabashi, Seiichi

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate the monolithic integration of germanium (Ge) p-i-n photodetector (PDs) with silicon (Si) variable optical attenuator (VOAs) based on submicrometer Si rib waveguide. A PD is connected to a VOA along the waveguide via a tap coupler. The PDs exhibit low dark current of ~60 nA and large responsivity of ~0.8 A/W at the reverse bias of 1 V at room temperature. These characteristics are uniform over the chip scale. The PDs generate photocurrents precisely with respect to DC optical power attenuated by the VOAs. Two devices work synchronously for modulated optical signals as well. 3-dB cut-off frequency of the VOA is ~100 MHz, while that of the PD is ~1 GHz. The synchronous response speed is limited by the VOA response speed. This is the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of monolithic integration of Ge PDs with high-carrier-injection-based optical modulation devices based on Si. PMID:20588687

  11. Optical performance monitoring technique using software-based synchronous amplitude histograms.

    PubMed

    Choi, H G; Chang, J H; Kim, Hoon; Chung, Y C

    2014-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple technique to monitor both the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and chromatic dispersion (CD) by using the software-based synchronous amplitude histogram (SAH) analysis. We exploit the software-based synchronization technique to construct SAHs from the asynchronously sampled intensities of the signal. The use of SAHs facilitates the accurate extraction of the monitoring parameters at the center of the symbol. Thus, unlike in the case of using the technique based on the asynchronous amplitude histogram (AAH), this technique is not affected by the transient characteristics of the modulated signals. The performance of the proposed monitoring technique is evaluated experimentally by using 10-Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals over wide ranges of OSNR and CD. We also evaluate the robustness of the proposed technique to the signal's transient characteristics. PMID:25321978

  12. Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing

    2010-06-01

    A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography transmission in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth signal. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography transmission. PMID:20588368

  13. Transmission of RF Signals Over Optical Fiber for Avionics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaveski, Filip; Sluss, James, Jr.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Hung, Nguyen; Ngo, Duc

    2002-01-01

    During flight, aircraft avionics transmit and receive RF signals to/from antennas over coaxial cables. As the density and complexity of onboard avionics increases, the electromagnetic interference (EM) environment degrades proportionately, leading to decreasing signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and potential safety concerns. The coaxial cables are inherently lossy, limiting the RF signal bandwidth while adding considerable weight. To overcome these limitations, we have investigated a fiber optic communications link for aircraft that utilizes wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to support the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals (including RF) over a single optical fiber. Optical fiber has many advantages over coaxial cable, particularly lower loss, greater bandwidth, and immunity to EM. In this paper, we demonstrate that WDM can be successfully used to transmit multiple RF signals over a single optical fiber with no appreciable signal degradation. We investigate the transmission of FM and AM analog modulated signals, as well as FSK digital modulated signals, over a fiber optic link (FOL) employing WDM. We present measurements of power loss, delay, SNR, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), total harmonic distortion (THD), and bit error rate (BER). Our experimental results indicate that WDM is a fiber optic technology suitable for avionics applications.

  14. Influence of aero-optical transmission on infrared imaging optical system in the supersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Meng, Weihua; Li, Yun; Dai, Xiaobing; Zuo, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Aero-optical transmission effect is becoming a crucial issue in the supersonic flight. In our study, the joint influences of the non-uniform aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamically heated optical window on imaging quality of an airborne infrared optical system are investigated in depth. Both the laminar and turbulent viscous models are used in the simulation of aerodynamic flow because of their distinct influences on aero-optical transmission. On the basis of the computed density field, the ray tracing method is applied to calculate the point spread functions of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamically heated window. The imaging quality is evaluated by using the point spread functions and modulation transfer functions. Experimental results show that the optical transmission through the aerodynamically heated window has a much severer influence on the imaging quality than that through the aerodynamic flow field.

  15. The optical transmission characteristics through coupled metallic nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongjian; Fu, Shaoli; Xu, Haiqing; Xie, Suxia; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Jinjun

    2010-10-01

    The plasmonic properties in coupled metallic nanotube arrays are investigated theoretically by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We calculate the transmission spectra and the electric field distributions. We show that there is a photonic band gap over a wide optical wavelength range and the transmission spectrum depends strongly on the inner radii, the separation distance and the number of the nanotubes. Based on the localized nature of the field distribution, we also clearly show that the presence of local plasmon resonant modes that originate from multipolar plasmon polaritons and a big magnitude of opposing surface charges build up in the gap between adjacent nanotubes.

  16. Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in periodically poled lithium niobate with 1-w average output power.

    PubMed

    Graf, T; McConnell, G; Ferguson, A I; Bente, E; Burns, D; Dawson, M D

    1999-05-20

    We report on a rugged all-solid-state laser source of near-IR radiation in the range of 1461-1601 nm based on a high-power Nd:YVO(4) laser that is mode locked by a semiconductor saturable Bragg reflector as the pump source of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator with a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The system produces 34-ps pulses with a high repetition rate of 235 MHz and an average output power of 1 W. The relatively long pulses lead to wide cavity detuning tolerances. The comparatively narrow spectral bandwidth of <15 GHz is suitable for applications such as pollutant detection. PMID:18319928

  17. An Implantable Neural Sensing Microsystem with Fiber-Optic Data Transmission and Power Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmee; Borton, David A.; Kang, Mingyu; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Song, Yoon-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a prototype cortical neural sensing microsystem for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. Its key feature is that both the transmission of broadband, multichannel neural data and power required for the embedded microelectronics are provided by optical fiber access. The fiber-optic system is aimed at enabling neural recording from rodents and primates by converting cortical signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses. In the full microsystem whose performance is summarized in this paper, an analog-to-digital converter and a low power digital controller IC have been integrated with a low threshold, semiconductor laser to extract the digitized neural signals optically from the implantable unit. The microsystem also acquires electrical power and synchronization clocks via optical fibers from an external laser by using a highly efficient photovoltaic cell on board. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate to integrate analog and digital microelectronics and on-chip optoelectronic components, while adapting to the anatomical and physiological constraints of the environment. A low power analog CMOS chip, which includes preamplifier and multiplexing circuitry, is directly flip-chip bonded to the microelectrode array to form the cortical neurosensor device. PMID:23666130

  18. An implantable neural sensing microsystem with fiber-optic data transmission and power delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmee; Borton, David A; Kang, Mingyu; Nurmikko, Arto V; Song, Yoon-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a prototype cortical neural sensing microsystem for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. Its key feature is that both the transmission of broadband, multichannel neural data and power required for the embedded microelectronics are provided by optical fiber access. The fiber-optic system is aimed at enabling neural recording from rodents and primates by converting cortical signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses. In the full microsystem whose performance is summarized in this paper, an analog-to-digital converter and a low power digital controller IC have been integrated with a low threshold, semiconductor laser to extract the digitized neural signals optically from the implantable unit. The microsystem also acquires electrical power and synchronization clocks via optical fibers from an external laser by using a highly efficient photovoltaic cell on board. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate to integrate analog and digital microelectronics and on-chip optoelectronic components, while adapting to the anatomical and physiological constraints of the environment. A low power analog CMOS chip, which includes preamplifier and multiplexing circuitry, is directly flip-chip bonded to the microelectrode array to form the cortical neurosensor device. PMID:23666130

  19. Optical transmission scanning for damage quantification in impacted GFRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, Anton; Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias G.; Haq, Mahmoodul; Cloud, Gary L.; Udpa, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites constitute nearly 90% of the global composites market and are extensively used in aerospace, marine, automotive and construction industries. While their advantages of lightweight and superior mechanical properties are well explored, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that allow for damage/defect detection and assessment of its extent and severity are not fully developed. Some of the conventional NDE techniques for GFRPs include ultrasonics, X-ray, IR thermography, and a variety of optical techniques. Optical methods, specifically measuring the transmission properties (e.g. ballistic optical imaging) of specimens, provide noninvasive, safe, inexpensive, and compact solutions and are commonly used in biomedical applications. In this work, this technique is adapted for rapid NDE of GFRP composites. In its basic form, the system for optical transmission scanning (OTS) consists of a light source (laser diode), a photo detector and a 2D translation stage. The proposed technique provides high-resolution, rapid and non-contact OT (optical transmittance)-scans, and does not require any coupling. The OTS system was used for inspection of pristine and low-velocity impacted (damaged) GFRP samples. The OT-scans were compared with conventional ultrasonic C-scans and showed excellent agreement but with better resolution. Overall, the work presented lays the groundwork for cost-effective, non-contact, and rapid NDE of GFRP composite structures.

  20. Versatile transmission ellipsometry to study linear ferrofluid magneto-optics.

    PubMed

    Kooij, E S; Gâlcă, A C; Poelsema, B

    2006-12-01

    Linear birefringence and dichroism of magnetite ferrofluids are studied simultaneously using spectroscopic ellipsometry in transmission mode. It is shown that this versatile technique enables highly accurate characterisation of magneto-optical phenomena. Magnetic field-dependent linear birefringence and dichroism as well as the spectral dependence are shown to be in line with previous results. Despite the qualitative agreement with established models for magneto-optical phenomena, these fail to provide an accurate, quantitative description of our experimental results using the bulk dielectric function of magnetite. We discuss the results in relation to these models, and indicate how the modified dielectric function of the magnetite nanoparticles can be obtained. PMID:16997315

  1. Analytical theory of extraordinary optical transmission through realistic metallic screens.

    PubMed

    Delgado, V; Marqués, R; Jelinek, L

    2010-03-29

    An analytical theory of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through realistic metallic screens perforated by a periodic array of subwavelength holes is presented. The theory is based on our previous work on EOT through perfect conducting screens and on the surface impedance concept. The proposed theory is valid for the complete frequency range where EOT has been reported, including microwaves and optics. A reasonably good agreement with electromagnetic simulations is shown in all this frequency range. We feel that the proposed theory may help to clarify the physics underlying EOT and serve as a first step to more accurate analysis. PMID:20389673

  2. Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, Rachid; Schmogrow, Rene; Hillerkuss, D; Milder, P A; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J; Bayvel, P; Killey, R I

    2012-09-10

    This paper presents a real-time, coherent optical OFDM transmitter based on a field programmable gate array implementation. The transmitter uses 16QAM mapping and runs at 28 GSa/s achieving a data rate of 85.4 Gb/s on a single polarization. A cyclic prefix of 25% of the symbol duration is added enabling dispersion-tolerant transmission over up to 400 km of SSMF. This is the first transmission experiment performed with a real-time OFDM transmitter running at data rates higher than 40 Gb/s. A key aspect of the paper is the introduction of a novel method for OFDM symbol synchronization without relying on training symbols. Unlike conventional preamble-based synchronization methods which perform cross-correlations at regular time intervals and let the system run freely in between, the proposed method performs synchronization in a continuous manner ensuring correct symbol alignment at all times. PMID:23037279

  3. Spectrally efficient optical transmission based on Stokes vector direct detection.

    PubMed

    Li, An; Che, Di; Chen, Vivian; Shieh, William

    2014-06-30

    We propose a novel detection scheme called Stokes vector direct detection (SV-DD) to realize high electrical spectral efficiency and cost-effective optical communication for short and medium reach. With SV-DD, the signal is modulated in only one polarization and combined with the carrier in the orthogonal polarization for fiber transmission. At reception, the combined signal is detected in Stokes space by three or four photo-detectors. Compared with conventional DD technique, SV-DD is resilient to both chromatic dispersion and signal-to-signal beat noise. Furthermore, SV-DD does not require polarization tracking or narrow band optical filtering for carrier extraction. In this paper, we present for the first time the numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of single-carrier SV-DD. We report 62.5-Gb/s data rate single-carrier SV-DD transmission over 160-km SSMF using 12.5-Gbaud 32-QAM modulation. PMID:24977825

  4. Radiation-hard/high-speed data transmission using optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, K. K.; Abi, B.; Fernando, W.; Kagan, H. P.; Kass, R. D.; Lebbai, M. R. M.; Moore, J. R.; Rizatdinova, F.; Skubic, P. L.; Smith, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We investigate the radiation-hardness of various components for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs from various sources using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, especially for the GaAs devices. We have designed the ASICs for the opto-link applications and find that the degradation with radiation is acceptable.

  5. Optical differentiation wavefront sensor based on binary pixelated transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J.; Travinsky, A.; Ding, G.; Dorrer, C.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution wavefront sensors are used in a wide range of applications. The Shack-Hartmann sensor is the industry standard and mostly used for this kind of analysis. However, with this sensor the analysis can only be performed for narrowband radiation, the recoverable curvature of the wavefront slopes is also restricted by the size of a single lens in the microlens array. The high-resolution Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (>128×128) is also significantly expensive. The optical differentiation wavefront sensor, on the other hand, consists of only simple and therefore inexpensive components, offers greater signal to noise ratio, allows for high-resolution analysis of wavefront curvature, and is potentially capable of performing broadband measurements. When a transmission mask with linear attenuation along a spatial direction modulates the far field of an optical wave, the spatial wavefront slope along that direction can be recovered from the fluence in the near field after modulation. With two orthogonal measurements one can recover the complete wavefront of the optical wave. In this study the characteristics of such a wavefront sensor are investigated when the linear transmission modulation is implemented with a pixelated binary filter. Such a filter can be produced as a gray-scale quasi-continuous transmission pattern constructed using arrays of small (e.g., 10-micron) transparent or opaque pixels and therefore it can simply be fabricated by conventional lithography techniques. Simulations demonstrate the potential ability of such a pixelated filter to match the performance of a filter with continuously varying transmission, while offering the advantage of better transmission control and reduction of fabrication costs.

  6. Extraordinary optical transmission in nanopatterned ultrathin metal films without holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ~750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by angle-directed deposition. The gold film was continuous with spatial thickness variation, the film being thinnest at the bottom of the nanocup. Measurements revealed an extraordinary transmission peak at a wavelength just smaller than the period, with an enhancement of ~2.5 compared to the classically expected value. Scattering matrix simulations model well the transmission and reflectance measurements when an ultrathin gold layer (~5 nm), smaller than the skin depth is retained at the bottom of the nanocups. Electric field intensities are enhanced by >100 within the nanocup, and ~40 in the ultrathin gold layer causing transmission through it. We show a wavelength red-shift of ~30 nm in the extraordinary transmission peak when the nanocups are coated with a thin film of a few nanometers, which can be utilized for biosensing. The continuous corrugated metal films are far simpler structures to observe extraordinary transmission, circumventing the difficult process of etching the metal film. Such continuous metal films with ultrathin regions are simple platforms for non-linear optics, plasmonics, and biological and chemical sensing.We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that a continuous gold film on a periodically textured substrate exhibits extraordinary optical transmission, even though no holes were etched in the film. Our film synthesis started by nanoimprinting a periodic array of nanocups with a period of ~750 nm on a polystyrene film over a glass substrate. A thin non-conformal gold film was sputter-deposited on the polystyrene by

  7. Transmission spectrum of an optical cavity containing N atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, Sabrina; Shenvi, Neil; Brown, Kenneth R.; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2004-04-01

    The transmission spectrum of a high-finesse optical cavity containing an arbitrary number of trapped atoms is presented in the zero-temperature, low saturation limit. We take spatial and motional effects into account and show that in the limit of strong coupling, the important spectral features can be determined for an arbitrary number of atoms, N. We also show that these results have important ramifications in limiting our ability to determine the number of atoms in the cavity.

  8. Optical transmission spectra of porous aluminamembranes with different pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyushkin, L. B.; Muratova, E. N.; Spivak, J. M.; Shimanova, V. V.; Korlyakova, S. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Membranes of nanoporous aluminum oxide (alumina) have been obtained using the electrochemical etching technique by varying technological regimes. The surface morphology and cleavages of obtained experimental samples are studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical transmission measurements were performed on a spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 190-1000 nm. It is possible to determine the average size and the dispersion of the pore diameter by UV- visible transmittance spectrum measuring.

  9. Transmission of acceleration from a synchronous vibration exercise platform to the head.

    PubMed

    Caryn, R C; Hazell, T J; Dickey, J P

    2014-04-01

    Exercise vibration platforms are becoming commonplace in homes and fitness centers. However, excessive mechanical energy transferred to the head and eye can cause injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how changes in platform frequency and knee flexion angle affect acceleration transmission to the head. Participants (N=12) stood on a whole-body vibration platform with knee flexion angles of 0°, 20°, and 40° to evaluate how changes in knee flexion affected head acceleration. 7 specific platform frequencies were tested between 20-50 Hz at 2 peak-to-peak displacement settings (1 and 2 mm nominal). Accelerations were measured with triaxial accelerometers at the platform and head to generate transmissibility ratios. Platform-to-head transmissibility was not significantly different between the 2 platform peak-to-peak amplitudes (P>0.05). Transmissibility measures varied depending on platform frequency and knee angle (P < 0.05). Flexing the knees resulted in reduced head transmissibility at all frequencies (P<0.05). Platform-to-head transmissibility values exceeded 1.0 at both 20 and 25 Hz platform vibration frequencies with the knees in full extension. To reduce the risk of injury to structures of the head during vibration exercise, using platforms frequencies below 30 Hz with small knee flexion angles (< 40°) should be avoided. PMID:24081617

  10. Optically-synchronized encoder and multiplexer scheme for interleaved photonics analog-to-digital conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Carlos; Kumavor, Patrick; Donkor, Eric

    2008-04-01

    Photonics Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) utilize a train of optical pulses to sample an electrical input waveform applied to an electrooptic modulator or a reverse biased photodiode. In the former, the resulting train of amplitude-modulated optical pulses is detected (converter to electrical) and quantized using a conversional electronics ADC- as at present there are no practical, cost-effective optical quantizers available with performance that rival electronic quantizers. In the latter, the electrical samples are directly quantized by the electronics ADC. In both cases however, the sampling rate is limited by the speed with which the electronics ADC can quantize the electrical samples. One way to increase the sampling rate by a factor N is by using the time-interleaved technique which consists of a parallel array of N electrical ADC converters, which have the same sampling rate but different sampling phase. Each operating at a quantization rate of fs/N where fs is the aggregated sampling rate. In a system with no real-time operation, the N channels digital outputs are stored in memory, and then aggregated (multiplexed) to obtain the digital representation of the analog input waveform. Alternatively, for real-time operation systems the reduction of storing time in the multiplexing process is desired to improve the time response of the ADC. The complete elimination of memories come expenses of concurrent timing and synchronization in the aggregation of the digital signal that became critical for a good digital representation of the analog signal waveform. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a novel optically synchronized encoder and multiplexer scheme for interleaved photonics ADCs that utilize the N optical signals used to sample different phases of an analog input signal to synchronize the multiplexing of the resulting N digital output channels in a single digital output port. As a proof of concept, four 320 Megasamples/sec 12-bit of resolution digital

  11. Pump-seed synchronization for MHz repetition rate, high-power optical parametric chirped pulse amplification.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Hanieh; Teisset, Catherine Yuriko; Pronin, Oleg; Sugita, Atsushi; Graf, Roswitha; Pervak, Vladimir; Gu, Xun; Metzger, Thomas; Major, Zsuzsanna; Krausz, Ferenc; Apolonski, Alexander

    2012-04-23

    We report on an active synchronization between two independent mode-locked lasers using a combined electronic-optical feedback. With this scheme, seed pulses at MHz repetition rate were amplified in a non-collinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA). The amplifier was seeded with stretched 1.5 nJ pulses from a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator, while pumped with the 1 ps, 2.9 µJ frequency-doubled output of an Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator. The residual timing jitter between the two oscillators was suppressed to 120 fs (RMS), allowing for an efficient and broadband amplification at 11.5 MHz to a pulse energy of 700 nJ and an average power of 8 W. First compression experiment with 240 nJ amplified pulse energy resulted in a pulse duration of ~10 fs. PMID:22535076

  12. Phase error statistics of a phase-locked loop synchronized direct detection optical PPM communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natarajan, Suresh; Gardner, C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Receiver timing synchronization of an optical Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM) communication system can be achieved using a phased-locked loop (PLL), provided the photodetector output is suitably processed. The magnitude of the PLL phase error is a good indicator of the timing error at the receiver decoder. The statistics of the phase error are investigated while varying several key system parameters such as PPM order, signal and background strengths, and PPL bandwidth. A practical optical communication system utilizing a laser diode transmitter and an avalanche photodiode in the receiver is described, and the sampled phase error data are presented. A linear regression analysis is applied to the data to obtain estimates of the relational constants involving the phase error variance and incident signal power.

  13. Optically synchronized dual-channel terahertz signals for high-performance transmitter/receiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Naofumi; Oh, Kyoung-Hwan; Kohjiro, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Ken'ichi; Wakatsuki, Atsushi; Kukutsu, Naoya; Kado, Yuichi

    2010-02-01

    We developed a high-sweeping-speed optically synchronized dual-channel terahertz signal generator, in which the frequency difference between the two terahertz signals is independent of the frequency of the terahertz signals themselves. This feature is essential for heterodyne detection of terahertz signals with various frequencies. With this generator, a frequency-sweepable terahertz transmitter (Tx)/receiver (Rx) system with a wide dynamic range can be realized without sacrificing the high frequency-sweeping speed. Absorption line measurements for water vapor and nitrous oxide show that the developed Tx/Rx system can detect gas absorption with the optical depth of 0.04 or less. This result indicates the potential of the system as a remote gas sensor and gas analyzer.

  14. Transmission of laser light through fiber optic connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Jerzy K.

    2003-10-01

    The connections of the telecommunications tract elements have a significant influence on the quality of the information transmission. In the essay reasons and an analysis of the losses in fiber optic connectors are introduced. The case of fiber optic connectors: PC type and with a surface enlargement are emphasized. Different types of fiber sleeve connectors are discussed. These optical connectors can be divided according to following criteria: structure (ST, FC, Sc, E-2000, F-3000, LC, MT-RJ, MU, etc.) types of applied ferrules (monolithic, with multiple elements) technology of production (standard, Light Crimp - AMP, Hot Melt - 3MCrimp Lok - 3M, Universal Com Lite - Siecor) and tuning. Moreover the quality of DWDM fiber optic connectors, which have high functional density and an impact on the light polarization is touched on. The results of measurements of transmission parameters and of mechanical resistance on vibration, folding of the cable in the fiber, strikes on hard surfaces, multiple connection and disconnecting, pulling out of a cable from the connectors and climate conditions are discussed. The results of the measurements listed above with additional interferometric tests of ferrule head constitute the main factor of the fiber connectors quality analysis. Furthermore, the up to date results of the compatibility analysis of the connectors manufactured by different producers are mentioned and a future development in the field is forecasted.

  15. Quasi-Optical Transmission Line for 94-GHz Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul M.; Veruttipong, Watt

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-optical transmission line (QOTL) has been developed as a low-loss transmission line for a spaceborne cloudobserving radar instrument that operates at a nominal frequency of 94 GHz. This QOTL could also readily be redesigned for use in terrestrial millimeter-wave radar systems and millimeter-wave imaging systems. In the absence of this or another lowloss transmission line, it would be necessary to use a waveguide transmission line in the original radar application. Unfortunately, transmission losses increase and power-handling capacities of waveguides generally decrease with frequency, such that at 94 GHz, the limitation on transmitting power and the combined transmission and reception losses (greater than 5 dB) in a waveguide transmission line previously considered for the original application would be unacceptable. The QOTL functions as a very-lowloss, three-port circulator. The QOTL includes a shaped input mirror that can be rotated to accept 94-GHz transmitter power from either of two high-power amplifiers. Inside the QOTL, the transmitter power takes the form of a linearly polarized beam radiated from a feed horn. This beam propagates through a system of mirrors, each of which refocuses the beam to minimize diffraction losses. A magnetically biased ferrite disc is placed at one of the foci to utilize the Faraday effect to rotate the polarization of the beam by 45 degrees. The beam is then transmitted via an antenna system. The radar return (scatter from clouds, and/or reflections from other objects) is collected by the same antenna and propagates through the Faraday rotator in the reverse of the direction of propagation of the transmitted beam. In the Faraday rotator, the polarization of the received signal is rotated a further 45 degrees, so that upon emerging from the Faraday rotator, the received beam is polarized at 90 with respect to the transmitted beam. The transmitted and received signals are then separated by a wire-grid polarizer.

  16. Optical Sensor Demands On Real-Time Reconnaissance Data Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAhron, Max C.

    1987-02-01

    The application of optical sensors (photographic, electro-optic, and infrared) to the tactical military reconnaissance scenario is increasing both in number and performance expectations. The resolution and collection rate capabilities of these optical sensors lead to massive amounts of raw data requiring reduction and interpretation. Exploitation of the collected information must be accomplished in near-real-time (immediate to several minutes) to fully realize the sensor's potential in the tactical operating environment. Exploitation delayed hours from collection becomes useless at best and misinformation at worst. Herein, the first objective is to approximately quantify the existing capabilities for data collection, recording, and transmission, both in rate and volume. The second objective is to suggest several means whereby preprocessing may reduce the volume of data without influencing the substantive information. The third objective is to suggest means whereby the sensor utilization is more selective, thereby providing a better focus of the collection process.

  17. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellites to a lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  18. Chaos-on-a-chip secures data transmission in optical fiber links.

    PubMed

    Argyris, Apostolos; Grivas, Evangellos; Hamacher, Michael; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2010-03-01

    Security in information exchange plays a central role in the deployment of modern communication systems. Besides algorithms, chaos is exploited as a real-time high-speed data encryption technique which enhances the security at the hardware level of optical networks. In this work, compact, fully controllable and stably operating monolithic photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that generate broadband chaotic optical signals are incorporated in chaos-encoded optical transmission systems. Data sequences with rates up to 2.5 Gb/s with small amplitudes are completely encrypted within these chaotic carriers. Only authorized counterparts, supplied with identical chaos generating PICs that are able to synchronize and reproduce the same carriers, can benefit from data exchange with bit-rates up to 2.5Gb/s with error rates below 10(-12). Eavesdroppers with access to the communication link experience a 0.5 probability to detect correctly each bit by direct signal detection, while eavesdroppers supplied with even slightly unmatched hardware receivers are restricted to data extraction error rates well above 10(-3). PMID:20389532

  19. Optical transmission through a polarization preserving single mode optical fiber at two Ar(+) laser wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Hunter, William W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The transmission characteristics of two Ar(+) laser wavelengths through a twenty meter Panda type Polarization Preserving Single Mode Optical Fiber (PPSMOF) were measured. The measurements were done with both single and multi-longitudinal mode radiation. In the single longitudinal mode case, a degrading Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) is observed as a backward scattering loss. By choosing an optimum coupling system and manipulating the input polarization, the threshold of the SBS onset can be raised and the transmission efficiency can be increased.

  20. Adaptive Quality of Transmission Control in Elastic Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xinran

    Optical fiber communication is becoming increasingly important due to the burgeoning demand in the internet capacity. However, traditional wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique fails to address such demand because of its inefficient spectral utilization. As a result, elastic optical networking (EON) has been under extensive investigation recently. Such network allows sub-wavelength and super-wavelength channel accommodation, and mitigates the stranded bandwidth problem in the WDM network. In addition, elastic optical network is also able to dynamically allocate the spectral resources of the network based on channel conditions and impairments, and adaptively control the quality of transmission of a channel. This application requires two aspects to be investigated: an efficient optical performance monitoring scheme and networking control and management algorithms to reconfigure the network in a dynamic fashion. This thesis focuses on the two aspects discussed above about adaptive QoT control. We demonstrated a supervisory channel method for optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring. In addition, our proof-of-principle testbed experiments show successful impairment aware reconfiguration of the network with modulation format switching (MFS) only and MFS combined with lightpath rerouting (LR) for hundred-GHz QPSK superchannels undergoing time-varying OSNR impairment.

  1. Optical nonreciprocal transmission in an asymmetric silicon photonic crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zheng; Chen, Juguang; Ji, Mengxi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong; Wang, Yi E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Ying E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-11-30

    An optical nonreciprocal transmission (ONT) is realized by employing the nonlinear effects in a compact asymmetric direct-coupled nanocavity-waveguide silicon photonic crystal structure with a high loaded quality factor (Q{sub L}) of 42 360 and large extinction ratio exceeding 30 dB. Applying a single step lithography and successive etching, the device can realize the ONT in an individual nanocavity, alleviating the requirement to accurately control the resonance of the cavities. A maximum nonreciprocal transmission ratio of 21.1 dB as well as a working bandwidth of 280 pm in the telecommunication band are obtained at a low input power of 76.7 μW. The calculated results by employing a nonlinear coupled-mode model are in good agreement with the experiment.

  2. Chaos synchronization in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on rotated polarization-preserved optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Busawon, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the rotating polarization-preserved optical feedback on the chaos synchronization of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is investigated experimentally. Two VCSELs' polarization modes (XP) and (YP) are gradually rotated and re-injected back into the VCSEL. The anti-phase dynamics synchronization of the two polarization modes is evaluated using the cross-correlation function. For a fixed optical feedback, a clear relationship is found between the cross-correlation coefficient and the polarization angle θp. It is shown that high-quality anti-phase polarization-resolved chaos synchronization is achieved at higher values of θp. The maximum value of the cross-correlation coefficient achieved is -0.99 with a zero time delay over a wide range of θp beyond 65° with a poor synchronization dynamic at θp less than 65°. Furthermore, it is observed that the antiphase irregular oscillation of the XP and YP modes changes with θp. VCSEL under the rotating polarization optical feedback can be a good candidate as a chaotic synchronization source for a secure communication system.

  3. Synchronized generation of 1534 and 1572 nm by the mixed optical parameter oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. T.; He, J. L.; Liu, S. D.; Liu, F. Q.; Yang, X. Q.; Yang, H. W.; Yang, Y.; Yang, H.

    2011-05-01

    A novel nonlinear frequency conversion process was demonstrated to realize the synchronized dual-wavelength emissions at 1534 and 1572 nm by the mixed optical parametric oscillation (OPO) conversion in gray-tracking-resistance KTP (GTR-KTP) and KTA crystals. Both the two crystals were inserted into the diode-pumped Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG fundamental resonator, with their Y axes perpendicular to each other. This could eliminate the competition of the two OPO processes in fundamental radiation. Furthermore, the ratio between the length of GTR-KTP and KTA has also been specially designed to satisfy the same OPO thresholds. The synchronized dual-wavelength lasing with the power ratio of 1:1 between 1534 and 1572 nm was successfully realized. At an incident LD pump power of 7 W, the maximum total output power of 460 mW was achieved, with the corresponding pulse width and repetition rate measured to be 3.9 ns and 5.5 kHz, respectively. This mixed conversion opens a new door for the multi-wavelength lasing.

  4. Quantum synchronization of ultracold atoms with dipole-dipole interactions in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bihui; Restrepo, Juan; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray

    2014-05-01

    Ultracold atoms confined in an optical lattice have been utilized as a powerful platform to study versatile many-body physics both experimentally and theoretically. A recent research focus has been the novel phenomena that would emerge with long-range interactions, which become especially important for atomic clocks where ultrahigh precision can amplify these effects. We develop theoretical models treating the two-level atoms as oscillators and study the synchronization of phases among a large ensemble of atoms coupled by dipole-dipole interactions, where the effect of geometry becomes relevant. We investigate the onset of synchronization and the related phase diagram, and further discuss the parameter regime for potential experimental observation using ultracold atoms such as Strontium. By applying different numerical methods, eg., quantum trajectories and truncated Wigner approximations to compare with the mean-field results, we also explore the underlying role of quantum fluctuations. We acknowledge funding from NIST, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF, ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, and AFOSR.

  5. Can precursors improve the transmission of energy at optical frequencies?

    PubMed Central

    Lukofsky, David; Bessette, Jonathan; Jeong, Heejeong; Garmire, Elsa; Österberg, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    The recent interest in precursors has been fuelled by the possibility of using them for the efficient transmission of information through absorbing media at radio or optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate that the low attenuation experienced by the Brillouin precursor is attributed to the inherently low absorption of dispersive media near DC, a characteristic already exploited with communications systems using the extremely low frequency (ELF) band. Pulses, regardless of their temporal width and carrier frequency, always obey Beer's law as long as they propagate in the linear time invariant regime. We conclude with an FDTD simulation of the Maxwell–Bloch equations that shows how optical coherent bleaching effects, which take place in the linear time variant regime of the Lorentz oscillator model, can cause sustained deviations from Beer's law over relatively long distances of water. PMID:19639054

  6. Laser Beam Delivery and Image Transmission Through Multimode Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Anpei

    This dissertation is dedicated to two important branches of optical fiber applications in biomedical engineering: laser beam delivery and image transmission. The optical phase of a light wave is distorted when it propagates through a multimode fiber. To compensate the distortion, a new hologram-generated phase conjugation theoretical model and experimental method has been developed. In the process, a self-pumped phase-conjugating mirror is introduced for recording the hologram. The coherence conditions are carefully matched so that only the desired optical signal is recorded. As a result, a high fidelity phase conjugation wave is produced. The resolution is 4.4 mum, which corresponds the diffraction-limited value of the system. Multimode optical fibers are widely used to deliver laser beams for medical diagnoses and treatments. However the spatial quality of the output beam is very poor. By use of holographic phase precompensation we present a new method to deliver high-quality laser beams. As a result, a highly collimated output beam with only 1.9 mrad divergence, which is 250 times smaller than the usual divergence, is obtained. The brightness is greatly increased. Other desired waves such as spherical wave or Gaussian beams can also be obtained. Another method, which is based on the formation at the remote end of a holographic filter, is also presented. The final output beams are nearly diffraction -limited. The hologram-generated phase conjugation is applied to image transmission through single multimode fibers. By use of Fourier transform theory and the formalism established in this study, the system resolution and the space bandwidth product are analyzed. The resolution of a multimode fiber can be 50 times higher than that of an imaging bundle if their diameters are the same. In the experiments a resolution chart was tested. The experimental results are quite consistent with the theory. A 3-D biological sample--a tooth--was also tested. The limitations of the

  7. Wavelength stabilization of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator: optimizing proportional-integral control.

    PubMed

    Lamour, Tobias P; Sun, Jinghua; Reid, Derryck T

    2010-05-01

    We describe a formal approach to the wavelength stabilization of a synchronously pumped ultrafast optical parametric oscillator using proportional-integral feedback control. Closed-loop wavelength stabilization was implemented by using a position-sensitive detector as a sensor and a piezoelectric transducer to modify the cavity length of the oscillator. By characterizing the frequency response of the loop components, we constructed a predictive model of the controller which showed formally that a proportional-only feedback was insufficient to eliminate the steady state error, consistent with experimental observations. The optimal proportional and integral gain coefficients were obtained from a numerical optimization of the controller model that minimized the settling time while also limiting the overshoot to an acceptable value. Results are presented showing effective wavelength and power stabilization to levels limited only by the relative intensity noise of the pump laser. PMID:20515118

  8. A time/frequency quantum analysis of the light generated by synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shifeng; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude

    2012-04-01

    We present in this paper a general model for determining the quantum properties of the light generated by a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) operating below threshold. This model considers time and frequency on an equal footing, which allows us to find new quantum properties, related for example to the carrier envelope offset (CEO) phase, and to consider situations that are close to real experiments. We show that, in addition to multimode squeezing in the so-called ‘supermodes’, the system exhibits quadrature entanglement between frequency combs of opposite CEO phases. We have also determined the quantum properties of the individual pulses and their quantum correlations with the neighboring pulses. Finally, we determine the quantum Cramer-Rao limit for an ultra-short time delay measurement using a given number of pulses generated by the SPOPO.

  9. Optical sensing in high voltage transmission lines using power over fiber and free space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, João Batista; Bassan, Fabio Renato; Penze, Rivael Strobel; Leonardi, Ariovaldo Antonio; Fracarolli, João Paulo Vicentini; Floridia, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we propose the use of power over fiber (PoF) and free space optics (FSO) techniques to powering and receive signals from an electrical current sensor placed at high voltage potential using a pair of optical collimators. The technique evaluation was performed in a laboratorial prototype using 62.5/125 μm multimode fiber to study the sensitivity of the optical alignment and the influence of the collimation process in the sensing system wavelengths: data communication (1310 nm) and powering (830 nm). The collimators were installed in a rigid electric insulator in order to maintain the stability of transmission.

  10. Cobalt stabilization of silver extraordinary optical transmission sensing platforms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Farah, Annette E.; Davidson, Roderick B.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Malasi, A.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, plasmon-mediated extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) is finding increased interest for biosensing applications. While Ag nanostructures are capable of the highest plasmonic quality factor of all metals, the performance reliability of pure Ag EOT devices is limited by degradation through environmental interactions. Here we show that EOT devices consisting of nanostructured hole arrays in Ag/Co bilayers show comparable transmission with that of identical hole arrays in Agthin films as well as enhanced reliability measured by the rate of resonance peak redshift and broadening with time. The Ag/Co EOT devices showed 2.6× and 1.9× smaller red shift in shortmore » timescales (20 days) and after 100 days, respectively, while they showed a 1.7× steady-state decrease in rate of bandwidth broadening. This improvement is likely due to the Co metal stabilizing the Agfilm from morphological changes by reducing its propensity to diffuse or dewet on the underlying substrate. The improved reliability of Ag/Co bilayer EOT devices could enable the use of their superior plasmonic properties for optical detection of trace chemicals.« less

  11. Ergodic capacity comparison of optical wireless communications using adaptive transmissions.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Md Zoheb; Hossain, Md Jahangir; Cheng, Julian

    2013-08-26

    Ergodic capacity is investigated for the optical wireless communications employing subcarrier intensity modulation with direct detection, and coherent systems with and without polarization multiplexing over the Gamma-Gamma turbulence channels. We consider three different adaptive transmission schemes: (i) variable-power, variable-rate adaptive transmission, (ii) complete channel inversion with fixed rate, and (iii) truncated channel inversion with fixed rate. For the considered systems, highly accurate series expressions for ergodic capacity are derived using a series expansion of the modified Bessel function and the Mellin transformation of the Gamma-Gamma random variable. Our asymptotic analysis reveals that the high SNR ergodic capacities of coherent, subcarrier intensity modulated, and polarization multiplexing systems gain 0.33 bits/s/Hz, 0.66 bits/s/Hz, and 0.66 bits/s/Hz respectively with 1 dB increase of average transmitted optical power. Numerical results indicate that a polarization control error less than 10° has little influence on the capacity performance of polarization multiplexing systems. PMID:24105580

  12. Protecting the DUV process and optimizing optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallas, Andrew J.; Arends, Debbie; Fischer, Kristen; Joriman, Jon; Graham, Kristine M.; Ringold, Richard

    2000-06-01

    It has been well documented that DUV lithographic processes are sensitive to airborne contamination such as ammonia and n- methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Chemical filtration technologies have aided in minimizing the problems associated with these contaminants in the photolithographic process. As the demand for smaller features increases, so will the need to operate within even cleaner environments than are available today. One such area where airborne contamination has proven to be of significant concern, is within the lensing system of the tool. With decreasing feature size, the lithographic process has proven to be more sensitive to contamination of the lens itself, and within the environment surrounding the lens. Condensation on the lens (hazing) and the presence of contamination between the lens and substrate can result in poor optical transmission. To minimize these problems, a purge gas is typically employed. Even though high purity gases are used, contamination within the gas still is an issue. This work describes our efforts directed at understanding the purge gas and lens environments. In addition, we will address our efforts that have focused on the development of chemical filters that provide environments for optimized optical transmission in lithographic applications.

  13. Zebrafish CaV2.1 calcium channels are tailored for fast synchronous neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, David; Wen, Hua; Brehm, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-dependent calcium channels are prevalent throughout the nervous system where they mediate synaptic transmission, but the basis for the selective presence at individual synapses still remains an open question. The CaV2.1 channels have been proposed to respond more effectively to brief action potentials (APs), an idea supported by computational modeling. However, the side-by-side comparison of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 kinetics in intact neurons failed to reveal differences. As an alternative means for direct functional comparison we expressed zebrafish CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 α-subunits, along with their accessory subunits, in HEK293 cells. HEK cells lack calcium currents, thereby circumventing the need for pharmacological inhibition of mixed calcium channel isoforms present in neurons. HEK cells also have a simplified morphology compared to neurons, which improves voltage control. Our measurements revealed faster kinetics and shallower voltage-dependence of activation and deactivation for CaV2.1. Additionally, recordings of calcium current in response to a command waveform based on the motorneuron AP show, directly, more effective activation of CaV2.1. Analysis of calcium currents associated with the AP waveform indicate an approximately fourfold greater open probability (PO) for CaV2.1. The efficient activation of CaV2.1 channels during APs may contribute to the highly reliable transmission at zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25650925

  14. Zebrafish CaV2.1 Calcium Channels Are Tailored for Fast Synchronous Neuromuscular Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, David; Wen, Hua; Brehm, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-dependent calcium channels are prevalent throughout the nervous system where they mediate synaptic transmission, but the basis for the selective presence at individual synapses still remains an open question. The CaV2.1 channels have been proposed to respond more effectively to brief action potentials (APs), an idea supported by computational modeling. However, the side-by-side comparison of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 kinetics in intact neurons failed to reveal differences. As an alternative means for direct functional comparison we expressed zebrafish CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 α-subunits, along with their accessory subunits, in HEK293 cells. HEK cells lack calcium currents, thereby circumventing the need for pharmacological inhibition of mixed calcium channel isoforms present in neurons. HEK cells also have a simplified morphology compared to neurons, which improves voltage control. Our measurements revealed faster kinetics and shallower voltage-dependence of activation and deactivation for CaV2.1. Additionally, recordings of calcium current in response to a command waveform based on the motorneuron AP show, directly, more effective activation of CaV2.1. Analysis of calcium currents associated with the AP waveform indicate an approximately fourfold greater open probability (PO) for CaV2.1. The efficient activation of CaV2.1 channels during APs may contribute to the highly reliable transmission at zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25650925

  15. The Effects of High Temperature and Nuclear Radiation on the Optical Transmission of Silica Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawn, David P.

    Distributed measurements made with fiber optic instrumentation have the potential to revolutionize data collection for facility monitoring and process control in industrial environments. Dozens of sensors etched into a single optical fiber can be used to instrument equipment and structures so that dozens of spatially distributed temperature measurements, for example, can be made quickly using one optical fiber. Optically based sensors are commercially available to measure temperature, strain, and other physical quantities that can be related to strain, such as pressure and acceleration. Other commercially available technology eliminates the need to etch discrete sensors into an optical fiber and allows temperature measurements to be made along the length of an ordinary silica fiber. Distributed sensing with optical instrumentation is commonly used in the petroleum industry to measure the temperature and pressure profiles in down hole applications. The U.S. Department of Energy is interested in extending the distributed sensing capabilities of optical instrumentation to high temperature reactor radiation environments. For this technology extension to be possible, the survivability of silica optical fibers needed to be determined in this environment. In this work the optical attenuation added to silica optical fiber exposed simultaneously to reactor radiation and temperatures to 1000°C was experimentally determined. Optical transmission measurements were made in-situ from 400nm-2300nm. For easy visualization, all of the results generated in this work were processed into movies that are available publicly [1]. In this investigation, silica optical fibers were shown to survive optically and mechanically in a reactor radiation environment to 1000°C. For the combined high temperature reactor irradiation experiments completed in this investigation, the maximum attenuation increase in the low-OH optical fibers was around 0.5db/m at 1550nm and 0.6dB/m at 1300nm. The

  16. Research on target information optics communications transmission characteristic and performance in multi-screens testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanshan

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the stability and reliability of multi-screens testing system, this paper studies multi-screens target optical information transmission link properties and performance in long-distance, sets up the discrete multi-tone modulation transmission model based on geometric model of laser multi-screens testing system and visible light information communication principle; analyzes the electro-optic and photoelectric conversion function of sender and receiver in target optical information communication system; researches target information transmission performance and transfer function of the generalized visible-light communication channel; found optical information communication transmission link light intensity space distribution model and distribution function; derives the SNR model of information transmission communication system. Through the calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that the transmission error rate increases with the increment of transmission rate in a certain channel modulation depth; when selecting the appropriate transmission rate, the bit error rate reach 0.01.

  17. Photoluminescence and optical transmission of diffusion-pump oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The photoluminescence and optical transmission of the four widely used diffusion-pump oils, DC-705, DC-704, Convalex-10, and Convoil-20, were measured. Each of the oils was found to be transparent throughout the visible region, showed some absorption in the near-UV region, and became very opaque below approximately 300 nm. Both Convalex-10 and Convoil-20 turned yellow after exposure to UV light. No such change was noted in DC-705 or DC-704. Photoluminescence was produced in each of the four oils when irradiated with UV light. Both DC-705 and DC-704 had a nearly identical luminescence spectra that peaked at 350 nm. The spectra of Convalex-10 and Convoil-20 were fairly complex, with several peaks in the visible region.

  18. Nonlinear band gap transmission in optical waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2004-02-13

    The effect of nonlinear transmission in coupled optical waveguide arrays is theoretically investigated and a realistic experimental setup is suggested. The beam is injected in a single boundary waveguide, linear refractive index of which (n(0)) is larger than refractive indexes (n) of other identical waveguides in the array. Particularly, the effect holds if omega(n(0)-n)/c>2Q, where Q is a linear coupling constant between array waveguides, omega is a carrier wave frequency, and c is a light velocity. Numerical experiments show that the energy transfers from the boundary waveguide to the waveguide array above a certain threshold intensity of the injected beam. This effect is due to the creation and the propagation of gap solitons in full analogy with a similar phenomenon in sine-Gordon lattice [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 134102 (2002)

  19. Transmission electron microscope sample holder with optical features

    DOEpatents

    Milas, Mirko; Zhu, Yimei; Rameau, Jonathan David

    2012-03-27

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  20. Design of a fiber optic image transmission link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Justin D.

    1991-12-01

    An original design is presented for a fiber optic based digital image transmission link operating at a serial bit rate of 250 Mbits/Second. The link is designed as an integral part of an airborne infrared imaging system with particular emphasis on avoiding problems associated with aircraft electromagnetic interference (EMI). Unique features include simplicity (single PC board transmitter and receiver), low power, low cost (under $3,000), and use of the latest off-the-shelf components (including the Gazelle GA9011/GA9012 HOT ROD chip set). Theoretical modeling is used to predict a bit error rate of better than 10 to the minus 15th power, while actual measurements include transmission of over 10 to 13th power bits without any errors (measured bit error rate of at least 10 to the minus 13th power). Test results also show that the link is capable of transmitting 640 x 480 pixel (12 bits per pixel) images with no significant image degradation.

  1. Transmission of multiplexed video signals in multimode optical fiber systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Preston, III

    1988-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has the need for economical transmission of two multiplexed video signals along multimode fiberoptic systems. These systems must span unusual distances and must meet RS-250B short-haul standards after reception. Bandwidth is a major problem and studies of the installed fibers, available LEDs and PINFETs led to the choice of 100 MHz as the upper limit for the system bandwidth. Optical multiplexing and digital transmission were deemed inappropriate. Three electrical multiplexing schemes were chosen for further study. Each of the multiplexing schemes included an FM stage to help meet the stringent S/N specification. Both FM and AM frequency division multiplexing methods were investigated theoretically and these results were validated with laboratory tests. The novel application of quadrature amplitude multiplexing was also considered. Frequency division multiplexing of two wideband FM video signal appears the most promising scheme although this application requires high power highly linear LED transmitters. Futher studies are necessary to determine if LEDs of appropriate quality exist and to better quantify performance of QAM in this application.

  2. MFTF-B quasi-optical ECRH transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Yugo, J.J.; Shearer, J.W.; Ziolkowski, R.W.

    1983-11-07

    The microwave transmission system for ERCH on MFTF-B will utilize quasi-optical transmission techniques. The system consists of ten gyrotron oscillators: two gyrotrons at 28 GHz, two at 35 GHz, and six at 56 GHz. The 28 and 35 GHz gyrotrons both heat the electrons in the end plug (potential peak) while the 56 GHz sources heat the minimum-B anchor region (potential minimum). Microwaves are launched into a pair of cylindrical mirrors that form a pseudo-cavity which directs the microwaves through the plasma numerous times before they are lost out of the cavity. The cavity allows the microwave beam to reach the resonance zone over a wide range of plasma densities and temperatures. The fundamental electron cyclotron resonance moves to higher axial positions as a result of beta-depression of the magnetic field, doppler shifting of the resonance, and relativistic mass corrections for the electrons. With this system the microwave beam will reach the resonance surface at the correct angle of incidence for any density or temperature without active aiming of the antennas. The cavity also allows the beam to make multiple passes through the plasma to increase the heating efficiency at low temperatures and densities when the single pass absorption is low. In addition, neutral beams and diagnostics have an unobstructed view of the plasma.

  3. Reduction of nonlinear phase noise using optical phase conjugation in quasi-linear optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiva; Liu, Ling

    2007-03-01

    An analytical expression for the variance of nonlinear phase noise for a quasi-linear system using the midpoint optical phase conjugation (OPC) is obtained. It is shown that the the system with OPC and dispersion inversion (DI) can exactly cancel the nonlinear phase noise up to the first order in nonlinear coefficient if the amplifier and the end point of the system are equidistant from the OPC. It is found that the nonlinear phase noise variance of the midpoint phase-conjugated optical transmission system with DI is smaller than that of the system without DI. PMID:19532453

  4. A novel optical transmission link with DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Liang, Hao

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel optical OFDM transmission link that takes advantages of discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and constant envelope (CE) modulation, obtaining DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM. The numerical results show that this design achieves better performance when compared with conventional O-OFDM in terms of bit error rate (BER) and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). The impact of phase modulation index (PMI) on both PAPR and noise tolerance is investigated. Since the scheme has simplified design, it is believed to be a cost-effective in the practical implement.

  5. Fiber optic multiplexed optical transmission systems for space vehicle launch facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Low loss Fiber Optic Cable is being evaluated as a potential future replacement for Kennedy Space Center's 13,000 mile Wideband cable system. In order to make economical use of the wide bandwidth characteristic of glass fibers, a Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) scheme has been devised to stack many analog and digital data channels on a single fiber. The Multiplexed Optical Transmission System (MOTS) will offer a unique flexibility of plug-in modularity to meet changing data and bandwidth requirements in addition to the standard 'goodies' of immunity to lightning and other EMI, RFI type interferences, and of smaller size and lighter weight.

  6. Combined transmission and reflection optical microscopy of ice core sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Tobias; Weikusat, Ilka; Kerst, Thomas; Eichler, Jan; Svensson, Anders; Bohleber, Pascal; Garbe, Christoph; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2013-04-01

    Microstructure analysis of ice cores is vital to understand the processes controlling the flow of ice on the microscale. To quantify the microstructural variability (and thus occurring processes) on centimeter, meter and kilometer scale along deep polar ice cores, a large number of sections has to be analyzed. In the last decade, two different methods have been applied: On the one hand, transmission optical microscopy of thin sections between crossed polarizers yields information on the distribution of crystal c-axes. On the other hand, reflection optical microscopy of polished and controlled sublimated section surfaces allows to characterize the high resolution properties of a single grain boundary, e.g. its length, shape or curvature. Based on a polar and an alpine ice core we applied both methods to the same set of sections. This enables us to combine all information on crystal orientation and (sub-)grain boundaries. In this contribution we introduce the method of combined transmission-polarization and reflection microscopy as well as an image processing framework for processing and matching both image types [1]. The information content of both analysis methods is limited and influenced by different types of artifacts. It is exemplary shown how the combination allows to compensate for deficiencies of one method. The gray values in images of the grain boundaries on polished ice core sections are influenced by the duration of surface sublimation and the energy/misorientation of the grain boundaries in the section. By combining these gray values with the misorientation obtained from the corresponding thin section imaged between crossed polarizers we try to validate the information content of gray values on the basis of large data sets. This approach is compared to X-ray Laue diffraction measurements (yielding full crystallographic orientation) which validated the sensitivity of the surface sublimation method [2]. As microscopy in transmission mode acquires volume

  7. A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Reuven; Sinton, David; Kavanagh, Karen L; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2008-08-01

    [Reaction: see text]. Plasmonic-based chemical sensing technologies play a key role in chemical, biochemical, and biomedical research, but basic research in this area is still attracting interest. Researchers would like to develop new types of plasmonic nanostructures that can improve the analytical figures of merit, such as detection limits, sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range, relative to the commercial systems. They are also tackling issues such as cost, reproducibility, and multiplexing with the goal of providing the best plasmonic-based platform for chemical analysis. In this Account, we will describe recent advances in the optical and spectroscopic properties of nanohole arrays in thin gold films and their applications for chemical sensing. These nanostructures support the unusual phenomenon of "extraordinary optical transmission" (EOT), that is, they are more transparent at certain wavelengths than expected by the classical aperture theory. The EOT is a consequence of surface plasmon (SP) excitations; hence, the resonance should respond to the adsorption of organic molecules. We explored this effect and implemented the integration of the arrays of nanoholes as sensing elements in a microfluidic architecture. We then demonstrated how these devices could be applied in biochemical affinity tests. Arrays of nanoholes offer a small sensing footprint and operate at normal transmission mode, which make them more suitable for miniaturization. This new approach for SPR sensing is more compatible with the lab-on-chip concept and offers the possibility of high-throughput analysis from a single sensing chip. We explored the field localization properties of EOT for surface-enhanced spectroscopy. We could control the enhancement factors for SERS and SEFS by adjusting the geometry of the arrays. The shape of the individual nanoholes offers another handle to tune the enhancement factor for surface-enhanced spectroscopy and SPR sensitivity. Apexes in shaped

  8. Synchronizing retinal activity in both eyes disrupts binocular map development in the optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Brickley, S G; Dawes, E A; Keating, M J; Grant, S

    1998-02-15

    Spatiotemporal correlations in the pattern of spontaneous and evoked retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity are believed to influence the topographic organization of connections throughout the developing visual system. We have tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of interfering with these potential activity cues during development on the functional organization of binocular maps in the Xenopus frog optic tectum. Paired recordings combined with cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that exposing normal frogs to a continuous 1 Hz of stroboscopic illumination synchronized the firing of all three classes of RGC projecting to the tectum and induced similar patterns of temporally correlated activity across both lobes of the nucleus. Embryonic and eye-rotated larval animals were reared until early adulthood under equivalent stroboscopic conditions. The maps formed by each RGC class in the contralateral tectum showed normal topography and stratification after strobe rearing, but with consistently enlarged multiunit receptive fields. Maps of the ipsilateral eye, formed by crossed isthmotectal axons, showed significant disorder and misalignment with direct visual input from the retina, and in the eye-rotated animals complete compensatory reorientation of these maps usually induced by this procedure failed to occur. These findings suggest that refinement of retinal arbors in the tectum and the ability of crossed isthmotectal arbors to establish binocular convergence with these retinal afferents are disrupted when they all fire together. Our data thus provide direct experimental evidence that spatiotemporal activity patterns within and between the two eyes regulate the precision of their developing connections. PMID:9454857

  9. Binary synchronous simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R., III

    1980-01-01

    Flexible simulator for trouble-shooting data transmission system uses binary synchronous communications protocol to produce error-free transmission of data between two points. Protocol may be used to replace display generator or be directly fed to display generator.

  10. Coherent Terahertz Wireless Signal Transmission Using Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Morohashi, Isao; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2015-02-01

    Coherent terahertz signal transmission with multilevel modulation and demodulation is demonstrated using an optical sub-harmonic IQ mixer (SHIQM), which consists of optical components in advanced optical fiber communication technologies. An optical-frequency-comb-employed signal generator is capable of vector modulation as well as frequency tunability. Digital signal processing (DSP) adopted from the recently developed optical digital coherent communication can easily demodulate multi-level modulated terahertz signals by using electrical heterodyning for intermediate-frequency (IF) down conversion. This technique is applicable for mobile backhauling in the next-generation mobile communication technology directly connected to an optical fiber network as a high-speed wireless transmission link.

  11. Refractive Optics for Hard X-ray Transmission Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Last, A.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E.; Ahrens, G.; Voigt, A.

    2011-09-09

    For hard x-ray transmission microscopy at photon energies higher than 15 keV we design refractive condenser and imaging elements to be used with synchrotron light sources as well as with x-ray tube sources. The condenser lenses are optimized for low x-ray attenuation--resulting in apertures greater than 1 mm--and homogeneous intensity distribution on the detector plane, whereas the imaging enables high-resolution (<100 nm) full-field imaging. To obtain high image quality at reasonable exposure times, custom-tailored matched pairs of condenser and imaging lenses are being developed. The imaging lenses (compound refractive lenses, CRLs) are made of SU-8 negative resist by deep x-ray lithography. SU-8 shows high radiation stability. The fabrication technique enables high-quality lens structures regarding surface roughness and arrangement precision with arbitrary 2D geometry. To provide point foci, crossed pairs of lenses are used. Condenser lenses have been made utilizing deep x-ray lithographic patterning of thick SU-8 layers, too, whereas in this case, the aperture is limited due to process restrictions. Thus, in terms of large apertures, condenser lenses made of structured and rolled polyimide film are more attractive. Both condenser types, x-ray mosaic lenses and rolled x-ray prism lenses (RXPLs), are considered to be implemented into a microscope setup. The x-ray optical elements mentioned above are characterized with synchrotron radiation and x-ray laboratory sources, respectively.

  12. Polarization-dependent extraordinary optical transmission from upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng Hui; Salcedo, Walter J; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham; van Veggel, Frank C J M; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2015-11-21

    Enhanced upconversion (UC) emission was experimentally demonstrated using gold double antenna nanoparticles coupled to nanoslits in gold films. The transmitted red emission from UC ytterbium and erbium co-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+)) nanoparticles (UC NPs) at ∼665 nm (excited with a 980 nm diode laser) was enhanced relative to the green emission at ∼550 nm. The relatively enhanced UC NP emission could be tuned by the different polarization-dependent extraordinary optical transmission modes coupled to the gold nanostructures. Finite-difference time-domain calculations suggest that the preferential enhanced UC emission is related to a combination of different surface plasmon mode excitation coupling to cavity Fabry-Perot interactions. A maximum UC enhancement of 6-fold was measured for nanoslit arrays in the absence of the double antennas. In the presence of the double nanoantennas inside the nanoslits, the UC enhancement was between 2- and 4-fold, depending on the experimental conditions. PMID:26487270

  13. Dual-channel chaos synchronization and communication based on unidirectionally coupled VCSELs with polarization-rotated optical feedback and polarization-rotated optical injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2009-07-20

    A novel dual-channel chaotic synchronization configuration is proposed. This system is constructed on the basis of two unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a VCSEL subjected to polarization-rotated optical feedback is used as a transmitter and the other VCSEL subjected to polarization-rotated optical injection is used as a receiver. The synchronization and communication performances of such a system are numerically investigated. The results show that, similar to polarization-preserved coupled system with polarization-preserved optical feedback at the T-VCSEL port and polarization-preserved optical injection at the R-VCSEL port, such polarization-rotated coupled system can also realize complete synchronization between each pair of linear polarization (LP) modes and the total output of T-VCSEL and R-VCSEL. Compared with the polarization-preserved coupled system, this proposed system has higher tolerance to mismatched parameters. Furthermore, the average intensities of two orthogonal LP modes are almost the same so that this framework may be used to realize dual-channel chaos communication. Under the additive chaos modulation (ACM) encryption scheme, the encoded messages can be successfully extracted for both of orthogonal LP modes. PMID:19654666

  14. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-08-01

    Subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunnelling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm-1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.

  15. The demonstration of 10 Gbit/s time division multiplexing and 2.5 Gchip/s quasi-synchronous electrical code division multiplexing access passive optical network prototype system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Siyuan; Wang, Liqian; Cao, Yingying; Wang, Zhen; Han, Yamei; Wang, Dao; Chen, Xue

    2012-04-01

    The authors propose a novel architecture of passive optical network (PON), which consists of time division multiplexing (TDM) based downstream (10 Gbit/s) and quasi-synchronization (Q-S) electrical code division multiplexing access (ECDMA) based upstream (2.5 Gchip/s), and realize the prototype of this TDM-ECDMA PON. The high speed (2.5 Gchip/s) all digital en/decoding of upstream have been achieved by field-programmable gate array in this prototype. The frames error rate (FER) free transmission of Q-S ECDMA based upstream is demonstrated after 20 km fiber link. Then receiver sensitivity of optical line terminal in upstream transmission can be improved ~6 dB by coding gain compared with traditional 2.5 Gbit/s TDM PON.

  16. Hyperbola-parabola primary mirror in Cassegrain optical antenna to improve transmission efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Lu; Yang, HuaJun; Jiang, Ping; Mao, Shengqian; Caiyang, Weinan

    2015-08-20

    An optical model with a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror added in the Cassegrain optical antenna, which can effectively improve the transmission efficiency, is proposed in this paper. The optimum parameters of a hyperbola-parabola primary mirror and a secondary mirror for the optical antenna system have been designed and analyzed in detail. The parabola-hyperbola primary structure optical antenna is obtained to improve the transmission efficiency of 10.60% in theory, and the simulation efficiency changed 9.359%. For different deflection angles to the receiving antenna with the emit antenna, the coupling efficiency curve of the optical antenna has been obtained. PMID:26368746

  17. Synchronous time-resolved optical and x-ray emission from simultaneous optical and x-ray streak cameras driven by a master ramp generator

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, J.E.; Lampert, W.; Roschger, E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    An optical and an x-ray streak camera have been synchronized by driving the deflection plates of both cameras from the same ramp generator. The relative timing of the two cameras was calibrated by running UV light onto the x-ray streak camera. The x-ray streak camera was then used to measure the time of the x-ray emission from a laser plasma with respect to the laser pulse.

  18. Synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses into water studied by a laser beam transmission probe for enhanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorčič, P.; Lukač, N.; Možina, J.; Jezeršek, M.

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of the synchronized delivery of multiple Er:YAG-laser pulses during vapor-bubble oscillations into water. For this purpose, we used a laser beam transmission probe that enables monitoring of the bubble's dynamics from a single shot. To overcome the main drawbacks of this technique, we propose and develop an appropriate and robust calibration by simultaneous employment of shadow photography. By using the developed experimental method, we show that the resonance effect is obtained when the second laser pulse is delivered at the end or slightly after the first bubble's collapse. In this case, the resonance effect increases the mechanical energy of the secondary bubble's oscillations and prolongs their duration. The presented laser method for synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses during bubble oscillations has great potential for further improvement of laser endodontic treatment, especially upon their safety and efficiency.

  19. Integrated self-cleaning window assembly for optical transmission in combustion environments

    DOEpatents

    Kass, Michael D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2007-07-24

    An integrated window design for optical transmission in combustion environments is described. The invention consists of an integrated optical window design that prevents and removes the accumulation of carbon-based particulate matter and gaseous hydrocarbons through a combination of heat and catalysis. These windows will enable established optical technologies to be applied to combustion environments and their exhaust systems.

  20. Object-oriented classification using quasi-synchronous multispectral images (optical and radar) over agricultural surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais Sicre, Claire; Baup, Frederic; Fieuzal, Remy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change (with consequences on temperature and precipitation patterns), persons involved in agricultural management have the imperative to combine: sufficient productivity (as a response of the increment of the necessary foods) and durability of the resources (in order to restrain waste of water, fertilizer or environmental damages). To this end, a detailed knowledge of land use will improve the management of food and water, while preserving the ecosystems. Among the wide range of available monitoring tools, numerous studies demonstrated the interest of satellite images for agricultural mapping. Recently, the launch of several radar and optical sensors offer new perspectives for the multi-wavelength crop monitoring (Terrasar-X, Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1, Landsat-8…) allowing surface survey whatever the cloud conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated the interest of using multi-temporal approaches for crop classification, requiring several images for suitable classification results. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited (due to the satellite orbit cycle) and require waiting several days, week or month before offering an accurate land use map. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of object-oriented classification (random forest algorithm combined with vector layer coming from segmentation) to map winter crop (barley, rapeseed, grasslands and wheat) and soil states (bare soils with different surface roughness) using quasi-synchronous images. Satellite data are composed of multi-frequency and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH) images acquired near the 14th of April, 2010, over a studied area (90km²) located close to Toulouse in France. This is a region of alluvial plains and hills, which are mostly mixed farming and governed by a temperate climate. Remote sensing images are provided by Formosat-2 (04/18), Radarsat-2 (C-band, 04/15), Terrasar-X (X-band, 04/14) and ALOS (L-band, 04/14). Ground data are collected

  1. Paired SSB optical OFDM channels for high spectral efficient signal transmission over DWDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicharro, Francisco I.; Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José

    2016-07-01

    A new high spectral efficient SSB-OOFDM DWDM transmission system has been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed transmitter employs paired optical channels consisting of two SSB modulated OFDM signals using opposite sidebands in order to allow an efficient use of the spectrum with optical carriers separation under 10 GHz. Moreover, different paired channels are multiplexed into the 25 GHz grid DWDM fiber transmission link. Optical carrier spacing of 8.75 GHz in paired channels has been demonstrated allowing 40.8 Gb/s signal transmission rate over a 25 GHz paired channel bandwidth.

  2. Self-phase-locking of degenerate synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Samuel Tin Bo

    Phase-stable frequency combs have been instrumental in advancing state-of-the-art metrology and high-precision measurements. Extending the combs toward shorter wavelengths in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes has pushed ultrafast science to the attosecond level and revolutionized atomic physics. While there has not been much development on comb extension toward longer wavelengths, it is nevertheless important for applications that require critical optical phase control in the middle to far-infrared regime, such as vacuum-based laser-driven particle acceleration. Furthermore, the synthesis of phase-locked combs at longer wavelengths would establish absolute optical frequency standards in the IR regime and enable highly precise spectroscopy at wavelengths unavailable to conventional solid-state lasers. To realize frequency combs in the mid-IR, we decided to exploit second-order nonlinear processes for down-conversion to longer wavelengths. Additionally, we took advantage of the fixed phase relationship between pump, signal, and idler in optical parametric oscillation (OPO). We predicted that a mode-locked OPO operating at frequency degeneracy would exhibit phase-locking because the signal and idler combs experience mutual injection locking to become phase-coherent with the pump. Furthermore, the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency of the signal/idler comb would be exactly half of that of the pump in this case. To this end, we demonstrated the first self-phase-locked synchronously pumped OPO (SPOPO) as a sub-harmonic generator. The pump source was a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser that generated an 80-MHz train of 180-fs pulses at 775 nm. The nonlinear gain element used was a 1-mm-long, type I (e-ee) phase-matched, 5% MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal. Under degenerate operation, the SPOPO formed a broad, continuous spectrum centered at 1550 nm with a bandwidth of 50 nm (200 cm-1), which had a comb broadening factor of almost 3 compared to the pump

  3. Novel optical devices based on the transmission properties of magnetic fluid and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Lv, Riqing; Zhang, Yuyan; Wang, Qi

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic fluid has many unique optical properties. It has numerous potential applications in developing optical devices because of its versatile optical properties. This paper summarizes the physical origins and control mechanisms of the MF transmission properties, and the related optical devices based on the transmission properties of magnetic fluid. In recent years, there are many applications in optical information communication and sensing technology, such as optical switches, tunable optical gratings, coarse wavelength-division multiplexing, magnetic-field sensors, current sensor. The qualitative and quantitative analysis about the physical configuration, the operating principle, and the characteristics of those optical devices are given. The valuable potential problems and the solutions that are related to optical properties and optical devices based on magnetic fluid are expounded in detail, and potential new types of MF-based optical devices are proposed. It can be concluded that the transmission properties of MF will be improved greatly, and the characteristics of present optical devices based on magnetic fluid will be made better continually and it will play an important role in the fields of optical information communication and sensing technology.

  4. Cable television transmission over a 1550-nm infrared indoor optical wireless link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakib Chowdhury, M. I.; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Zhang, Weizhi

    2013-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate transmission of cable television (CATV) radio frequency signals over a pointed indoor optical wireless link. The length of the optical link was 15 m. Collimators used at both the transmitter and the receiver sides required good alignment before sufficient optical power could be received. The system was placed at a height of 2 m, which is more than average human height, so human movements throughout the room did not obstruct the link. The optical wireless propagation path was almost lossless. The originality in this experimental demonstration is the transmission of full range of CATV signals compared to other works in this area. This experiment of radio over free-space optics showed that point-to-point indoor optical wireless links can be utilized as an alternative means for transmission of multimedia data.

  5. Study of light transmission through optical fiber-to-fiber connector assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Gutowski, M.; Adams, M.; Solomon, J.

    1998-11-01

    Optical fiber-to-fiber connectors are now being used widely in particle tracking detectors. We describe the properties of the connectors, their production, and measurements of the light transmission through the gap of the connector assembly. We studied light transmission for various types of connectors illuminated by several different light sources. The light transmission was found to be dependent on the angular distribution of the light rays passing through a connector assembly. Two arrangements were studied, a point source and a diffuse source. A green LED with a diffuser is believed to best reproduce the angular distributions of light in the real detector applications. We also studied the transmission as a function of the index of refraction of the optical couplants. The light transmission depends on the index of refraction of an optical couplant placed in the gap, and improves as it approaches the index of refraction of the fiber core. Light transmissions of 80{percent}{approximately}88{percent} were obtained without any optical couplant in the connector gap and transmissions of 89{percent}{approximately}99{percent} with various optical couplants. A Monte Carlo study using measured light distributions from a fiber end produced a reasonable agreement with the transmission measurements made on a connector assembly. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters.

  7. Transmission spectra and optical losses of infiltration-modified hollow photonic-crystal fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, Stanislav O; Serebryannikov, E E; Zheltikova, D A; Mitrokhin, V P; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Fedotov, Andrei B; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Kilin, Sergei Ya

    2005-09-30

    Transmission spectra and optical losses of hollow photonic-crystal fibres (PCFs) filled with liquid-phase materials are studied. For hollow PCFs with a cladding period of about 5 {mu}m and a core diameter of about 50 {mu}m, infiltration with water increases optical losses by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to the optical losses of the same PCF before infiltration. (optical fibres)

  8. Coherent electro-optical detection of THz-wave generated from synchronously pumped picosecond THz parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takida, Yuma; Ohira, Tatsuya; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Nashima, Shigeki

    2012-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation via parametric down-conversion of optical pulses in a nonlinear optical crystal is an attractive way to develop frequency tunable THz-wave sources. Therefore, we have focused on developing low-laser-powerpumped THz-wave parametric sources and then successfully demonstrated a synchronously-pumped picosecond THz parametric oscillator (TPO) in pump-enhanced idler-resonant cavity with a bulk 5 mol% MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgO:LN) crystal. In this paper, toward coherent electro-optical (EO) detection of THz waves generated from our synchronously pumped picosecond TPO, we reported time-domain measurements of the THz electric fields using a bowtie- shaped low-temperature grown gallium arsenide (LT-GaAs) photoconductive (PC) antenna as a THz detector. As a result, we obtained temporal waveforms of the THz electric pulses, for the different number of Si-prism couplers, and then found that the radiated THz waves separated multiple unanticipated pulses by use of the arrayed-prism coupling technique. Also, we compared the time-domain system with a Fourier transform Michelson interferometer using a highresistance silicon (Si) beam splitter, from the some viewpoints. The present results reveal great prospects for the realization of THz spectroscopy and imaging applications using our THz-wave source.

  9. Optical single-sideband OFDM transmission based on a two-segment EAM.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsuan-Lin; Chen, Wei-Hung; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chiu, Yi-Jen

    2015-01-26

    This paper presents a novel optical single-sideband (SSB) OFDM modulation scheme using a two-segment electro-absorption modulator (EAM). Differences in the chirp characteristics of two segments of the EAM make it possible to design driving signals capable of suppressing one of the optical sidebands, such that the optical OFDM signal does not suffer from frequency-selective power fading following dispersive fiber transmission. Our experiment results demonstrate optical OFDM transmissions at 13.5-Gbps over a 0 ∼ 200-km IM/DD system without the need for dispersion compensation and distance-dependent bit- and power-loading. PMID:25835857

  10. Chaotic communication on a satellite formation flying—The synchronization issue in a scenario with transmission delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, José Mario Vicensi; Rafikov, Marat; Macau, Elbert Einstein Nehrer

    2010-04-01

    Chaos-based communication schemes have drawn increasing attention in the last years. The intrinsic complexity embedded on the chaotic dynamics with its hallmark property of sensitive dependence on initial conditions provides a masterful framework that can be exploited to develop remarkably fast, efficient and robust communication systems at low cost. As so, they can be used to support intensive communication among process distributed over a network, which is the scenario that may exist when the concept of satellite formation flying is used. In this configuration, the set of satellites operates as a "massive virtual" satellite with a very large capability that would require a huge, complex and expensive monolithic satellite. In this work, we analyze a key issue to accomplish a chaotic based communication system—the synchronization among the communication agents. To allow communication, all of the agents must have their chaotic dynamics synchronized with each other. However, in a scenario involving a satellite formation flying, it is necessary to deal with substantial signal delays on the communication among the satellites. These delays impose severe restrictions or even do not allow the accomplishment of the synchronization process if common strategies are used. Here, we propose an approach that allows to properly obtain synchronization among the communication agents on the satellites of the formation, despite the communication delays. It is based on the optimal linear feedback control theory and takes in consideration the "mean field" of the population of chaotic oscillators.

  11. Adaptation of AMO-FBMC-OQAM in optical access network for accommodating asynchronous multiple access in OFDM-based uplink transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sun-Young; Jung, Sang-Min; Han, Sang-Kook

    2015-01-01

    Exponentially expanding various applications in company with proliferation of mobile devices make mobile traffic exploded annually. For future access network, bandwidth efficient and asynchronous signals converged transmission technique is required in optical network to meet a huge bandwidth demand, while integrating various services and satisfying multiple access in perceived network resource. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is highly bandwidth efficient parallel transmission technique based on orthogonal subcarriers. OFDM has been widely studied in wired-/wireless communication and became a Long term evolution (LTE) standard. Consequently, OFDM also has been actively researched in optical network. However, OFDM is vulnerable frequency and phase offset essentially because of its sinc-shaped side lobes, therefore tight synchronism is necessary to maintain orthogonality. Moreover, redundant cyclic prefix (CP) is required in dispersive channel. Additionally, side lobes act as interference among users in multiple access. Thus, it practically hinders from supporting integration of various services and multiple access based on OFDM optical transmission In this paper, adaptively modulated optical filter bank multicarrier system with offset QAM (AMO-FBMC-OQAM) is introduced and experimentally investigated in uplink optical transmission to relax multiple access interference (MAI), while improving bandwidth efficiency. Side lobes are effectively suppressed by using FBMC, therefore the system becomes robust to path difference and imbalance among optical network units (ONUs), which increase bandwidth efficiency by reducing redundancy. In comparison with OFDM, a signal performance and an efficiency of frequency utilization are improved in the same experimental condition. It enables optical network to effectively support heterogeneous services and multiple access.

  12. Analysis of message extraction in optical chaos communications based on injection-locking synchronization of semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Atsushi; Shore, K. Alan

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we employ a simple theory based on driven damped oscillators to clarify the physical basis for message extraction in optical chaos communications using injection-locked semiconductor lasers. The receiver laser is optically driven by injection from the transmitter laser. We have numerically investigated the response characteristics of the receiver when it is driven by periodic (message) and chaotic (carrier) signals. It is thereby revealed that the response of the receiver laser in the two cases is quite different. For the periodic drive, the receiver exhibits a response depending on the signal frequency, while the chaotic drive provides a frequency-independent synchronous response to the receiver laser. CPF can be clearly understood in the difference between the periodic and chaotic drives. Message extraction using CPF is also examined, and the validity of our theoretical explanation for the physical mechanism underlying CPF is thus verified.

  13. Optically amplified high capacity transmission at 20 Gbit/s by TDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. S.; Pettitt, G. A.; Wakefield, J.; Patel, B. L.; Hadjifotiou, A.

    1994-03-01

    Optical transmission at 20 Gbit/s over standard singlemode and dispersion-shifted fiber has been investigated. By exploiting the chirp characteristic of the LiNbO3 modulator, a sensitivity penalty of less than 1 dB has been demonstrated over 20 km of standard fiber. With dispersion compensation, transmission over a single 80 km span of standard fiber was achieved with -32.7 dBm sensitivity. Transmission over 420 km of dispersion-shifted fiber was also demonstrated with an optical sensitivity of -31.1 dBm.

  14. V123 BEAM SYNCHRONOUS ENCODER MODULE.

    SciTech Connect

    KERNER,T.; CONKLING,C.R.; OERTER,B.

    1999-03-29

    The V123 Synchronous Encoder Module transmits events to distributed trigger modules and embedded decoders around the RHIC rings where they are used to provide beam instrumentation triggers [1,2,3]. The RHIC beam synchronous event link hardware is mainly comprised of three VMEbus board designs, the central input modules (V201), and encoder modules (V123), and the distributed trigger modules (V124). Two beam synchronous links, one for each ring, are distributed via fiber optics and fanned out via twisted wire pair cables. The V123 synchronizes with the RF system clock derived from the beam bucket frequency and a revolution fiducial pulse. The RF system clock is used to create the beam synchronous event link carrier and events are synchronized with the rotation fiducial. A low jitter RF clock is later recovered from this carrier by phase lock loops in the trigger modules. Prioritized hardware and software triggers fill up to 15 beam event code transmission slots per revolution while tracking the ramping RF acceleration frequency and storage frequency. The revolution fiducial event is always the first event transmitted which is used to synchronize the firing of the abort kicker and to locate the first bucket for decoders distributed about the ring.

  15. Synchronicity from synchronized chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Duane, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related events mysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical) correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind and matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1) synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2) the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable) interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.

  16. Synchronicity from synchronized chaos

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duane, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related events mysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical) correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind andmore » matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1) synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2) the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable) interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.« less

  17. MTF formalism for measurement of spectral resolution of acousto-optical devices with synthesized transmission function.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, Konstantin B; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate use of the modulation transfer function method in the spectral domain for dynamic measurement of the spectral resolution and modulation contrast of acousto-optic light dispersive delay lines and programmable filters with synthesized transmission. The method is useful for performance characterization of acousto-optic devices for ultrafast pulse shaping and adaptive spectroscopy. PMID:24104818

  18. Air data measurement using distributed processing and fiber optics data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farry, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Distributed processing, fiber optics technology, and redundancy management in the aircraft environment are discussed. The project features the development of an angle-of-attack and sideslip data collection system hich features: (1) two independent microprocessor controlled data collection and calibration units; (2) transmission of data to the control system on a fiber optic data bus; and (3) software implemented error detection and recovery.

  19. Nonlinear optical transmission in VOx nanotubes and VOx nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.-F.; Czerw, R.; Webster, S.; Carroll, D. L.; Ballato, J.; Nesper, R.

    2002-08-01

    Optical-limiting behavior of vanadium oxide nanotubes is characterized for the visible and infrared spectral ranges using 8 ns pulses from a Nd:YAG laser with an f/40 optical system. Vanadium oxide nanotube dispersions were investigated in both water suspensions and embedded in solid polymethyl methacrylate films. In each case, these nanotubes exhibit strong optical-limiting at 532 nm (in comparison to carbon nanotubes); however, no nonlinear behavior is observed for 1064 nm. This suggests that a two photon or excited state absorption mechanism is responsible for the observed nonlinearity.

  20. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

  1. Tunable nonreciprocal terahertz transmission and enhancement based on metal/magneto-optic plasmonic lens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fei; Chen, Sai; Wang, Xiang-Hui; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

    2013-04-01

    A tunable metal/magneto-optic plasmonic lens for terahertz isolator is demonstrated. Based on the magneto-optical effect of the semiconductor material and non-symmetrical structure, this plasmonic lens has not only the focusing feature but also nonreciprocal transmission property. Moreover, a transmission enhancement through this device greatly larger than that of the ordinary metallic slit arrays is contributed by the extraordinary optical transmission effect of the magneto surface plasmon polaritons. The results show that the proposed isolator has an isolation bandwidth of larger than 0.4THz and the maximum isolation of higher than 110dB, and its operating frequency also can be broadly tuned by changing the external magnetic field or temperature. This low-loss, high isolation, broadband tunable nonreciprocal terahertz transmission mechanism has a great potential for terahertz application systems. PMID:23571951

  2. Novel synchronous DPSK optical regenerator based on a feed-forward based carrier extraction scheme.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Selwan K; Sygletos, Stylianos; Rafique, Danish; O'Dowd, John A; Weerasuriya, Ruwan; Ellis, Andrew D

    2011-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel synchronous 10.66 Gbit/s DPSK OEO regenerator which uses a feed-forward carrier extraction scheme with an injection-locked laser to synchronize the regenerated signal wavelength to the incoming signal wavelength. After injection-locking, a low-cost DFB laser used at the regenerator exhibited the same linewidth characteristics as the narrow line-width transmitter laser. The phase regeneration properties of the regenerator were evaluated by emulating random Gaussian phase noise applied to the DPSK signal before the regenerator using a phase modulator driven by an arbitrary waveform generator. The overall performance was evaluated in terms of electrical eye-diagrams, BER measurements, and constellation diagrams. PMID:21643202

  3. Tracing photon transmission in dye-doped DNA-CTMA optical nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Long, Weihong; Zou, Weiwen; Li, Xing; Jiang, Wenning; Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jianping

    2014-03-24

    We experimentally demonstrate the novel phenomena of photoluminescence (PL) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assisted three-color PL separating in DNA optical nanofibers consisting of the stretched and connected DNA-cetyltrimethyl ammonium wires. The PL experiments are performed to comparatively trace photon transmission between single dye-doped DNA-CTMA optical nanofiber and PMMA optical nanofiber. A cascade FRET including DNA minor groove binder and DNA intercalators is used to further trace photon transmission inside DNA-CTMA wire. These experimental results will help to intrigue the new applications of DNA-CTMA as molecular waveguide in optobioelectronics area. PMID:24663973

  4. Enhanced optical transmission and Fano resonance through a nanostructured metal thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Sangram K.; Santiago, Kevin C.; Rutherford, Gugu N.; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2015-05-01

    Artificial and engineered nanostructures expand the degrees of freedom with which one can manipulate the intricate interplay of light and matter. Certain nanostructural arrangements in the excited state enable the efficient electromagnetic coupling of propagating light with localized fields. Here, we demonstrate that light transmitted through a nanostructured metal thin film without any apertures can be significantly enhanced. Distinct asymmetric Fano resonances are observed in the zero-order transmission spectra using an incoherent light source. The transmission efficiency surpasses that of a metal thin film with the same area and thickness at the resonance maxima. The transmission minima and the sharp resonance maxima bear a strong resemblance to the extraordinary optical transmission observed in sub-wavelength nanohole array structures The resonance wavelength closely matches the nanostructural periodicity. The sensitivity of the resonances to the surrounding medium and the transmission efficiency demonstrate the potential for use in energy harvesting, imaging, optical processing and sensing applications.

  5. Enhanced optical transmission and Fano resonance through a nanostructured metal thin film

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Sangram K.; Santiago, Kevin C.; Rutherford, Gugu N.; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial and engineered nanostructures expand the degrees of freedom with which one can manipulate the intricate interplay of light and matter. Certain nanostructural arrangements in the excited state enable the efficient electromagnetic coupling of propagating light with localized fields. Here, we demonstrate that light transmitted through a nanostructured metal thin film without any apertures can be significantly enhanced. Distinct asymmetric Fano resonances are observed in the zero-order transmission spectra using an incoherent light source. The transmission efficiency surpasses that of a metal thin film with the same area and thickness at the resonance maxima. The transmission minima and the sharp resonance maxima bear a strong resemblance to the extraordinary optical transmission observed in sub-wavelength nanohole array structures The resonance wavelength closely matches the nanostructural periodicity. The sensitivity of the resonances to the surrounding medium and the transmission efficiency demonstrate the potential for use in energy harvesting, imaging, optical processing and sensing applications. PMID:25981974

  6. Prediction of long-term radiation kinetics of transmission spectra of commerical optical glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarov, Andrei I.; Doyle, Dominic B.; Fruit, Michel; Kinet, Damien P.

    2002-09-01

    We analyze the applicability of a number of exponent-type phenomenological kinetics for transmission degradation prediction in commercial optical glasses during and after irradiation. The analysis is based on post-radiation transmission measurements over a 5 years time interval of a commercial boro-silicate glass (BK7, Schott). A conclusion is drawn that the choice should be made between the stretched-exponential and the multi-exponential functions. We apply those kinetics to simulate kinetics of BK7 glass transmission spectra subject to Co60 gamma-radiation in the framework of the previously developed phenomenological model. Calculated transmission spectra agree well with our experimental data.

  7. High-Performance Optical 3R Regeneration for Scalable Fiber Transmission System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zuqing; Funabashi, Masaki; Pan, Zhong; Paraschis, Loukas; Harris, David L.; Ben Yoo, S. J.

    2007-02-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates optical 3R regeneration techniques for high-performance and scalable 10-Gb/s transmission systems. The 3R structures rely on monolithically integrated all-active semiconductor optical amplifier-based Mach Zehnder interferometers (SOA-MZIs) for signal reshaping and optical narrowband filtering using a Fabry Pérot filter (FPF) for all-optical clock recovery. The experimental results indicate very stable operation and superior cascadability of the proposed optical 3R structure, allowing error-free and low-penalty 10-Gb/s [pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) 223 - 1] return-to-zero (RZ) transmission through a record distance of 1 250 000 km using 10 000 optical 3R stages. Clock-enhancement techniques using a SOA-MZI are then proposed to accommodate the clock performance degradations that arise from dispersion uncompensated transmission. Leveraging such clock-enhancement techniques, we experimentally demonstrate error-free 125 000-km RZ dispersion uncompensated transmission at 10 Gb/s (PRBS 223 - 1) using 1000 stages of optical 3R regenerators spaced by 125-km large-effective-area fiber spans. To evaluate the proposed optical 3R structures in a relatively realistic environment and to investigate the tradeoff between the cascadability and the spacing of the optical 3R, a fiber recirculation loop is set up with 264- and 462-km deployed fiber. The field-trial experiment achieves error-free 10-Gb/s RZ transmission using PRBS 223} - 1 through 264 000-km deployed fiber across 1000 stages of optical 3R regenerators spaced by 264-km spans.

  8. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  9. Observing single protein binding by optical transmission through a double nanohole aperture in a metal film

    PubMed Central

    Al Balushi, Ahmed A.; Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Gordon, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate protein binding at the single particle level. A double nanohole (DNH) optical trap was used to hold onto a 20 nm biotin-coated polystyrene (PS) particle which subsequently is bound to streptavidin. Biotin-streptavidin binding has been detected by an increase in the optical transmission through the DNH. Similar optical transmission behavior was not observed when streptavidin binding sites where blocked by mixing streptavidin with excess biotin. Furthermore, interaction of non-functionalized PS particles with streptavidin did not induce a change in the optical transmission through the DNH. These results are promising as the DNH trap can make an excellent single molecule resolution sensor which would enable studying biomolecular interactions and dynamics at a single particle/molecule level. PMID:24049672

  10. Fabrication of a phase transmission holographic optical element in polycarbonate and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, V; Chandar Shekar, B

    2016-08-10

    The phase transmission holographic optical element in silver halide holographic emulsion, especially for holographic collimator sights, is fabricated and the desired diffraction efficiency is obtained with very high transmission. One of the main drawbacks of these holograms are that they become dark by being exposed under sunlight, and this darkness drastically reduces the visible transmission and diffraction efficiency of a holographic optical element, hence it is not suitable for weapon sight application. To overcome this problem, we transferred a holographic optical element with a reticle image from silver halide into polycarbonate by using copying, electroforming, and recombination techniques. The holographic optical element in polycarbonate has many advantages; the detailed method of fabrication, transfer, and its characterization are presented. The very interesting result of diffraction efficiency variation with angle obtained in polycarbonate is discussed. PMID:27534494

  11. Simulation of the coherent MDM transmission using principal modes of the optical fiber as signal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Zakirov, Robert A.; Vinogradova, Irina L.; Sultanov, Albert K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate computer simulation results obtained for the coherent mode division multiplexed (MDM) 5x5 QPSK transmission using principal modes (PMs) of the stepped-index few-mode fiber (FMF) as a basis of independent signal carriers. The output signal recovering and the fiber propagation matrix determination are considered to be carried out in optical domain by means of reconfigurable multibranch diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Both the cases of Gaussian and Nyquist raised-cosine pulse shaping are considered for optical signal modulation. The simulation results show, that the transmission in the basis of PMs in strong coupling regime allows the reliability of the coherent MDM system to be fundamentally improved. As a result, utilization of the optical signal processing for MDM transmission could minimize substantially the DSP circuit complexity required for the real-time recovering of the transmitted signal.

  12. Radiation-induced transmission loss of integrated optic waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, Henning; Koehn, Otmar; Schmidt, Hans U.

    1993-04-01

    The radiation sensitivity of different integrated optic (IO) devices was compared under standardized test conditions. We investigated four relatively simple device types made by four different manufacturers. The waveguide materials were proton exchanged LiTaO3, LiNbO3:Ti, Tl-diffused glass, and Ag-diffused glass, respectively. In order to standardize the irradiation parameters we followed the 'Procedure for Measuring Radiation-Induced Attenuation in Optical Fibers and Optical Cables' proposed by the NATO NETG as close as possible. In detail we made pulsed irradiations with dose values of about 500 rad*, 104 rad, and 105 rad, as well as continuous irradiations at a 60Co source with a dose rate of 1300 rad*/min up to a total dose of 104 rad. Device temperatures were about 22 degree(s)C, -50 degree(s)C, and +80 degree(s)C.

  13. Measurements of the UV and VUV transmission of optical materials during high energy electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palma, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted in which the optical transmission of several transparent materials was measured during high energy electron irradiation. These experiments were conducted using the Dynamitron electron accelerator as a continuous source of 1.5 MeV electrons and the LINAC electron accelerator as a pulsed source of 5-7 MeV electrons. The experimental program consisted of three major portions. The first portion, the optical transmission of fused silica, BeO, MgF2, and LiF was measured at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths in the range 1550-2000 A during ambient temperature, 1.5 MeV electron irradiation at ionizing dose rates to 0.5 Mrad/sec. In the second portion of the program, the optical transmission of fused silica and BeO was measured in the range 2000-3000 A during high dose rate, elevated temperature 1.5 MeV electron irradiation. In particular, accurate measurements of the optical transmission were made at ionizing dose rates as high as 10 Mrad/sec. In the final portion of the program, the optical transmission of fused silica and BeO was measured in the wavelength range 2000-3000 A during pulsed 5 and 7 MeV electron irradiation from the LINAC accelerator. The maximum time averaged ionizing dose rate was limited to 0.75 Mrad/sec due to accelerator limitations.

  14. Blue-phase liquid crystal cored optical fiber array with photonic bandgaps and nonlinear transmission properties.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Iam Choon; Hong, Kuan Lung; Zhao, Shuo; Ma, Ding; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-02-25

    Blue-phase liquid crystal (BPLC) is introduced into the pores of capillary arrays to fabricate fiber arrays. Owing to the photonic-crystals like properties of BPLC, these fiber arrays exhibit temperature dependent photonic bandgaps in the visible spectrum. With the cores maintained in isotropic as well as the Blue phases, the fiber arrays allow high quality image transmission when inserted in the focal plane of a 1x telescope. Nonlinear transmission and optical limiting action on a cw white-light continuum laser is also observed and is attributed to laser induced self-defocusing and propagation modes changing effects caused by some finite absorption of the broadband laser at the short wavelength regime. These nonlinear and other known electro-optical properties of BPLC, in conjunction with their fabrication ease make these fiber arrays highly promising for imaging, electro-optical or all-optical modulation, switching and passive optical limiting applications. PMID:23481965

  15. A 10 Gbit/s OCDMA system based on electric encoding and optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Hu, Jin-lin; He, Dong-dong; Chen, Mei-juan; Wang, Da-chi; Chen, Yan

    2013-11-01

    An electric encoded/optical transmission system of code division multiple access (CDMA) is proposed. It encodes the user signal in electric domain, and transfers the different code slice signals via the different wavelengths of light. This electric domain encoder/decoder is compared with current traditional encoder/decoder. Four-user modulation/demodulation optical CDMA (OCDMA) system with rate of 2.5 Gbit/s is simulated, which is based on the optical orthogonal code (OCC) designed in our laboratory. The results show that the structure of electric encoding/optical transmission can encode/decode signal correctly, and can achieve the chip rate equal to the user data rate. It can overcome the rate limitation of electronic bottleneck, and bring some potential applications in the electro-optical OCDMA system.

  16. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  17. Dual pulse operation of 1.5 μm picosecond intracavity synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadilová, Alena; Kubeček, Václav; Diels, Jean-Claude; Šulc, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Singly resonant optical parametric oscillators (OPO) are most promising approach to sensors in which two pulses circulate independently in a cavity. The OPO should be pumped intracavity, not only to access the high intracavity power of the pump laser, but also because the two signal pulses share the same mode. The first synchronously pumped OPO were pumped intracavity by a mode-locked dye laser. Subsequent implementation with solid-state pump lasers has been plagued by a tendency to Q-switching, as well as competition between the two pulses generated in the signal cavity. In this contribution we report the improved and optimized experimental setup of an intracavity synchronously pumped OPO based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal (PPLN) and of the pumping resonator of passively mode locked Nd:YVO4 laser from the point of view of achievability of stable mode-locking and compensation of the astigmatism caused by Brewster angle cut PPLN. This resulted in higher conversion efficiency due to the good overlap of pump and signal beam.

  18. Dual pulse operation of 1.5 μm picosecond intracavity synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadilová, Alena; Kubeček, Václav; Diels, Jean-Claude; Šulc, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Singly resonant optical parametric oscillators (OPO) are most promising approach to sensors in which two pulses circulate independently in a cavity. The OPO should be pumped intracavity, not only to access the high intracavity power of the pump laser, but also because the two signal pulses share the same mode. The first synchronously pumped OPO were pumped intracavity by a mode-locked dye laser. Subsequent implementation with solid-state pump lasers has been plagued by a tendency to Q-switching, as well as competition between the two pulses generated in the signal cavity. In this contribution we report the improved and optimized experimental setup of an intracavity synchronously pumped OPO based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal (PPLN) and of the pumping resonator of passively mode locked Nd:YVO4 laser from the point of view of achievability of stable mode-locking and compensation of the astigmatism caused by Brewster angle cut PPLN. This resulted in higher conversion efficiency due to the good overlap of pump and signal beam.

  19. Effect of Charging Electron Exposure on 1064nm Transmission Through Bare Sapphire Optics and SiO2 over HfO2 AR-Coated Sapphire Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Brian P.; Connelly, Joseph; Brown, Stephen; Roeder, James; Kauder, Lonny; Cavanaugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Experiments measuring the effect of electron exposure on 1064nm transmission for optical sapphire were conducted. Detailed before and after inspections did not identify any resulting Litchenburg patterns. Pre- and post-exposure 1064nm transmission measurements are compared.

  20. Effect of Charging Electron Exposure on 1064nm Transmission through Bare Sapphire Optics and SiO2 over HfO2 AR-coated Sapphire Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Brian P.; Connelly, Joseph; Brown, Stephen; Roeder, james; Kauder, Lonny; Cavanaugh, John

    2008-01-01

    Experiments measuring the effect of electron exposure on 1064nm transmission for optical sapphire were conducted. Detailed before and after inspections did not identify any resulting Litchenburg patterns. Pre- and post-exposure 1064nm transmission measurements are compared.

  1. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunnelling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm−1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures. PMID:27499258

  2. Structural Study of Hole Assisted Fibers Considering Optical Parallel Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Norio

    2011-12-01

    Hole-assisted fibers (HAFs) in a fiber ribbon have been studied for high-speed parallel transmission systems. This paper describes the influence of hole-structure variations on the group delay variation caused by stress, the mode field diameter (MFD), and the higher order mode characteristics. Calculations are made using the previously proposed calculation method with finite element method (FEM). We discuss the effectiveness and limitation of the previously proposed parameter based on the calculations.

  3. Enhanced Optical Transmission Mediated by Localized Plasmons in Anisotropic, 3D Nanohole Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiun-Chan; Gao, Hanwei; Suh, Jae Yong; Zhou, Wei; Lee, Min Hyung; Odom, Teri W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes 3D nanohole arrays whose high optical transmission is mediated more by localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitations than by surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). First, LSPs on 3D hole arrays lead to optical transmission an order of magnitude higher than 2D planar hole arrays. Second, LSP-mediated transmission is broadband and more tunable than SPP-enhanced transmission which is restricted by Bragg coupling. Third, for the first time, two types of surface plasmons can be selectively excited and manipulated on the same plasmonic substrate. This new plasmonic substrate fabricated by high-throughput nanolithography techniques paves the way for cutting-edge optoelectronic and biomedical applications. PMID:20698633

  4. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness. PMID:26030557

  5. Optical clearing of unsectioned specimens for three-dimensional imaging via optical transmission and emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Mark; Sakhalkar, Harshad; Oliver, Tim; Johnson, G. Allan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques that enable unprecedented high-resolution 3-D multimodal imaging of tissue structure and function. Applications include imaging macroscopic gene expression and microvasculature structure in unsectioned biological specimens up to 8 cm3. A key requisite for these imaging techniques is effective sample preparation including optical clearing, which enables light transport through the sample while preserving the signal (either light absorbing stain or fluorescent proteins) in representative form. We review recent developments in optical-CT and optical-ECT, and compatible “fluorescence-friendly” optical clearing protocols. PMID:18465962

  6. [Transmission grating spectrograph for soft X-ray spectrum measurements with a pre-optics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Tian, Z; Chen, B; Wang, Z; Gao, J; Tian, X; Chen, Z; Fan, P; Chen, X

    1999-12-01

    A novel diffraction spectroscopic instrument consisting of a large area transmission grating and a grazing-incidence pre-optics comprising of a toroidal mirror, a slit and a cylindrical mirror has been implemented. A nearly perfect stigmatism and a medium spectral resolution are due to the separation of the focusing and dispersing function. The experimental results show that it is possible to construct large area transmission grating spectrograph with high collecting efficiency and good spatial resolution. PMID:15822323

  7. Synchronous triple-optical-path digital speckle pattern interferometry with fast discrete curvelet transform for measuring three-dimensional displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Kaifu; Wang, Yanfang; She, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) is a well-established and widely used optical measurement technique for obtaining qualitative as well as quantitative measurements of objects deformation. The simultaneous measurement of an object's surface displacements in three dimensions using DSPI is of great interest. This paper presents a triple-optical-path DSPI based method for the simultaneous and independent measurement of three-dimensional (3D) displacement fields. In the proposed method, in-plane speckle interferometers with dual-observation geometry and an out-of-plane interferometer are optimally combined to construct an integrated triple-optical-path DSPI system employing the phase shift technique, which uses only a single laser source and three cameras. These cameras are placed along a single line to synchronously capture real-time visible speckle fringe patterns in three dimensions. In addition, a pre-filtering method based on the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT) is utilized for denoising the obtained wrapped phase patterns to improve measurement accuracy. Finally, the simultaneous measurement of the 3D displacement fields of a simple beam and a composite laminated plate respectively subjected to three-point and single-point bend loading are investigated to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. SONET synchronization: What's happening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cubbage, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Almost everyone that has heard of SONET knows that the acronym stands for Synchronous Optical NETwork. There has been a host of magazine articles on SONET rings, SONET features, even SONET compatibility with digital radio. What has not been highly publicized is the critical relationship between SONET, network synchronization, and payload jitter. This topic is addressed.

  9. SONET synchronization: What's happening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubbage, Robert W.

    1993-06-01

    Almost everyone that has heard of SONET knows that the acronym stands for Synchronous Optical NETwork. There has been a host of magazine articles on SONET rings, SONET features, even SONET compatibility with digital radio. What has not been highly publicized is the critical relationship between SONET, network synchronization, and payload jitter. This topic is addressed.

  10. 20 Gb/s optical OFDM transmission for long haul transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaibani, Abdullahomar; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Fadhil, Hilal; Safar, Anuar Mat

    2015-05-01

    Optical OFDM system is considered to be the essential backbone of the next generation of ultra-high-speed networks. A dispersion effect is considered one of the common limitations in optical OFDMA system especially at very high date rate. When the pulse width reaches less than a few pico-seconds, not only the second-order but even higher-order dispersion must be taken into account. In this paper OOFDM system designed with traditional dispersion compensating devices such as Dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) used in multi spans with single mode fiber to reach to 288 km distance at 20 Gb/s. moreover, single side band (SSB) used to reduce the dispersion as well. Therefore, the overall system performance based on SNR, spectral analyzer and constellation diagram for the single side band (SSB) OOFDM system gives a good result with 16 QAM modulation.